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"Life's First Need Is for Us to Be Realistic" and Other Reasons for Examining the Sociocultural Construction of Race in the Science Performance of African American Students

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Abstract

The body of research aimed at explaining the science teaching and learning of African Americans has identified myriad factors that correlate with African American's science career choices and science performance generally. It has not, however, offered any satisfactory explanations as to why those factors are disproportionately racially determined. This article argues that the sociocultural construction of race, which has roots in antebellum Western society, has endured to the present day; and that there is sufficient historical tradition and empirical evidence to warrant a research agenda that accounts for the sociocultural construction of race in explaining African American science education. The article concludes by suggesting a set of research questions and theoretical perspectives that considers the sociocultural construction of race to guide future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 50:82–103, 2013

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... Many students from underrepresented groups experience marginalization through the school science curriculum, science textbooks, science practices, high-stakes tests, language, epistemologies, and values and beliefs (Bang & Medin, 2010;Brown, 2006;Upadhyay et al., 2017;Warren & Rosebery, 2011). Many science teachers rationalize science teaching as objective and ignore the detrimental effects of science teaching that is culturally insensitive to students' sociocultural and historical experiences (Mutegi, 2013). Research in science education focused on underrepresented groups has shown that teachers who are less inclined to be pedagogically antiracist and critical tend to omit marginalized groups' contributions to Western science (Bang & Medin, 2010). ...
... In one study, the social positionality of students influenced middle school science teachers' actions and their support for students' science participation (Wallace & Brand, 2012). Many studies focused on antiracist science and critical science have shown that being socially aware of who the students are influences how science teachers make decisions about science activities and instructional choices (Atwater, 2000;Brown, 2004;Moore, 2007;Mutegi, 2013;Prime & Miranda, 2006;Tompkins & Boor, 1980). The same studies also showed that antiracist and critical science deliberately connects science content to social justice, social change, cultural connections, race, Whiteness, politics, history, oppression, and personal transformation. ...
... In antiracist pedagogy, history is central to understanding how science perpetuates discrimination in classrooms and curriculum (Mutegi, 2013). Hodson and Dennick (1994) argued that history of science and technology should be taught using antiracist pedagogy to show students the racist history of Western science. ...
Article
This is a case study of a high school science teacher in an Indigenous public school in Nepal. In this paper, we share the success of the science teacher in antiracist and critical pedagogy in his science class. We focus specifically on how the science teacher was successful in drawing students to interact with historical and cultural discrimination through science. Our data analysis identified two themes showing successful antiracist and critical science teaching that is inclusive of diverse cultural experiences. The study points to potential for antiracist and critically oriented science education for social change in the context of the Global South.
... These conflicting narratives are problematic because mainstream education research, which is heavily influenced by White, middle class ideologies, forcibly measures communities of color against those White middle class ideologies. Thereby, nonmainstream groups' cultural norms are devalued (Mutegi, 2011(Mutegi, , 2013Seriki, 2018, Walls, 2011Yosso, 2005). ...
... As a Black STEM education researcher, I find challenging mainstream STEM education to be difficult at times because: (1) Black students are depicted as low performing and disengaged science learners (Mutegi, 2011(Mutegi, , 2013; (2) Black students' families and communities are devalued and dehumanized (Duncan, 2005;Gholson & Wilkes, 2017;Ridgeway & Yerrick, 2016); and (3) STEM is narrowly defined by and limited to the Western European version, which is constructed by and for White people and negates the historic participation of Black people as creators of STEM knowledge (Bullock, 2017;Le & Matias, 2018;Mensah & Jackson, 2018;Mutegi, 2011). One result of this is people of color are absent as STEM producers in K-12 and higher education curriculum leaving the illusion for both mainstream and non-mainstream students' that people of color are not contributors nor are worthy of discussing (Walls, 2011;Mutegi, 2011). ...
... Mainstream science education literature (like other STEM disciplines) uses deficit language to describe Black students' academic engagement and outcomes (Battey & Leyva, 2016). This line of literature has led scholars who want to challenge mainstream education research with the additional task to prove that Black students are brilliant (Gholson & Wilkes, 2017;Leonard & Martin, 2013;Mutegi, 2011Mutegi, , 2013Ridgeway & McGee, 2018) since Black students are most likely to have their brilliance go unrecognized (Berry, 2008;Martin, 2009;Walls, 2011). Scholars have argued that deficit-oriented stereotypes have harmful impacts on Black students, which, in turn, are used as rationales to determine who will gain access to quality STEM experiences and how students' participation is interpreted (Bullock, 2017;Gholson & Wilkes, 2017). ...
... These conflicting narratives are problematic because mainstream education research, which is heavily influenced by White, middle class ideologies, forcibly measures communities of color against those White middle class ideologies. Thereby, nonmainstream groups' cultural norms are devalued (Mutegi, 2011(Mutegi, , 2013Seriki, 2018, Walls, 2011Yosso, 2005). ...
... As a Black STEM education researcher, I find challenging mainstream STEM education to be difficult at times because: (1) Black students are depicted as low performing and disengaged science learners (Mutegi, 2011(Mutegi, , 2013; (2) Black students' families and communities are devalued and dehumanized (Duncan, 2005;Gholson & Wilkes, 2017;Ridgeway & Yerrick, 2016); and (3) STEM is narrowly defined by and limited to the Western European version, which is constructed by and for White people and negates the historic participation of Black people as creators of STEM knowledge (Bullock, 2017;Le & Matias, 2018;Mensah & Jackson, 2018;Mutegi, 2011). One result of this is people of color are absent as STEM producers in K-12 and higher education curriculum leaving the illusion for both mainstream and non-mainstream students' that people of color are not contributors nor are worthy of discussing (Walls, 2011;Mutegi, 2011). ...
... Mainstream science education literature (like other STEM disciplines) uses deficit language to describe Black students' academic engagement and outcomes (Battey & Leyva, 2016). This line of literature has led scholars who want to challenge mainstream education research with the additional task to prove that Black students are brilliant (Gholson & Wilkes, 2017;Leonard & Martin, 2013;Mutegi, 2011Mutegi, , 2013Ridgeway & McGee, 2018) since Black students are most likely to have their brilliance go unrecognized (Berry, 2008;Martin, 2009;Walls, 2011). Scholars have argued that deficit-oriented stereotypes have harmful impacts on Black students, which, in turn, are used as rationales to determine who will gain access to quality STEM experiences and how students' participation is interpreted (Bullock, 2017;Gholson & Wilkes, 2017). ...
Article
This essay shares a personal narrative from a Black woman STEM education researcher whose experiences living in poverty positively impacted her childhood and provided her with skills and strategies to navigate academia. The author's lived experiences have influenced her social justice research agenda aimed at combating social inequities. Her use of narrative is intended to provide insight for other researchers of color who may share similar experiences with their participants. Ultimately, her goal is to disrupt deficit narratives about communities of color living in poverty, which typically fail to address their systematic disenfranchisement, by providing a counter-narrative and descriptions of her lived experiences with STEM.
... In education this presents in schooling where Black students are framed with deficit lens and often positioned to be less capable than their non-Black counterparts, especially in science (Mutegi 2013). Language such as "at risk" and, in certain contexts, "urban students" positions Black and Brown students as lacking in intellect, discipline, stable homes, etc., as impediments to success in the classroom, "the Black is constructed as always already Problem-as non-Human, inherently uneducable, or at very least, unworthy of education." ...
... WMS has been built on foundations of coloniality, antiblackness, white supremacy and capitalism, all of which have been detrimental to Black communities and Black people (i.e., Ideland 2018). As Jomo Mutegi (2013) points out, the social construction of race that positions people of African descent as inferior has its roots in WMS. In education, this results in racial stereotypes that present grave barriers to Black students' pursuit of science from early grades through postsecondary education. ...
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Building on Miles and Roby’s notion of a Black liberatory education where freedom includes experiencing Black joy, this forum article further articulates BlackJoy as a framework for designing research-to-practice spaces that centre Black liberation and flourishing for authentically equitable learning engagements and to counter ongoing deficit narratives and corresponding oppressions that Black and other racialized/minoritized learners experience in schools and other learning environments. The BlackJoy heuristic has four key tenets: Black Excellence, Black Inventiveness, Black Kinship and Black Aesthetics. Data and vignettes from prior research projects will be described of examples of BlackJoy in education and used as a point of departure discussions about the design of research and learning environments that cultivate BlackJoy and expanded ways to think about evidences of learning.
... Carlone and Johnson integrated the concept of cultural production to explain this position, pointing to sociohistorical legacies of science as well as the historical and political meanings that Women of Color navigate with their social identities. Although the authors' discussion of cultural production is useful to situate the recognition component of science identity, we argue that their engagement with a critical systemic lens has several limitations, some of which mirror Mutegi's (2013) concerns. For one, Carlone and Johnson focused on naming oppressive acts associated with sexism or racism at an individual level without fully attending to systemic modes of domination, leaving room for a deeper interrogation of how systems of oppression shape identity development. ...
... Sociocultural theories represent another lens used to examine science identity development in higher education (e.g., Brandt, 2008;Mutegi, 2013). Chiefly drawing from educational psychology and social psychology, sociocultural theories describe an individual's learning and development as embedded processes within social environments where one engages with other people, objects, and events (Vygotsky, 1998). ...
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Scholars have employed a variety of theoretical perspectives to explore the identity development of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students. While extant theoretical and conceptual frameworks (e.g., science identity, sociocultural perspectives, and critical theories) separately account for individual, institutional, and societal considerations that shape STEM students' disciplinary identity development, scholars have described a need for asset-based theoretical perspectives that counter deficit-based narratives of student experiences. In this paper, we extend the concept of funds of identity to STEM educational research and pedagogy, proposing funds of science identity (FSI) as an asset-based framework for research, pedagogy, and praxis. In three dimensions, FSI outlines transformative possibilities for STEM faculty and staff to honor and incorporate students' lived experiences and social identities, contend with injustices by creating identity-affirming spaces, and disrupt structures of disciplinary and societal oppression. When applied in research and praxis, FSI is a framework that allows for an asset-based exploration of undergraduate STEM students' disciplinary identity development while also actively considering and critiquing the systems of power governing students' lived realities. To conclude, we discuss methodological and practical implications related to using FSI and advancing justice-oriented student development in STEM disciplines.
... So, while some may read Aliyah's experience as a standard case of poor classroom management, we read this vignette as one instance in a myriad of those that criminalize Black children and marginalize them out of science through the perpetuation of racially hostile learning environments that deter Black students from science fields and majors in higher education. While past, mainstream research has largely regarded STEM disciplines as objective, apolitical, and ahistorical subjects (Mutegi, 2013), we conceive that the way Black learners experience science are violent given the ideologies and practices of science teachers and the undergirding culture of the learning itself. The excessive attention of controlling Black students' behavior and maintaining discipline is tied to chattel slavery (Hines-Datiri & Carter Andrews, 2020; Morris, 2016), with Black people not being viewed as brilliant human beings capable of innovation and science inquiry. ...
... L. Gholson & Martin, 2019;Martin et al., 2019). Rather, it looks like science teachers, science teacher educators, and science education structures taking up Afrocentric and Black cultural perspectives regarding identity, thoughts, behaviors, and performance that honor rather than dispute, encourage rather than dissuade, and empower Blackness rather than attempting to kill it (Mutegi, 2013;Mutegi et al., 2019). The Black body would thus be free to move about in classrooms full of science lab equipment, tools, and other resources when needed, trusting that there is good reason for these children to fully access and engage all types of scientific equipment and technologies (e.g., Bullock, 2017). ...
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This paper calls for a critical reimagination of science epistemology and praxis by advocating for a move toward Black liberation in and through K-12 science education. This call is driven by our desires as authors to foster a future of K-12 science teaching and learning that centers, embraces, and promotes historical and contemporary Black scientific innovation and creativity through practices that redress structural anti-Black racism and its implications on Black existence and life. Black Liberatory K-12 Science Education (BLKSE) names the existing challenges with cultivating and empowering Black minds in and through science as a result of anti-Black ideologies that ground and govern K-12 science access, teaching and learning. In naming said challenges as the manifestations of anti-Black ideologies, we shed light on the roles of K-12 science teachers and science teacher education regarding the treatment of Black students given oppressive policies and practices that fail to recognize Black brilliance and innovation. By advocating for a push toward BLKSE, we offer guiding concepts we feel are necessary to begin the process of rooting out anti-Blackness; a process that centers a holistic, heterogenous form of Blackness at the crux of science inquiry and understanding. As a result of this perspec- tive, BLKSE embraces the beauty and creativity of Black youth, naming their positions and ideas as forms of scientific knowledge and inquiry, while disrupting existing mainstream paradigms and practices in science education. Implications for ways to work toward BLKSE in K-12 science teaching and teacher education are provided.
... An example of this is the common practice of pulling out English language learners for extra help during science or engineering time or including engineering only in academically gifted programs where minoritized students are vastly under-represented (Robinson et al., 2018). Black and Brown children are usually deemed sub-knowers in classrooms (Mills, 1997;Mutegi, 2013;Pohlhaus, 2017), yet child development studies since the 1950s demonstrate faster maturation rates and higher scores on intelligence and motor-skill tests of Black babies when compared with the performance of White babies on the same measures (Delpit, 2012). ''There is no 'achievement gap' at birth-at least not one that favors European American children'' (Delpit, 2012, p. 5). ...
... We focus on everyday practices, instructional moves, and teacher commitments that co-created meanings of knowledge, knowledge production, and knowledge producer that were meaningful to the children and meaningful to engineering as a 1 The label of ''urban school'' has come to mean, problematically, any schools serving mostly Black children, regardless of geographic location (Milner, 2012). The label could mask important race-based demographics, histories, and geographies (Mutegi, 2013). Following Milner (2012), we label the school in this study urban emergent, which include schools located in a mid-size city, typically experiencing ''some of the same characteristics and sometimes challenges of urban intensive schools and districts'' (p. ...
... The importance of context means that the results of surveys on self-efficacy and identity in Blacks might show variations when explored at an HBCU as opposed to a predominantly White institution (PWI). Mutegi's (2013) science education article titled "'Life's first need is for us to be realistic' and other reasons for examining the sociocultural construction of race in the science performance of African American students," begins with an example that highlights the impact of negative verbal persuasion from a teacher who succumbs to assumptions about African Americans. Even though this teacher believed that the student was capable, his low expectations and stereotypic assumptions led him to suggest "Malcolm, one of life's first needs is for us to be realistic... ...
... An individual with nondirectional motivation is motivated by accuracy (Molden & Higgins, 2005); this could assume the need for accurate perception of one's self-efficacy or one's place in the scientific community. Thus, results from questions that gauge this expectancy could be the result of either a perceived accuracy motivation about oneself or closure motivation that leads one to consider, "Life's first need is for us to be realistic" (Mutegi, 2013). ...
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This study is part of a larger research that explores the creation of an instrument to capture the social and cultural factors that affect Black students’ persistence in STEM. Most research on self-efficacy in the science education literature were either done at predominantly White institutions, during summer programs for students of color, or on predominantly White populations. This study provides insights into self-efficacy indicators at an institution that was specifically created to consider the social, cultural, and historical implications for educating Blacks in STEM. One hundred sixty-four undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory biology course at an Historically Black College and University completed a questionnaire. The survey addressed the hypothesized factors—expectancy, self-efficacy, familial self-efficacy, cognitive self-efficacy, and commitment. The results highlight the importance of science identity and familial sources of vicarious experiences as important indicators of persistence and performance in STEM. The importance of social and cultural factors for Black students’ persistence in STEM is underscored.
... STEM departments' legacy of exclusionary practices continues to shape toxic and discriminatory educational experiences for the URM ecosystem, that is students, staff, faculty, and administrators (McGee, 2020), that become evident through the voices of those who inhabit these racially hostile STEM spaces. They illuminate themes that emphasize the racially hierarchical nature of postsecondary STEM that honors Whiteness, masculinity, and (upper-)middle-class knowledge (Battey & Leyva, 2016;Mutegi, 2013). Madden et al. (2019) succinctly characterize STEM as an instantiation of White institutional space: Such spaces are characterized by (1) the exclusion of those who are not white from positions of power, (2) the development of a white frame that organizes the logic of these institutions and normalizes white racial superiority, (3) the historical construction of a curricular model based on the thinking of white elites, and (4) the assertion of knowledge and knowledge production as neutral and unconnected to power relations. ...
... Much of the research on and discussion of the plight, experiences, and outcomes of URM students in STEM education have centered on personal experiences of discriminatory behaviors and practices. STEM researchers, including myself, have detailed countless incidents of racial microaggressions, racial stereotyping, and other forms of racialized bias in our field (Alexander & Hermann, 2016;Brown et al., 2016;Mutegi, 2013). Many studies outline the omnipresent racial stereotypes that devalue the intellectual ability of URMs in STEM departments but give less attention to the discriminatory culture of their STEM departments that exacerbates the consequences of being racialized (Carter et al., 2019;McGee, 2016). ...
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The racialized structure of STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) higher education maintains gross inequities that are illustrative of structural racism, which both informs and is reinforced by discriminatory beliefs, policies, values, and distribution of resources. Thus, an examination into structural racism in STEM is needed to expose the marginalization of underrepresented groups in STEM and to improve understanding of the STEM policies, practices, and procedures that allow the foundation of racism to remain intact. I argue that, even at the top of the education hierarchy, Black STEM doctorate students and PhD degree holders consistently endure the racist residue of higher education institutions and STEM employers. Thus, this manuscript also discusses how universities institutionalize diversity mentoring programs designed mostly to fix (read “assimilate”) underrepresented students of color while ignoring or minimizing the role of the STEM departments in creating racially hostile work and educational spaces. I argue that, without a critical examination of the structural racism omnipresent in the STEM, progress in racially diversifying STEM will continue at a snail’s pace.
... Marginalization of Black, Latinx, and Native American students can be attributed to several factors at different stages from preparation to recruitment to retention. When compared to other disciplines, students of color are more likely to experience being underprepared for or deterred from STEM disciplines in K-12 spaces (Mutegi, 2013). Students from underrepresented populations often find the environments in engineering programs, including interactions with faculty and peers, unwelcoming (McGee, 2016;Robinson, McGee, Bentley, Houston, & Botchway, 2016). ...
... We have found such a critical race critique throughout STEM education research (McGee, 2016;Mutegi, 2013;Ridgeway & McGee, 2018;Ridgeway & Yerrick, 2016;Rosa & Mensah, 2016) particularly related to science and mathematics education reform. Critical race awareness and recognition of racial disparities can and should permeate conversations about diversity in engineering, but how do we initiate these conversations? ...
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Engineering education in the United States has been accused of favoring White men at the exclusion of those traditionally underrepresented in engineering. However, contrary to the culturally responsive literature addressing approaches to “colorblindness,” engineering faculty believe they should treat all students equally. This study explored conceptions of equity and privilege present within the culture of engineering education, particularly the White male population. This longitudinal qualitative study investigated the experiences of one longtime engineering professor, an insider to the culture of engineering confronted with conceptions of his own privilege. We analyzed interview, focus group, and field note data to evaluate shifts in our participant's perspective while he was enrolled in a doctoral program that challenged his views of race, privilege, and equity. Our participant was initially opposed to conceptions of his own privilege. Through repeated challenges to his beliefs about privilege coupled with reflections on his experiences and positioning in society, his beliefs shifted toward recognizing inequities based on class and race. In a discipline with an overrepresentation of White men, there can be resistance to addressing topics of equity and privilege. However, it is possible for engineering educators, despite their race and gender, to change their beliefs related to the culture of engineering education and to address inequities within engineering departments and classrooms.
... In addition to studies that foreground sociocultural dynamics are those studies that foreground racism as a specific sociocultural dynamic to explain STEM career attainment. A strong case has been made for the importance of foregrounding racism in educational research in general (Lee, 2003) and in science education research in particular (Mutegi, 2013;Mutegi, Phelps-Moultrie, & Pitts Bannister, 2018). ...
... It should not be missed that the experiential disparity described by Hacker as well as that observed in the present study is grounded in systemic racism. In a theoretical essay on the science education of learners of African descent,Mutegi (2013) underscores the centrality of systemic racism and challenges us to conduct research that foregrounds systemic racism in its theoretical framing. The present study takes up that challenge by focusing on microaggressions as one likely contributor to disparate experiences. ...
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This mixed methods study reports data from the implementation of a 2‐week nanotechnology camp for secondary level students. The camp, Nanotechnology Experiences for Students and Teachers, had the overarching goal of increasing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) interest among the next generation of potential STEM professionals. Statistical pre‐ and postsurvey data indicate that overall the camp was successful in fostering increased STEM interest among participants. However, early analysis of ethnographic data showed that African American students were observed to have radically different experiences than the non‐African American students. To better understand why the camp yielded such divergent outcomes, we examined ethnographic data focusing specifically on incidents of microaggressions. We were particularly interested in the impact that microaggressions had on African American students’ camp experience and learning. Our data show that microaggressions were pervasive; they came from students, instructors, and the environment; and in response, African American students adopted detachment‐coping strategies. Together these factors worked against African American students’ success. We conclude with suggestions for practice.
... An important direction for future research is understanding the structural mechanisms that may explain why students who identify with underrepresented groups in science are more likely to exhibit moderate science motivation. Although the long-term implications for STEM persistence of such a motivational profile may partially explain the lack of representation of URM students in STEM careers, understanding how sociocultural views of race or ethnicity play into the messages students receive both before and during college and how these messages influence students' motivation is crucial (Eccles, 2009;Mutegi, 2013). ...
... Future research should focus on examining whether there are more nuanced differences. Additionally, we were not able to examine how or why racial/ethnic differences in science motivation profile membership materialized in this study, which is a very important yet often overlooked question (Mutegi, 2013). Indeed, a variety of barriers exist that may hinder the development of science motivation beliefs for groups that are underrepresented in science and STEM more broadly. ...
Article
Despite efforts to attract and maintain diverse students in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) pipeline, issues with attrition from undergraduate STEM majors persist. The aim of this study was to examine how undergraduate science students’ competence beliefs, task values, and perceived costs in science combine into motivational profiles and to consider how such profiles relate to short‐term and long‐term persistence outcomes in STEM. We also examined the relations between underrepresented group membership and profile membership. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three profiles that characterized 600 participants’ motivation during their first semester in college: Moderate All, Very High Competence/Values‐Low Effort Cost, and High Competence/Values‐Moderate Low Costs. The Moderate All profile was associated with the completion of fewer STEM courses and lower STEM grade point averages relative to the other profiles after 1 and 4 years of college. Furthermore, underrepresented minority students were overrepresented in the Moderate All profile. Findings contribute to our understanding of how science competence beliefs, task values, and perceived costs may coexist and what combinations of these variables may be adaptive or deleterious for STEM persistence and achievement.
... How do normal life transitions affect one's status as an "urban" youth? The urban construct is not an unproblematic one, especially in educational research (Milner IV, 2012;Mutegi, 2013). So, in some ways, the authors' failure to operationalize the urban construct reflects a problem that pervades educational research. ...
... One consequence of failing to adequately operationalize this key construct, is that the authors allow "urban" to be read as a euphemism, which is a problematic tendency in educational scholarship (Hilliard, 1978(Hilliard, , 1988Mutegi, 2013;Watson, 2011). A second consequence is that "urbanness" is treated as a fixed characteristic. ...
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Background Although there has been a pronounced growth in hip-hop-based pedagogy (HHBP) scholarship in recent years, there has not been a concomitant critique of this growing body of work. As a consequence, much of this scholarship is best characterized as advocacy of HHBP. Purpose/Objective The objective of this article is to promote critical discourse around the conceptualization and implementation of HHBP by (a) identifying a set of challenges presented in the conceptualization of HHBP scholarship, (b) describing the narrative that these challenges converge to support, and (c) suggesting an alternative narrative aimed at fostering a more empowering use of HHBP. Research Design To accomplish this objective, we provide an in-depth critique of Emdin and Lee's (2012) article, “Hip-hop, the ‘Obama effect,’ and urban science education.” Through this critique, we first identify eight challenges posed by the authors’ argument, as well as the narrative that is the foundation of this argument. Conclusions/Recommendations We conclude by presenting an alternate narrative of hip-hop as an instrument of systemic racism and offering suggestions as to how HHBP can be used in both research and practice to both avoid and counter systemic racism.
... 370) More recently, Erduran (2014) claimed that the colonial heritage of science should be included in the teaching of NoS, in order to increase the complexity of understanding science as a cultural, historical practice. Furthermore, Noblit (2013), as well as Mutegi (2013), encouraged us as researchers to ask how the colonial history and ways of thinking are still a context for current affairs, not least in science education. ...
... Still, I wonder how the discourse of coloniality is impacting the science class. Without claims about how textbook messages are negotiated in Breality,^I intend to further discuss how this cultural-historical legacy of science is discursively constructing Bthe science student.^This is done by drawing on previous studies on cultural understandings of different Bkinds of^students, with different national origins and different colors of their skins (Ideland et al. 2011;Ideland and Malmberg 2012;Kirchgasler 2017;Mutegi 2013). The question is how the power technology of coloniality affects the idea of Bthe science student^in terms of race and nationality. ...
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This article aims to analyze how science is discursively attached to certain parts of the world and certain “kinds of people,” i.e., how scientific knowledge is culturally connected to the West and to whiteness. In focus is how the power technology of coloniality organizes scientific content in textbooks as well as how science students are met in the classroom. The empirical data consist of Swedish science textbooks. The analysis is guided by three questions: (1) if and how the colonial history of science is described in Swedish textbooks; (2) how history of science is described; (3) how the global South is represented. The analysis focuses on both what is said and what is unsaid, recurrent narratives, and cultural silences. To discuss how coloniality is organizing the idea of science eduation in terms of the science learner, previous studies are considered. The concepts of power/knowledge, epistemic violence, and coloniality are used to analyze how notions of scientific rationality and modernity are deeply entangled with a colonial way of seeing the world. The analysis shows that the colonial legacy of science and technology is not present in the textbooks. More evident is the talk about science as development. I claim that discourses on scientific development block out stories problematizing the violence done in the name of science. Furthermore, drawing on earlier classroom studies, I examine how the power of coloniality organize how students of color are met and taught, e.g., they are seen as in need of moral fostering rather than as scientific literate persons.
... McGee found that Black STEM doctoral students and Ph.D. degree holders consistently face systemic racially hostile work and educational places within higher learning institutions, though it mostly goes unnoticed (McGee, 2020). Madden et al. (2019) characterize higher education institutions as institutionally White places, where a racial hierarchy exists to cultivate Whiteness, masculinity, and upper-middle-class knowledge (Battey & Leyva, 2016;Madden, 2019;Mutegi, 2013). ...
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With the innovation and integration of technology within society, post-secondary education has adapted by offering online classes. This has allowed university students to obtain their degrees through digital learning. Benefits such as reduced costs, flexibility, convenience, and greater accessibility have driven this change in modality. Yet, some advocates for online learning have not considered inequalities among minority students who do not have access to technology, face social isolation, greater technical difficulties, and lack support. Though these inequalities have been studied over the past two decades, the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed the landscape that university students operate in with emergency online learning. We conducted an exploratory survey to examine the impact of this shift on minority students. The results reveal the experiences and perceptions of university minority students within emergency online learning through the lens of the digital divide. We found accessibility was neither a positive nor a negative barrier that minority students face, and that minority students could not connect with peers socially. However, minority students encountered fewer technical difficulties and felt they were more technologically literate because of the shift online. This paper concludes with ideas for marketing educators and professionals, as well as directions for future research.
... These experiences promote the development of dissociated identities with STEM (Carlone & Johnson, 2007) that can restrict or even prevent Black women from pursuing STEM careers and opportunities due to perceivable differences in cultural practices (Parsons, 1997). Researchers attending to Black women in STEM must account for gender biases, like what was shared by former Harvard President Summers in a speech about innate differences between men and women accounting for the shortage of female scientists (Dobbs, 2005), and deficit positionings projected onto Black people in the STEM pipeline given the endemic nature of racism (Brown et al., 2016;Mutegi, 2013 The objective of this paper is to discuss the power and potential of artistic representations as metaphors in conceptualizing and disseminating research pertaining to marginalized populations in general, and more specifically, its power in promoting equitable and just narratives of Black women in STEM. ...
... Third, the authors acknowledge that racism is embedded in institutional structures, policies, and practices and moves toward identifying mechanisms by which racism is enacted through those structures, policies, and practices. This approach closely mirrors our own approach to addressing racism through science education research (e.g., Mutegi, 2013;Mutegi & Momanyi, 2020;Mutegi et al., 2018). ...
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Across a broad range of disciplines, research has found that inequity is systemic in the journal review process. Collectively, however, this study does not specifically examine racial inequity. Moreover, literature on the peer review process in science education, in particular, does not foreground equity as a subject of study. The present study aims to address this void by examining racial equity in the peer review process with a specific focus on journals in science education. Data are collected from lead editors of major science education journals through the form of interviews, focus groups, and critical arts-based methods. The two research questions driving data collection are (a) In what ways does the science education journal peer review process promote racial equity? and (b) How are science education journal editors’ perceptions of racial inequity reflected in the peer review process? McNair and colleagues’ racial equity framework informs the explorations of journal review in science education from the lead editors’ perspectives. From our findings, we offer four suggestions for moving toward greater racial equity in the science education peer review process.
... Ogunniyi 2011; Thomson 2003). However, whichever country the students of African ancestry are taught science, the control of the educational process continues to be under the control of White people (Mutegi 2013). When considering the role of identity, positionality, and sociocultural construction of race and ethnicity, the racial and/or ethnic dichotomy between students and teachers has major implications for the dynamics of what takes place in the science classroom. ...
... Abd-El-Khalick and Akerson (2007) make a compelling case for more explicit and disciplined use of theory in science education research in general. Mutegi (2013) adds to their work by suggesting that studies with people of African descent should invoke theoretical explanations that are comprehensive, socioculturally grounded and systemic. According to Mutegi, comprehensive explanations are those which treat the various manifestations of the Black condition as though they stem from a common cause. ...
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In the past twenty-five years, the number of science education researchers of African descent has grown substantially. With that growth, there has also been an increase in research examining science teaching and learning as it pertains to populations of African descent. The articles presented in this special issue offer a peak into this growing area of work. In the present commentary, we reflect on the articles published here to identify ways that this body of research can be moved forward. Specifically, we suggest that improved theorization of racism would extend our collective work by yielding new research questions, encouraging methodological innovation, and generating new insight into the science education of African people. Drawing from these articles we identify three ideas that can point our attention to the types of questions we should ask as we conduct research with Black participants. The first is that racism is enabled by (and enacted through) images that are held and promulgated about African people. The second is that racism is enabled by (and enacted through) spaces that are hostile towards African people. The third is that racism is enabled by (and enacted through) spaces that are hostile towards African people.
... Inequity in science education has been particularly persistent for Black students, the group of interest in this study (Brown and Green 2016;Mutegi 2013). An examination of what attracts the attention of high school Black students, the focus of this study, can inform what is incorporated into activities to implement NGSS-driven reform. ...
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Despite acknowledging issues of inequity within science education, practices, standards, and reform-guiding documents like the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) still fall short in actions that result in substantive and sustained progress in achieving their expressed goals and expectations. Issues of inequity in science education have been and are continuously documented for certain populations, Black students are of particular interest in this study. Using student responses to a survey to elicit the students’ nominations of teachers to receive a fictitious “Best Science Teacher Award” and reasons for their selections, we explored what captured Black high school students’ attention within their science educational experiences over time (N = 261). Deductive and inductive coding resulted in a category system which was synthesized into three dimensions: affect, praxis, and personal traits. These dimensions encapsulated what students deemed most important in supporting their nominations for the best science teacher award. Collectively, these dimensions suggested that emotion and pedagogy captured Black students’ attention. Additionally, the category system was used to derive student profiles which reflected the various reasons posited in a student’s rationale. Chi-square analyses of student profiles showed significant associations at p < .05 between student profiles and level taught by the nominated teacher (Cramer’s V of 0.783) and student profiles and survey respondent’s grade level (Cramer’s V of 0.480). Implications for studying attention as it relates to learning and the importance of incorporating student perceptions and experiences into policy, reform, and implementation efforts that ensue from each are discussed.
... Even more, teacher educators have to be aware of incoming perspectives teacher candidates hold and construct learning opportunities to promote awareness, openness, critique, and discussion of these views in teacher education coursework (Mensah 2009). This is especially important in providing Black children with knowledgeable teachers who can provide an intellectually rigorous education founded on the belief that Black children are genius and brilliant (Mutegi 2013). When "fairness and the belief that all children can learn" is not outlined specifically in teacher education, from the curriculum to the faculty, then teacher candidates will not recognize their role in fulfilling this goal, nor can teacher educators educate with purpose and be attuned to underlying discourses and ideologies that may hinder educational opportunities for them and their students. ...
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This study employs a qualitative case study approach of one elementary preservice teacher as a critique of neoliberal ideology on teacher education for equity and teaching Black children. The study specifically seeks to understand the role of science teacher education in the preparation of an elementary teacher candidate and her learning about sociocultural perspectives in science education and how her ideas about teaching converge within the larger framing of neoliberal ideology. Sociocultural perspectives are defined broadly to include diversity, equity, and identity with a neoliberal ideology to focus on how the teacher candidate talks about equity issues and the teaching of Black children. The case is constructed using multiple course artifacts collected over one semester (i.e., reflective papers, informal conversations, and a semi-structured interview). The case study discusses the importance of science teacher education in the preparation of teacher candidates for classroom practice where sociocultural perspectives are given attention and how neoliberal ideology may impact teacher candidates’ teaching and learning of science in culturally and racially diverse classrooms.
... In other writings on socially transformative curriculum (Mutegi, 2013b;Mutegi & Morton, 2012;Mutegi et al., 2018;Pitts Bannister et al., 2017), Mutegi and colleagues argue that science education for learners of African descent should prepare them to fight against systemic racism. Additionally, one area of mastery in this curricular approach is critique: wherein students work to apply their knowledge of science to an understanding of how systemic racism is established and maintained. ...
Article
Although the Next Generation Science Standards and the National Science Education Standards prioritize the production of critical consumers of science as an overarching goal, there is relatively little science education research aimed at fostering critical perspectives among science teachers. The purpose of this theory-generative study is to identify ideas that might serve as affordances or hindrances to the development of critical perspectives of science. Data were collected from 64, preservice elementary-level teachers, over the course of three semesters, using an open-ended survey. In these data, we identified three affordances and five hindrances that might influence our ability to foster critical perspectives. Among the affordances for fostering critical perspectives, we found that students (a) have a clear sense that cultural difference does not suggest inferiority, (b) have a clear sense that human bias influences science work, and (c) regard opinion as a factor shaping the work of scientists. Among the hindrances to fostering critical perspectives we found that students (d) regard Western science as superior to non-Western science, (e) do not have a strong working knowledge of the concept of “culture,” (f) regard science as an objective enterprise, (g) do not have a strong working knowledge of the concept of “objective,” and (h) have a one-sided view of scientific advancement. We conclude with suggestions for future research and for practice.
... individuals in the WOC umbrella. That is, accounting for nuanced differences in experience affects how raced women are seen and understood to be functional scientists (e.g., Carlone & Johnson, 2007) given social-culturalhistorical-political norms (Mutegi, 2013). Within-group stratification is seen in the research on WOC in STEM through examinations of numerical representation and ontological experiences of subgroups within the umbrella category. ...
Article
Despite national calls for increasing diversity and inclusion within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), inequitable recruitment and retention strategies remain commonplace. Inherent to many strategies is a lack of specificity in attending to the needs, desires, and cultures of individuals who are minoritized at the intersections of race, gender, and class through the use of broad, sweeping classifications such as “Women of Color.” Using critical race feminism, we engaged in a meta-synthesis of recent peer-reviewed, empirical STEM education articles that used the term “Women of Color” to identify (a) how the term “Women of Color” was defined, (b) who was and was not represented by this term and (c) and how research findings accounted for the presence of WOC. We provide a critical discussion of how terminology is used and a call for specificity in equitable and justice-oriented STEM programming.
... In other words, an individuals' self-perception in a field is intimately tied to how others see them within the field (Kim et al., 2018). A consequence of this social component of identity construction is the power of marginalizing stereotypes that preclude participation of individuals based on racial, gender, or family socioeconomic factors-stereotypes which are rooted in historical sociopolitical decisions in the construction of a white, masculine scientific elite (Mutegi, 2013;Schiebinger, 1989). Because "STEM" carries associations with socioeconomic privilege, whiteness, and masculinity, realization of a STEM identity is more fraught for individuals who fall outside of this demographic prototype. ...
Article
Identity development frameworks provide insight into why and to what extent individuals engage in STEM‐related activities. While studies of “STEM identity” often build off previously validated disciplinary and/or science identity frameworks, quantitative analyses of constructs that specifically measure STEM identity and its antecedents are scarce, making it challenging for researchers or practitioners to apply a measurement‐based perspective of participation in opportunities billed as “STEM.” In this study, we tested two expanded structural equation models of STEM identity development, building off extensions of science and disciplinary‐identity frameworks, that incorporated additional factors relevant to identity development: gender, ethnicity, home science support, parental education, and experiencing science talk in the home. Our models test theorized relationships between interest, sense of recognition, performance‐competence, and identity in the context of STEM with undergraduate students (N = 522) enrolled in introductory STEM courses at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Our findings support our measurement of STEM identity and its indicators, providing researchers with a predictive model associated with academic intentions across disciplinary domains in STEM. Further, our expanded model (i.e., Model I+) indicates significant contributions of participant gender, which has a larger indirect effect on STEM identity (β = 0.50) than the direct effect of STEM interest (β = 0.29), and of home support in relation to performance‐competence in academic contexts. Our model also posits a significant contribution of family science talk to sense of recognition as a STEM person, expanding our understandings of the important role of the home environment while challenging prior conceptions of science capital and habitus. We situate our results within a broader discussion regarding the validity of “STEM identity” as a concept and construct in the context of communities often marginalized in STEM fields.
... Axiologically, the researcher continues to reject the negative narratives and psychological antecedents used to describe African Americans (Mutegi, 2013) and has made it her goal to highlight the psychological and educational assets of Black people in her research studies (Quinlan, 2019;2020a;2020b). The researcher comes to this study with an assumption that racial and cultural representation has an impact on modelling. ...
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Going beyond ceremony to meaningfully integrate the lived experiences and narratives of Blacks particularly African Americans in the science curriculum, requires pragmatic research methodologies. K-12 science curriculum development neither considered the needs of African Americans nor were developed with Blacks in mind. Many questions arise related to what might be considered important for Blacks to know and moreover, who should make this determination, and from whose perspectives. This research used a multifaceted approach that was interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary in content and methodology. Considerations were given to social, cultural, historical, political, cognitive, and scientific lenses. This particular study explored considerations that led to the creation of two kinds of multimedia products – video clips and an animation. This research explores how the lived experiences and narratives of African American Gullah Geechee of the southern Coasts of the United States might be integrated into the science curriculum using video clips. This research also investigates the creation of a culturally representative animation to explicate considerations that were made when using the social, cultural, and historical underpinnings of Blacks in America. The research highlights the research methodologies and the meaning of representation, that have important implications for meaningful Black cultural representation in the science curriculum.
... Despite the strong evidence demonstrating achievement gaps across race in STEM degree persistence, few studies address ways to overcome this persistent problem (Mutegi, 2013). Findings from this study present a longitudinal view of the outcomes associated with participation in an intervention programs, contributing to the extant literature by addressing the key elements that could significantly increase URM students' odds of persisting in their STEM degree. ...
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Disparities in undergraduate STEM degree completion across different racial/ethnic groups have been a topic of increasing national concern. This study investigates the long-term outcomes of a STEM intervention program designed to increase the academic preparation, achievement and persistence of under-represented minority students.In particular, this study examines the extent to which participation in a STEM intervention program can impact the long-term persistence and graduation of first-time in college under-represented minority students. Using discrete-time competing risks analysis, results demonstrated that participants of the intervention program had a lower probability of drop out and higher probability of persisting in a STEM field of study compared to non-participants of the program. Additionally, descriptive results demonstrated that participants of the STEM intervention program had higher rates of graduation in any field compared to non-participants of the program, while program participation was not a significant predictor of six-year graduation. Findings highlight the importance of early academic preparation in Calculus and total credit accumulation to student success outcomes of URM students enrolled in STEM fields. Recommendations from this study focus on early intervention efforts, particularly in the areas of mathematics, that ensure URM students are adequately prepared with the skills needed to succeed in a STEM field of study.
... In addition, Buendía (2011) urges researchers and educators to further scrutinize exactly what we are signifying when we affix the construct urban to students, teachers, and populations. We argue the views of Buendía (2011), Mutegi (2013, and Posey-Maddox (2016) are relevant to discussions regarding the three contexts (e.g., urban, suburban, and rural) given the nation's shifting demographic, cultural, and geographic landscapes. The ever-increasing formation of racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically distinct pockets in our cities (e.g., segmentation) (Buendía 2011); the combination of amplified ethnic and racial heterogeneity, alongside class-based homogeneity (i.e., high and low SES) in our suburbs (Jones-Correa 2006); and the emergence of considerable, yet localized ethnic and racial diversity across rural America (Johnson 2006), is resulting in cultural, political, and economic change in these settings, rendering the typical discourse associated with each more and more problematic. ...
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There is an ever-growing body of science education research considering factors associated with teaching and learning in urban, suburban, and rural learning environments. However, there also appears to be a tendency to employ these contexts in euphemistic descriptions, when comparing of subsets of our society here in the USA. With this in mind, we attempted to determine the ways the terms urban, suburban, and rural, are used, defined, and characterized in science education research. This process included two developmental phases, which resulted in the development of our multi-dimensional analytical framework; a trial phase to test the framework; and finally an analytical phase in which we used this framework to examine a decade of science education research. The framework was constructed using emergent themes identified in education and government publications during the first two phases. It proved useful to assess whether urban, suburban, and rural were being explicitly, implicitly, or undefined in science education research. Results suggest scant evidence of the explicit defining/characterization of “urban,” “suburban,” and “rural.” This supported our suspicion that they are frequently being employed in the implication of subsets of our population, or as non-descript adjectives. Selected articles (n = 122) yielded (n = 28) explicit, (n = 60) implicit, and (n = 34) non-definitions of the terms. Such practices may have consequences with respect to educational policy and social justice concerns in science education. This is of particular interest with respect to the normalization of certain settings, cultures, behaviors, and students in science education.
... Critical scholars highlight the need for an explicit focus on African American students in science education due to their underrepresentation in STEM courses and careers (Mutegi, 2013). Mutegi purports that "invisibility literature" avoids directly addressing the role of race. ...
Article
Building on previous research that has described the underrepresentation of women of color in science fields, this paper presents case studies of Black middle school girls to examine how their science identities developed over space and time. Data were collected over the course of their seventh-grade year in both in school (science classroom) and out-of-school (afterschool club) contexts. The Multidimensionality of Black Girls' STEM Learning framework was used to explore the role of the afterschool club as a counterspace and how students made sense of science, science people, and their current and future selves based on their experiences in school and after school science contexts. All three participants struggled to see their future selves as scientists and made distinctions amongst being a science person, a person who likes science, or a scientist. They also negotiated views of science as active and hands-on in the afterschool setting while experiencing more passive and decontextualized forms of science in the formal school setting. Implications include a need to disrupt the culture of science and reimagine formal science education by learning from out-of-school time science programs that function as counterspaces to support Black girls' science identity. We conclude that there remains a need to draw attention to and understand the role of race and racism in science education so that Black girls' science identities are affirmed beyond counterspaces.
... However, excluding African Americans from textbooks and from the curriculum influences public perspectives. First, textbooks reflect society's rhetoric by contributing to the negative psychological antecedents that have been used to describe African Americans as unmotivated and inferior (Mutegi, 2013). Mokyr (2017) indicates that "if the subject is a statement of a fact, it seems reasonable that they consider the evidence, but as noted, how they interpret the evidence and when they consider it sufficient are functions of the rhetorical conventions of the society" (Mokyr, 2017, p. 48). ...
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This article explores the need to include the science capital and cultural capital of African Americans in science teaching and offers practical exemplars for inclusion in the K–12 science curriculum. The author discusses ideas in the evolution of culture that contribute to the science content and perspectives of current textbooks and their supporting educative curriculum materials. The exemplars provided shed light on the scientific concepts and ideas indicated by the scientific accomplishments and narratives of African American scientists and a notable doctor, Charles R. Drew. The practical considerations described have implications for the disciplinary core ideas in the Next Generation Science Standards, and for understanding the cultural, social, and political values inherent in the nature of science.
... The authors position this work alongside a cadre of scholars who have dedicated their careers to shifting the dominant narrative about Black children in STEM to one that has epistemological and ontological notions of the Black children's abilities to be successful in and with STEM learning (e.g., Berry, Thunder, & McClain, 2011;Bullock, Gholson, & Alexander, 2017;Gholson & Wilkes, 2017;Martin, 2009Martin, , 2012Martin, , 2019Jett, 2013Jett, , 2019Larnell, Bullock, & Jett, 2016;McGee, 2016;Mutegi, 2013;Ortiz et ah, 2018;Parsons, 2014;Ridgeway & McGee, 2018;Ridgeway & Yerrick, 2018;Stinson, 2006). Identity can be conceptualized as both a process and a product that is socially constructed within time, space, culture, and interaction with other people (Bruner, 1990;Ye, Varelas, & Guajardo, 2011). ...
Article
Drawing from the experiences of 14 Black students participating in a structured undergraduate research program at either an historically Black university or a predominantly White institution, the authors conducted a secondary data analysis on interview and journal prompt data using Yosso’s community cultural wealth framework to identify sources of capital for, and challenges to, STEM identity formation. This current undertaking is seen as a direct response to what works, in regards to the practices and conduits that directly influence the preparation and recruitment of Black students into STEM majors. This has noteworthy implications for the role that educators and other members of Black students’ communities contribute to their acquisition of cultural capital and subsequently how they develop STEM identities.
... Scholars taking a critical ecology informed perspective, while not always identity focused, incorporate identity constructs through the examination and critique of systematic structures and inequities that shape social identities and experiences (e.g., Joseph. Hailu, & Boston, 2017;Martin, 2009Martin, ,2012Mutegi, 2013;Parsons, 1997). These scholars intentionally situate racism and race at the crux of their examinations (with growing interest in intersectionality and gender-informed analyses), interrogating the relationship between Black students' engagement and success in STEM and the systematic structures of STEM. ...
Article
Research investigating Black student engagement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) postsecondary education connects their racial identity to STEM identity development and persistence. How Black students perceive and understand their Blackness in relationship to STEM learning environments to embody their identity; however, are not fully illuminated. This study presents insights from 44 Black undergraduate students studying STEM at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using phenomenological focus group interviews, analyzed through the Afropessimist principles of the afterlife of slavery and anti-Blackness, the authors find that Black students’ rationale for coping mechanisms employed is shaped by individualism and Black collectivism. They name this rationale Black X Consciousness, and provide implications for its importance in Black student STEM education research.
... Instead, I simply take oppression in and from STEM learning environments as well-established. Other scholars and researchers, includingBullock (2017),Esmonde and Booker (2016), Martin, Price, and Moore, (2019),Mutegi (2013), andParsons and Dorsey (2015) have provided both the theoretical and empirical grounding toward this claim. ...
... European languages have been retained as the language of instruction and assessment in most locations in Africa, as supported today by the World Bank's language-in-education policy (Mazrui 1997). Eurocentric, colonial interests continue to hold power over curricula in the USA as well, where little progress has been made to center the experiences and language of African American students in science and mathematics (Mutegi 2013). Thus, in both the USA and Kenya, schooling requires that students Bdivorce themselves from their culture^ (Emdin 2016 p. 13), in this case language, to embody Eurocentric ways of communicating and constructing knowledge. ...
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The authors draw on their own experiences as practitioners, one as a Biology and Agriculture teacher in Kenya, and the other as an educator in a summer science program serving African American youth in a city in the Midwestern United States. They document and analyze moments of language contestation and explore the use of the construct of neoindigenous to see in what ways it illuminates new understandings of continued colonization through language silencing in relation to science teaching and learning. A self-study methodology is used, which includes memory work, narrative, and conversation, and allows the researchers to fuse personal narrative and sociocultural exploration. What emerges are glimpses of what is lost and rendered valueless when English and the language of science are positioned as elite and correct. The research also shows the difficulty for educators of diminishing the power of science that is sustained by access to its language, even when they intentionally try to create hybrid spaces that value non-dominant student language.
... Within STEM education, there have been numerous scholars who have labored to explain the historical misuses of science against Black people (Green 2014). Mutegi (2013) went as far as to say that the sociocultural construction of race rooted in antebellum Western society has endured enough into the present day that it Bwarrant[s] a research agenda that accounts for the sociocultural construction of race in explaining African American science education^(p. 82). ...
This article explores the concept of anti-blackness as a theoretical construct that may offer new openings towards transformative and liberatory projects concerned with race and inequity in STEM education research, policy, and pedagogical reform. The article first unpacks the historic, economic, political, and therefore racialized contexts of the ubiquitous bundle of STEM education reforms known as “inquiry.” Then, an overview of key theoretical constructs from Black Studies is provided, along with a more specific overview of how the framing ideas of BlackCrit (Dumas and Ross 2016) allow for more incisive examinations of anti-blackness in school contexts. Through the illustrative example of inquiry, the author shows how a BlackCrit analytic of anti-blackness might reframe inquiry in STEM as an anti-black construct. Implications related to the teaching and learning of STEM are discussed.
... Black females contemporarily inherit historically rooted ascriptions related to gender, on one hand, and race, on the other; these connotations are primarily negative. For example, former Harvard President Summers contemplated in a speech that innate differences between men and women accounted, in part, for the shortage of female scientists (Dobbs, 2005) and many decades of research document the deficit positioning of Black people in the STEM pipeline from precollege to practicing professionals (B. A. Brown et al., 2016;Mutegi, 2011Mutegi, , 2013Parsons, 2008Parsons, , 2014. Within figured worlds and in the face of historically rooted ascriptions, identities are socially constructed with these constructions being influenced by the roles individuals assume and the activities they engage with others, peers and more knowledgeable individuals (Lave, 1991). ...
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Much of the research in science education that explores the influence of a racial and gendered identity on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) engagement for Black women situate their identities primarily as responses to the oppression and struggles they face in STEM. In this study, we use Phenomenological Variant Ecological Systems Theory as a strengths‐based approach to investigate 10 undergraduate Black women’s perceptions of race and gender on their STEM identity development and engagement. The qualitative analysis of interview and journal data revealed these women enter STEM experiences cognizant of their race and gender identities, naming them in isolation and intersectionally as a potential risk or as being protective, positive, and empowering for their STEM engagement. These findings illuminate the importance of Black women self‐authoring their identities in STEM contexts, both in naming what is salient and defining what those names mean, and have implications for STEM retention and matriculation efforts.
... Thus, while race may not "exist," people's experiences in society, science. and science education are racialized (Mutegi, 2013;Parsons, 2014). ...
Article
While current science teacher education frameworks designed to support high‐quality teaching have the potential to promote equitable science learning, they do not substantively engage with how racism organizes science teaching and learning. In this critical qualitative inquiry grounded in critical race theory and sociopolitical perspectives on teaching and learning, I analyzed the contradictions that emerged in science teaching practices that were both intended to support Student of Color science learning and engaged science‐specific colorblind ideologies. The critical race theory analysis demonstrated how science teaching practices such as connecting to students’ experiences, creating interests in science, representing scientists as role models, and scaffolding doing science maintain unequal racialized power relations between students and science when historical and contemporary legacies of racism are not directly confronted. I also propose a science teaching practice of “grappling with racism” as a possible transformative solution to disrupt racism in and through science teaching.
... Studies suggest that access is one significant cause, whether in the form of institutional biases or the simple lack of mentorship and community support in a form with which students of color identify (Simpson 2000;National Science Foundation 2010;Yerrick and Gilbert 2011;Salto et al. 2014). The other oft-mentioned cause is that of affective disengagement; students of color often lack the interest, self-efficacy, or identity views as participants in STEM to pursue upper-level courses, college majors, and careers due to a variety of influential factors (Chemers et al. 2011;Mutegi 2013). ...
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This research represents an unforeseen outcome of the authors’ National Science Foundation Innovation Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program grant in science education. The grant itself focused on the use of serious educational games (SEGs) in the science classroom, both during and after school, to teach science content and affect student perceptions of science and technology. This study consists of a Bayesian artificial neural network analysis, using the preintervention measures of affect, interest, personality, and cognitive ability, in members of both the treatment and comparison groups to generate the probabilities that students would opt into the treatment group or choose not to participate. It appears, from this sample and the sampling methods of other related studies within the field, that despite sometimes profound results from technology interventions in science, interventions are affecting only those who already have a strong interest in STEM due to the manner in which participants are recruited.
... When we invoke more specific terms, such as " African American, " it is to reflect the characterization used by other authors or to distinguish a particular group of African people from the global African family. This treatment is consistent with our other work in this area (Mutegi, 2011Mutegi, , 2013). education researchers. ...
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The underachievement and underrepresentation of African Americans in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines have been well documented. Efforts to improve the STEM education of African Americans continue to focus on relationships between teaching and learning and factors such as culture, race, power, class, learning preferences, cultural styles and language. Although this body of literature is deemed valuable, it fails to help STEM teacher educators and teachers critically assess other important factors such as pedagogy and curriculum. In this article, the authors argue that both pedagogy and curriculum should be centered on the social condition of African Americans – thus promoting mathematics learning and teaching that aim to improve African communities worldwide.
Article
Out of school time (OST) STEM opportunities are often presented as ways to support student achievement, understanding, and identity in STEM. Recent work has begun to explore how OST programs function within the STEM Learning Ecosystem, a holistic view of the various STEM learning opportunities available to youth in a given area. In order to increase understanding of how microcontexts impact the STEM Learning Ecosystem, this study explores the experiences and perspectives of three groups of participants in a network of after school STEM Clubs: youth participants, college student facilitators, and sponsor teachers. Based on interviews with all three groups, results of comparative case study analysis revealed two cases: Narrowed STEM and Expanded STEM. Youth in the Narrowed STEM case had traditional perspectives of STEM as hard, for smart people, and related to behavior; made only weak or no connections between STEM in different contexts; and had tentative STEM identities. Youth in the expanded STEM case had more active perspectives of STEM as exploration and problem solving, saw clear connections across contexts, and had decisive STEM identities. Critical Discourse Analysis was used to show how facilitators and club sponsors negotiated macro‐level discourses of STEM and urban education in ways that aligned with youth views and influenced interpretations of the STEM Club. We highlight a need for critical and multiscalar evaluation of STEM Learning Ecosystems, particularly in urban areas, so that learning opportunities are available to all students, particularly those from groups historically excluded from science and STEM.
Article
Research has recommended centering health disparities to make science instruction relevant to students from minoritized racial and ethnic groups. While promoted as a recent innovation, the repurposing of science instruction to improve the health of demographic groups has a longer history traceable to segregated and colonial schooling. Using a historicizing approach, this study explores how certain U.S. science classrooms have become clinics of preventative care aimed at transforming groups into healthy citizens. Analysis identifies how U.S. science education studies have used psychological, sociological, and anthropological lenses to divide students into populations, classifying some as needing intervention to improve their minds (e.g., basic health knowledge), home lives (e.g., daily habits), and cultural beliefs (e.g., attitudes toward science and medicine). Through systematic analysis of U.S. science education journals and sources cited therein, I map shifts over three periods: the rise of urban, segregated, and colonial schooling (1901–45), postwar desegregation and international development (1946–89), and equity reforms (1990–2021). Despite declines in deficit language, analysis suggests the intervention space of the science‐class‐as‐clinic still demarcates groups as not yet fully reasoning, self‐regulating, or agentic, and as needing the applied relevance of preventative health. Paradoxically, efforts to redress disparities may reinsert older distinctions by positing groups as educationally and medically at‐risk—implicitly locating inequities within students rather than the unjust systemic conditions they face. I conclude with implications for research and practice, highlighting approaches that do not treat educational and health inequities as problems to be fixed in the child, family, or community. (Open access here: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sce.21756)
Article
Scholars across disciplines and throughout PK‐20 education have argued that color‐blind ideology works to perpetuate racial inequities in education via policies, research, curriculum, instruction, and student‐teacher interactions. This study explores an underexamined issue in relation to color‐blind ideology in STEM education. Specifically, it examines how a sample of college science faculty members use color‐blind framings to make sense of the underrepresentation of Black, Indigenous, and Latinx students in their fields. Interviews were conducted with 42 professors (majority tenured/tenure‐track, white, male, and continuing generation to college) in a College of Sciences at a research‐intensive, historically white institution in the United States. Thematic analysis showed that while many faculty members implicated systemic racism in their sense making about the underrepresentation of racially minoritized students in STEM, the majority used color‐blind frames (abstract liberalism, cultural racism, and minimization of racism) by focusing on individual behaviors and choices, cultural deficits, under‐preparation, and poverty. Consistent with the research on color‐blind ideology, professors were able to explain racial phenomena without implicating race/racism, which allowed them to absolve themselves from responsibility in addressing racial inequality issues in higher education. Faculty members who made sense of underrepresentation through systemic racism framings tended to recognize that they had a role to play in ameliorating these issues for students of color. These findings have implications for future research and professional development efforts.
Article
In this paper, we outline how science teachers might engage in the work of creating educational equity. While acknowledging the historical inherent inequities associated with issues of access, opportunities to engage in science learning for individuals of marginalized identities (e.g., BIPOC individuals and women), and achievement, we broaden this definition to include social justice as a framework by which we can develop opportunities for the fostering of students' affinity identities with science. To this end, we draw on theorizations of equity within educational research, specifically discussed as excellence, equality, fairness, a zero‐sum game, and most recently, social justice. Additionally, we utilize McKinney de Royston and Nasir's (2017) Racialized Learning Ecologies framework. This framework provides a useful lens to notice the layers of (in)equity within education. We then extend this ecological model into science education and present three lenses (i.e., layers) through which equity operates within science teaching and learning. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of doing the work of equity, that is, recognizing, interpreting, and redressing inequity in science classrooms. Ultimately, we provide an actionable definition of equity that has the potential to facilitate transformative and socially just science teaching and learning.
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We describe programs developed and implemented at the University of Wisconsin–Madison Department of Chemistry aimed at increasing representation and improving outcomes for graduate students from underrepresented minority groups. We briefly describe our Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU), Chemistry Opportunities (CHOPS), Catalyst, and Bridge to the Chemistry Doctorate Programs. Our experiences have yielded both successes and failures that provide direction for future improvements and continuing efforts.
Article
Writing activities can function as powerful teaching tools in science education – but are their benefits realised equitably? The answer may depend in part on how teachers interpret and respond to student writing in light of societal stereotypes that link scientific competence, linguistic competence, and racial, ethnic, or gender identity. In this experiment, high school biology teachers (n = 70) in a U.S. state evaluated and gave feedback on a purported student writing sample. No main effect of student writer’s racialised/gendered identity was found; however, non-Hispanic White teachers gave lower ratings when the writing sample was attributed to a Latina female student rather than a non-Hispanic White male student. The reverse pattern was apparent in the ratings of Hispanic teachers and other teachers of colour. All teachers wrote generally similar feedback, but non-Hispanic teachers of colour and White teachers wrote shorter feedback to a Latina student when ‘her’ score was low, a relationship which did not appear in feedback written to a non-Hispanic White male student. Although most of these disparities did not exhibit statistical significance, many effect sizes were relatively large and may merit further study. Practical implications for equity in science education are discussed.
Article
The underrepresentation of high school students of color in advanced science courses and the need to increase racial diversity in science fields is well documented. The persistence of racial disparities in science suggests that factors influencing participation include and extend beyond those currently being explored. This study explores how high school students of color make sense of racialized narratives about who does and can do science in circulation in society and their lives, and how this shapes their positioning and identity construction in science. Using interviews and surveys this study examines youths' accounts of their racialized science experiences, including how they envision scientists, make sense of racial disparities in the science community, and navigate their positioning in science. In addition, this study examines how youths' sense of their science ability, as a salient aspect of science identity, shapes the forms of navigation accessible to them, and thus, the futures they imagine in science. By sharing the complexity of students' sense making and the tensions they express as they negotiate their personal goals, science experiences, and messages they receive from racialized narratives, findings highlight the disproportionate work youth of color in this study do, as well as their resilience to navigate racialized narratives in science. This research sheds light on the experiences of high school students of color at a time in their schooling when they are making decisions about who they can become and the possible futures available to them. Implications from this study promote centering race within a critical, sociocultural, and ecological context when exploring identity construction for youth of color in science. Furthermore, findings underscore the need to create learning experiences that provide opportunities for youth of color to author narratives for their own possibilities of belonging and becoming in science in order to support inclusive pathways.
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African American undergraduates’ decision to change from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors while enrolled at a predominantly White university was the focus of this study. Through open‐ended interviews, the students discussed circumstances leading to their nonpersistence. Commonly published reports on the lower percentages of graduates from this demographic, while useful, do not provide a comprehensive view of this underperformance. Therefore, it is necessary to divulge the experiences of the individuals accounted for in these statistics, requiring a methodological approach that captures and reports experiences from individuals’ vantage points. Actor–network theory (ANT) is a framework encouraging an understanding of the human experience through an identification of the complex networks and associated power dynamics that sustain and legitimize the systems in which they operate. According to ANT, individual's potential for achievement is directly related to their ability to successfully engage key actors, as well as successfully navigate the codes and structures that control access to power. Thus, ANT was used to examine the students’ experiences. Evidenced in their discussions were unresolved feelings around weak relations with faculty and peers, as well as being viewed through deficit models. These findings could be useful for interpreting the statistics representing the lower percentages of African American students in STEM.
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The proportion of Black, Latinx, and American Native individuals annually earning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) doctoral degrees in the United States (US) has been enduringly and inequitably low for decades compared to their White peers. Despite the intransigent connection between race and STEM doctoral outcomes, US STEM education policy documents typically fail to identify racism as influencing this racial inequity. This paper presents critical capital theory (CCT)—an integration of critical race theory, forms of capital, and fictive kinship—to give racism full explanatory power within the context of US STEM doctoral outcomes. CCT proposes that access to large and affluent social networks containing supportive individuals who have knowledge of how to successfully navigate institutions of power is currently core to STEM doctoral success. This access reinforces STEM identity and belonging, but has been and continues to be primarily preserved for White students via an ever‐evolving system of racism. CCT proposes systems supporting STEM faculty’s consistent provision of high‐quality mentorship experiences for all their students—coupled with accountability for providing this mentorship—would result in more equitable STEM doctoral outcomes.
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In this paper, we take the view that school classrooms are spaces that are constituted by complex power struggles (for voice, authenticity, and recognition), involving multiple layers of resistance and contestation between the “institution,” teachers and students, which can have profound implications for students’ science identity and participation. In particular, we ask what are the celebrated identity performances within science classes, how are these re/produced and/or contested, and by whom? Analyzing data from 9 months of observations of science classes with nine teachers and c. 200 students aged 11–15 from six London schools and 13 discussion groups with 59 students, we identify three dominant celebrated identity performances (“tick box” learning, behavioral compliance, and muscular intellect) and discuss the complex ways in which these are promulgated both institutionally and interpersonally by teachers and students, drawing out the implications for students’ performances of science. The paper concludes with reflections on the equity implications for science education policy and practice.
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Extant literature on the underrepresentation of African Americans in science-related careers has identified numerous factors that correlate with students' career considerations. While these correlations provide substantial insight, the tendency to infer cause is problematic. This position paper draws on data from an exploratory study to illustrate that alternative interpretations are probable and to advocate the need for a deeper understanding of the relationship between students' career considerations and known correlates. Data were collected from 87 African American, high school juniors and seniors. These data identify the careers they consider pursuing, their reasons for enrolling in advanced science courses and the influence of the advanced science course on their consideration of science-related careers. Findings suggest that African American students' consideration of science-related careers may precede enrollment in advanced science courses.
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At least since 1977, African Americans have been underrepresented in science related careers. Although researchers have identified a number of factors which correlate with students' career decisions, they have failed to explain how these factors are related to race. Moreover, this body of research has failed to consider the role of mathematics and science teachers' perceptions of African-American students. This study identifies and describes perceptions held by 49 pre-service mathematics and science teachers about mathematics and science ability of African-American students. Data were collected by means of a three-part, open-ended questionnaire. Findings indicate that over one-third of pre-service teachers are unaware that African Americans achieve below their peers in mathematics and science; they overwhelmingly place culpability for African-American students' achievement with the students and their communities; and they are largely unable to identify culturally relevant teaching strategies to address African-American students' achievement.
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We examine science learning and teaching as intercultural processes taking place at powered boundaries of race, culture, language, and subject matter. Through close analysis of a classroom event, we describe the ways in which a group of teachers and researchers came to understand the experience of an African American male student in a 7 th grade science class. The group developed a layered interpretation by unpacking subtle ways in which subject matter, student sense-making, and implicit structures of race, culture, and language based in Whiteness as privilege interacted to shape unfolding interactions. Building from their analyses, they also imagined pedagogical practices for disrupting racialized orders of inequality in the science classroom. In this article we examine science learning and teaching as intercultural processes taking place at powered boundaries of race, culture, language, and subject matter. Through close analysis of a classroom event, we describe the ways in which a group of teachers and researchers came to understand the experience of an African American male student in a 7 th grade science class. In their analysis, the group developed new interpretations of the student's participation. They did so by examining the ways that subject matter, student sense-making, and implicit structures of race, culture, and language based in Whiteness as privilege interact to influence what and who counts as scientifically knowledgeable in the science classroom (Harris, 1993/1995; Martin, 2009). Through their concerted interpretive work, the group came to see in very real ways how socio-historically structured inequalities live in present-day, moment-to-moment interactions in the science classroom.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This study examines elementary students' abilities to conduct science inquiry through their participation in an instructional intervention over a school year. The study involved 25 third and fourth grade students from six elementary schools representing diverse linguistic and cultural groups. Prior to and at the completion of the intervention, the students participated in elicitation sessions as they conducted a semistructured inquiry task on evaporation. The results indicate that students demonstrated enhanced abilities with some aspects of the inquiry task, but continued to have difficulties with other aspects of the task even after instruction. Although students from all demographic subgroups showed substantial gains, students from non-mainstream and less privileged backgrounds in science showed greater gains in inquiry abilities than their more privileged counterparts. The results contribute to the emerging literature on designing learning environments that foster science inquiry of elementary students from diverse backgrounds.
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Stereotype management is introduced to explain high achievement and resilience among 23 Black mathematics and engineering college students. Characterized as a tactical response to ubiquitous forms of racism and racialized experiences across school and non-school contexts, stereotype management emerged along overlapping paths of racial, gender, and mathematics identity development. Interviews revealed that although stereotype management facilitated success in these domains, the students maintained an intense and perpetual state of awareness that their racial identities and Blackness are undervalued and constantly under assault within mathematics and engineering contexts. With age development and maturity, the students progressed from being preoccupied with attempts to prove stereotypes wrong to adopting more self-defined reasons to achieve. The results suggest that stereotype threat is not deterministic.
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Women and minorities continue to be underrepresented in quantitatively based fields of study. Additionally, selection by all students of such majors is declining. Math/Science major choice is of concern in light of the occupational demands created by advancing technology as well as the potential gaps in occupational and economic attainment of women and minorities. This article reports the analysis of a longitudinal model of math/science major choice upon entrance to college for black and white, female and male students. The model was tested using a sample drawn from the "High School and Beyond" data base. The model included background characteristics of students, ability, and an array of high school experience factors to explain choice of quantitative major. Significant predictors of major choice for the subgroups included sophomore choice of major, mathematics attitudes, math and science completed by senior year, and various parental factors. However, there were differences across groups and the model explained nearly twice as much variance for the black male, black female, and white male subgroups compared with the white female subgroup. Recommendations include broadening our ways of researching migration into and out of the mathematics/science pipeline. Argument is made for a focus on success of students enrolled in low level college mathematics classes as a way of augmenting the mathematics/scientific pipeline.
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In the midst of discussions about improving education, teacher education, equity, and diversity, little has been done to make pedagogy a central area of investigation. This article attempts to challenge notions about the intersection of culture and teaching that rely solely on microanalytic or macroanalytic perspectives. Rather, the article attempts to build on the work done in both of these areas and proposes a culturally relevant theory of education. By raising questions about the location of the researcher in pedagogical research, the article attempts to explicate the theoretical framework of the author in the nexus of collaborative and reflexive research. The pedagogical practices of eight exemplary teachers of African-American students serve as the investigative "site." Their practices and reflections on those practices provide a way to define and recognize culturally relevant pedagogy.
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Ethnic minority students are at risk for school failure and show a heightened susceptibility to negative teacher expectancy effects. In the present study, whether the prejudiced attitudes of teachers relate to their expectations and the academic achievement of their students is examined. The prejudiced attitudes of 41 elementary school teachers were assessed via self-report and an Implicit Association Test. Teacher expectations and achievement scores for 434 students were obtained. Multilevel analyses showed no relations with the self-report measure of prejudiced attitudes. The implicit measure of teacher prejudiced attitudes, however, was found to explain differing ethnic achievement gap sizes across classrooms via teacher expectations. The results of this study also suggest that the use of implicit attitude measures may be important in educational research.
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Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and longitudinal data from the first three waves of the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88), we examined achievement and growth rates in precollege science by racial–ethnic and gender subgroups. We found socioeconomic status and previous grades strongly and positively related to students’ eighth-grade achievement across all racial–ethnic by gender subgroups. We also found locus-of-control to be strongly related to eighth-grade science achievement for all subgroups except Asian American males. In modeling the growth rate, we found that the quantity of science units completed in high school was the only consistent predictor of science growth rates across all racial–ethnic by gender subgroups. The relationships between individual-level factors and science growth rates differed greatly for the remaining individual-level variables, highlighting the need for further research that both disaggregates data by race–ethnicity and gender.
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Three experiments provided evidence that intergroup bias occurs automatically under minimal conditions, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998). In Experiment 1, participants more readily paired in-group names with pleasant words and out-group names with unpleasant words, even when they were experienced only with the in-group and had no preconceptions about the out-group. Participants in Experiment 2 likewise showed an automatic bias favoring the in-group, even when in-group/out-group exemplars were completely unfamiliar and identifiable only with the use of a heuristic. In Experiment 3, participants displayed a pro-in-group IAT bias following a minimal group manipulation. Taken together, the results demonstrate the ease with which intergroup bias emerges even in unlikely conditions.
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This paper describes and assesses the effectiveness of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). The Program is designed to increase the number of underrepresented minorities who pursue graduate and professional degrees in science and engineering. Until 1996 the program admitted African American students exclusively and the current study focuses only on students from that,group. The Meyerhoff students have achieved higher grade point averages, graduated in science and engineering at higher rates, and gained admittance to graduate schools at higher rates than multiple current and historical comparison samples. Student survey and interview data revealed that a number of program components were viewed as being especially important contributors to students' academic success: Program Community, Study Groups, Summer Bridge Program, Financial Support, Program Staff, and Research Internships and Mentors. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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In this study we investigated the lives and academic histories of eight students enrolled in an alternative-school program in a mid-sized Midwestern city. Through the triangulation of interviews, fieldnotes, local newspaper articles, artifacts such as student work and information provided in cumulative folders, and a battery of measures of cognitive performance in reading, we constructed a case history of each student and an ethnographic portrait of the middle-school program in which they were enrolled. We then compared and contrasted these case histories and the program portrait to cognitivist, socioculturalist, and macrostructuralist explanations of school failure. Our findings suggest that no single explanation comprehensively accounts for the range or complexity of each or of all eight students' life histories or current patterns of school behavior. Our observation of instances of engaging and disengaging instruction for the students in the alternative program also provided some insight into how to approach the development of curriculum and instruction for students who struggle in school for a wide variety of reasons.
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In this study of course offerings in mathematics and science and placement procedures in six high schools, three high schools that were identified as "excellent" through regression analyses were matched with "average" schools, with one pair each in upper-, middle-, and working-class districts. The study found differences in course patterns available to students and the procedures used to assign students to classes. Excellent schools and districts that were higher in social class offered more college-preparatory and advanced courses. Also, the process by which students in these schools and districts were placed in classes was more systematic; it included broader assessments of students' abilities and involved faculty and guidance counselors more actively. It is note-worthy that although the social class of the community was related to the structure of schools, the structure of counseling activities and the courses offered differed among schools in the same social-class communities.
Book
Much more than a "how-to/activities" book, this textbook gives students a strong background in the conceptual, theoretical, and philosophical issues in multicultural education. Cultural Diversity and Education is designed to help pre-service and in-service educators clarify the philosophical and definitional issues related to pluralistic education, derive a philosophical position, design and implement effective teaching strategies that reflect ethnic and cultural diversity, and prepare sound guidelines for multicultural programs and practices. This book describes actions that educators can take to institutionalize educational programs and practices related to ethnic and cultural diversity. The scope of this edition has been broadened to include a focus on gender, disability, and giftedness. The significant changes that were made in this edition necessitated that the title be changed. Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice, the title of this book for its three previous editions, no longer accurately describes its contents. Consequently, the title of the book was changed to better reflect the broader coverage of its content. For pre-service and in-service teachers, and anyone interested in educational diversity.
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This article reports on the results of a qualitative study of Black faculty working in counseling and counseling psychology programs. This investigation involved the use of semistructured interviews to explore the racial microaggressions Black faculty members reportedly experienced in academia. Results of the analysis indicated that 7 primary microaggression themes were perceived by the participants, including alternating feelings of invisibility and hypervisibility, receiving inadequate mentoring, and difficulties determining whether discrimination was race or gender based.
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The NSF Web site has a wealth of primary information on science and engineering, including education issues. In late June they put online one of the best features yet: an "enhanced" version of the "Science and Engineering Indicators 1998," published by the National Science Board.
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This book is about differences in intellectual capacity among people and groups and what those differences mean for America's future.(preface) The major purpose of this book] is to reveal the dramatic transformation that is currently in process in American society---a process that has created a new kind of class structure led by a "cognitive elite," itself a result of concentration and self-selection in those social pools well endowed with cognitive abilities. Herrnstein and Murray explore] the ways that low intelligence, independent of social, economic, or ethnic background, lies at the root of many of our social problems. The authors also demonstrate the truth of another taboo fact: that intelligence levels differ among ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(jacket)
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This article examines how stereotypes operate in the social construction of African Canadian males as “at risk” students. Cultural analysis and critical race theory are used to explain how the stereotypes of the youth as immigrant, fatherless, troublemaker, athlete, and underachiever contribute to their racialization and marginalization that in turn structure their learning processes, social opportunities, life chances, and educational outcomes. The article concludes by suggesting that addressing the stereotypes is not only a task for educators but also for society as a whole.
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This qualitative study addresses the link between urban high school teachers’ beliefs about their students’ preparedness to achieve success in science and the teachers’ reported curricular responses to those beliefs. Eight high school science teachers from schools representing a range of achievement levels were interviewed using semistructured, in-depth interview techniques. The findings suggest that teachers view science as a special subject that requires special qualities. Teachers saw their own students as largely lacking in those qualities needed for success in science and reported such modifications to the curriculum as “slowing down,” deemphasizing some topics, and reducing the depth of coverage.
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I contend that knowledge reflects both the reality observed as well as the subjectivity of the knower. The attempt to clearly distinguish the objective and subjective elements of knowledge, a key feature of mainstream Anglo-American epistemology, is inconsistent with the ways that human beings know. I use a historical case study of the construction and reconstruction of race between the late 19th century and the 1940s to document the ways in which the social, cultural, political, and historical contexts in which knowers are embedded influence the knowledge they construct and reconstruct. The final part of this article discusses the implications of the historical construction of race for transformative classroom teaching.