Article

Cultural Context in Career Theory and Practice: Role Salience and Values

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Career theory and practice have long emphasized person variables (e.g., abilities, needs, interests) and have only recently begun focusing on environmental variables in addressing cultural context issues. Contemporary emphasis on contextual variables reflects notable movement toward attaining cultural relevance in career theory and practice. Role salience and values, which are central to developmental perspectives on career and have been considered in other approaches, are key contextual variables that can be examined to make additional progress toward this goal. The author argues that examining the cultural dimensions of social roles and values can enrich theory and enhance practice regarding life-career development.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... A vital discourse has appeared in a burgeoning body of professional literature as a result of the criticism of the ethnocentric and stereotypical views of career development and vocational counselling, concerning the relevance of career development, choice and counselling to a culturally diverse workforce. Although career theory and practice have long emphasised person variables, newer career theories and counselling models are emerging to stress contextual, cultural and historical conditions (Hartung, 2002;Schmitt-Rodermund and Silbereisen, 1998). For example, the recent initiative of the IAEVG to create international counsellor qualification standards (Repetto et al., 2003) identifies awareness and appreciation of client cultural differences as a core competency that all practitioners need regardless of their work setting. ...
... Cross-cultural effects on work motivation: the cultural theory Hartung (2002) recently noted that extant theoretical perspectives on career largely continue to incorporate constructs that reflect predominantly person rather than environment variables; including congruence, correspondence, self-concept, learning and cognition, vocational personality style, decision making approach, etc. Despite this continued emphasis on personal variables, recent emerging career theories, along with counselling innovations, demonstrate needed progress in attending to issues of culture and context both conceptually and practically. ...
... Two themes in the multicultural career literature underscore and resonate with the prospects for theory-practice enrichment. One theme deals with increasing the cultural validity of theory and practice by reinterpreting career choice and development to mean work as situated within a constellation of human life roles, and a second theme concerns values as a culturally situated variable that is crucial for fully comprehending the meaning of work and career in the contexts of peoples lives (Hartung, 2002). Many career theories and counselling approaches converge on values as an important person variable that influences career choice, satisfaction and adjustment. ...
Article
RESUMENEn una era marcada por la globalización y en la que cada vez es más común buscar oportunidades laborales fuera de las fronteras nacionales, las diferencias interculturales pueden proporcionar información muy relevante a investigadores y orientadores involucrados en un contexto multicultural. Este artículo reúne evidencia empírica sobre las diferencias en motivación laboral entre dos muestras de trabajadores irlandeses y españoles; y apoya el argumento culturalista de que gran parte de la literatura sobre desarrollo de la carrera y orientación vocacional está fundamentada en creencias ingenuas acerca de la homogeneidad de los valores relacionados con el trabajo alrededor del mundo. Se han utilizado varios modelos teóricos para interpretar las actitudes de los trabajadores: las dimensiones culturales propuestas por Hofstede (1980) (distancia con la autoridad, evitación de la incertidumbre, individualismo versus colectivismo y masculinidad-feminidad); el concepto de Schwartz de sociedades de dominio (1997); los hallazgos de Super en su estudio de la importancia del trabajo (1979) y la teoría de motivación de valor-expectativa (Porter & Lawlar, 1968). Se distribuyó una escala de motivación a una muestra aleatoria de 110 empleados a tiempo completo de diferentes organizaciones y diferentes características (57 irlandeses y 53 españoles). Los resultados indican que los trabajadores irlandeses muestran mayores niveles de motivación respecto a las variables de reconocimiento social, mantenimiento del auto-concepto y poder; en comparación con la muestra de trabajadores españoles. Estos tres valores laborales se ajustan a las dimensiones de masculinidad e individualismo de Hofstede, y al concepto de dominio propuesto por Schwartz. En otras palabras, las respuestas de los trabajadores irlandeses que participaron en este estudio se ajustan al concepto de ética del trabajo, es decir, la noción de que el trabajo no es solo respetable sino también virtuoso, y que la ocupación juega un papel muy importante en la identidad personal del individuo (Ferraro, 1990). En contraste, los trabajadores españoles pueden tener mayor tendencia a percibir su trabajo como un medio de supervivencia más que una fuente de dignidad o valía personal, mientras que buscan otras fuentes de identidad y de aprobación externas a este. Las implicaciones de estos hallazgos en cuestiones relacionadas con el desarrollo de la carrera y la orientación vocacional son múltiples, y están relacionadas con: (a) el uso potencial del instrumento para provocar una discusión más profunda del impacto de las diferencias interculturales; (b) la necesidad de promover prácticas flexibles y centradas en el cliente, y de formar a profesionales culturalmente competentes; y (c) un nuevo paradigma que se aleje de la concepción tradicional de desarrollo de la carrera para acercarse a un concepto más integral de desarrollo personal a través del trabajo y otros roles vitales, con todas las implicaciones prácticas que ello conlleva.ABSTRACTIn age of globalisation, when career opportunities are increasingly sought across national boundaries, cross-national differences may provide valuable insight both for researchers and counsellors practising in a multi-cultural context. This paper gathers empirical evidence of the cross-cultural differences between two samples of Irish and Spanish workers, supporting the culturalist claim that much of the literature in career development and vocational counselling is underpinned by naïve believes about the homogeneity of work related values around the world. A motivation scale was distributed to a random sample of 110 full-time employees of different companies and backgrounds (57 Irish and 53 Spanish). The results indicate that Irish workers are more motivated by social recognition, self-concept maintenance and power than their Spanish counterparts. These work-related values conform to Hofstedes dimensions of masculinity and individualism, and to Schwartzs concept of mastery. The implications of these findings for career development and vocational counselling are discussed.
... The quality of the execution of career development programs in schools affects all students but particularly students of color who already experience marginalization related to socioeconomic status (Raque-Bogdan & Lucas, 2016), discrimination/racism (Brown & Segrist, 2015), and sexism (Conkel-Ziebell, et al., 2019). School counselors must demonstrate culturally responsive practices (Hartung, 2002), yet the profession lacks relevant techniques or counselor knowledge for school counselors to rely on when working with Black youth and other students of color. This renders Black youth's preparation for postsecondary vocational options incomplete (Byrd, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study centers on the career narratives of seven Black youth enrolled at an urban public school in the Midwest. We used critical race theory to analyze participants' responses to a narrative career counseling intervention, My Career Story (Savickas & Hartung, 2012). The four interconnected themes found were (a) persistence against all odds, (b) unconditional acceptance and connections, (c) self-advocacy, and (d) tranquility. We discuss direct implications for school/career counselors and school counselor educators.
... The individual's career development does not exist as an individual problem but within an embedded network of family obligations and expectations. Hartung (2002) emphasized that collectivism relates positively and significantly to family expectations of and influences on occupational decision making and planning. Collectivism also relates positively to extrinsic work values stressing relationship to others (e.g., altruism, associates, and supervisory relations) and relates negatively to intrinsic work values signifying personal gains (e.g., achievement, independence, and way of life). ...
Article
The authors examined career-related uncertainties perceived by college students in Taiwan. Five hundred thirty-two Taiwanese students responded to a free-response instrument containing 3 questions related to career uncertainties: (a) the sources of career uncertainty, (b) the experiences at the moment of feeling uncertainty, and (c) coping efficacies toward the uncertainty. Responses were sorted into categories within each question based on the grounded theory methodology (B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967). A hypothetical model was developed to describe college students' perceptions of career uncertainties, experiences of feeling uncertainty, and coping efficacy toward the uncertainty.
... In other cultures science is not a worthy pursuit and as such children are less likely to be encouraged and supported in their studies. These underlying cultural biases also affect other influencers such as parental support, peer acceptance in addition to the student's personal internal motivation (Hartung, 2002;Kim, Li & Liang, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Every year fewer students are electing to take university level science courses, particularly physics. This situation has led universities and employers to try and encourage more students into science subjects through the development of numerous science outreach initiatives such as guest lectures and summer schools. Much of this work is of an ad-hoc nature, with little understanding of the underlying motivations and conditions that guide students’ subject selection. Therefore, we have analysed a range of literature sources to develop a simple model for school student engagement that can help guide university-initiated science outreach programmes. This model takes into account factors such as the different life stages of the student, the myriad influences that affect career decisions, and resource availability. As part of this work we also present an overview of the research around increasing progression into higher education. As experienced practitioners and researchers in science outreach we have developed an easy-to-use set of guidelines that are applicable in the real-world situation of limited budgets, time and staff resources.
... Nessa direção, Teixeira e Gomes (2004) discutem que a qualidade da transição da universidade para o trabalho é determinada por uma conjunção de fatores, tais como características pessoais; atitudes de preparação para a transição; competências específicas; redes e apoio social; mercado de trabalho; e envolvimento nas atividades de formação. Assim, fica evidente que, para a compreensão dos determinantes do sucesso na transição, as futuras pesquisas devem incluir tanto variáveis psicológicas quanto contextuais, superando os modelos explicativos tradicionais da psicologia vocacional que enfatizam as características psicológicas e negligenciam as variáveis contextuais (Hartung, 2002). ...
... Since emphasis on contextual variables, such as value hierarchies, can be construed as movement toward reaching the goal of cultural relevance in career theory and practice (Hartung, 2002), research in this area can only add to the utility of career theory in more culturally diverse populations. Super (1995) contended that, although the hierarchy of values may differ from one culture to the next, the actual values that constitute the hierarchies do not. ...
... The concept of modern career based on coordination of interests of employees and organization was analysed by foreign and Lithuanian scientists. Larsson and others (2007) analysed the motives of individual career in the context of organization culture, De Vos, Dewettinck, Buyens (2008), Schnake (2008) analysed motives and interests stimulating career mobility (from organization and employer's viewpoint), Wenxia, Bo (2008), Dackert (2003), Fried (2003), Hansen (2001), Hartung (2002), Ramamoorthy (2002) investigated relations between organizational career management and employee's involvement into work. Gunz (1988), Greller (2005), Kirchmeyer (2005) analysed factors characterizing individual's career. ...
Article
With a constantly changing environment and an increasing competition, organizations face new challenges. In order to meet customers' requirements and ensure the growth of activity and finance results, organizations are interested in quality improvement, in the increase of the quality of work as well as in the implementation of new technologies and modern working methods. The meeting of the above mentioned interests could be reached only by organizations having necessary competences, which are created by the workers of enterprises. The most important thing is that every employee should to the maximum open up his potential as well as effectively use personal and professional competences when striving to coordinate the objectives of an organization. At present, the importance of employee (as the most important factor of the activity of an organization) showed up in the development of management theory. Only properly motivated and able to meet his interests, an employee strives for better working results. Organizations face a number of problems connected with human resources management, they are as follows: how to attract necessary competitive employees and what measures should be taken in order to hold these employees; how to properly stimulate employees and what measures should be predicted for the meeting of employees' interests. The limited resources and possibilities of organizations handicap the situation. In order to obtain optimal results the coordination of interests should be striven for. One of the possible interests of coordination measures can be the modern career system allowing clearing up personnel's interests and integrating various possibilities, which coordinate interests. It is not so easy for organizations to evaluate employees' interests. Employees' interests are defined by a number of personal and demographical characteristics. Employees' interests constantly change subjected to the social economic changes occurring in the environment. Interests expressed by the employees are determined by common orientations of individual and attitude towards work. The article considers the actual problem of the management science – formation of modern career on the ground of interest coordination. The question of the employee's interests in modern career is analysed in the article written by Ciutiene, Sakalas and Neverauskas "Influence of personnel interests on formation of modern career" (2007). In this article interests are analysed in the aspect of the attitude towards work, i.e. it was solved how interests forming employee's career vary subject to the employee's sacrifice in the name of his work. The carried out empirical research showed that employees, expressing different attitudes, motivate their main interests with different priorities. It only confirms that every employee is unique and an organization should create possibilities for the realization of individual interests. It should be noted that the differences of employees' interests determined during the investigation should not be considered as typical in the context of today's Lithuania subject to the indicated attitude towards work. The research should be carried out to a larger extent.
... The role of national origin on the work and family relationship has begun to gain some attention (e.g. Grzywacz et al., 2007;Lyness and Kropf, 2005;Spector et al., 2004;Yang et al., 2000), but most of the research uses the lens of the non-Hispanic white experience (DelCampo et al., 2011;Hartung, 2002;Spector et al., 2004;Triandis, 1995) limiting its generalizability. Much work remains to be done before the importance of variables such as country of birth and ethnic culture on the work and family relationship is understood (Aryee et al., 1999;DelCampo et al., 2011;Grzywacz et al., 2002;Lyness and Judiesch, 2008;Powell et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between country of birth or ethnicity (cultural proxies) and career and parental role commitment, and whether or not that relationship is mediated by two psychological dimensions known to differ across Mexican and USA cultures. These mediators are family achievement orientation and gender role orientation. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Data were collected from 372 working female students at community colleges in the USA and Mexico. The survey focussed on career and parental role commitment, family achievement orientation, and gender role attitudes. Findings ‐ Both country of birth and ethnicity predict career and parental role commitment. Females born in Mexico and Hispanics have higher career role commitment and lower parental role commitment than females born in the USA and non-Hispanic whites. Family achievement orientation and gender role attitudes partially mediate these relationships. Research limitations/implications ‐ Cross-cultural research of work and family issues needs to incorporate psychological dimensions in accounting for country/ethnic differences. Practical implications ‐ Employees' cultural backgrounds should be considered in designing programs to support family and work balance. Social implications ‐ Assistance programs designed to enable Hispanics to work will be valued and fit with the Hispanic cultural focus on working as a means to care for family. Originality/value ‐ This study addresses a stated need in the work/life literature for research that addresses cross-cultural differences, and research in the cross-cultural research that calls for the inclusion of psychological dimension mediators between culture and the variables of interest.
... Possibly the most profound challenge to the generalizability of career development theories is posed by the assertion that many racial/ethic minority individuals do not share the value systems on which the traditional theoretical explanations are based…and to the degree that such an assertion is correct, it constitutes a profound limitation on the validity of vocational development theories, suggesting that they may not be applicable to many minority individuals. (p 275) Leong and Brown (as cited in Hartung 2002), concluded that "the central problem with most, if not all the majority career theories is their lack of cultural validity for racial and ethnic minorities in this country" (p. 13). ...
Article
It is clear that effective career counseling with people of color [and other historically marginalized groups] does not occur in a cultural or contextual vacuum…The era of monocultural intervention has become history. Multiculturally competent career counselors and vocational psychologists should continuously educate themselves with empirical research and literature regarding career development of racially/ethnically [culturally] diverse clients and apply their knowledge and skills to clinical practice. (Flores, Lin, & Huang, 2005, pp.82-83) The above observation by Flores et al. (2005) speaks directly to and about the exigent need for career counselors and counseling professionals to develop their multicultural career counseling competencies. Their observation is especially meaningful as the diversity of Americans continues to grow and the career related needs of many of its citizens are yet unmet. The current view of an individuals' career development include the entire life span, incorporating the varying life roles, cultural reference points and contexts, racial/ethnic implications, environmental opportunities and barriers, gender constraints, sexual orientation status, and disability status. Thus, it is the attendance to and awareness of these varying personal constructs by career professionals and counselors, which inform appropriate/successful multicultural career counseling interventions. Pope (2000) reminds us of the development and evolution of career counseling in America that framed the emergence of the multicultural movement which then provided the nexus for multicultural career counseling applications. Pope (2000) proposed that the history of career counseling and concomitantly concerns about career development occurred over six stages in America. 1. Stage one between 1890-1919, with the development of placement services for the burgeoning industrial / urban societies at the beginning of the twentieth century.
... Hong Kong Chinese and Japanese) may be due to socioeconomic factors-which also affect peoples' decision making styles (Hartung, 2002 These findings are important to cross-cultural psychology as they support a shift of emphasis in empirical research from an outcome oriented approach to a more nuanced and descriptive, process oriented approach. Culture is infinitely complex and process oriented research is an essential tool in our quest to better understand cultures' complexities. ...
Article
Previous findings in cultural psychology suggest that East Asians are more likely than North Americans to view the world dialectically and that this dialectic view of the world affects their psychological tendencies. Extending these findings, our research examined the relationship between dialecticism and indecisiveness in European Canadians and Hong Kong Chinese. Evidence from three studies demonstrated that: Hong Kong Chinese were more indecisive than European Canadians and that dialecticism mediated this cultural difference (Study 1), dialectically primed individuals were more likely than non-dialectically primed individuals to experience indecisiveness (Study 2), and decisions’ importance affected cultural variations: no cultural difference in indecisiveness was found for important decisions, with Hong Kong Chinese reporting a higher level of indecisiveness for less important decisions compared to European Canadians. Furthermore, the cultural variation for less important decisions was mediated by dialecticism (Study 3). The importance of studying decision making processes across cultures is discussed.
... Nessa direção, Teixeira e Gomes (2004) discutem que a qualidade da transição da universidade para o trabalho é determinada por uma conjunção de fatores, tais como características pessoais; atitudes de preparação para a transição; competências específicas; redes e apoio social; mercado de trabalho; e envolvimento nas atividades de formação. Assim, fica evidente que, para a compreensão dos determinantes do sucesso na transição, as futuras pesquisas devem incluir tanto variáveis psicológicas quanto contextuais, superando os modelos explicativos tradicionais da psicologia vocacional que enfatizam as características psicológicas e negligenciam as variáveis contextuais (Hartung, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study’s aim is to describe the expectations of undergraduate students concerning the definition of success on the transition from the university to work as well the factor or factors contributing to this process. The sample was composed of 46 students studying in the last year/ period of the undergraduate courses in Psychology (N= 21) and Administration (N= 25). A questionnaire containing socio-educational data and three open-ended questions concerning the successful transition from the university to work was applied as an instrument. The data was analyzed using content analysis. In general, the results indicate that the students use both objective and subjective criteria to define success in this transition, although the objective criteria of success outweighed the subjective. Further, graduates attribute success in the transition being due to both individual characteristics and their social, educational and political context.
... Event management graduates possess particular skill sets that are not communal among HTM graduates. Although family is often identified as one of the most immediate determinants influencing career development (Hartung, 2002), this is not revealed as an important determinant in our data. No informants have mentioned its influence on their self-discovery or career development. ...
Article
This article investigates the career development trajectories of graduates from Event Management fields by linking to concepts of self-discovery theory and person-job fit (P-J fit). The research study uses key informant interviews for data collection to obtain insights, and conducts content analysis by using NVivo software. Results highlight three career development trajectories of graduates' early years and the paramount role of a conducive working environment as a major determinant, which imposes strong influence on graduates' early career development. Results also delineate the different roles of the two types of person-job fit. Challenges faced at the early career development stage are identified. Implications for educators, career counselors, and employers are addressed.
... Role salience plays a major role in the career plans of adolescents and young adults (Niles & Goodnough, 1996). Developmental career theorists, researchers, and counselors exploit the construction of role salience to comprehend how people structure life roles in the context of their own lives (Hartung, 2002;Nevill & Calvert, 1996;Super et al., 1996). ...
Article
This study examines 15 at-risk Israeli youngsters' work and family plans and the perceived barriers and resources influencing the realization of those plans. In-depth interviews analyzed by Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) demonstrate the complexity of the future awaiting these youths. Participants perceive work mainly as a means of obtaining money and only consider a limited range of occupations as being available to them. Their vision of their future family focuses mainly on their providing a safe place for their children and providing food and stability. They view themselves as being both their own major resource and chief barrier to the realization of future plans. Other resources comprise social support and the ability to cut themselves off from their past, including original family and childhood friends. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
... This approach is vastly different from the positivistic approach where technical knowledge is sought, and generalizations and predictions are produced. More specifically, context and other environmental variables are salient in making important choices about work, especially in diverse cultural contexts (Hartung, 2002 ). The majority of career development theories are grounded in a traditional, positivistic worldview, and the constructivism paradigm departs from this stance significantly (Chen, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to explore the meaning of work for Black, sub-Saharan African immigrant adult students pursuing a 4-year college degree. Career development practitioners are in a unique position to help these students make significant life-career decisions. Seven students enrolled at an urban university located in the Midwest were interviewed. Emphasis was placed on sociocultural, historical, political, and other contextual factors that affected life-work choices. Work was viewed holistically as a combination of both paid and unpaid roles. Work narratives were collected and interpreted using Gadamerian hermeneutics grounded in a constructivism paradigm. An analysis of narrative approach was used. Three main findings emerged as themes: Meaning of work was shaped by contextual factors; work experiences were closely connected to family and community; and students’ identities and work roles evolved over time. Theoretical implications and practical strategies for career counselors, with a focus on social justice, are discussed.
... Fouad & Bingham, 1995;Leong, 1995), with a call for a better understanding of diversity and multiculturalism through theory renovation (Savickas, 1995). But this recent emphasis is still rudimentary and represents the beginning of a movement toward gaining cultural relevance in career theory and practice (Hartung, 2002). Even as diversity within the US is starting to be acknowledged, when an international perspective is taken, it is still commonly assumed in the career development literature-as in psychology in general-that a nation-state is culturally homogenous and stable (Cooper & Denner, 1998). ...
Article
Teachers’ attitudes towards career education play a crucial role in the successful implementation of relevant career related programs in school curriculum. In the current study, attitudes towards career education are investigated among 202 Israeli Arabs and 136 Israeli Jewish teachers. Results demonstrated similarity in the general pattern of ranking of importance of career education goals, but significant differences emerged in relation to a number of issues (e.g. self-knowledge, familiarity with range of occupation, experience with choice making). Differences are discussed as a reflection of diverse world-views, a disparity between majority and minority status and a difference in social structure.
... However, given the comprehensive and depthful information offered by Dr. Wolf Wolfensberger since that time, and to which I had been exposed, it would have been inexcusable for me not to subject the course to a comprehensive review process. After extensive revision to the course content, the course maintains a focus on psychological aspects while benefiting from current researched perspectives on the importance of social roles (Wolfensberger, 1998; Gottheil et al, 2000; Hartung, 2002), disability as a social construct (Hartung, 2002; Goodley, 2001) and the need for acculturation and social integration as it applies to education (Minnes, 2002). ...
Article
Editor's Note: This article describes the incorpora - tion of the theory of SRV into a context perhaps unfamiliar to many of our readers; in this case, a university class for student teachers. This article and the practice of incorporating SRV with various hu- man service approaches raise a number of questions which we hope to explore in future pages of this Jour - nal . How does one balance SRV with other theories, approaches or practices? How well can SRV theory be used with other theories or practices? Does such incorporation create any tension(s)? How can these tensions be addressed? What happens when SRV con- flicts with another theory or common service prac - tice? And so on. I encourage university and college professors who incorporate aspects of SRV into their teaching to submit manuscripts to this journal describing these courses and their experiences teaching them. What successes and struggles have you and your students faced with the material? How well can students re- late to Social Role Valorization if they have little or no prior experience with devaluation or devalued people? What have you and your students learned? What questions have been raised? Are there aspects of SRV which students seem to have a harder time understanding? If so, which ones, and what is the misunderstanding? Have you as a teacher had to pick and choose different aspects of SRV to focus on? What have you left out? And so on.
... High school behaviors that can reinforce intentions, including such activities as exposure to summer research programs and course selection, were also included in our model. In addition to the theoretical framework that guided this study, researchers continue to suggest further contextual items to consider in the career choice of multicultural groups such as racial and cultural identity, and social status (Betz & Fitzgerald, 1995;Bingham & Ward, 1996;Hartung, 2002;Osipow & Littlejohn, 1995). As such, this study also incorporated citizenship status, English language proficiency, and time management skills. ...
... research career choice also incorporated high school activities, interactions with peers, perceptions of cognitive abilities, goals and expectations, and high school characteristics. In addition to the theoretical framework that guided this study, researchers continue to suggest further contextual items to consider in the career choice of multicultural groups, including racial and cultural identity, self-efficacy, social status, and gender (Betz & Fitzgerald, 1995; Bingham & Ward, 1996; Hartung, 2002; Osipow & Littlejohn, 1995). As such, this study also incorporated students' background characteristics, citizenship status, and time management skills (seeTable 1). ...
Article
This study examines the characteristics and pre-college experiences of African American/Black, Latina/Latino, and American Indian students who demonstrate an interest in pursuing a major in a biomedical or behavioral science field as well as an interest in pursuing a career in scientific research at college entry. Using data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, the study explores factors that contribute to the career aspirations of racial/ethnic minority populations. Logistic regression analyses on a national sample of 71,000 students reveal that coursework and experiential learning in the sciences during high school as well as having a parent who is employed in a scientific field are important contributors to early interest in pursuing a scientific research career.
... Authors have substantiated that racially diverse youth from low SES families can benefit from narrative career approaches because they are often encased within culturally sensitive frameworks (Hartung, 2002) and are poised to better explore the depth and breadth of career development (Busacca & Rehfuss, 2016;Storlie et al., 2016Storlie et al., , 2017. Narrative career assessments, such as the FCA, provide opportunities for career counselors to help clients make meaning within a postmodern context while empowering their unique cultural identities (Busacca & Rehfuss, 2016;Storlie et al., 2017). ...
Article
The future career autobiography (FCA) is a narrative, discovery‐based career intervention designed to assess individuals’ career hopes and dreams. In total, 134 low‐income, ethnically and racially diverse middle school students participated in an FCA intervention through a yearlong grant‐funded career development initiative. Using content analysis, we analyzed participants’ FCAs for socioeconomic status factors and lifestyle indicators. We found that participants articulated occupational and lifestyle factors more than education and income, and that there were differences based on biological sex, race, and ethnicity. We present pertinent results and discuss implications for counseling practice and future research.
... Dessa kulturella konstruktioner är ofta inte kulturellt valida mellan olika kulturer. I flertalet fall måste ändringar utföras i programmet, modellen eller instrumentet för att det ska fungera på avsett vis i den nya kulturella kontexten (Hartung, 2002). ...
... It is important for the organisation that the managerleader would be able to distribute powers and responsibilities between the employees in such a way that the efficiency of joint activity, the organisation of the work and the quality of services provided would be assured, and the manager would only need to keep the general command and control (Annebel and Deanne, 2008). One of the most responsible duties of a manager is to build a team working in harmony, so that the main task would be to maintain a working atmosphere (Hartung, (2002). Hope-Hailey et al. (2000) claims that in today's society the manager's work specifics in the management of the team is very important, strengthening the activities of the organizations in their competitive environment, improving the quality of their work and preparing specialists to work responsibly in the team. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – to explore the factors for productive relationship between managers and employees. The article examines the role of the interrelationship of managers and employees in order to improve organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative study was conducted to collect empirical data. Research method - questionnaire. The questionnaire contains statements formulated on the basis of the theoretical analysis. Respondents were asked to answer the statements by choosing one of the 6 options: totally disagree, disagree, mostly disagree than agree, mostly agree than disagree, agree and fully agree. The summarized study results are shown in diagrams in a percentage. Findings – it was determined that during the period of transformations of public sector organisations, in order to improve the performance results, the heads of social service institutions should pay more attention to such factors as: attention to quality policy, promotion of personnel motivation, employee qualification improvement, employee involvement in decision-making, informing clients about the performance of the institution, tasks based on consensus between the managers and employees to improve the performance of the institution. Research limitations/implications – as respondents' answers were analyzed as a whole, it was not clear how much the opinion of managers and employees were close or different. Because of this limitation, we can only evaluate the research insights as general trends, and we cannot claim that most employees or most managers agree with the statement at the same level as after both managers' and employees' opinions were combined and analyzed. Practical implications – the results of this study may be useful for the heads of social service institutions to improve their organisational performance. Originality/Value – the study examined the role of the relationship between managers and employees in improving the organisation's activities in the field of social services. The article is based on a new approach to the manager's ability to achieve important results for the company: the theoretical analysis shows that without employees' provision and devotion, the manager would not be able to achieve high results even if he or she has the necessary competences, knowledge and skills. The study is original in that it was empirically verified and confirmed that this theoretical approach is indeed relevant to social service institutions. Keywords: management, leadership, employee commitment, organisational performance improvement. Research type: original research; viewpoint. JEL classification: I 31; I 39; J 24.
... Fouad & Bingham, 1995;Leong, 1995), with a call for a better understanding of diversity and multiculturalism through theory renovation (Savickas, 1995). But this recent emphasis is still rudimentary and represents the beginning of a movement toward gaining cultural relevance in career theory and practice (Hartung, 2002). Even as diversity within the US is starting to be acknowledged, when an international perspective is taken, it is still commonly assumed in the career development literature-as in psychology in general-that a nation-state is culturally homogenous and stable (Cooper & Denner, 1998). ...
... culture). We adopt the common view that values describe inter-individual differences, i.e. they are personal variables 'infused' with context, since values develop through culture-specific socialization (Hartung 2002;Schwartz 2011). With reference to the proposed value structure of Schwartz (2003), we derive two models: one for the self-transcendence/self-enhancement value dimension, and one for the openness to change/conservation value dimension. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the face of growing social inequality, social entrepreneurship (SE) is considered to be a sustainable way to account for unmet social needs. Research acknowledges that SE-intention is an important prerequisite for SE-activity but there is only limited knowledge about the mechanisms of SE-intention formation. Despite theories with a cognitive focus like the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) having been shown to be able to predict SE-intention, the influence of an individual’s goal orientations, i.e. one`s personal values, on the choice to pursue a career as a social entrepreneur has been largely neglected. By integrating the TPB and Basic Human Values Theory, we investigate the mechanisms through which personal values are related to SE-intentions. Structural-Equation-Analyses with a sample of German university students (N = 1,326) yielded positive direct effects for the personal value dimensions of openness and self-transcendence, and negative direct effects for conservation and self-enhancement on SE-intention. Furthermore, indirect effects of self-transcendence and self-enhancement via the TPB-components emerged. Further research is needed to consolidate our findings and examine potential intercultural differences of value influences on SE-intention formation. The practical implications are that the educators of potential social entrepreneurs should invest more effort in securing a fit of personal values and the values that reinforce SE. Furthermore, our results highlight that making women aware of the possibility of combining social and financial value goals in SE could increase the number of female entrepreneurs.
... Dodson and Dickart (2004) suggested that this harms their school performance, as girls from low-income families are expected to help their mothers relieve their work-family conflict. The same channeling process, argue others, reinforces additional cultural and environmental conditions within which the individual acts, shaping girls' individual and occupational identities (Cinamon 2009;Hartung 2002 (Anthias 2008) requires the examination of possible paths for gaining respectable belonging in its meaning as establishing the self as worthy and acceptable (Skeggs 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
The currently proposed meanings of paid work among adolescent girls who attend school neglect their negotiation of their belonging to their communities, calling for additional exploration of the field while focusing on belonging as achieved through respectability production. We investigate the meaning of adolescents’ paid work by examining it in terms of prevalent paths of respectability production. Based on 20 interviews with adolescent Palestinian girls living in Israel whose families live in poverty and who are employed while attending school, we show that girls who live in a community that touts education as a ‘weapon’ and expects girls to aim high are in fact shamed by such an expectation. To restore their self-worth facing educational barriers, girls use paid work to enable three paths to respectability: parentification, market citizenship, and belonging. Our findings suggest that girls unable to produce respectability through education, turn to produce it through paid work.
... Moreover, factors such as gender and cultural context have not been adequately considered. In response, subsequent conceptual work has underscored cultural dimensions and utility of life roles and values constructs (Hartung, 2002). Swanson (1992) argued that the life-span (developmental perspective) presently caters more to young adults while the life-space (contextual perspective) caters to mature adults. ...
Article
A review of extant literature on career studies in the Indian context highlights the nature and extent of family’s influence on individual career choices. However, we contend that these results are owing to the samples largely comprising young students. We present findings from an exploratory, qualitative study that sought to understand the determinants of contemporary career choices of Indian professionals (Average Age: 35.2 years; Average Work Experience: 129 months). The increasing role of peers in the later stages of one’s career is highlighted. The reasons for a preference towards the Engineering discipline are outlined. Changes due to social forces such as globalization and technological advancements have been explicated.
... In the process of developing a strong identity of self, people must navigate personal variables such as individual traits, interests and abilities as well as environmental variables such as contextual factors, social status, ethnicity and gender (Hartung, 2002). Further, research has shown that regardless of the specific ethnic group, "[youth of color] face a similar need to deal with the fact of their membership in an ethnic minority group in a predominantly white society" (Phinney, 1989, p. 45). ...
Article
As the number of STEM jobs available increases, there is an inherent need to better prepare students to fill these roles. More specifically, as the demographics of our nation and classrooms change, it is of utmost importance to make sure students who identify as people of color are prepared and confident in taking on these roles, but current statistics show that this is not happening. One way to combat this need is to increase the number of highly qualified STEM teachers of color in K–12 classrooms as they have been shown to increase the motivation and confidence of students of color. However, in order to do this, we must first explore how people of color who are academically prepared to pursue teaching in a STEM classroom perceive it as a viable career option. Therefore, this research took a case study approach in order to understand how specific experiences of successful STEM students who identify as people of color influence their perceptions of a career as a STEM teacher. Built within the Expectancy Value and Critical Race Theory frameworks, this study first used a survey to holistically understand and compare students’ perceptions of teaching and their perceptions of an ideal career. Then, participants were purposefully chosen for interviews that further explored the experiences of these students of color within the bounded case and how these experiences impacted their perceptions of teaching and of an ideal career. Survey results revealed that participants had statistically more negative perceptions of teaching than of their ideal careers, but it was found that freshmen in college had statistically more positive views of teaching than the other education subgroups investigated in this study. In the interviews, participants explained that relationships with teachers were one of the most important influencers in their education experiences, and the institutional racism experienced in school makes them shy away from considering teaching as a career. The findings of this dissertation can be used to inform current literature on how changes can be planned to increase the representation of people of color in STEM classrooms and STEM careers.
... One of the principal challenges for counselors in understanding the effects race and culture have on their client's career development. It is extremely difficult to generalize from the small amount of research that has been conducted mainly with Whites, to racially and culturally different populations often with separate value systems (Hartung, 2002). Many of these challenges are related to a lack of consistent definitions by the researchers or by individual respondents (Hill, Ramirerz, & Dumka, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Globally, there is a lower ratio of healthcare worker to population in rural compared to urban areas. Scholars are motivated by a number of factors to choose a career in health sciences. Determining these factors among rural and urban-origin students could inform recruitment and retention strategies to redress this imbalance. Objectives To determine and compare motivating factors for a career in health sciences among Rural-Origin (ROS) and Urban-Origin Students (UOS) at three South African universities. Methods Three institutions (former University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus), now Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU), University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) and University of Cape Town (UCT) participated in the study 2011. Health science students completed a self-administered questionnaire. The SAS® (version 9.2) for Microsoft statistical software was used for analysis. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results A total of 1633 health sciences students participated in the study. Parents (505; 30.9%) and personal exposure (484; 29.6%) were the main motivating factors for both ROS and UOS, with significantly more UOS than ROS motivated by these factors (p < 0.001). The contribution of role models (93; 5.7%), friends (77; 4.7%), high school teachers (77; 4.7%), mentors (36; 2.2%) and university lecturers (18; 1.1%) was minimal, with no significant difference between UOS and ROS (p > 0.05). Conclusion There is need for the health care sector to support students’ families and encourage students’ personal exposure to health care facilities and personnel in order to motivate them towards a career in health sciences.
... Cultural values are proven through various studies to be able to avoid the public from the negative influence of globalization (Schiefer, Mollering, Daniel, Benish-weisman, & Boehnke, 2010), maintain community morals (Vauclair & Fischer, 2011), and become important variables in the career development process (Brown, 2002;Hartung, 2002). Therefore, indigenous cultural values that exist in the community must be preserved. ...
Article
Full-text available
The cultural diversity that exists in various regions in Indonesia produces a lot of potential for local wisdom and tradition. Various Indonesian local wisdom has been used as teaching material in the classroom. However, pepaccur local wisdom is still rarely known and used as teaching material. Therefore it is a novelty to turn pepaccur local wisdom into Indonesian literary teaching materials. This study aims to investigate the properness of pepaccur local wisdom for Indonesian literary teaching materials. The qualitative approach used in this study is characterized by collecting data through interviews, observation, recording and book review, and other sources related to pepaccur local wisdom. Content analyses were also used in analyzing the collected data. The results of this study are in the form of pepaccur presentations that are appropriate to be used as teaching materials for Indonesia language and literature based on the characteristics of the functions and values of local wisdom contained in them. Values contained in pepaccur such as religion, simplicity, cooperation, and politeness can be a reference in behaving in the community and this integration can be an effort to preserve local wisdom that has begun to be abandoned by the Lampung community. Implications from this study, through pepaccur-based teaching materials, students can learn to live a simple life, have a community with mutual help and respect, and learn poetic arts to provide entertainment and advice.
... Cultural and contextual aspects comprised the third category. The cultural differences evident in this study confirmed research highlighting the importance of cultural influences on emerging adulthood (Côté & Arnett, 2007) and career development (Hartung, 2002). It was clear from the stories that Arab young adults face their future in more holistic way, were there is great interdependence between the areas of explorations. ...
Book
Full-text available
Perhaps no other challenge preoccupies governments and citizens in the Mediterranean region than the mass unemployment of young people, many of who have invested in higher education in the hope that ability and effort lead to fulfilling lives. Transitions to independent adulthood are, however, frustratingly long drawn-out, and often jeopardised by labour markets that are neither youth-friendly nor meritocratic. While such challenges require structural responses at the macro-economic level, career education and guidance have an important role to play in addressing both the public and private good, and in furthering the social justice agenda. This volume provides a state-of-the-art review of career education and guidance in Southern Europe and the Middle East and North Africa Region, presenting a multi-faceted portrayal of the situation in each country as well as overviews of cross-cutting themes that are especially relevant to context, such as women’s career development in the Arab states, job placement support for refugees, and the impact of faith on livelihood planning. “This book is a major achievement, focusing on a pivotal part of the world.” – Tony Watts, Cambridge, UK “This book challenges career guidance to truly think in a contextual, localised, plural and dialogical way. In providing an opportunity for the South to speak on its own terms it helps renew the field through different ways of thinking and doing career guidance.” – Marcelo Afonso Ribeiro, University of São Paulo, Brazil “This wonderful new book furnishes a way forward in helping people and communities establish practices that will support our natural striving for work that is decent, dignified, and meaningful.” – David L. Blustein, Boston College, USA “This book is packed with fresh ideas based on lucid arguments that draw from a substantial evidence base. This work is essential reading.” – Gideon Arulmani, The Promise Foundation, Bangalore, India “This publication is a must-read for every individual involved in policy, research and practice activities in the career guidance field.” – Rènette du Toit, Independent Research Services, South Africa
Article
Drawing on the job‐demands resources model, we investigated the relationship between supervisor support and employee performance and the mediating effects of work‐life balance (WLB), job and life satisfaction, and organizational commitment in a sample of 305 financial‐sector employees in Sydney, Australia. Results reveal that supervisor support is positively related to employee performance, WLB, job and life satisfaction, and organizational commitment. In turn, WLB, job and life satisfaction, and organizational commitment are positively linked to employee performance. The findings indicate a significant mediation between supervisor support and employee performance only through WLB and organizational commitment. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Article
Cultural diversity and the cultural context of adolescent career development are explored through the lens of the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism. The individualist cultural value orientation of some of the main theoretical perspectives that underpin career education and counseling practice in schools is highlighted. In particular, the self-concept and career maturity segments of Super's (1990) lifespan, lifespace theory, career interests, career decision making and the career counseling process are examined with reference to the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism. Also discussed is the potential inappropriateness of theoretical perspectives that reflect an individualist cultural value orientation for the career development of all students. Finally, Leong and Serafica's (2001) cultural accommodation approach to enhancing the cultural relevance of existing career theories and models is outlined. Some examples of strategies are presented that might fill cultural gaps, which may exist in career education and counseling practices in schools.
Article
Career-related barriers are circumstances related to the individual or the context that hinder career advancement. This study sought to identify career barriers perceived by Brazilian graduate students. The 1619 participants answered an online survey with psychometric instruments and one open-ended question regarding the main career barriers faced. Descriptive statistical analyzes included mean, and frequency of the sample characterization data and semantic network analyzes of the linguistic data on the career-related barriers. The main results indicate moderate levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and that “lack of time” and “the academic advisor” are the most recurrent barriers in self-reports. We conclude that professional and career guidance is relevant to assisting academics in training to achieve career success and mental health.
Article
Shifting demographics within nations and the growing international labour market underscore the importance of preparing career practitioners with multicultural career counselling competencies. However, career practitioners need to move beyond an appreciation of cultural diversity to incorporating perspectives on social justice into their roles and methods of intervention. The discussion examines ways of strengthening social action and advocacy roles in multicultural career counselling. Recommendations are given for expanding social justice competencies in international standards for career development practitioners.
Article
Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question “What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they transition from post-secondary education into the labor force?” The sample consisted of 18 pairs of young adults (age M = 25.7, SD = 2.7) from Western Canada, who self-described as being in a committed relationship with each other. Using the action project method, data were collected using interviews, observation of conversations, and self-report journals. A consensus-based, hermeneutic analysis strategy, grounded in the principles of action theory, was used to address the research question, with analyses being conducted first for each couple, and then across the entire sample. Couples constructed a variety of different transition projects, including (a) pursuing future occupational and educational plans, (b) balancing multiple priorities, (c) deciding where to live, (d) progressing in the relationship, and (e) joining lives together. Most made substantial progress in pursuing their projects over time. Couples' project-related actions and goals were also found to be motivated by an overarching desire to support each other during the transition to work, and constrained by their financial circumstances.
Article
The authors focus on the significance of the counselor's cultural contexts in effective career interventions vis-à-vis the incorporation of multicultural metacognition. They briefly summarize and critique extant career counseling models for racial/ethnic minority clients and then describe an expanded model for career counseling that incorporates metacognition processes for addressing counselor-related cultural factors.
Article
Latinas in the United States have had historically low college graduation rates, are overrepresented in lower paying occupations, and experience culture- and values-based struggles in obtaining career goals. As Latinas increase their presence as a cultural group in higher education and grow in the U.S. workforce, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex career development experience of this diverse group of students. This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the values and life-role salience associated with the career development of Latina 1st-generation college students at a primarily Caucasian institution. Results included 2 overarching themes with 5 subthemes supporting culturally sensitive career counseling practices while working with this sample. Future research implications examining the efficacy of interventions to help Latina 1st-generation college students succeed in college are provided.
Article
Women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority faculty (URM) are critical to developing inclusive learning environments. Career counselors can benefit from understanding the factors influencing women’s and URMs’ interest in academic careers, as this population remains markedly underrepresented in academic medicine. A mixed methods study was conducted among medical students and residents yielding 643 survey and 121 focus group participants. Participants were diverse by gender and race/ethnicity. Themes included (a) factors influencing career interest, (b) influential others, (c) timing of career interest, and (d) career expectations. Findings show differences among women, URM, and dominant-identity groups. Implications include how career development programs and institutional diversity policies and practices should consider developing and offering activities that support (a) mentoring—especially for women trainees, (b) learning how to align academia and community engagement and scholarship—especially for URM trainees, and (c) senior leadership development support for women and URM trainees.
Article
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not only those associated with survival and power but also those that incorporated aspects of social connection and self-determination, including autonomy, the opportunity to help others, the opportunity to use one's existing abilities, and the opportunity to learn. Understanding the preferences of this group of women can help career counselors and managers to be more effective in working with these women.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand to what extent the analysis of career scripts explains the inertia in implementing mandatory interviews designed to anticipate career lengthening in France. Design/methodology/approach This exploratory approach is based on 26 interviews of French cadres (a mix of managers and professionals) aged 45 and over in the media agency sector. Findings Two career scripts – one for the majority who perceive themselves in a dead end, and the other, more optimistic for those who experience job mobility – show several commonalities. Moreover, their combination suggests an entanglement with the previous business model of media agencies. Research limitations/implications The survey was conducted on a non-random sample in a radically changing sector. However, the entanglement may explain the inertia with regard to changes in career scripts and agencies’ business model. Practical implications As these cadres need to work longer and move from traditional media expertise to cross-functional consulting capacity, mandatory interviews should be integrated into a human resources management strategy that fosters intra-organizational dynamics. Social implications The lengthening of the professional life in France appears as a paradigm shift. The study of career sustainability in contexts becomes a critical research field for management development. Originality/value The institutional approach of managers’ careers is well developed, but there is a gap in understanding the entanglement of career scripts and business models. This may help address inertia in change processes.
Chapter
This chapter presents and discusses the career plans of Israeli Arab and Jewish young adults. It also considers in some detail recent Israeli studies on the process of career exploration in the period of emerging adulthood. These studies illustrate how culture as well as socio-political conditions shapes this process and impact on plans for the future. The chapter concludes by making a series of reflections and suggestions regarding career interventions that use a broad definition of career.
Article
This qualitative study explores the career–life experiences of foreign-born immigrant women pursuing undergraduate degrees. Two conceptual frameworks guided this study: life role salience and systems theory framework. We interviewed 18 women studying at a regional comprehensive university in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Two categories emerged from our analysis, which used constructivist grounded theory methods: (a) managing multiple roles, expectations, and options and (b) mediating the contexts that influence career–life decisions. Each category is organized by two subcategories. Our findings led to two theoretical propositions as well as suggestions for career development practitioners and implications for practice, policy, and research.
Article
Counseling research on female youth of color has been limited in the application of theoretical frameworks that engage families in a practical sense regarding career issues. In this direct content analysis, 40 female middle school students of color shared perceptions of their strengths and supports for future career success. Relational cultural theory, a framework grounded in multiculturalism and feminism, was shown to be a fitting and promising theory-to-practice model for those working with female adolescents of color and their families. Implications for counselors working with female youth of color and families on career exploration are provided.
Chapter
Full-text is available from: http://www.econbiz.de/Record/careers-a-country-comparative-view-lazarova-mila/10009515299 or by contacting one of the authors
Article
Full-text available
Integrating predictions from the theory of human values with the theory of planned behavior (TPB), our primary goal is to investigate mechanisms through which individual values are related to entrepreneurial career intentions using a sample of 823 students from four European countries. We find that openness and self-enhancement values relate positively to entrepreneurial career intentions and that these relationships are partly mediated by attitudes toward entrepreneurship, self-efficacy, and, to a lesser extent, by social norms. Values and TPB constructs partially mediated cross-country differences in entrepreneurial intentions. Spanish students showed lower entrepreneurial intentions as compared to Dutch, German, and Polish students, which could be traced back to lower self-enhancement values (power and achievement), less positive attitudes toward entrepreneurship, and differences in social norms.
Chapter
Jenna, a 20-year-old Canadian young woman of Western European heritage, stopped attending high school in Grade 11 at 16 years of age, because she experienced school as “irrelevant” and “boring”. Shortly thereafter, her mother kicked her out of the house given that she was not in school and working only a few hours a week at a local convenience store. Although Jenna continued to work part-time at the store for the next four years at minimum wage, she sometimes had fleeting ideas of becoming an early childhood educator, since she always liked young children.
Article
Psychologists have debated two external factors that influence human behaviors: current socioeconomic changes and historically shared cultural meaning systems. By conducting triangular comparisons among Hong Kong Chinese, mainland Chinese, and European Canadians, the current study examined whether these two factors differentially influence people’s indecisiveness. We found that (a) Hong Kong Chinese participants’ level of indecisiveness was highest, and there were no differences between the two other groups; (b) dialectical beliefs facilitated participants’ indecisiveness whereas optimism toward the future attenuated it across cultures and both factors explained cultural variations in indecisiveness; and (c) different from European Canadians’ optimism, optimism about the future promoted by perception of current rapid societal change made mainland Chinese more decisive. The importance of within-region analyses to disentangle varying factors in decision-making processes is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the concepts of values and life roles in the context of career development. First, the concepts of values and life roles are explained. The methodological issues of their measurement are discussed next, followed by an overview of the main instruments used in their assessment. Finally, the approaches and trends of the usage of values and roles in career guidance are discussed. It is noted that, the traditional focus on values as a person variable, has been recently shifted to assessment of "cultural" values, which are typical of certain groups of vocational-guidance users.
Chapter
Peoples’ values and the importance they assign to their life roles have long been viewed as important factors in career choice and development. In particular this is true of values, which have received considerable attention already within the traditional, trait-oriented approaches to career planning. Early approaches have emphasised values as person variables that influence individuals’ career choice and development. Traditionally, vocational guidance was seen primarily as a process of helping individuals to match their personal traits with those required by occupations in order to enhance their satisfactoriness and satisfaction. By applying the matching paradigm, the vocational guidance practitioners assisted their clients in choosing the appropriate career track, that is, the one that was believed to be well matched or congruent with the client’s traits. The traits used for matching have changed, however, over the years. In the beginning, during the first decades of the 20th century, abilities (what a person can do) and interest (what a person likes to do) were used as matching variables. Later, in the 1950s, work values (what a person considers important in working) were added as the third matching variable. The main objective of this chapter is to examine the methodological issues connected with the measurement of values and role salience and to review representative measures that have been used in their assessment. Before that, however, the conceptualisation of the basic constructs addressed in this chapter must be examined.
Book
Full-text available
Chapter 1: Vocational Behavior and Career Development: An Introduction Chapter 2: The Concept of Development Chapter 3: The Context of Career Development Chapter 4: A Life-Span Developmental Approach to Career Development Chapter 5 Career Development: The Sample Case of Adolescence Chapter 6 Toward a Methodological Agenda for the Study of Vocational Behavior and Career Development Chapter 7 The Career Development of Woman Chapter 8 Career Development and Health Chapter 9 Intervention in Vocational Behavior & Career Development
Article
Full-text available
In developing a new scale, this article makes theoretical and measurement distinctions between vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism. Vertical collectivism includes perceiving the selfas a part (or an aspect) of a collective and accepting inequalities within the collective. Horizontal collectivism includes perceiving the self as a part of the collective, but seeing all members of the collective as the same; thus equality is stressed. Vertical individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual and acceptance of inequality. Horizontal individualism includes the conception of an autonomous individual and emphasis on equality. Measurement of these constructs is preferable theoretically and empirically (better internal consistency) to either of the more general constructs of individualism and collectivism or the constituent elements of these constructs, such as self-reliance, hedonism, family integrity, and so on. The usefulness of these theoretical distinctions is demonstrated and their implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the case vignettes and discussants' reactions from the series entitled "Getting Down to Cases" from the Career Development Quarterly were analyzed to identify themes pertaining to the overlap between work and interpersonal relationships. The most common theme, which was found in more than 50% of the cases, was the expression of interest on the part of the discussants for further information on the rela- tionship lives of the clients. Other variant themes (i.e., themes that were identified in less than 50% but more than two of the cases) identified four areas pertaining to (a) the func- tion of relational support in career development, (b) the motivational and conflictual nature of the work-relationship overlap, (c) the complexity of family roles in career deci- sion making and work-based settings, and (d) the social and economic influences of the work/relationship interface. These findings were discussed in light of current theory and research.
Article
Full-text available
In response to the need for theoretical models to guide counseling and conceptualize career assessment with culturally different clients, the authors propose an integrative-sequential conceptual model for cross-cultural career counseling research and practice. This framework consists of five stages: (a) emergence of career and vocational problems, (b) help-seeking and career services utilization, (c) evaluation of career and vocational problems, (d) career interventions, and (e) outcomes of career interventions. This model may be useful in guiding both career psychology research and career assessment and interventions with culturally different clients.
Article
Full-text available
People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This article uses the theoretical framework of cultural validity and cultural specificity in career psychology proposed by F. T. L. Leong and M. Brown (1995) to comment on the theoretical and methodological issues raised by N. A. Fouad, L. W. Harmon, and N. H. Borgen (1997) and T. J. G. Tracey, N. Watanabe, and P. L. Schneider (1997) in the Special Section on Cross-Cultural Career Psychology. In terms of theoretical issues, the important distinction between etic and emic approaches to cross-cultural research is discussed, as well as the role of the cultural context in understanding vocational behavior. Methodologically, the specific issues surrounding the problem of equivalence of measurement (functional, conceptual, linguistic, and metric equivalence) as it relates to the two studies are discussed. Finally, the importance of studies of both internal and external validity as means of advancing cross-cultural career psychology is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, a comparative analysis was performed, the focus of which was prediction of job satisfaction: what is the contribution of work values over and beyond what is available from vocational interests? The comparative and combined analysis was informed by person-environment theoretical formulations and instrumentation from Holland's 1985 theory of careers for interests and from Dawis and Lofquist's 1984 theory of work adjustment for work values. Using work value correspondence and interest congruence as the independent variables obtained 1 year prior to the job satisfaction data, regression analyses were performed, separately for male (N = 106) and female (N = 119) client samples. The regression results indicated that: (a) work value correspondence accounted for significant portion of the satisfaction variance (4 to 29%) after controlling for interest congruency, (b) interest congruency was a poorer predictor for males than for females, and (c) moderate relationship between congruency and correspondence found for the female sample was not replicated for males. Implications for the use of interest inventories and work value inventories in vocational counseling were discussed.
Article
The career development-vocational psychology literature has been marked by 2 persistent problems: a slow response to new developments in basic areas of psychology, such as developmental psychology, and a lack of representation of populations other than White and middle-class groups as research participants or as foci of theoretical explanation. After a brief discussion of 2 factors that may have contributed to these problems, a rationale for a new location for this field is developed. The new location focuses on the study of work in people's lives from the perspective of social constructionism and from the perspective of counseling psychologists as applied psychologists.
Article
Contemporary approaches to career development emphasize the psychological and developmental dimensions of the task. This study suggests not only that consideration of race should form an integral part of that process but also that race too needs to be understood in a psychological and developmental way. While some claim that constructs associated with both racial identity theory and career development measure aspects of a client′s personality, virtually no research has explored the relation between these two perspectives. In this test using a White sample (N = 109), a canonical analysis revealed a significant relation between the psychological variables of "racial identity" and "work values" consistent with the theory of White racial identity development. Suggestions for future research are considered.
Article
This article introduces the Major Contribution in this issue of The Counseling Psychologist on the interface of work and interpersonal relationships. Initially, the various lines of literature that highlight the central place that work plays in human life are reviewed and integrated. The critically important perspectives offered by the relational movement are then reviewed with a particular focus on how this emerging body of work is transforming some fundamental beliefs within psychology. The existing literature on the connections between work and relationships is summarized next with attention to identifying the considerable needs for continued research and theory development in this line of inquiry. The article concludes by providing the reader with a framework with which to derive maximal meaning from the qualitative, discovery-oriented findings presented in the three articles by Phillips, Christopher-Sisk, and Gravino; Schultheiss, Kress, Manzi, and Glasscock; and Blustein, Fama, White, Ketterson, Shaefer, Schwam, Sirin, and Skau that collectively make up this Major Contribution.
Article
Career-Development Assessment and Counseling (C-DAC) systematically bridges career theory and practice. Integrating differential, developmental, and phenomenological methods, the C-DAC model uses a comprehensive career assessment battery to help clients explore their roles, developmental stages and tasks, career attitudes and knowledge, values, and interests within their unique life contexts. The authors recommend elaborating the C-DAC model to formally appraise cultural identity in step one of the model and to consider cultural identity concerns throughout the C-DAC process. This should help counselors more clearly understand how cultural factors influence people's career development and vocational behavior.
Chapter
Date revised - 20001220, Language of summary - English, Number of references - 55, Pages - 212-227, ProQuest ID - 619546814, PubXState - NY, SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - 2027; 2936; 5605 1913; 8289; 5185, Target audience - Psychology: Professional & Research, Last updated - 2012-09-10, docISBN - 0521640210; 052164965X, Corporate institution author - Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J., DOI - PSIN-2000-16337-008; 2000-16337-008; 0521640210; 052164965X, 1995 Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities. Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities. xi, 303, Akutsu, Phillip D., Snowden, Lonnie R. 1996 Referral patterns in ethnic-specific and mainstream programs for ethnic minorities and Whites. Journal of Counseling Psychology 43 1 56-64, Betz, Nancy E. 1992 Career assessment: A review of critical issues. Handbook of counseling psychology (2nd ed.). 453-484, Bowman, S. L. (1995). Career intervention strategies and assessment issues for African Americans. In F. T. L. Leong (Ed.), Career development and vocational behavior of racial and ethnic minorities (pp. 137-164). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., Cochran, Larry 1997 Career counseling: A narrative approach. Career counseling: A narrative approach. x, 166, Collin, Audrey 1996 New relationships between researchers, theorists, and practitioners: A response to the changing context of career. Handbook of career counseling theory and practice. 377-399, Fiske, Susan T., Taylor, Shelley E. 1991 Social cognition (2nd ed.). Social cognition (2nd ed.). xviii, 717, Fitzgerald, Louse F., Betz, Nancy E. 1994 Career development in cultural context: The role of gender, race, class, and sexual orientation. Convergence in career development theories: Implications for science and practice. 103-117, Fouad, Nadya A., Bingham, Rose Phillips 1995 Career counseling with racial and ethnic minorities. Handbook of vocational psychology: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). 331-365, Fouad, Na 1993 CROSS-CULTURAL VOCATIONAL ASSESSMENT The Career Development Quarterly 42 1 4-13, Hartung, P J, Speight, J D 1996 Individualism-collectivism and the vocational behavior of majority culture college students The Career Development Quarterly 45 1 87-96, Hartung, P J, Vandiver, B J 1998 Appraising cultural identity in career-development assessment and counseling The Career Development Quarterly 46 3 276-293, Herr, E. L. (1994). The counselor's role in career assessment. In J. T. Kapes, M. M. Mastie, & E. A. Whitfield (Eds.), A counselor's guide to career assessment instruments (3rd edn, pp. 13-22). Alexandria, VA: National Career Development Association., Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall., Jepsen, D. (1990). Developmental career counseling. In W. B. Walsh & S. H. Osipow (Eds.), Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology (pp. 117-158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum., Jepsen, David A. 1994 The Thematic-Extrapolation Method: Incorporating career patterns into career counseling. The Career Development Quarterly 43 1 43-53, Leong, F. T. (1991). Guest Editor's Introduction: Special issue on career development of racial and ethnic minorities. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 196-198., Leong, Frederick T. L., Hartung, Paul 1997 Career assessment with culturally different clients: Proposing an integrative-sequential conceptual framework for cross-cultural career counseling research and practice. Journal of Career Assessment 5 2 183-202, Leong, Frederick T. 1993 The Career Counseling Process with Racial-Ethnic Minorities: The Case of Asian Americans. The Career Development Quarterly 42 1 26-40, Leong, Frederick T. 1985 Career Development of Asian Americans. Journal of College Student Personnel 26 6 539-546, Leong, Frederick T. L., Brown, Michael T. 1995 Theoretical issues in cross-cultural career development: Cultural validity and cultural specificity. Handbook of vocational psychology: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). 143-180, Leong, Frederick T. L. 1996 Challenges to career counseling: Boundaries, cultures, and complexity. Handbook of career counseling theory and practice. 333-345, Leong, FTL, Hesketh, BL, Savickas, ML, Leong, FTL 1998 International perspectives on vocational psychology Journal of Vocational Behavior 52 3 271-274, Leong, F. T. L., & Santiago-Rivera, A. L. (1999). Climbing the multiculturalism summit: Challenges and pitfalls. In P. Pedersen (Ed.), Multiculturalism as a fourth force (pp. 61-72). Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel., Leong, Frederick T., Tata, Shiraz Piroshaw 1990 Sex and Acculturation Differences in Occupational Values among Chinese-American Children. Journal of Counseling Psychology 37 2 208-212, Leong, F. T. L. 1986 Counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans: review of the literature Journal of Counseling Psychology 33 2 196-206, 21. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224, Niles, S G, Goodnough, GE 1996 Life-role salience and values: A review of recent research The Career Development Quarterly 45 1 65-86, Pedersen, P. B. (1991). Multiculturalism as a generic approach to counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70 (1), 6-12.1992-06270-001, Richardson, M. S. (1993). Work in people's lives: A location for counseling psychologists. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40(4), 425-433.1994-07341-00110.1037/0022-0167.40.4.425, Rogler, L. H., Malgady, R. G., & Rodriguez, O. (1989). Hispanics and mental health: A framework for research. Malabar, FL: Krieger., Savickas, Mark L. 1995 Current theoretical issues in vocational psychology: Convergence, divergence, and schism. Handbook of vocational psychology: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). 1-34, Savickas, Mark L. 1996 A framework for linking career theory and practice. Handbook of career counseling theory and practice. 191-208, SAVICKAS, ML, SAVICKAS, ML 1993 SPECIAL SECTION - A SYMPOSIUM ON MULTICULTURAL CAREER COUNSELING The Career Development Quarterly 42 1 3-3, Savickas, Mark L. 1995 Constructivist counseling for career indecision. The Career Development Quarterly 43 4 363-373, Savickas, Mark L. 1995 Examining the personal meaning of inventoried interests during career counseling. Journal of Career Assessment 3 2 188-201, Spokane, A. R. (1991). Career intervention. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. doi: 10.1016/0001-8791(83)90028-3, Strong, E. K., Jr., Campbell, D. P., & Hansen, J. C. (1985). Strong Interest Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press., Subich, L. M., & Billingsley, K. D. (1995). Integrating career assessment into counseling. In W. B. Walsh & S. H. Osipow (Eds.), Handbook of vocational psychology: Theory, research, and practice (2nd Ed., pp. 261-293). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates., Sue, Stanley, Zane, Nolan 1994 Research on psychotherapy with culturally diverse populations. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed.). 783-817, Sue, S., & Morishima, J. K. (1982). The Mental Health of Asian Americans (Vol. 1st edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons., Super, Donald E., Brown, Duane 1990 A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed.). 197-261, Super, Donald E. 1954 Career patterns as a basis for vocational counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology 1 1 12-20, Tinsley, H. E. (Ed.). (1994b). Special issue on racial identity and vocational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44 (2)., Tracey, T. J., Leong, F. T. L. 1986 help seeking and problem perception among Asian Americans Journal of Counseling Psychology 33 3 331-336, Triandis, H. C., Dunnette, M. D., & Hough, L. M. (1994). Handbook of industrial/organizational psychology (2nd edn, vol. IV). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press., Triandis, Harry Charalambos. 1995. Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press., Walsh, W.B. and M.L., Savickas. Handbook of Vocational Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice, Third Edition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ. Publication, Questia Media America Inc., 2005, www.questia.com, Walsh, W. B. (Ed.). (1994). Special feature: Career assessment with racial and ethnic minorities. Journal of Career Assessment, 2, 199-330.1997-02608-001, Young, R. A., & Valach, L. (1996). Interpretation and action in career counseling. In M. L. Savickas & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp. 361-375). Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black., Young, R. A., Valach, L., & Collin, A. (1996). A contextual explanation of career. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates, Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 477-512). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Article
The primary purpose of the book is to serve as a resource to (a) graduate students, who are learning about career development and career counseling; (b) counselors and psychologists, who provide career counseling to racial and ethnic minorities; and (c) psychologists and counselors who do research on the career development of these diverse groups. It serves as a . . . comprehensive source of the knowledge on the career development of racial and ethnic minorities [in the US]. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
During the revision of the 1994 Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Harmon, Hansen, Borgen & Hammer, 1994), information was obtained about the race–ethnicity and careers of over 55,000 employed adults in 50 different occupations. The national norm group, the general reference sample, contains 18,789 individuals who identified their race–ethnicity in the following manner: 378 African Americans; 363 Asian Americans; 17,365 Caucasian Americans; 349 Hispanic Americans/Latinos (Latinas); and 77 Native Americans/American Indians. Concurrent validity across racial–ethnic groups was examined by typing their 50 occupations into the appropriate Holland (1997) job family. Then the General Occupational Themes, the SII scales corresponding to Holland's (1997) 6 vocational personality types, were examined for their ability to predict Holland (1997) job family in similar ways for the different racial–ethnic groups. Results generally showed comparable validity and interpretive counseling implications in using the SII with these racial–ethnic groups. Some interesting trends and important limitations were also noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes D. E. Super's construct of role salience, and reviews recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports the wisdom of his basic ideas. Gender may influence how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities, and involvements over time, and role juggling during adulthood. It is suggested that how men and women define, enact, and manage these roles may differ substantially. Personal variations in life careers should remind counselors to explore clients' own life meanings as expressed in roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
objectives of this chapter are (a) to examine the concepts of [vocational] interest, value, and preference in some detail, (b) to review the measures by which they have been operationalized, (c) to survey the research findings resulting from their use and the problems that have appeared as a result, and (d) to chart the implications of this knowledge for practice and theory some problems of validity (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
concentrates on 2 issues / the 1st issue deals with convergence, that is, whether or not vocational psychologists should work to unify existing theories of career choice and development / the 2nd issue . . . focuses on divergence, namely, the efforts to use postmodern thought to move beyond logical positivism as the philosophy of science for theory and research about vocational behavior identifies convergence and divergence as the 2 fundamental issues in contemporary vocational psychology based on the belief that they structure and maintain the most frequently debated theory and practice questions in vocational psychology / these 2 theoretical issues give rise to and prompt vocational psychologists' central problems, which separate theory from practice, vocational psychology from basic psychology disciplines, career counseling from psychotherapy, and vocational research agendas from other research agendas / suggests that much of vocational psychology can be characterized as shaped by or directed at these 4 theoretical schisms (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The traditional "matching model" of career guidance focuses on determining the individual's abilities, interests, values, and personality type and trying to predict how he or she will fit into various career roles. However, this approach assumes that the students or adults who are being assessed are all sufficiently mature vocationally to have stable traits and to use the self-knowledge provided by the assessment process in making career decisions. A career model is presented that focuses on developmental tasks and readiness for career decisions as shown by work salience and career maturity. The career development profiles of 3 11th-grade females illustrate how test data can be used to determine career developmental stage, to suggest personal and career areas where further exploration is required, and to provide information for the selection of possible careers. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
the need to consider the influence of culture on industrial and organizational processes is emphasized in view of the increased cultural diversity of industrial and organizational environments / examines the theoretical and methodological problems in defining and measuring culture and studying its effects on industrial and organizational processes as well as the influence of culture on perception, cognition, norms, needs, attitudes, motives, and values / applications of these findings to the selection of personnel, the behavior of groups, organizational cultures, managerial behavior, job design, organizational development, and the resolution of conflict, such as in the case of international negotiations, are reviewed / ends with a discussion of research gaps indicating needed directions for future research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The career development–vocational psychology literature has been marked by 2 persistent problems: a slow response to new developments in basic areas of psychology, such as developmental psychology, and a lack of representation of populations other than White and middle-class groups as research participants or as foci of theoretical explanation. After a brief discussion of 2 factors that may have contributed to these problems, a rationale for a new location for this field is developed. The new location focuses on the study of work in people's lives from the perspective of social constructionism and from the perspective of counseling psychologists as applied psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
views theory convergence from a decision-making perspective / argues that our major [career development] theories generally converge on the view of career decision-making as a rationally driven enterprise wherein deciders systematically gather and integrate self and career information, arriving at a "best course of action" / raises a number of issues for future inquiry—for example, the roles of affect, subjectivity, consultation, and provisional commitment in career decision making (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traces the influence of D. E. Super in introducing the concept of work values into career development and vocational theory. The conceptualization, taxonomy, and assessment of work values are reviewed. Research bearing on Super's "onion model," representing his views on the relationship of work values to other variables in the affective domain, is also presented. An overview is given of the research evidence regarding the functional role that work values actually play in the career development of individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
M. S. Richardson (see record 1994-07341-001) has proposed that vocational psychology be repositioned to a new theoretical location from which to produce knowledge about work in people's lives. This article underscores the importance of Richardson's proposal and comments on 3 features of the new location that is mapped out for vocational psychology: defining work as a social activity of everyday life, using multiple realities constructed by perspectivity, and legitimizing knowledge by its usefulness in practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The comments by M. L. Savickas and H. E. A. Tinsley in response to my article, "Work in People's Lives: A Location for Counseling Psychologists" (M. S. Richardson, 1993), are useful in elaborating the originally proposed ideas and in raising a number of critical issues and concerns. In this reply, I respond briefly to major points raised by each of these authors. It is hoped that the comments and reply will contribute to a constructive and productive dialogue regarding the issues raised. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents an overview of research on D. E. Super's theoretical model of developmental vocational psychology across cultures within the US as well as internationally. This research indicates that the theory has some cross-cultural validity, but may lack extensive consideration of race and ethnicity as factors in career development. Two areas for future investigation are discussed: development of ethnic identity as a vocational task and research on developmental contextualism, as proposed by F. E. Vondracek et al (1986). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
an examination of the career behavior and development of the different ethnic minority groups in the US revealed both areas of convergence and areas of divergence / examines areas of convergence by exploring the effects of 2 variables on the career behavior of ethnic minorities: racial discrimination and social class / the divergence in career development issues among the 4 main minority groups in the US (African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, and Native American) are examined / selected issues salient to each group are identified and examined / a model of career intervention for ethnic minorities is discussed / some directions for future research on multicultural career counseling and development are proposed (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
9 postulates are presented in an attempt to characterize the differences in the work life of men and women, the developmental stages unique to women, their patterns of vocational participation, and the determinants of the patterns. Implications for counselors and needed research are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
M. S. Richardson (see record 1994-07341-001) has argued that counseling psychologists are resistant to new ideas, resulting in the field's premature rigidity in career development theory, orientation toward White middle-class individuals, and delay in the incorporation of advances in developmental psychology into its theory and research. It is argued that career psychologists suffer less from an adherence to established theories than from the lack of systematic, theory-based research programs. The most effective way to improve theory and research in vocational psychology is to identify new theoretical insights that merit attention and to teach scholars new methods of investigation. Also, people focus on that which they find interesting, and vocational psychology will make significant progress in issues that are relevant to minorities and working-class individuals when people who have intrinsic interests in issues facing these populations have been educated as psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
false splits: the problem of career counseling / toward a healing of false splits [normal vs pathological, splits of the person, split between the public and private] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined whether variation on the cultural constructs of individualism–collectivism in a sample of predominantly majority culture (i.e., Anglo American) college students accounts for significant amounts of variance in their occupational choices, career plans, and work values. Participants (135 women, 55 men) responded to the “I am” sentence completion method (Kuhn & McPartland, 1954), the Occupational Plans Questionnaire (Hershenson, 1967), and the Work Values Inventory (Super, 1970). Overall, results indicated no significant relationships between level of collectivism and the career-related variables.
Article
In this article, recent research using the Work Importance Study (WIS) instruments in English-speaking countries is reviewed. Research results indicate several consistent trends. First, that life-role salience and values must be viewed within specific developmental and cultural contexts. Second, in diverse settings and with different groups, there are sex differences related to the relative importance of life roles and values. Third, career counselors need consider the client's values and life-role salience to facilitate personal development. Recommendations for future research are offered.