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A Rhythmic Musical Intervention for Poor Readers: A Comparison of Efficacy With a Letter-Based Intervention

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Abstract

There is growing evidence that children with reading difficulties show impaired auditory rhythm perception and impairments in musical beat perception tasks. Rhythmic musical interventions with poorer readers may thus improve rhythmic entrainment and consequently improve reading and phonological skills. Here we compare the effects of a musical intervention for poor readers with a software intervention of known efficacy based on rhyme training and phoneme-grapheme learning. The research question was whether the musical intervention would produce gains of comparable effect sizes to the phoneme-grapheme intervention for children who were falling behind in reading development. Broadly, the two interventions had similar benefits for literacy, with large effect sizes.

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... Regarding early reading, individual differences in rhythm production by pre-readers are related to measures of reading readiness (Rios-Lopez, Molinaro, & Lallier, 2019;Woodruff Carr, White-Schwoch, Tierney, Strait & Kraus, 2014). Further, training young children's rhythm perception and production skills can improve their early reading performance (e.g., Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013;Cancer, Bonacina, Antonietti, Salandi, Molteni & Lorusso, 2020;Degé & Schwarzer, 2011;Flaugnacco, Lopez, Terribili, Zoia & Schon, 2015;Moritz, Yampolsky, Papadelis, Thomson & Wolf, 2013). However, the developmental mechanisms underlying the relationships between individual differences in rhythm perception, rhythm production, reading and language are currently unclear. ...
... Children with developmental dyslexia also show impairments in rhythmic synchronisation tasks, and individual differences are again related to phonological awareness and reading Thomson & Goswami, 2008;Flaugnacco et al., 2014). Moreover, rhythm-based training for children with developmental dyslexia or with poor reading skills has been shown to improve both phonological awareness and reading (Bhide et al., 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Cancer et al., 2020). ...
... Indeed, a number of remedial programs that included tapping synchronisation practice have produced positive results regarding improvements in phonological awareness (Degé & Schwarzer, 2011;Bhide et al., 2013, Flaugnacco et al., 2015Ozernov-Palchik et al., 2018). The most recent of these studies showed an advantage for metrically organised rhythmic patterns (temporal patterns with an underlying isochronous grid) over non-metrical sequences, even though the latter were hypothesised a priori to be more characteristic of speech rhythmic structure, which is only quasi-rhythmic (Ozernov-Palchik et al., 2018). ...
Article
Temporally accurate perception and production of rhythmic patterns are key factors related to language development and reading acquisition. Here we investigate rhythm discrimination and rhythm production in children who are at family risk or not at family risk for dyslexia, to compare group performance in these tasks prior to the start of reading instruction and to investigate the relation between individual children’s rhythmic abilities and pre-reading skills. Four-year-old children completed a rhythm discrimination task and a rhythm production task, both utilizing a temporal rate of 2 Hz, and also received pre-reading measures of non-word repetition, vocabulary, and letter knowledge. Controls outperformed at-risk children in the rhythm discrimination task and in the pre-reading measures. No group differences were observed in the rhythm production task, but individual differences in this task were related to scores of non-word repetition, vocabulary size, and letter knowledge. The data are discussed in terms of Temporal Sampling theory (Goswami, 2011).
... In our previous small-scale experimental studies of the efficacy of GG Rime (Kyle et al., 2013;Bhide et al., 2013;Patel et al., 2018), the experimenters ensured that the children in the intervention group received sufficient exposure to the game. For example, Kyle et al.'s (2013) study compared children playing GG Rime to children playing an alternative English language version of GraphoGame, GraphoGame Phoneme. ...
... The rationale behind analyzing this "top half " of the GG Rime intervention children was to get nearer to the level of playing density typical of smaller-scale experimental studies of GG Rime such as Bhide et al. (2013) and Kyle et al. (2013). The gaming logs that are automatically collected by the GG Rime software showed that some children in the intervention were only playing GG Rime for a few hours, rather than the exposure time of over 12 h that was the initial goal for the RCT. ...
... The App is intended to be played on a daily basis for around 10 min a day during the first year of schooling in order to enable maximum learning gains to accrue. Previous small-scale experimental studies of GG Rime (Kyle et al., 2013;Bhide et al., 2013;Patel et al., 2018) reported mean playing times of around 11 h for GG Rime. Therefore, greater gains than those observed here could be expected if the original aims of the RCT regarding playing time had been met. ...
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Here, we report further analysis of data drawn from a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) run in the United Kingdom designed to evaluate the efficacy of an adaptive software game to aid the learning of English phonics, GraphoGame Rime. We evaluate the efficacy of GraphoGame Rime for the “top half” of players in the RCT, children aged 6 to 7 years who played above the group mean play progress point (95 children). We also analyze three sub-groupings of this cohort. The GraphoGame family of games in different languages was originally designed to support children at family risk of dyslexia, hence we analyzed data for the subgroup of the GraphoGame Rime children who were struggling in school and had Individual Education Plans (IEPs). Secondly, we analyzed data from the younger children in the RCT, born in the Spring and Summer months, as international studies of GraphoGame have found the strongest effects during the first year of reading tuition and our participants were in their second year of reading tuition. Finally, we analyzed GraphoGame Rime data from players in schools rated as “requiring improvement.” Schools that are found to be “requiring improvement” in the United Kingdom are encouraged to use additional teaching strategies to achieve better outcomes. GraphoGame Rime is relatively cheap to acquire and easy to implement, hence if it offers significant gains over “business-as-usual” this would be a valulable additional strategy for such schools. We find that GraphoGame Rime is more effective than “business-as-usual” in developing knowledge of English phonics for all of the groupings analyzed. We conclude that the supplementary use of GraphoGame Rime in addition to ongoing classroom literacy instruction can benefit children in learning phonic decoding and spelling skills.
... At the phonological level, there is evidence that musical abilities are predictive of phonological skills in children (Anvari, Trainor, Woodside & Levy, 2002) and in adults (Slevc & Miyake, 2006). These results, based on a cross-sectional approach, are in line with those of a longitudinal study with 6-7 years old children showing that two months of rhythm-based training produced roughly comparable enhancements on a variety of standardized tests of phonological processing than an equivalent amount of training of phonological skills (Bhide, Power & Goswami, 2013). They are also in line with the conclusions of an interesting meta-analysis of longitudinal studies conducted by Gordon, Fehd & McCandliss (2015) showing that music training significantly improved phonological awareness skills, even if the effect sizes were small. ...
... Two main interpretations, the cascade and multi-dimensional interpretations, have been proposed. Following the cascade interpretation (bottom-up), increased sensitivity to low-level acoustic parameters such as pitch or duration, that are common to music and speech, drives the influence of music training at different levels of language processing (e.g., phonetic, phonologic, prosodic, syntactic and semantic; Wong, Skoe, Russo, Dees, & Kraus, 2007;Besson et al, 2011;Dittinger et al, 2016). In other words, because musicians perceive speech sounds better than non-musicians, they are more sensitive to prosodic cues such as pitch and rhythm and they form more accurate phonological representations. ...
... A growing body of research, investigating ways to stimulate PA and literacy, details the relationship between music skills, PA, and literacy abilities (Bhide et al., 2013;Christiner & Reiterer, 2018;Herrera et al., 2011;Kraus et al., 2014;Moritz et al., 2013). Music and reading abilities are related when considering that phonemes are to language what notes are to music (Degé & Schwarzer, 2011;Heydon et al., 2018). ...
... Females make up half the school going population of South Africa (Statistics South Africa, 2020), and it would be limiting to not consider the associations between PA and pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination in this population future analysis. Children with syntax and reading difficulties, including dyslexia, have been shown to perform worse in music tasks (Bhide et al., 2013;Gordon, Shivers, et al., 2015). Rhythm discrimination difficulties have also been identified in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and specific language impairment and music interventions show potential for management of these conditions (Puyjarinet et al., 2017;Zuk et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Purpose Phonological awareness (PA) requires the complex integration of language, speech, and auditory processing abilities. Enhanced pitch and rhythm discrimination have been shown to improve PA and speech-in-noise (SiN) discrimination. The screening of pitch and rhythm discrimination, if nonlinguistic correlates of these abilities, could contribute to screening procedures prior to diagnostic assessment. This research aimed to determine the association of PA abilities with pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination in children aged 5–7 years old. Method Forty-one participants' pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination and PA abilities were evaluated. To control for confounding factors, including biological and environmental risk exposure and gender differences, typically developing male children from high socioeconomic statuses were selected. Pearson correlation was used to identify associations between variables, and stepwise regression analysis was used to identify possible predictors of PA. Results Correlations of medium strength were identified between PA and pitch, rhythm, and SiN discrimination. Pitch and diotic digit-in-noise discrimination formed the strongest regression model (adjusted R ² = .4213, r = .649) for phoneme–grapheme correspondence. Conclusions The current study demonstrates predictive relationships between the complex auditory discrimination skills of pitch, rhythm, and diotic digit-in-noise recognition and foundational phonemic awareness and phonic skills in young males from high socioeconomic statuses. Pitch, rhythm, and digit-in-noise discrimination measures hold potential as screening measures for delays in phonemic awareness and phonic difficulties and as components of stimulation programs.
... The SVR conceptualizes that reading comprehension is the product of decoding and linguistic comprehension and, thereby, positions GG as a tool to support efficient decoding skills. The SVR lens also forms an implicit rationale for the implementation of GG into world orthographies, with detailed attention to linguistic differences but minimal attention to cultural Bhide et al., 2013;Kyle et al., 2013) Teachers reported that GG Rime was easy to implement and that children enjoyed the game. ...
... However, in addition to technology support, an adult provided encouragement and motivational support. Finally, in Bhide, Power, and Goswami (2013) and Hintikka et al. (2008), the students played GG in either a one-to-one setup with an adult or in student pairs with an adult. ...
... Regarding new avenues for remediation for dyslexia, TS theory suggests that giving young children activities that help them to develop accurate rhythmic synchronisation between different modalities and speech might enhance their phonological development (Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2014). Speech is a multimodal signal (auditory, visual, and motor); it is both a sound and an action. ...
... Indeed, it is interesting to note that humans' "preferred beat rate" for music is 120 beats per minute (Moelents, 2002). This is exactly 2 Hz, a temporal rate that should benefit the remediation of phonological difficulties in children (Bhide et al., 2013). Indeed, the developmental data reviewed here show a primary role for~2-Hz AMs in the linguistic development of preliterate children, for example, via the AM modifications that characterise IDS. ...
Article
Children's ability to reflect upon and manipulate the sounds in words (“phonological awareness”) develops as part of natural language acquisition, supports reading acquisition, and develops further as reading and spelling are learned. Children with developmental dyslexia typically have impairments in phonological awareness. Many developmental factors contribute to individual differences in phonological development. One important source of individual differences may be the child's sensory/neural processing of the speech signal from an amplitude modulation (~energy or intensity variation) perspective, which may affect the quality of the sensory/neural representations (“phonological representations”) that support phonological awareness. During speech encoding, brain electrical rhythms (oscillations, rhythmic variations in neural excitability) recalibrate their temporal activity to be in time with rhythmic energy variations in the speech signal. The accuracy of this neural alignment or “entrainment” process is related to speech intelligibility. Recent neural studies demonstrate atypical oscillatory function at slower rates in children with developmental dyslexia. Potential relations with the development of phonological awareness by children with dyslexia are discussed.
... Em seis estudos foram empregadas estratégias pedagógicas musicais como método Kodály, Silver-Burde�, Orff-Schulwerk. Em outros quatro trabalhos os autores desenvolveram estratégias de intervenção musical baseadas nos objetivos da pesquisa, por exemplo: investigar o efeito das habilidades rítmicas no desenvolvimento de consciência fonológica (Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013). Em um estudo, a intervenção musical foi planejada e incorporada em um programa de treinamento fonológico para crianças em idade pré-escolar (Herrera, Lorenzo, Defior, Fernandez-Smith, & Costa-Giomi, 2011). ...
... investigadas, sete trabalhos foram realizados com crianças em idade pré-escolar, entre 4 e 6 anos de idade. Três estudos foram realizados com crianças entre 7 e 8,5 anos de idade, incluindo um estudo feito com crianças de baixa renda (Slater et al., 2014). Outros três estudos foram realizados com crianças com desenvolvimento atípico, incluindo: i) Bhide et. al., (2013) que investigou a eficácia de intervenção musical rítmica versus o jogo GraphoGame em crianças com dificuldades de leitura; ii) Cogo-Moreira et al., (2013) que realizou intervenção musical em escolas públicas da cidade de São Paulo com crianças com dificuldades de leitura; iii) que promoveu intervenções rítmicas e fonológicas em crianças ...
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Resumo: O presente trabalho buscou analisar a influência que as intervenções musicais parecem ter sobre o desenvolvimento de habilidades cognitivo-linguísticas em crianças. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática sobre as diferentes estratégias de intervenção musical e seus efeitos sobre o desenvolvimento das habilidades cognitivo-linguísticas. Os resultados desta revisão indicam que as intervenções musicais baseadas nos aspectos rítmicos são capazes de produzir efeitos positivos nas habilidades de consciência fonológica, entretanto, não existem evidências para tal associação provinda de estudos com desenho experimental clínico randomizado controlado. Sugerimos que (1) novos estudos sejam conduzidos com tal desenho experimental, (2) incluam grupos controle ativos com ênfase em atividades que promovam o engajamento de modalidades sensoriais e perceptivas semelhantes às empregadas na intervenção musical e (3) incluam medidas das habilidades cognitivas e informações sobre o engajamento em atividades musicais dos indivíduos nos grupos controle e experimental, levando-se em consideração aspectos sociais e econômicos da amostra. Palavras-chave: Intervenção musical, habilidades cognitivo-linguísticas, desenvolvimento Musical interventions and the importance of rhythm in the development of cognitive linguistic abilities: a systematic review Abstract: The present work sought to analyze the influence that musical interventions seem to have on the development of cognitive-linguistic abilities in children. A systematic review was carried out on the different strategies of musical interventions and their effects on the development of cognitive-linguistic abilities. Our results indicate that musical interventions based on rhythmic aspects are more effective on phonological awareness skills, though there is no evidence for such association from studies with randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) design. We suggest that (1) future studies use RCTs. (2) Include active control groups with an emphasis on activities that promote the engagement of sensory and perceptual modalities similar to those used in musical intervention. (3) Include measures of cognitive abilities and information on engagement in musical activities of individuals in the control and experimental groups, taking into account the social and economic aspects of the sample.
... The assumption was based on the following behavioral and neural studies: children and adults with dyslexia had deficits in processing of rhythmic patterns both in speech and music (Goswami et al., 2002;Goswami, 2011;Huss et al., 2011); after musically based training/intervention, the brain responses, phonological abilities, and reading skills were enhanced in children (Bhide et al., 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Serrallach et al., 2016;Putkinen et al., 2019); the neural rhythmic entrainment of dyslexics was not as well synchronized as typical groups (Colling et al., 2017). Therefore, we anticipated the MMN and P3a to musical rhythm in dyslexic children to show a different pattern compared with their peers with typical development. ...
... The correlation between neural auditory stimuli processing and reading abilities, like pseudo-word reading in previous study (Putkinen et al., 2019) provides more evidence to support that the P3a component might be a potential precursor for children with reading problems (Corbera et al., 2006). Also, the musical training could improve the neural responses for children to efficiently process not only rhythms but also speech and reading abilities (Bhide et al., 2013;Bonacina et al., 2015;Flaugnacco et al., 2015). Also, P3 was related to general factors about cognition, awareness, and attention switch (Schulte-Körne et al., 1999;Maciejewska et al., 2013); meanwhile, P3 could be an index for evaluating the error and it represented the relationship between tapping synchronization and auditory-motor network (Kamiyama and Okanoya, 2014). ...
Article
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The perception of the musical rhythm has been suggested as one of the predicting factors for reading abilities. Several studies have demonstrated that children with reading difficulties (RD) show reduced neural sensitivity in musical rhythm perception. Despite this prior evidence, the association between music and reading in Chinese is still controversial. In the present study, we sought to answer the question of whether the musical rhythm perception of Chinese children with RD is intact or not, providing further clues on how reading and music might be interlinked across languages. Oddball paradigm was adapted for testing the difference of musical rhythm perception, including predictable and unpredictable omission, in elementary school children with RD and typically developing age-controlled children with magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used the cluster-based permutation tests to examine the statistical difference in neural responses. The event-related field (ERF) components, mismatch negativity (MMNm) and P3a(m), were elicited by the rhythmical patterns with omitted strong beats. Specifically, differential P3a(m) components were found smaller in children with RD when comparing the rhythmical patterns between predictable and unpredicted omission patterns. The results showed that brain responses to the omission in the strong beat of an unpredicted rhythmic pattern were significantly smaller in Chinese children with RD. This indicated that children with RD may be impaired in the auditory sensitivity of rhythmic beats. This also suggests that children with reading difficulties may have atypical neural representations of rhythm that could be one of the underlying factors in dysfluent reading development.
... The idea that musical training might be associated with an enhancement of reading abilities during childhood has been investigated in a number of studies (e.g., [75][76][77][78][79]). Music-based interventions in (pre-)schoolers have also been tested as a means of mitigating and treating developmental dyslexia (e.g., [80][81][82][83][84]). Even though not all studies have been able to demonstrate that music training leads to a significant improvement of individual difficulties with reading and writing, a major gain in phonological awareness skills has been documented in most previous research (see [85] for a meta-analysis). ...
... The role of music training in speech processing has been discussed in a number of studies, demonstrating benefits for aging adults, difficult listening conditions and shortterm memory capacity (e.g., [61][62][63][64][65][66][67]69,70,174]). Fueled by the auditory processing hypothesis of dyslexic deficits, music-based therapies have been developed and implemented, though with mixed results, as a means of treating dyslexia in children (e.g., [80][81][82][83]). Assuming that music practice enhances general auditory skills and thus benefits speech and language processing (e.g., [60,[85][86][87]), we hypothesized that individually variable levels of previous music training would influence participants' performance in the two experimental tasks of the present study-phoneme monitoring and SMS-and expected the effect of music training to potentially outweigh the dyslexic status of participants (cf. ...
Article
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Developmental dyslexia is typically defined as a difficulty with an individual's command of written language, arising from deficits in phonological awareness. However, motor entrainment difficulties in non-linguistic synchronization and time-keeping tasks have also been reported. Such findings gave rise to proposals of an underlying rhythm processing deficit in dyslexia, even though to date, evidence for impaired motor entrainment with the rhythm of natural speech is rather scarce, and the role of speech rhythm in phonological awareness is unclear. The present study aimed to fill these gaps. Dyslexic adults and age-matched control participants with variable levels of previous music training completed a series of experimental tasks assessing phoneme processing, rhythm perception , and motor entrainment abilities. In a rhythm entrainment task, participants tapped along to the perceived beat of natural spoken sentences. In a phoneme processing task, participants monitored for sonorant and obstruent phonemes embedded in nonsense strings. Individual sensorimo-tor skills were assessed using a number of screening tests. The results lacked evidence for a motor impairment or a general motor entrainment difficulty in dyslexia, at least among adult participants of the study. Instead, the results showed that the participants' performance in the phonemic task was predictive of their performance in the rhythmic task, but not vice versa, suggesting that atypical rhythm processing in dyslexia may be the consequence, but not the cause, of dyslexic difficulties with phoneme-level encoding. No evidence for a deficit in the entrainment to the syllable rate in dyslexic adults was found. Rather, metrically weak syllables were significantly less often at the center of rhythmic attention in dyslexic adults as compared to neurotypical controls, with an increased tendency in musically trained participants. This finding could not be explained by an auditory deficit in the processing of acoustic-prosodic cues to the rhythm structure, but it is likely to be related to the well-documented auditory short-term memory issue in dyslexia.
... Cason et al., 2015b), as well as overcome reading difficulties (e.g. Bhide, Power & Goswami, 2013;Nelson, 2016). The present article assesses the potentially beneficial effects of rhythmic training through hand-clapping on another area of language learning which has been less investigated, namely the learning of foreign language pronunciation by children. ...
... The benefits of rhythmic training on children's developing phonological and reading skills have been investigated thoroughly. For example, Bhide et al. (2013) compared the effect of a two-month rhythmic nonverbal training program to the effect of rhyme-based training software on the reading and phonological skills of 19 children aged 6 and 7 who were considered poor readers. The rhythmic training consisted of activities such as tapping in time to a metronome, differentiating between tempos and rhythm, mimicking a rhythmic sequence, clapping or marching to a song or playing hand-clap games. ...
Article
This study tested the effects of hand-clapping to the rhythm of newly learned French words on the pronunciation of these words by 7-to 8-year-old Catalan children. In a short training experiment with a pre-and posttest design, 28 children either repeated cognate words in French (e.g. French aspirateur, Catalan aspirador 'vacuum cleaner') while clapping to the rhythmic structure of those words or only repeated the words. Participants' oral productions before and after training were rated for accentedness by three French native speakers. Results showed that in both groups, participants' pronunciation improved after training, and crucially, children in the clapping group improved significantly more than those in the non-clapping group. Additionally, an acoustic analysis of the duration of word-final vowels indicated that only children in the clapping group significantly lengthened the final vowel after training, thus producing more target-like durational patterns. Our results suggest that a brief embodied intervention based on highlighting the rhythmic structure of words through hand-clapping has the potential to enhance pronunciation in a foreign language. The implications for second language teaching of pronunciation are discussed.
... The positive impact of music on the development of the brain is widely acknowledged Williams et al., 2015). Studies have repeatedly demonstrated the positive effect of music on early literacy development (Bhide et al., 2013;Bolduc, 2008;Christiner & Reiterer, 2018;Hallam, 2010;Kraus et al., 2014;Moritz et al., 2013;Slater et al., 2013). Both music and literacy rely on signs and symbols to provide meaning (Dooley & Matthews, 2009). ...
... Music intervention has been described to be as effective as traditional, direct treatment in improving PA and reading abilities (Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013). Additionally, phonological training in conjunction with music training was noted to be more effective in improving PA than traditional therapy without music (Herrera et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Music education has been demonstrated to positively influence the development of early literacy with the type of intervention identified as a moderating factor. However, research comparing the effects of different music education approaches on phonological awareness and early literacy is limited. This systematic review aimed to compare the effect of the predominant music education approaches, namely Orff, Kodály, Suzuki and Dalcroze, on phonological awareness and early literacy. The PRISMA-P protocol was followed, and the study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018094131). Five electronic databases were searched. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed English-language journal publications of quasi-experimental or experimental research studies with typically developing populations aged five to eight years old. Musical intervention had to be based on the principles of the Orff, Kodály, Suzuki or Dalcroze music education approaches or a combination thereof. Narrative synthesis was used in data analysis. From 329 records identified, five articles, from 1975 to 2013, qualified for final inclusion. The sample was heterogeneous regarding population characteristics, music education frequency and duration and abilities assessed. The outcomes from the included studies showed that music education improved aspects of phonological awareness and early literacy. However, standardization of methodological aspects would be required for definite comparisons between the music education approaches to be made. Although direct effects of the music education approaches could not be described, the review outlined factors, such as methodological diversity, that influence the investigation of skill transfer from music education to literacy abilities. The lack of and need for research from lower-middle income countries investigating music education as an intervention approach for phonological awareness and early literacy was identified.
... A later wave of research elucidated the methodological issue of no active control group and addressed the concern that any cognitive training should be more beneficial to cognitive growth in studies compared to studies with no type of control group training. These later studies looked at the premise of music training as being superior to other types of cognitive interventions for schoolchildren, though their findings again gave mixed results (e.g., Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013;Bugos & DeMarie, 2017;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Janus, Lee, Moreno, & Bialystok, 2016;Rickard, Bambrick, & Gill, 2012;Roden, Grube, Bongard, & Kreutz, 2014). One study found music training to be a superior intervention for all cognitive outcomes measured (Flaugnacco et al., 2015), while two studies found benefits in some but not all measures of cognitive ability (Bugos & DeMarie, 2017;Roden, Grube, et al., 2014). ...
... One study found music training to be a superior intervention for all cognitive outcomes measured (Flaugnacco et al., 2015), while two studies found benefits in some but not all measures of cognitive ability (Bugos & DeMarie, 2017;Roden, Grube, et al., 2014). The majority of findings from studies with active control groups, however, claimed no such superiority for music training as a superior cognitive intervention (Bhide et al., 2013;Janus et al., 2016;Rickard et al., 2012). As interest in this topic continues to accelerate music education advocacy discourse, conflicting findings and pushes for high-quality data make it appropriate to conduct a meta-analysis on the cognitive benefits of music training in schoolchildren at this time. ...
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The utility of music training in schools has received much attention in the United States. The purported positive cognitive benefits of music training for schoolchildren is one facet which has historically been used to advocate for the existence of public school music programs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a random-effects meta-analysis to measure the overall mean effects of music training on cognitive measures in schoolchildren. Results showed small to medium overall effects (N = 5,612, k = 100, g = .28, p < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] [.21, .34]). When compared to active control groups, music training yielded more improvement on a range of cognitive measurements (g = .21, p < .0001). While some studies did result in large effect sizes, significant moderators related to methodological quality rendered the overall findings non-significant (g = .08, p = .19, 95% CI [–.04, .20]). Additional moderator analysis showed no clear advantage in one area of cognitive function. Results did not differ by geographical locale or type of music intervention. Overall, results suggested music training may be a positive cognitive intervention for schoolchildren; however, advantages as to the utility of music training compared to other cognitive interventions were less empirically supported.
... The authors reported positive effects of such interventions not only on reading skills but also on phonological abilities. Similarly, two studies compared the benefits of rhythmic training and phonemic intervention in particular (Bhide, Power & Goswami, 2013;Thomson, Leong & Goswami, 2013). In the two studies, specific effects of both rhythmic and phonemic training were observed on phonological skills, spelling skills, and word reading. ...
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Several studies have shown the influence of rhythm skills on the processing of written language, especially at the beginning of literacy development. The first objective of this study was to determine the persistence of this link at an advanced grade level. The second objective was to better understand the factors underlying this relationship and, more specifically, to examine the hypothesis of mediation by phonological and/or motor skills. In total, 278 third graders performed literacy tasks (word/pseudoword decoding and spelling), a rhythm production task, two phonological tasks (phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming), and motor tasks. Significant correlations were observed between literacy and each of rhythm skills, phonological skills, and motor skills. However, structural equation models showed that the influence of rhythm skills on literacy was mediated neither by phonological skills nor by motor abilities. These results suggest that rhythm skills continue to play a role in the acquisition of written language in third graders and that this contribution seems to be independent of phonological and motor skills.
... This lively search for DD brain basis is fostering a new wave of innovative treatments aiming at enhancing reading skills in an indirect way, by training the cognitive and perceptual skills potentially involved in the reading process (e.g., Thomson et al., 2012;Bhide et al., 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Cancer and Antonietti, 2018;Frey et al., 2019;Pecini et al., 2019). However, there remains a strong need to identify among old and new interventions the ones that are, first of all, effective in improving reading skills (Lorusso et al., 2006) and, secondly, use resources efficiently (Franceschini et al., 2013). ...
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Developmental dyslexia is a very common learning disorder causing an impairment in reading ability. Although the core deficit underlying dyslexia is still under debate, significant agreement is reached in the literature that dyslexia is related to a specific deficit in the phonological representation of speech sounds. Many studies also reported an association between reading skills and music. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at enhancing basic auditory skills of children with DD may impact reading abilities. However, music education alone failed to produce improvements in reading skills comparable to those resulting from traditional intervention methods for DD. Therefore, a computer-assisted intervention method, called Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), which combines sublexical reading exercises with rhythm processing, was implemented. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of RRT and that of an intervention resulting from the combination of two yet validated treatments for dyslexia, namely, Bakker’s Visual Hemisphere-Specific Stimulation (VHSS) and the Action Video Game Training (AVG). Both interventions, administered for 13 h over 9 days, significantly improved reading speed and accuracy of a group of Italian students with dyslexia aged 8–14. However, each intervention program produced improvements that were more evident in specific reading parameters: RRT was more effective for improvement of pseudoword reading speed, whereas VHSS + AVG was more effective in increasing general reading accuracy. Such different effects were found to be associated with different cognitive mechanisms, namely, phonological awareness for RRT and rapid automatized naming for VHSS + AVG, thus explaining the specific contribution of each training approach. Clinical Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02791841.
... Future studies should address the question of how musical rhythm perception ability, speech rhythm perception, and reading are causally connected. To explore the first assumption, studies should assess the potential of rhythmic interventions in dyslexia therapy, and therewith, follow a line of research that has already been initiated, e.g., [82,83]. Ideally, future research should explore pre-/post-test paradigms to explore whether musical rhythm perception ability can be enhanced by training. ...
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Recent studies have suggested that musical rhythm perception ability can affect the phonological system. The most prevalent causal account for developmental dyslexia is the phonological deficit hypothesis. As rhythm is a subpart of phonology, we hypothesized that reading deficits in dyslexia are associated with rhythm processing in speech and in music. In a rhythmic grouping task, adults with diagnosed dyslexia and age-matched controls listened to speech streams with syllables alternating in intensity, duration, or neither, and indicated whether they perceived a strong-weak or weak-strong rhythm pattern. Additionally, their reading and musical rhythm abilities were measured. Results showed that adults with dyslexia had lower musical rhythm abilities than adults without dyslexia. Moreover, lower musical rhythm ability was associated with lower reading ability in dyslexia. However, speech grouping by adults with dyslexia was not impaired when musical rhythm perception ability was controlled: like adults without dyslexia, they showed consistent preferences. However, rhythmic grouping was predicted by musical rhythm perception ability, irrespective of dyslexia. The results suggest associations among musical rhythm perception ability, speech rhythm perception, and reading ability. This highlights the importance of considering individual variability to better understand dyslexia and raises the possibility that musical rhythm perception ability is a key to phonological and reading acquisition.
... A meta-analysis including 18 studies showed improved working memory in children with musical training [24]. Bhide et al. [25] showed that short-term musical training improved working memory in a population of 6 and 7-year-olds who were struggling with reading. The children were engaged in 19 sessions over two months, during which they were given rhythm training. ...
... 1 Introduction 1.1 La pratique musicale et la perception phonologique L'influence de la pratique musicale sur la perception de la parole se démontre de multiples manières et sur différents niveaux du traitement du langage : sur la conscience phonologique (Bhide et al., 2013), l'apprentissage de nouveau mots (Barbaroux, 2019) ou encore la perception de la parole dans le bruit (Straight, Kraus 2011). Cette influence peut s'expliquer d'une part par la similarité des signaux sonores (tous deux complexes, comportant une mélodie, un rythme, des unités etc.), mais aussi par l'engagement de divers processus cognitifs tels que l'attention, la mémoire ou les fonctions exécutives, soit des processus impliqués autant dans la pratique musicale que lors de la perception de la parole. ...
Conference Paper
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Dans cette étude nous avons cherché à comprendre l'effet de la pratique instrumentale sur la perception et la catégorisation de la parole sifflée. Nous nous sommes intéressés à la spécificité instrumentale avec une focalisation sur 4 instruments : la voix, le violon, le piano et la flûte. Bien que le bénéfice de la pratique musicale sur la perception de la parole modifiée soit vérifié dans nos résultats, il apparait clairement que l'instrument pratiqué ainsi que le niveau de pratique ont un effet sur la perception de la parole sifflée. Ces résultats suggèrent que, lors de ce processus de catégorisation, les effets observés s'expliquent plus par un traitement modifié du signal sonore, grâce à une familiarisation acoustique spécifique chez les musiciens expérimentés, plutôt que par des fonctions générales (fonctions exécutives, mémoire ou attention) plus performantes. ABSTRACT Benefits of musical experience on speech categorization: an analysis of the cognitive transfer processes In this study, we took an interest in the influence of musical expertise and instrument specialization on the perception and categorization of whistled speech. We explored instrumental specificity by focusing on four instruments: voice, violin, piano and flute. Though our results verify the presence of a musical advantage compared to non-musicians, it is clear that the instrument played as well as the level achieved have an effect on whistled speech perception. These results suggest that the effects observed during the consonant categorization task can be attributed to a modification in signal processing due to specific acoustic familiarization in high-level musicians rather than enhanced general cognitive functions (executive functions, memory or attention).
... Those findings have inspired research into the efficacy of songs for foreign-or second-language vocabulary acquisition, with the benefits, in particular for vocabulary acquisition, extending to children in the foreign language classroom (for reviews: [12,13]). Musical training can also enhance general auditory encoding, which indirectly improves a range of language skills (for a review: [14]), including children's speech segmentation [15], phonological abilities [16], as well as the perception of speech prosody [17] and durational speech cues [18]. ...
Article
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Children’s songs are omnipresent and highly attractive stimuli in infants’ input. Previous work suggests that infants process linguistic–phonetic information from simplified sung melodies. The present study investigated whether infants learn words from ecologically valid children’s songs. Testing 40 Dutch-learning 10-month-olds in a familiarization-then-test electroencephalography (EEG) paradigm, this study asked whether infants can segment repeated target words embedded in songs during familiarization and subsequently recognize those words in continuous speech in the test phase. To replicate previous speech work and compare segmentation across modalities, infants participated in both song and speech sessions. Results showed a positive event-related potential (ERP) familiarity effect to the final compared to the first target occurrences during both song and speech familiarization. No evidence was found for word recognition in the test phase following either song or speech. Comparisons across the stimuli of the present and a comparable previous study suggested that acoustic prominence and speech rate may have contributed to the polarity of the ERP familiarity effect and its absence in the test phase. Overall, the present study provides evidence that 10-month-old infants can segment words embedded in songs, and it raises questions about the acoustic and other factors that enable or hinder infant word segmentation from songs and speech.
... Indeed, there are ample reports regarding deficits in rhythm and grammar in dyslexia and SLI, suggesting dysfunctional temporal processing is responsible for these developmental language disorders (Corriveau and Goswami, 2009;Gordon et al., 2015b;Goswami et al., 2013;Huss et al., 2011;Thomson and Goswami, 2008). Accordingly, rhythm training has been utilized as speech and language intervention programs for these populations (Bedoin et al., 2016;Bhide et al., 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Gordon et al., 2015b;Ozernov--Palchik et al., 2018;Przybylski et al., 2013). ...
Article
A growing body of evidence has highlighted behavioral connections between musical rhythm and linguistic syntax, suggesting that these may be mediated by common neural resources. Here, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies using activation likelihood estimate (ALE) to localize the shared neural structures engaged in a representative set of musical rhythm (rhythm, beat, and meter) and linguistic syntax (merge movement, and reanalysis). Rhythm engaged a bilateral sensorimotor network throughout the brain consisting of the inferior frontal gyri, supplementary motor area, superior temporal gyri/temporoparietal junction, insula, the intraparietal lobule, and putamen. By contrast, syntax mostly recruited the left sensorimotor network including the inferior frontal gyrus, posterior superior temporal gyrus, premotor cortex, and supplementary motor area. Intersections between rhythm and syntax maps yielded overlapping regions in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, and bilateral insula-neural substrates involved in temporal hierarchy processing and predictive coding. Together, this is the first neuroimaging meta-analysis providing detailed anatomical overlap of sensorimotor regions recruited for musical rhythm and linguistic syntax.
... Multiple studies and systematic reviews have shown that music instruction can improve PA and early literacy skills in young children (Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013;Christiner & Reiterer, 2018;Hallam, 2010;Kraus, Hornickel, Strait, Slater, & Thompson, 2014a;Liebeskind, Piotrowski, Lapierre, & Linebarger, 2014;Moritz, Yampolsky, Papadelis, Thomson, & Wolf, 2013). When the outcomes of individual studies are, however, grouped in meta-analyses (Gordon, Fehd, & McCandliss, 2015;Sala & Gobet, 2017;Standley, 2008), the reliability and significance of the transfer effect from music to early literacy is reduced. ...
Article
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Multiple studies and systematic reviews have shown that music instruction improves phonological awareness (PA) and early literacy skills in children, although findings vary. In meta-analyses, the reliability and significance of the transfer effect are reduced. The study evaluated the effect of varying durations of music instruction exposure, over a single academic year, on PA and early literacy of young children. Based on the exposure to music instruction, participants were assigned to either a low- or high-exposure group. Additional analyses were conducted for 17 age-matched pairs and to compare participants that only received class music to those that received additional music instruction. Between-groups comparisons showed no significant difference after a single academic year of music instruction. Within-groups comparisons identified more PA improvements in the high-exposure group. Exposure to music instruction for no less than one academic year, is required to conclusively evaluate the effect on PA and early literacy.
... An auditory processing impairment that specifically affects processing of the temporal component of sounds interferes with the development of phonological processing and phoneme-grapheme mapping, which are crucial for reading acquisition [8,9]. The relationship between rhythm processing and reading led researchers to test the hypothesis that musical training could improve dyslexia-related difficulties, with promising results [10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
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Music and rhythm-based training programs to improve reading are a novel approach to treatment of developmental dyslexia and have attracted the attention of trainers and researchers. Experimental studies demonstrating poor basic auditory processing abilities in individuals with dyslexia suggest they should be effective. On this basis, the efficacy of a novel rhythm-based intervention, Rhythmic Reading Training (RRT), was recently investigated and found to improve reading skills in Italian children with dyslexia, but its mode of action remains somewhat unclear. In this study, 19 children and preadolescents with dyslexia received 20 sessions of RRT over 10 weeks. Gains in a set of reading-related cognitive abilities—verbal working memory, auditory, and visual attention, and rhythm processing—were measured, along with reading outcomes. Analysis of the specific contribution of cognitive subprocesses to the primary effect of RRT highlighted that reading speed improvement during the intervention was related to rhythm and auditory discrimination abilities as well as verbal working memory. The relationships among specific reading parameters and the neuropsychological profile of participants are discussed.
... intervention 27 , although it seems that adding musical elements in phonological training does not further enhance children's early foreign language reading 28 . Finally, Moreno et al. 29 showed that after computerized two-hour daily training for only 20 days, children in music listening group outperformed their peers in visual art group in verbal intelligence test. ...
Article
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The influence of musical experience on brain development has been mostly studied in school-aged children with formal musical training while little is known about the possible effects of less formal musical activities typical for preschool-aged children (e.g., before the age of seven). In the current study, we investigated whether the amount of musical group activities is reflected in the maturation of neural sound discrimination from toddler to preschool-age. Specifically, we recorded event-related potentials longitudinally (84 recordings from 33 children) in a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to different musically relevant sound changes at ages 2–3, 4–5 and 6–7 years from children who attended a musical playschool throughout the follow-up period and children with shorter attendance to the same playschool. In the first group, we found a gradual positive to negative shift in the polarities of the mismatch responses while the latter group showed little evidence of age-related changes in neural sound discrimination. The current study indicates that the maturation of sound encoding indexed by the MMN may be more protracted than once thought and provides first longitudinal evidence that even quite informal musical group activities facilitate the development of neural sound discrimination during early childhood.
... Intervention studies in which children must explicitly match external beat structures to language rhythms, for example, via tapping/drumming to poetry, or coinciding a musical accompaniment with singing, can confer linguistic benefits. 45 Growing understanding of the physiological mechanisms that underpin the neural oscillatory hierarchy may offer further targets for remediation. For example, it may be possible to adapt the speech signal in light of the discoveries about amplitude rise times and the amplitude modulation hierarchy discussed here, so that relevant cues such as amplitude rise times are synthetically amplified or exaggerated. ...
Article
Language lies at the heart of our experience as humans and disorders of language acquisition carry severe developmental costs. Rhythmic processing lies at the heart of language acquisition. Here, I review our understanding of the perceptual and neural mechanisms that support language acquisition, from a novel amplitude modulation perspective. Amplitude modulation patterns in infant‐ and child‐directed speech support the perceptual experience of rhythm, and the brain encodes these rhythm patterns in part via neuroelectric oscillations. When brain rhythms align themselves with (entrain to) acoustic rhythms, speech intelligibility improves. Recent advances in the auditory neuroscience of speech processing enable studies of neuronal oscillatory entrainment in children and infants. The “amplitude modulation phase hierarchy” theoretical perspective on language acquisition is applicable across languages, and cross‐language investigations adopting this novel perspective would be valuable for the field. Here, I illustrate important developmental links between neural speech encoding, amplitude envelope rise times (for both the neural encoding of speech and for rhythm perception), and the acoustic statistics reflected by patterns of amplitude modulation in infant‐ and child‐directed speech.
... In fact, struggling with certain rhythmic skills can reflect underlying language and/or perceptual impairments; this has led to increasingly popular rhythm-based trainings to treat literacy and auditory processing problems, especially at early stages of life. [10][11][12][13][14] Therefore, a more thorough understanding of the development and interconnection of different rhythmic abilities in early childhood can crucially help in sculpting such interventions to the specific needs of each individual. ...
Article
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Rhythmic expertise can be considered a multidimensional skill set, with clusters of distinct rhythmic abilities evident in young adults. In this article, we explore relationships in school-age children (ages 5-8 years) among 4 rhythmic tasks hypothesized to reflect different clusters of skills, namely, drumming to an isochronous beat, remembering rhythmic patterns, drumming to the beat in music, and clapping in time with feedback. We find that drumming to an isochronous beat and remembering rhythmic patterns are not related. In addition, clapping in time with feedback correlates with performance on the other 3 rhythm tasks. This study contributes to the taxonomy of rhythmic skills in school-age children. It also supports the use of clapping in time training as a way to possibly affect a broad spectrum of rhythmic abilities that are linked to language and literacy processes.
... PA programs that include music challenge diverse motor and cognitive skills as participants need to mentally work with the tempo, learn new rhythmic movements and motor sequences, and stay in tune with the music. Music and rhythmic programs have been found to be important for speech and are suggested to benefit literacy skills in addition to improvements in PA levels, especially in the early years of a child's development [21,22]. While PA programs with rhythm and music are understudied in the literature, they are hypothesized to improve executive function skills [23]. ...
Article
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Movement in response to music represents one of the natural social environments in which physical activity occurs. The study of music and movement, including dance, requires a careful, holistic consideration of many features, which may include music, physical activity, motor learning, social engagement, emotion, and creativity. The overarching goal of this manuscript is to examine qualitative characteristics of and individual responses to a music and movement intervention (Creatively Able) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We provide a description of Creatively Able, illustrating how the program design and physical and social environment were informed by children’s needs and preferences in order to provide an enriched environment in which to promote multiple systems in children with ASD. Using data from two pilot studies with 20 children with ASD, we illustrate how researchers can use observational research methods to measure important aspects of the social environment (e.g., children’s engagement during intervention sessions) as well as engagement of potential underlying behavioral mechanisms (e.g., self-regulation) that might reduce clinical symptoms. We further illustrate how individual responses to intervention (e.g., improvements in behaviors or symptoms) can be studied in physically active interventions. Our pilot study results showed group-level reductions in Stereotyped and Compulsive behaviors of 8% and 4%, respectively; posthoc analysis revealed that there were substantial individual differences in children’s responses to the intervention. This research illustrates robust methods that can be applied to intervention research to improve our understanding of important features of interventions that might help promote development in various domains, including executive functions and self-regulation.
... Indeed, there are ample reports regarding deficits in rhythm and grammar in dyslexia and SLI, suggesting dysfunctional temporal processing is responsible for these developmental language disorders (Corriveau and Goswami, 2009;Gordon et al., 2015b;Goswami et al., 2013;Huss et al., 2011;Thomson and Goswami, 2008). Accordingly, rhythm training has been utilized as speech and language intervention programs for these populations (Bedoin et al., 2016;Bhide et al., 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Gordon et al., 2015b;Ozernov--Palchik et al., 2018;Przybylski et al., 2013). ...
... The inclusion of music as an element of a PA intervention is further supported by research in typically developing elementary children showing that music education has a positive effect on EF skills and academic achievement (Jaschke et al., 2018). Thus, rhythmic programs, in addition to having a potential beneficial effect on motor and EF skills, also have the potential to benefit academic achievement and literacy skills, especially in early years of a child's development (Bhide et al., 2013;Linardakis et al., 2013;Nelson, 2016). It has been suggested that rhythm and language show common developmental elements (Patel, 2003) and share some of the same auditory mechanisms (Degé and Schwarzer, 2011) as well as neural and cognitive resources that are necessary for both reading acquisition and music/rhythm understanding (Tierney and Kraus, 2013). ...
Article
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Introduction: Increasing literature has emerged investigating the importance of considering the qualitative characteristics of physical activity (PA) interventions and sports as well as considering the role of motor competence in the exercise-cognition interplay. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a rhythmic PA intervention compared to a standard physical education program, on motor and hot and cool executive function (EF) skills. Methods: Children ages 6-11 were enrolled in one of the two programs: a rhythmic program (n = 22) and a physical education program (n = 17), both meeting for 30 min, twice per week, for 7 weeks. The rhythmic program emphasized moving to the beat of music and moving in various rhythmic patterns with whole body movements, clapping, and drumsticks. The children also created their own rhythmic patterns and socially engaged with other children by working in pairs and sharing their routines with the group. The physical education group engaged in ball skills, locomotor patterns, team sports, and moving through stations in small groups, with no emphasis on rhythm. Pretest and posttest measurements included measurement of balance (Movement ABC-2), cool and hot EF (Flanker, SWAN), and social factors, whereas throughout the implementation period data on affective valence, enjoyment, cognitive engagement, perceived exertion, and PA levels were collected at every lesson in both groups. Results: The rhythmic program used in this study was feasible, scalable, affordable, and able to be implemented with minimal preparatory time. Children in both groups (rhythmic and physical education) engaged in a similar level of PA and had similar positive experiences from the programs. Both groups improved in balance and cool EF, and there were significant correlations in the change scores between balance and cool EF, as well as between cool EF with hot EF and socio-emotional factors. Discussion: This study contributes to the literature by exploring the potential value of rhythmic programs as a vehicle in helping children develop motor and EF skills while deriving joy and positive social interactions from the program.
... Such interventions are likely to be most beneficial when the underlying hierarchy of the temporal structure of music corresponds to the temporal hierarchy underpinning speech rhythm [57]. The evidence presented here regarding the perceptual commonalities between musical and speech rhythms implies that careful matching of the statistical rhythm structures across music and speech for different languages would lead to better remedial outcomes [61,62]. Similar interventions could be beneficial for second language learners. ...
Preprint
Statistical learning by the human brain plays a core role in the development of cognitive systems like language and music. Both music and speech have structured inherent rhythms, however the acoustic sources of these rhythms are debated. Theoretically, rhythm structures in both systems may be related to a novel set of acoustic statistics embedded in the amplitude envelope, statistics originally revealed by modelling children's nursery rhymes. Here we apply similar modelling to explore whether the amplitude modulation (AM) timescales underlying rhythm in music match those in child-directed speech (CDS). Utilising AM-driven phase hierarchy modelling previously applied to infant-directed speech (IDS), adult-directed speech (ADS) and CDS, we test whether the physical stimulus characteristics that yield speech rhythm in IDS and CDS describe rhythm in music. Two models were applied. One utilized a low-dimensional representation of the auditory signal adjusted for known mechanisms of the human cochlear, and the second utilized probabilistic amplitude demodulation, estimating the modulator (envelope) and carriers using Bayesian inference. Both models revealed a similar hierarchically-nested temporal modulation structure across Western musical genres and instruments. Core bands of AM and spectral patterning matched prior analyses of IDS and CDS, and music showed strong phase dependence between slower bands of AMs, again matching IDS and CDS. This phase dependence is critical to the perception of rhythm. Control analyses modelling other natural sounds (wind, rain, storms, rivers) did not show similar temporal modulation structures and phase dependencies. We conclude that acoustic rhythm in language and music has a shared statistical basis.
... SMS is a strong candidate for a simple behavioural risk marker of disordered language acquisition (Lundetrae & Thomson, 2018) and may also provide a route for remediation, helping mitigate the considerable life-long costs of language disorders. For example, preschool music interventions enhance phonological awareness (Dege & Schwarzer, 2011;Linnavalli et al., 2018), and children with more variable baseline SMS benefit most from rhythmic movement interventions (Bhide, et al., 2013). ...
Preprint
Impaired sensorimotor synchronisation (SMS) to acoustic rhythm may be a marker of atypical language development. Here, Motion Capture was used to assess gross motor rhythmic movement at six timepoints between five- and 11-months-of-age. Infants were recorded drumming to acoustic stimuli of varying linguistic and temporal complexity: drumbeats, repeated syllables and nursery rhymes. Longitudinal analyses revealed that whilst infants could not yet reliably synchronise their movement to auditory rhythms, they showed improvement in tempo matching with age. Their ability to decelerate from their spontaneous motor tempo, to better accord with the in-coming tempo, also improved with age. Further, infants became more regular drummers with age, with marked decreases in the variability of spontaneous motor tempo and variability in response to drumbeats. This latter effect was subdued in response to linguistic stimuli. The current work lays the foundation for using individual differences in SMS in infancy to predict later language outcomes.
... Such results, yielded from a methodologically rigorous experimental design, corroborated the theoretical rationale behind music-based interventions for DD. Bhide et al. (2013), adopting the TS framework for DD (for a summary, see Goswami, 2011), designed a musical intervention aimed at training the components of rhythm perception impaired in DD, together with syllable stress and rise time discrimination, via musical games. More precisely, the music intervention included the following activities: tapping a space bar at the same time as a metronome, same-different judgments on metronome tempos and short rhythms, mimicking a short rhythm, rise time discrimination, clapping and marching to the beat of a song, chanting and hand-clap games, listening to a poem and answering questions about its rhythm, and the Dee-Dee game (see Goswami et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Remediation of reading difficulties through music and auditory-based interventions in children with impairments in reading (such as developmental dyslexia) has been suggested in light of the putative neural and cognitive overlaps between the music and language domains. Several studies had explored the effect of music training on reading development, showing mixed results. However, to date, the meta-analyses on this topic did not differentiate the studies on typical children from those on children with reading difficulties. To draw a clear picture of the remedial effects of music-based and auditory-based interventions, the present review of the literature included studies on struggling readers only. Eighteen studies have been categorized according to the type of the main training activity – either specific auditory training or more broad music training – and the combination with reading exercises. The reviewed studies showed that musical and auditory interventions yielded a positive, but not consistent, effect on reading. Nevertheless, significantly larger improvements of phonological abilities, relative to the control conditions, were overall reported. These findings support the hypothesis of a transfer effect of musical and auditory training on phonological and literacy skills in children with reading difficulties.
... Although positive effects of music training on reading and other measures of language processing or proficiency have been obtained, the effects may not differ from other types of approaches (e.g. Bhide et al., 2013). At least in some cases, language training programmes may provide similar benefits as music training does . ...
Article
Musical activities have been suggested to be beneficial for language development in childhood. Randomised controlled trials using music have indicated that musical interventions can be used to support language skills in children with developmental language difficulties. However, it is not entirely clear how beneficial music activities are for normally developing children or how the effects mediated via music are transmitted. To investigate these questions, the present study used structural equation models to assess how musical training, perceptual musical skills, and auditory processing in the brain are associated with reading proficiency and each other. Perceptual musical skills were assessed using musicality tests while auditory processing in the brain was measured using mismatch negativity responses to pitch, duration, and phoneme length contrasts. Our participants were a community sample of 64 8–11-year-old typically developing children with and without musical training, recruited from four classes in four elementary schools in Finland. Approximately half of children had music as a hobby. Our results suggest that performance in tests of musical perceptual skills is directly linked with reading proficiency instead of being mediated via auditory processing in the brain. Auditory processing in the brain in itself seems not to be strongly linked with reading proficiency in these children. Furthermore, in children with musical training, the performance in the pitch perception task was associated with reading skills, while in children without musical training, this association was not found. Our results support the view that musical perceptual skills are associated with reading skills regardless of musical training.
... First, in older children and adults, active music making has been shown to have wide-ranging positive effects on several neuropsychological, sensorial and cognitive processes, such as auditory processing of both non-speech and speech stimuli [22][23][24][25][26], and cognitive skills such as attention, auditory memory, linguistic and reading skills [26,27]. Interestingly, music training has been shown to be successful in remediating these skills, even in populations with (or at risk for) DLD and LD [28][29][30]. Further work in typical populations has shown that musical training is associated with faster and larger brainstem responses [31,32] and that cortical entrainment is enhanced with years of musical training [33]. ...
Article
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Previous evidence has shown that early auditory processing impacts later linguistic development, and targeted training implemented at early ages can enhance auditory processing skills, with better expected language development outcomes. This study focuses on typically developing infants and aims to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of music training based on active synchronization with complex musical rhythms on the linguistic outcomes and electrophysiological functioning underlying auditory processing. Fifteen infants participated in the training (RTr+) and were compared with two groups of infants not attending any structured activities during the same time frame (RTr−, N = 14). At pre- and post-training, expressive and receptive language skills were assessed using standardized tests, and auditory processing skills were characterized through an electrophysiological non-speech multi-feature paradigm. Results reveal that RTr+ infants showed significantly broader improvement in both expressive and receptive pre-language skills. Moreover, at post-training, they presented an electrophysiological pattern characterized by shorter latency of two peaks (N2* and P2), reflecting a neural change detection process: these shifts in latency go beyond those seen due to maturation alone. These results provide preliminary evidence on the efficacy of our training in improving early linguistic competences, and in modifying the neural underpinnings of auditory processing in infants.
... Musical and rhythm-based interventions that train temporal processing and rhythm skills have already been shown to provide benefits to phonological and literacy development (Bhide et al., 2013;Degé & Schwarzer, 2011;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Harrison et al., 2018). ...
Article
Dyslexia has frequently been related to atypical auditory temporal processing and speech perception. Results of studies emphasizing speech onset cues and reinforcing the temporal structure of the speech envelope, i.e. envelope enhancement, demonstrated reduced speech perception deficits in individuals with dyslexia. The use of this strategy as auditory intervention might thus reduce some of the deficits related to dyslexia. Importantly, reading-skill interventions are most effective when they are provided during kindergarten and first grade. Hence, we provided a tablet-based 12-week auditory and phonics-based intervention to pre-readers at cognitive risk for dyslexia and investigated the effect on auditory temporal processing with a rise time discrimination task. Ninety-one pre-readers at cognitive risk for dyslexia (aged 5–6) were assigned to two groups receiving a phonics-based intervention and playing a story listening game either with (n = 31) or without (n = 31) envelope enhancement or a third group playing control games and listening to non-enhanced stories (n = 29). Rise time discrimination was measured directly before, directly after and one year after the intervention. While the groups listening to non-enhanced stories mainly improved after the intervention during first grade, the group listening to enhanced stories improved during the intervention in kindergarten and subsequently remained stable during first grade. Hence, an envelope enhancement intervention improves auditory processing skills important for the development of phonological skills. This occurred before the onset of reading instruction, preceding the maturational improvement of these skills, hence potentially giving at risk children a head start when learning to read. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Research from the past 20 years using longitudinal settings has reported causal connections between music training and cognitive functions in children. Some of these connections seem to be already fairly well documented, such as the causal association between music training and language skills (Bhide et al., 2013;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;François et al., 2013;Linnavalli et al., 2018;Moreno et al., 2009;Nan et al., 2018;Overy, 2003;Roden et al., 2012;Slater et al., 2014); these studies show improvement in different domains of language, such as reading and literacy, phoneme awareness, segmenting speech sounds, verbal intelligence, verbal memory, and rapid naming after interventions lasting from 4 weeks to 2 years. Somewhat fewer studies suggest that music training impacts executive functions, namely inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, and working memory (e.g., Bugos & DeMarie, 2017;Jaschke et al., 2018;Shen et al., 2019), boosts social skills (Cirelli et al., 2014;2 Music & Science Kirschner & Tomasello, 2010;Rabinowitch et al., 2012;Schellenberg et al., 2015), and has an effect on intelligence (Costa-Giomi, 1999;Kaviani et al., 2014;Schellenberg, 2004). ...
Article
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Recent empirical evidence suggests that attending individual instrumental training in music schools benefits the development of cognitive skills such as language and executive functions. In this article, we examine studies that have found these transfer effects provided by group-based music education in school and preschool contexts. We conclude that group-based music lessons may enhance children's language skills and possibly executive functions, but evidence for the impact of music activities on intelligence-as measured by nonverbal intelligence tests-or long-term prosocial abilities is scarce. Although the beneficial effects of music on language skills and executive functions are small, they seem to be discernible. However, we do not know if they apply to all children or only to, for example, children who enjoy engaging in musical activities. We suggest that group-based music education should be part of the national school and preschool curricula, because of both the enjoyment of learning music-related skills and the impact it may have on children's general learning. In parallel, we encourage new empirical longitudinal projects to be launched, enabling further investigations into the promises of music.
... When the GL Rime group was compared to the untreated controls, large effects were found on the gain scores for tasks of word reading, non-word reading, and spelling. Bhide et al. (2013) conducted a study in which the effects of GL Rime were compared to a musical intervention. The GL group showed large effects on decoding and spelling, however, there were no significant differences between the groups indicating that both interventions benefited struggling readers. ...
Article
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Background In 2018, it was found that only a quarter of Grade 3 children in India were reading at grade level. A growing demand for English education has further limited children's literacy achievement. Despite a strong evidence base in favour of using systematic phonics for building English literacy skills, many teachers in India continue to use rote‐methods of literacy instruction. Objectives We aimed to examine the efficacy of GraphoLearn (GL) English Rime, a computer‐assisted reading intervention, in improving the foundational literacy skills of 1st and 2nd grade students who were attending an English medium school in India. Methods A total of 136 students across 6 classrooms were randomly allocated to play either GL or a control math game over a 5‐week intervention period. Students were pre‐ and post‐tested on various English literacy skills using tasks built into the GL software as well as through oral and paper‐based tasks. Results and Conclusions Students who played GL showed significantly greater and faster development on in‐game measures of letter‐sound knowledge, rime unit recognition, and word recognition as compared to students who did not play GL. In addition, GL resulted in greater effects on these measures for students with stronger English literacy skills prior to the start of the intervention. No differences were found between groups on the oral and paper‐based tasks. Implications GL was able to quickly and effectively teach critical sub‐skills for reading. However, a lack of effects on the out‐of‐game measures opens the door for further discussion on the successful implementation of such interventions.
... Atypical rhythm processing has been hypothesised to play a key role in these other disorders (Ladányi et al., 2020), and has been shown to be impaired in behavioural studies of children with DLD (Cumming et al., 2015). Identifying the atypical neural mechanisms that contribute to developmental disorders of language would also enable the development of novel remediation programmes, for example involving rhythm (Goswami and Szűcs, 2011;Bhide et al., 2013;Fiveash et al., 2021). ...
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According to the sensory-neural Temporal Sampling theory of developmental dyslexia, neural sampling of auditory information at slow rates (<10 Hz, related to speech rhythm) is atypical in dyslexic individuals, particularly in the delta band (0.5–4 Hz). Here we examine the underlying neural mechanisms related to atypical sampling using a simple repetitive speech paradigm. Fifty-one children (21 control children [15M, 6F] and 30 children with dyslexia [16M, 14F]) aged 9 years with or without developmental dyslexia watched and listened as a ‘talking head’ repeated the syllable “ba” every 500 ms, while EEG was recorded. Occasionally a syllable was “out of time”, with a temporal delay calibrated individually and adaptively for each child so that it was detected around 79.4% of the time by a button press. Phase consistency in the delta (rate of stimulus delivery), theta (speech-related) and alpha (control) bands was evaluated for each child and each group. Significant phase consistency was found for both groups in the delta and theta bands, demonstrating neural entrainment, but not the alpha band. However, the children with dyslexia showed a different preferred phase and significantly reduced phase consistency compared to control children, in the delta band only. Analysis of pre- and post-stimulus angular velocity of group preferred phases revealed that the children in the dyslexic group showed an atypical response in the delta band only. The delta-band pre-stimulus angular velocity (−130 ms to 0 ms) for the dyslexic group appeared to be significantly faster compared to the control group. It is concluded that neural responding to simple beat-based stimuli may provide a unique neural marker of developmental dyslexia. The automatic nature of this neural response may enable new tools for diagnosis, as well as opening new avenues for remediation.
... The use of music rhythm training in treatment has also been developed in the SEP hypothesis, which focuses on applications to Parkinson's Disease, stuttering, aphasia, and Autism. Studies in both typically developing children (Degé & Schwarzer, 2011;Patscheke et al., 2016) and children with dyslexia (Thomson et al., 2013) suggest that music training may provide comparable improvements in phonological awareness to direct training in phonology (Bhide et al., 2013; see also Bigand & Tillmann, 2021). Such results would suggest that music (rhythm) training could be used to complement more direct approaches, allowing for more diverse training, potentially increased motivation, and enhanced progress (Schön & Tillmann, 2015). ...
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Objective: Music and speech are complex signals containing regularities in how they unfold in time. Similarities between music and speech/language in terms of their auditory features, rhythmic structure, and hierarchical structure have led to a large body of literature suggesting connections between the two domains. However, the precise underlying mechanisms behind this connection remain to be elucidated. Method: In this theoretical review article, we synthesize previous research and present a framework of potentially shared neural mechanisms for music and speech rhythm processing. We outline structural similarities of rhythmic signals in music and speech, synthesize prominent music and speech rhythm theories, discuss impaired timing in developmental speech and language disorders, and discuss music rhythm training as an additional, potentially effective therapeutic tool to enhance speech/language processing in these disorders. Results: We propose the processing rhythm in speech and music (PRISM) framework, which outlines three underlying mechanisms that appear to be shared across music and speech/language processing: Precise auditory processing, synchronization/entrainment of neural oscillations to external stimuli, and sensorimotor coupling. The goal of this framework is to inform directions for future research that integrate cognitive and biological evidence for relationships between rhythm processing in music and speech. Conclusion: The current framework can be used as a basis to investigate potential links between observed timing deficits in developmental disorders, impairments in the proposed mechanisms, and pathology-specific deficits which can be targeted in treatment and training supporting speech therapy outcomes. On these grounds, we propose future research directions and discuss implications of our framework. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... In addition, performance in transcription was significantly correlated with performance in a timing task. Bhide et al. [197] compared in poor readers the effects of a musical intervention to those of a rhyme training and phoneme-grapheme learning software of proven efficacy. In terms of phonological and reading improvements, there was no difference in the results between the two methods. ...
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In a now-classic article published a couple of decades ago (Brain, 2000; 123: 2373–2399), I proposed an “extended temporal processing deficit hypothesis of dyslexia”, suggesting that a deficit in temporal processing could explain not only language-related peculiarities usually noticed in dyslexic children, but also a wider range of symptoms related to impaired processing of time in general. In the present review paper, I will revisit this “historical” hypothesis both in the light of a new clinical perspective, including the central yet poorly explained notion of comorbidity, and also taking a new look at the most recent experimental work, mainly focusing on brain imaging data. First, consistent with daily clinical practice, I propose to distinguish three groups of children who fail to learn to read, of fairly equal occurrence, who share the same initial presentation (difficulty in mastering the rules of grapheme–phoneme correspondence) but with differing associated signs and/or comorbid conditions (language disorders in the first group, attentional deficits in the second one, and motor coordination problems in the last one), thus suggesting, at least in part, potentially different triggering mechanisms. It is then suggested, in the light of brain imaging information available to date, that the three main clinical presentations/associations of cognitive impairments that compromise reading skills acquisition correspond to three distinct patterns of miswiring or “disconnectivity” in specific brain networks which have in common their involvement in the process of learning and their heavy reliance on temporal features of information processing. With reference to the classic temporal processing deficit of dyslexia and to recent evidence of an inability of the dyslexic brain to achieve adequate coupling of oscillatory brain activity to the temporal features of external events, a general model is proposed according to which a common mechanism of temporal uncoupling between various disconnected—and/or mis-wired—processors may account for distinct forms of specific learning disorders, with reading impairment being a more or less constant feature. Finally, the potential therapeutic implications of such a view are considered, with special emphasis on methods seeking to enhance cross-modal connectivity between separate brain systems, including those using rhythmic and musical training in dyslexic patients.
... Additionally, the potential beneficial effect of musical training on phonological skills and reading abilities is intensively evaluated. Results from various training programs designed to enhance the perception of speech rhythm of persons with dyslexia, using for example music, drumming, or tapping to poetry, not only improved auditory processing skills, but also had the potential to transfer from basic auditory skills to more advanced literacy skills (Bhide et al. 2013;Thomson et al. 2013;Flaugnacco et al. 2015). A critical issue, however, concerning the efficacy of auditory training programs is the duration necessary to promote substantial changes in reading or spelling (e.g., Rosario Ortiz González et al. 2002;Thomson et al. 2013). ...
Article
Developmental dyslexia is most commonly associated with phonological processing difficulties. However, children with dyslexia may experience poor speech-in-noise perception as well. Although there is an ongoing debate whether a speech perception deficit is inherent to dyslexia or acts as an aggravating risk factor compromising learning to read indirectly, improving speech perception might boost reading-related skills and reading acquisition. In the current study, we evaluated advanced speech technology as applied in auditory prostheses, to promote and eventually normalize speech perception of school-aged children with dyslexia, i.e., envelope enhancement (EE). The EE strategy automatically detects and emphasizes onset cues and consequently reinforces the temporal structure of the speech envelope. Our results confirmed speech-in-noise perception difficulties by children with dyslexia. However, we found that exaggerating temporal “landmarks” of the speech envelope (i.e., amplitude rise time and modulations)—by using EE—passively and instantaneously improved speech perception in noise for children with dyslexia. Moreover, the benefit derived from EE was large enough to completely bridge the initial gap between children with dyslexia and their typical reading peers. Taken together, the beneficial outcome of EE suggests an important contribution of the temporal structure of the envelope to speech perception in noise difficulties in dyslexia, providing an interesting foundation for future intervention studies based on auditory and speech rhythm training.
... Auditory intervention strategies might provide a solution to this. Musical and rhythm-based interventions that train temporal processing and rhythm skills have already been shown to provide benefits to phonological and literacy development (Bhide et al., 2013;Degé & Schwarzer, 2011;Flaugnacco et al., 2015;Harrison et al., 2018). Apart from these auditory interventions, we believe that EE also shows potential as an intervention strategy. ...
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Dyslexia has frequently been related to atypical auditory temporal processing and speech perception. Results of studies emphasizing speech onset cues and reinforcing the temporal structure of the speech envelope, i.e. envelope enhancement, demonstrated reduced speech perception deficits in individuals with dyslexia. The use of this strategy as an auditory intervention might thus reduce some of the deficits related to dyslexia. Importantly, interventions are most effective when they are provided during kindergarten and first grade. Hence, we provided a tablet-based 12-week preventive auditory and phonics-based intervention to pre-readers at cognitive risk for dyslexia and investigated the effect on auditory temporal processing with a rise time discrimination task. Ninety-one pre-readers at cognitive risk for dyslexia (aged 5-6) were assigned to two groups receiving a phonics-based intervention and playing a story listening game either with ( n = 31) or without ( n = 31) envelope enhancement or a third group playing control games and listening to non-enhanced stories ( n = 29). Rise time discrimination was measured directly before, directly after and one year after the intervention. While the groups listening to non-enhanced stories mainly improved after the intervention during first grade, the group listening to enhanced stories improved during the intervention in kindergarten and subsequently remained stable during first grade. Hence, an envelope enhancement intervention improves auditory processing skills important for the development of phonological skills. This occurred before the onset of reading instruction, preceding the maturational improvement of these skills, hence giving at risk children a head start when learning to read. Research highlights The first investigation of speech envelope enhancement as a potential preventive intervention strategy in pre-readers at cognitive risk for dyslexia Speech envelope enhancement increases the rise time sensitivity of children at cognitive risk for dyslexia Rise time discrimination can be enhanced before formal reading instruction, a crucial period in development
... They develop this knowledge via natural language learning, and the linguistic routines of the nursery provide particularly optimal input. These linguistic experiences promote children's phonological skills (Bhide et al., 2013), which then play a causal role in determining children's progress in learning to read and to spell. ...
... Such modifications of the sensory input may enable better automatic extraction of the relevant acoustic statistics by the dyslexic brain. Another approach is to intervene at the behavioral level, designing rhythmic interventions to facilitate neural synchrony across sensory modalities (Degé & Schwarzer 2011, Bhide et al. 2013, Moritz et al. 2013, Flaugnacco et al. 2015. Such rhythmic interventions indeed show positive benefits for phonological awareness and can be administered prior to schooling, before children experience reading failure. ...
Article
This review presents a critical appraisal of high-quality studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, focusing on design issues that are critical for establishing effective educational neuroscience. I argue that cognitive neuroscience studies of cognitive development need to respect important experimental constraints. The use of longitudinal and intervention designs is key. The field needs to move beyond simply studying patterns of brain activation to studying brain mechanisms of information encoding and information processing. Indeed, studies at multiple levels of description are required, combining the assessment of individual differences in neural learning, sensory processing, cognitive processing, and children's behavior. Current evidence suggests that the child brain has essentially the same structures as the adult brain, carrying out essentially the same functions via the same mechanisms. This review demonstrates that neural systems that learn the patterns or regularities in environmental input (via statistical learning) can, in principle, acquire complex cognitive structures like language and conceptual knowledge.
... Music and language are cognitively intertwined in many ways (e.g., shared syntactic resources : Patel, 2003: Patel, , 2013; auditory working memory systems: Salamé & Baddeley, 1989). Although musical training is linked with advantages in language skills in correlational (Corrigall, & Trainor, 2011;Deguchi et al., 2012;Piro, & Ortiz, 2009;Thompson, Schellenberg, & Husain, 2004;Tierney & Kraus, 2013) and interventional research (Benz, Sellaro, Hommel, & Colzato, 2016;Bhide, Power, & Goswami, 2013;Bugos & Mostafa, 2011), it is unclear which underlying cognitive mechanisms mediate these relationships. Some researchers believe working memory mediates the benefits of musicianship on reading ability (George & Coch, 2011;Suárez, Elangovan, & Au, 2016;Slevc & Okada, 2015), especially since working memory is linked to improvements in language outcomes (Caplan, 2016;Hussey et al., 2017;Payne & Stine-Morrow, 2017). ...
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Some researchers theorize that musicians’ greater language ability is mediated by greater working memory because music and language share the same processing resources. Prior work using working memory sentence processing dual-task paradigms have shown that holding verbal information (e.g., words) in working memory interferes with sentence processing. In contrast, visuospatial stimuli are processed in a different working memory store and should not interfere with sentence processing. We tested whether music showed similar interference to sentence processing as opposed to noninterference like visuospatial stimuli. We also compared musicians to nonmusicians to investigate whether musical training improves verbal working memory. Findings revealed that musical stimuli produced similar working memory interference as linguistic stimuli, but visuospatial stimuli did not—suggesting that music and language rely on similar working memory resources (i.e., verbal skills) that are distinct from visuospatial skills. Musicians performed more accurately on the working memory tasks, particularly for the verbal and musical working memory stimuli, supporting an association between musicianship and greater verbal working memory capacity. Future research is necessary to evaluate the role of music training as a cognitive intervention or educational strategy to enhance reading fluency.
... Participants Effects Bhide, Power, and Goswami (2013) 6-to 7-year-olds poor readers ...
Developmental dyslexia, or specific reading disorder, is a reading impairment characterized by persistent difficulty in word recognition, decoding, and spelling skills in children despite having average or above academic performance in other areas. To increase an understanding of the nature of dyslexia and its relationship to music, this article first discusses the process of typical reading development and how researchers believe this process is impaired for individuals with dyslexia. Dyslexia identification and interventions are then explained. Next, research that shows how music skills may differ for students with dyslexia is presented. Experimental studies have shown that music training has been an effective way to improve reading skills in children with dyslexia. To understand why music training might improve reading ability, the precise auditory timing hypothesis proposed by Tierney and Kraus is discussed, along with implications for music education.
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The aim of this chapter is to offer a neuropsychological approach to dyslexia. Firstly, the definition of dyslexia is addressed, as a specific learning disability that is neuropsychological in origin. Secondly, the clinical manifestations of dyslexia are discussed: academic, cognitive-linguistic, and socio-emotional. Thirdly, the main clinical explanations are explored, based on genetic theories (familial and twin heritability) and neurological theories, mainly neuroanatomical (brain asymmetry, corpus callosum morphology, cerebellar morphology, and variations in grey/white matter) and neurophysiological hypotheses (magnocellular system, connectivity between brain areas, and functional activity of brain areas). Finally, the main bases of an adequate neuropsychological intervention are detailed, such as training in visual perception, auditory perception, phonological processing, and orthographic processing.
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Link to read-only full text: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/share/author/Q6JDPU7BUZIPTFBYYIYT?target=10.1111/desc.12981 Rhythm perception seems to be crucial to language development. Many studies have shown that children with Developmental Dyslexia and Developmental Language Disorder have difficulties in processing rhythmic structures. In this study, we investigated the relationships between prosody and musical processing in Italian children with typical and atypical development. The tasks aimed to reproduce linguistic prosodic structures through musical sequences, offering a direct comparison between the two domains without violating the specificities of each one. Sixteen Typically Developing children, sixteen children with a diagnosis of Developmental Dyslexia and sixteen with a diagnosis of Developmental Language Disorder (age 10‐13 years) participated in the experimental study. Three tasks were administered: an association task between a sentence and its humming version, a stress discrimination task (between couples of sounds reproducing the intonation of Italian trisyllabic words) and an association task between trisyllabic non‐words with different stress position and three‐notes musical sequences with different musical stress. Children with Developmental Language Disorder perform significantly lower than Typically Developing children on the humming test, By contrast, children with Developmental Dyslexia are significantly slower than TD in associating non‐words with musical sequences. Accuracy and speed in the experimental tests correlate with metaphonological, language and word reading scores. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed within a multidimensional model of neurodevelopmental disorders including prosodic and rhythmic skills at word and sentence level.
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Enhancing synchronization among people when synchronization is lacking is believed to improve their social skills, learning processes, and proficiency in musical rhythmic development. Greater synchronization among people can be induced to improve the rhythmic interaction of a system with multiple dancing robots that dance to a drum beat. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the human–human synchrony between persons that participated in musical sessions with robots. In this study, we evaluated: (a) the effect of the number of robots on a subject’s ability to synchronize with an experimenter; (b) the effect of the type of robot synchrony, namely, whether the robots did or did not represent the subject’s rhythm; (c) the effect of an in-sync and out-of-sync robot on a subject’s behavior. We found that: (a) three robots increased the level of synchronization between the subject and experimenter and their enjoyment level; (b) robots may induce greater synchronization between the subject and experimenter by reproducing the rhythms of not only the experimenter but also of the subject compared to when only the experimenter’s rhythms had been reproduced; (c) the robots in-sync had greater influence on the natural rhythm of the subject.
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Au-delà des symptômes cardinaux qui caractérisent la maladie de Parkinson (MP) – tremblement, akinésie, et rigidité – des déficits rythmiques se manifestent dans différents domaines de coordination motrice, comme au niveau du membre supérieur, de la sphère oro-faciale, ou de la marche. Des altérations rythmiques sont également mises en évidence sur des tâches de perception de rythme (i.e., sur des tâches n’impliquant pas de production motrice). Face à l’étendue des dysfonctionnements rythmiques dans la MP, l’hypothèse d’une dysrythmie généralisée a été formulée. Cette hypothèse implique que l’ensemble des altérations rythmiques qui s’observent au travers de diverses tâches et dans différents systèmes effecteurs partage des mécanismes causaux communs. Néanmoins, cette proposition n’a pas été confirmée à ce jour, et nombre de questions demeurent, tant sur le plan théorique que clinique : les déficits rythmiques caractéristiques de la MP sont-ils réellement liés ? Une source commune aux manifestations rythmiques déficitaires est-elle envisageable ? Si tel est le cas, quels en sont les corrélats cérébraux, et les retombées cliniques ? Élaborée autour de deux principaux axes de recherche, cette dissertation avait pour objectif principal de tester l’hypothèse d’une dysrythmie généralisée dans la MP, au travers de deux questions : i) existe-t-il des liens entre trois domaines de production rythmique (i.e., coordinations oro-faciale, manuelle, et de marche) et un domaine perceptif dans la MP ?; et ii) quel est l’impact d’un entraînement rythmique d’un domaine moteur (i.e., coordination rythmique manuelle) sur d’autres domaines de coordination motrice (i.e., oro-faciales et de la marche) ? L’ensemble des résultats confirme l’hypothèse d’une dysrythmie généralisée dans la MP, et l’existence très probable d’altérations de mécanismes en lien avec une fonction prédictive générale qui, lorsqu’elle est la cible d’un entraînement rythmique, pourrait permettre de réduire certains troubles moteurs dans la MP.
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The present study examined both the development of behavioral and electrophysiological rhythm processing and their contribution to phonological awareness and word reading in Chinese. We followed a sample of 47 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children from age 9 (Grade 3) to age 11 (Grade 5). Results showed first a significant improvement over time in behavioral beat perception and in P3as for small beat changes. Second, behavioral and neural beat sensitivities at age 9 predicted phonological awareness (phoneme deletion and tone identification) at age 11 and its development over the two-year span of the study. Neural beat sensitivities at age 9 also explained unique variance in reading accuracy (but not reading fluency) at age 11 and its two-year development. Taken together, these findings suggest that rhythm and Chinese reading-related skills are intricately related. Neural rhythm sensitivities could serve as predictive biomarkers for the development of phonological awareness and reading in Chinese school-age children.
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Activities that teach PreK–1 students the six components of emergent literacy and beginning reading and word study are presented for classroom settings. These activities are adaptable developmentally and they highlight four important aspects of teaching phonics, spelling and word knowledge that are often overlooked: the rhythm of literacy, Concept of Word in Text (COW‐T), articulation in word study, and the role of spelling in the reciprocal processes of reading and writing (decoding/encoding). Research underlying these activities suggests that rhythmic activities in early literacy instruction can be a precursor to explicit instruction for phonological awareness with young children and students who struggle to learn to read. The research also shows how articulation and other multisensory aspects of learning to read are parts of development and instruction for emergent and beginning readers. The role of spelling during these early periods is highlighted and discussed.
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We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task. Compared to age-matched controls, the children with low IQ and low reading skills were significantly impaired in auditory and phonological processing, whereas the children with low IQ and preserved reading skills were not. There were also significant predictive relations between auditory processing and single word reading. Poor auditory processing was not dependent on low IQ, as auditory processing was age appropriate in the low-IQ children who were good readers.
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Research has shown that a relationship exists between phonological awareness and literary skills. It has been suggested that a structured programme of musical activities can be used to help children develop a multi-sensory awareness and response to sounds. The relationship between musical ability and literacy skills was examined in a study that showed an association between rhythmic ability and reading. A further pilot intervention study showed that training in musical skills is a valuable additional strategy for assisting children with reading difficulties.
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Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input. Definition of common biological underpinnings for music and reading supports the usefulness of music for promoting child literacy, with the potential to improve reading remediation.
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The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10 min on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.
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Neural coding by brain oscillations is a major focus in neuroscience, with important implications for dyslexia research. Here, I argue that an oscillatory 'temporal sampling' framework enables diverse data from developmental dyslexia to be drawn into an integrated theoretical framework. The core deficit in dyslexia is phonological. Temporal sampling of speech by neuroelectric oscillations that encode incoming information at different frequencies could explain the perceptual and phonological difficulties with syllables, rhymes and phonemes found in individuals with dyslexia. A conceptual framework based on oscillations that entrain to sensory input also has implications for other sensory theories of dyslexia, offering opportunities for integrating a diverse and confusing experimental literature.
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In a quantitative meta-analysis, the effects of phonological awareness training on reading were shown. In a homogeneous set of U.S. studies with a randomized or matched design, the combined effect sizes for phonological awareness and reading were d = 0.73 (r = .34, N = 739) and d = 0.70 (r = .33, N = 745), respectively. Thus, experimentally manipulated phonological awareness explains about 12% of the variance in word-identification skills. The combined effect size for long-term studies of the influence of phonological awareness training on reading was much smaller, d = 0.16 (r = .08, N = 1,180). Programs combining a phonological and a letter training were more effective than a purely phonological training. Furthermore, training effects were stronger with posttests assessing simple decoding skills than with real-word-identification tests. In sum, phonological awareness is an important but not a sufficient condition for early reading.
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Temporal processing deficit could be associated with a specific difficulty in learning to read. In 1951, Stambak provided preliminary evidence that children with dyslexia performed less well than good readers in reproduction of 21 rhythmic patterns. Stambak's task was administered to 1,028 French children aged 5-6 years. The score distribution (from 0 to 21) was quasi-normal, with some children failing completely and other performing perfectly. In second grade, reading was assessed in 695 of these children. Kindergarten variables explained 26% of the variance of the reading score at second grade. The Stambak score was strongly and linearly related to reading performance in second grade, after partialling out performance on other tasks (oral repetition, attention, and visuo-spatial tasks) and socio-cultural level. Findings are discussed in relation to perceptual, cerebellar, intermodal, and attention-related theories of developmental dyslexia. It is concluded that simple rhythm reproduction tasks in kindergarten are predictive of later reading performance.
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We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain.
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During the past decade a number of variations in the simple up‐down procedure have been used in psychoacoustic testing. A broad class of these methods is described with due emphasis on the related problems of parameter estimation and the efficient placing of observations. The advantages of up‐down methods are many, including simplicity, high efficiency, robustness, small‐sample reliability, and relative freedom from restrictive assumptions. Several applications of these procedures in psychoacoustics are described, including examples where conventional techniques are inapplicable.
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We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other cognitive abilities (math, digit span, and vocabulary) had been accounted for. Thus, music perception appears to tap auditory mechanisms related to reading that only partially overlap with those related to phonological awareness, suggesting that both linguistic and nonlinguistic general auditory mechanisms are involved in reading.
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To explore the sensitivity of children with specific language impairment (SLI) to amplitude-modulated and durational cues that are important for perceiving suprasegmental speech rhythm and stress patterns. Sixty-three children between 7 and 11 years of age were tested, 21 of whom had a diagnosis of SLI, 21 of whom were matched for chronological age to the SLI sample, and 21 of whom were matched for language age to the SLI sample. All children received a battery of nonspeech auditory processing tasks along with standardized measures of phonology and language. As many as 70%-80% of children diagnosed with SLI were found to perform below the 5th percentile of age-matched controls in auditory processing tasks measuring sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time and sound duration. Furthermore, individual differences in sensitivity to these cues predicted unique variance in language and literacy attainment, even when age, nonverbal IQ, and task-related (attentional) factors were controlled. Many children with SLI have auditory processing difficulties, but for most children, these are not specific to brief, rapidly successive acoustic cues. Instead, sensitivity to durational and amplitude envelope cues appear to predict language and literacy outcomes more strongly. This finding now requires replication and exploration in languages other than English.
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this article provides an overview of our research, including studies yet unpublished, on the effects of music on cognition. Music instruction can enhance children's spatial-temporal reasoning, numerical reasoning, and phonemic awareness. Longitudinal studies of middle-income and economically disadvantaged preschoolers reveal that children who receive music instruction prior to age 7 show improved performance on spatial-temporal and numerical reasoning tasks compared to children in control groups—effects that persist for two years after the intervention ends. Three additional studies suggest that teacher gender may influence these transfer effects in children. Our studies also show improved perceptual discrimination as a function of music training: adult string players have lower than average pitch discrimination thresholds, whereas adult percussionists have lower than average temporal discrimination thresholds. These effects are strongest for musicians who begin their training before age 7. Related to these improvements in perceptual discrimination, children provided with violin instruction perform better than controls on tasks measuring phonemic awareness, a skill that correlates strongly with pitch discrimination and is related to reading acquisition.
The goal of many recent intervention studies has been to examine the conditions that must be in place for all children to acquire adequate reading skills. Although the ultimate goal of reading instruction is to help children acquire the skills necessary to comprehend text, an important subgoal for early reading instruction is to teach children to identify words accurately on the printed page. Five recent studies of methods to prevent reading difficulties were examined in light of the goal that every child should acquire adequate word reading skills during early elementary school. It was estimated that our best current methods, if applied broadly, would leave anywhere from 2% to 6% of children with inadequate word reading skills in the first and second grades. Several broad characteristics of these "treatment resisters" are identified, and the implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Article
We report an empirical comparison of the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions (CARI) based on the Finnish GraphoGame CARI: English GraphoGame Rime (GG Rime) and English GraphoGame Phoneme (GG Phoneme). Participants were 6–7-year-old students who had been identified by their teachers as being relatively poor at reading. The students were divided into three groups. Two of the groups played one of the games as a supplement to normal classroom literacy instruction for five sessions per week for a period of 12 weeks. The third group formed an untreated control. Both games led to gains in reading, spelling, and phonological skills in comparison with the untreated control group. The two interventions also had some differential effects. The intervention gains were maintained at a four-month follow-up. 作者报告一项有关两个干预教学法成效比较的验证研究,该两个干预教学法均是以理论驱动的计算机辅助阅读教学法,并建基于芬兰「计算机辅助阅读干预教学图像游戏」发展而成;该两个干预教学法是「英语韵脚图像游戏」和「英语音素图像游戏」。研究对象都是被教师确认为阅读能力较差的6至7岁的学生。这些学生被分成三组。两组分别使用其中一个游戏,为期 12周, 每周5课节,作为补充正常课堂读写教学的干预教学。第三组是没有实验处理的对照组。使用游戏的两组,较没有使用游戏的对照组,能在阅读、拼写和语音技能的成绩方面均有所提升。两个干预教学各有一些不同的影响。干预教学所提升的成绩,能在四个月的跟进期间得到维持。 Les informamos sobre una comparación empírica de la eficiencia de dos intervenciones de lectura de motivación teórica asistida por una computadora (CARI por sus siglas en inglés) basada en el CARI GraphoGame sueco: GraphoGame Rime inglés (GG Rime) y GraphoGamePhoneme inglés (GG Phoneme). Los participantes eran estudiantes entre los 6 y 7 años de edad quienes habían sido identificados por sus maestros como relativamente pobres lectores. Se formaron tres grupos de estudiantes. Dos de los grupos jugaron uno de los juegos como algo adicional a la instrucción usual de alfabetización en la clase cinco veces a la semana por 12 semanas. El tercer grupo no participó en los juegos, siendo el grupo de control. Ambos juegos incrementaron las habilidades de lectura y ortografía, y las destrezas fonológicas en comparación al grupo de control. Las dos intervenciones también tuvieron algunos efectos diferenciales. A los cuatro meses de la intervención todavía se mantenían las ganancias obtenidas debido a la intervención. Aвтopыпpoвoдятэмпиpичecкoecpaвнeниeэффeктивнocтидвyxтeopeтичecкиoбocнoвaнныx, кoмпьютepизиpoвaнныxмeтoдoвoбyчeниячтeнию, ocнoвaнныxнaвapиaцияxизвecтнoйфинcкoйгpaфичecкoйигpы CARI: гpaфo-игpa c aнглийcкимиpифмaми (GG Rime) и гpaфo-игpa c aнглийcкимифoнeмaми (GG Phoneme). B экcпepимeнтeyчacтвoвaли 6-7-лeтниe дeти, кoтopыxyчитeляпpизнaличитaющимиxyжecвepcтникoв.Учeникoвpaздeлилинaтpигpyппы.Двeгpyппы – в дoпoлнeниe к тpaдициoннoмyoбyчeниючтeнию – игpaлинaypoкax в oднyизигpпятьpaз в нeдeлю в тeчeниe 12 нeдeль.Tpeтья (кoнтpoльнaя) гpyппaнeпoдвepгaлacьдoпoлнитeльнoмyвмeшaтeльcтвy.Пocpaвнeниюкoнтpoльнoйгpyппoйocтaльныeyчeникизaмeтнoyлyчшилинaвыкичтeния, пpaвoпиcaния и звyкopaзличeния.Haблюдaлиcьoпpeдeлeнныeoтличия и мeждypeзyльтaтaмидвyxэкcпepимeнтaльныxгpyпп.Дoпoлнитeльнaяпpoвepкaчepeзчeтыpeмecяцaпoдтвepдилaycтoйчивocтьoбpeтeнныxдeтьминaвыкoв. Nous rendons compte de la comparaison empirique de deux interventions en lecture motivées théoriquement et assistées par ordinateur (CARI) basées sur le Grapho-Game finlandais CARI : le GraphoGame Rime (GG Rime) en anglais et le GraphoGamePhoneme (GG Phoneme) en anglais. Les participants sont des élèves de 6-7 ans identifiés par leur professeur comme étant relativement peu avancés en lecture. Les élèves ont été répartis en trois groupes. Deux d'entre eux ont joué à l'un des jeux, en plus de l'enseignement de la littératie effectué normalement dans la classe à raison de cinq séances par semaine pendant une durée de douze semaines. Le troisième groupe constituait un groupe contrôle non-soumis à un traitement. Les deux jeux ont permis des progrès en lecture, en écriture et en compétences phonologiques par comparaison avec le groupe contrôle sans traitement. Les deux interventions ont présenté également des effets différentiels. Les bénéfices des interventions étaient maintenus lors d'un suivi quatre mois plus tard. نقدّم معطيات عن مقارنة تجريبية لفعالية تدخلَيْ القراءة ذات الدافع النظري بمساعدة حاسوبية وهي مبنية على اللعبة الخطية الفنلندية واللعبة الخطية الإنجليزية للمقطع النهائي (جي جي رايم) واللعبة الخطية الصوتية (جي جي فونيم). وكان المشاركون طلاب تتراوح أعمارهم بين 6-7 سنوات قد تعينوا من قبل معلميهم كقراء يواجهون صعوبة في القراءة. إذ انقسم الطلاب إلى ثلاثة أقسام. وقد لعب قسمان لعبةً من الألعاب تكميلةً لتعليمهم المعرفي العادي في الصف خمس جلسات بالأسبوع لمدة 12 أسبوعاً. أما القسم الثالث فأنهم تشكلوا مجموعة ضابطة غير معالجة. لقد أدت اللعبتان إلى تحسنات في القراءة والهجاء والمهارات الصوتية بالمقارنة إلى المجموعة الضابطة غير المعالجة. وقد كان للتدخلين بعض التأثيرات المتفرقة. إذ بقيت التحسنات التدخلية على نفس الوتيرة في الجلسة المتابعة التي أقيمت بعد أربعة أشهر.
Article
Introduction: In a recent study, we reported that the accurate perception of beat structure in music ('perception of musical meter') accounted for over 40% of the variance in single word reading in children with and without dyslexia (Huss et al., 2011). Performance in the musical task was most strongly associated with the auditory processing of rise time, even though beat structure was varied by manipulating the duration of the musical notes. Methods: Here we administered the same musical task a year later to 88 children with and without dyslexia, and used new auditory processing measures to provide a more comprehensive picture of the auditory correlates of the beat structure task. We also measured reading comprehension and nonword reading in addition to single word reading. Results: One year later, the children with dyslexia performed more poorly in the musical task than younger children reading at the same level, indicating a severe perceptual deficit for musical beat patterns. They now also had significantly poorer perception of sound rise time than younger children. Longitudinal analyses showed that the musical beat structure task was a significant longitudinal predictor of development in reading, accounting for over half of the variance in reading comprehension along with a linguistic measure of phonological awareness. Conclusions: The non-linguistic musical beat structure task is an important independent longitudinal and concurrent predictor of variance in reading attainment by children. The different longitudinal versus concurrent associations between musical beat perception and auditory processing suggest that individual differences in the perception of rhythmic timing are an important shared neural basis for individual differences in children in linguistic and musical processing.
Article
P-centres are the subjective moments of occurrence of acoustic stimuli and capture properties of regularity and synchrony in production and perception. Two experiments are described which compare the effects of onset and offset amplitude variation and stimulus duration on P-centre location. The discussion is extended to consider the role of P-centres in cross modal temporal phenomena.
Article
Here we explore relations between auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, prosodic sensitivity, and phonological awareness in a sample of 56 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We examine whether rise time sensitivity is linked to prosodic sensitivity, and whether prosodic sensitivity is linked to phonological awareness. Prosodic sensitivity was measured by two reiterant speech tasks modelled on Kitzen (2001). The children with developmental dyslexia were significantly impaired in the reiterant speech tasks and in the phonological awareness tasks (onset and rime awareness). There were significant predictive relations between basic auditory processing of amplitude envelope structure (in particular, rise time), prosodic sensitivity, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling. The auditory processing difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia appear to impair their sensitivity to phrase-level prosodic cues such as metrical structure as well as to phonology, but in this study phonological and prosodic sensitivity made largely independent contributions to reading. KeywordsAmplitude envelope-Prosody-Phonology-Dyslexia-Reading-Rhyme
Article
If children are able to make analogies between the spelling patterns in words, this would have important consequences for theories of reading development, as a child who knew a word like beak could use analogy to read new words like peak and bean. A study is reported which compared the ability of children at three different reading levels to use analogy in reading both real and nonsense words. The results showed that even very young children can successfully use analogy to decode new words. This finding suggests that analogy has a role to play in the initial stages of reading acquisition.
Article
Speech is easily produced with regular periodic patterns—as if spoken to a metronome. If we ask what it is that is periodically spaced, the answer is a perceptual ‘beat’ that occurs near the onset of vowels (especially stressed ones). Surprisingly, when periodically produced speech is studied it exhibits attractors at harmonic fractions (especially halves and thirds) of the basic periodicity. It is shown that the Haken–Kelso–Bunz model provides conceptual tools to account for the frequency histogram of acoustic beats in the speech. Why might there be attractors at periodically spaced phase angles? It is hypothesized that there are neural oscillations producing a pulse on every cycle, and that these pulses act as attractors for the beats at the onsets of syllables. Presumably these periodic time locations are generated by the same physiological mechanism as the periodic attentional pulse studied for some years by Jones (Psychol. Rev. 96 (1989) 459; Psychol. Rev. 106 (1999) 119). We propose that neurocognitive oscillators produce periodic pulses that apparently do several things: (1) they attract perceptual attention; (2) they influence the motor system (e.g., when producing speech) by biasing motor timing so that perceptually salient events line up in time close to the neurocognitive pulses. The consequent pattern of integer-ratio timings in music and speech is called meter. Speakers can control the degree to which they allow these metrical vector fields to constrain their timing.
Article
The human capacity to synchronize body movements to an external acoustic beat enables uniquely human behaviors such as music making and dancing. By hypothesis, these first evolved in human cultures as fundamentally social activities. We therefore hypothesized that children would spontaneously synchronize their body movements to an external beat at earlier ages and with higher accuracy if the stimulus was presented in a social context. A total of 36 children in three age groups (2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years) were invited to drum along with either a human partner, a drumming machine, or a drum sound coming from a speaker. When drumming with a social partner, children as young as 2.5 years adjusted their drumming tempo to a beat outside the range of their spontaneous motor tempo. Moreover, children of all ages synchronized their drumming with higher accuracy in the social condition. We argue that drumming together with a social partner creates a shared representation of the joint action task and/or elicits a specific human motivation to synchronize movements during joint rhythmic activity.
Article
The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the 'Cocktail Party' effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line speech decoding and attentional stream selection are not well understood. We review findings from behavioral and neurophysiological investigations that underscore the importance of the temporal structure of speech for achieving these perceptual feats. We discuss the hypothesis that entrainment of ambient neuronal oscillations to speech's temporal structure, across multiple time-scales, serves to facilitate its decoding and underlies the selection of an attended speech stream over other competing input. In this regard, speech decoding and attentional stream selection are examples of 'Active Sensing', emphasizing an interaction between proactive and predictive top-down modulation of neuronal dynamics and bottom-up sensory input.
Article
Rhythm organises musical events into patterns and forms, and rhythm perception in music is usually studied by using metrical tasks. Metrical structure also plays an organisational function in the phonology of language, via speech prosody, and there is evidence for rhythmic perceptual difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the accurate perception of musical metrical structure is related to basic auditory perception of rise time, and also to phonological and literacy development in children. A battery of behavioural tasks was devised to explore relations between musical metrical perception, auditory perception of amplitude envelope structure, phonological awareness (PA) and reading in a sample of 64 typically-developing children and children with developmental dyslexia. We show that individual differences in the perception of amplitude envelope rise time are linked to musical metrical sensitivity, and that musical metrical sensitivity predicts PA and reading development, accounting for over 60% of variance in reading along with age and I.Q. Even the simplest metrical task, based on a duple metrical structure, was performed significantly more poorly by the children with dyslexia. The accurate perception of metrical structure may be critical for phonological development and consequently for the development of literacy. Difficulties in metrical processing are associated with basic auditory rise time processing difficulties, suggesting a primary sensory impairment in developmental dyslexia in tracking the lower-frequency modulations in the speech envelope.
Article
Reviews the advances in epidemiology, neurobiology, and genetics, as well as of the cognitive influences on dyslexia and implications for the approach within a framework of a traditional medical model to patients presenting with a possible reading disability. Implications of the phonologic model of dyslexia, approach to the diagnostic evaluation, evaluation of school-age children, special considerations in younger and older age groups, and diagnosis and management are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Over the last few decades, a growing amount of research has suggested that dyslexics have particular difficulties with skills involving accurate or rapid timing, including musical timing skills. It has been hypothesised that music training may be able to remediate such timing difficulties, and have a positive effect on fundamental perceptual skills that are important in the development of language and literacy skills (Overy, 2000). In order to explore this hypothesis further, the nature and extent of dyslexics' musical difficulties need to be examined in more detail. In the present study, a collection of musical aptitude tests (MATs) were designed specifically for dyslexic children, in order to distinguish between a variety of musical skills and sub-skills. 15 dyslexic children (age 7-11, mean age 9.0) and 11 control children (age 7-10, mean age 8.9) were tested on the MATs, and their scores were compared. Results showed that the dyslexic group scored higher than the control group on 3 tests of pitch skills (possibly attributable to slightly greater musical experience), but lower than the control group on 7 out of 9 tests of timing skills. Particular difficulties were noted on one of the tests involving rapid temporal processing, in which a subgroup of 5 of the dyslexic children (33%) (mean age 8.4) was found to account for all the significant error. Also, an interesting correlation was found between spelling ability and the skill of tapping out the rhythm of a song, which both involve the skill of syllable segmentation. These results support suggestions that timing is a difficulty area for dyslexic children, and suggest that rhythm skills and rapid skills may need particular attention in any form of musical training with dyslexics.
Article
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS), the rhythmic coordination of perception and action, occurs in many contexts, but most conspicuously in music performance and dance. In the laboratory, it is most often studied in the form of finger tapping to a sequence of auditory stimuli. This review summarizes theories and empirical findings obtained with the tapping task. Its eight sections deal with the role of intention, rate limits, the negative mean asynchrony, variability, models of error correction, perturbation studies, neural correlates of SMS, and SMS in musical contexts. The central theoretical issue is considered to be how best to characterize the perceptual information and the internal processes that enable people to achieve and maintain SMS. Recent research suggests that SMS is controlled jointly by two error correction processes (phase correction and period correction) that differ in their degrees of cognitive control and may be associated with different brain circuits. They exemplify the general distinction between subconscious mechanisms of action regulation and conscious processes involved in perceptual judgment and action planning.
British abilities scale II
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Test of word reading efficiency
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