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The positive and negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction

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Abstract

Semantic differential items were reconfigured to assess relationship satisfaction across separate positive and negative attitude dimensions. Study 1 (N = 1,656) supported a 2-factor model for the Positive and Negative Semantic Differential (PN–SMD), as well as its convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity over the 16-item Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI; J. L. Funk & R. D. Rogge, 2007) using known correlates of relationship satisfaction as criteria. Study 2 (N = 89) replicated the convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity findings of Study 1 using different criterion measures, the CSI, a bipolar semantic differential measure designed for assessing relationship satisfaction, and an existing 2-dimensional measure of relationship satisfaction. The authors demonstrated across studies that the PN–SMD captures criterion-relevant information about ambivalence versus indifference toward the relationship—associations that are only detectable when using a 2-dimensional satisfaction measure.

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... Based on the existing literature on cybercrime and cyberbullying, we expected the CRIT to be positively related to problematic internet usage [3,35,70] and negative relationship satisfaction [35,71,72]. Hence, the following well-established measures were used: the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) [73][74][75][76] and the Negative Semantic Dimension (NSD) from the Positive and Negative Semantic Dimensions of Relationship Satisfaction (PN-SMD) scale [77]. Again based on the literature, we expected the eight-item CRIT to be negatively related to self-esteem [33,78], resilience [79][80][81] and positive relationship satisfaction [35,71,72]. ...
... Again based on the literature, we expected the eight-item CRIT to be negatively related to self-esteem [33,78], resilience [79][80][81] and positive relationship satisfaction [35,71,72]. The following construal-level measures were used: the Rosenberg Self-esteem (RSE) scale [82][83][84][85], the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) [86,87] and the Positive Semantic Dimension (PSD) from the PN-SMD scale [77]. The above analyses were conducted with IBM SPSS version 26.0 and the lavaan package version 0.6-5 [88] in R (3.6.3). ...
... The PN-SMD comprises 14 items using an 8-point Likert-type scale (from 0 = not at all to 7 = completely) to measure two dimensions related to Positive Semantic Dimension (PSD) (items 1 to 7, α = 0.90), e.g., positive qualities like 'enjoyable' and 'friendly', and Negative Semantic Dimension (NSD) (items 8 to 14, α = 0.92), i.e., negative qualities like 'discouraging' and 'miserable'. Higher scores indicate high levels of positive and negative relationship satisfaction, respectively [77]. ...
Article
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Two studies were conducted to support the development of an eight-item Cybercrime Rapid Identification Tool (CRIT) and evaluate the psychometric properties of the proposed scale on samples of secondary school and university students. The CRIT was developed and evaluated in two cross-sectional studies with 2044 respondents from Hong Kong and China. Study 1 recruited 1533 secondary school students from Hong Kong with a mean age of 14.91 (SD = 1.77) years, and Study 2 recruited 511 university students from mainland China with a mean age of 20.41 (SD = 2.49) years. A stepwise confirmatory factor analytical approach was taken with further verification by exploratory factor analysis based on different samples. Factorial validity was further verified using confirmatory factor analysis. The analyses supported an eight-item scale with a two-factor structure. The eight-item CRIT was found to possess good internal consistency and concurrent validity. The studies offer promising support for the CRIT. It has the potential to advance epistemological methods and clinical research related to cybercrime prevention.
... Relational assessment as close relationships includes erotic and sexual passion experiences, feelings of depression towards love and intimacy that somehow can be expressed and shared, which then gives a substantially significant effects on the systems thinking within the workplace of an organization and undeniably considered as part of the fundamental characteristics of human beings [8]. Generally, relational assessment has been found to be integral piece of systems thinking that desires to maintain one's intimate relationship for a strong and positive relationship satisfaction to the organization [13]. Organizational Learning. ...
... It is something that have to work on, and it is absolutely essential to be supportive of all the efforts of the partner in a successful relationship. The generated best fit model on systems thinking as shown in figure 2 conforms with the idea in one study [13] concluding that generally, relational assessment has been found to be integral piece of systems thinking that desires to maintain one's intimate relationship for a strong and positive relationship satisfaction to the organization. This justifies why relational assessment is the best predictor, among other exogenous variables, to systems thinking. ...
Article
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Abstarct : The study was conducted with the aim of determining the best fit model for systems thinking of women entrepreneurs in Region XI, Philippines, in the context of work culture, relational assessment and organizational learning. Four hundred twelve women entrepreneurs participated in the study. Five hypothesized models were tested to find out the best model, employing structural equation modeling. Results showed that all the exogenous variables: work culture, relational assessment and organizational learning have significant relationships with the endogenous variable systems thinking. However in the final analysis, only relational assessment came out to have direct effect on systems thinking while work culture exhibited significant relationship with relational assessment although it has no direct effect on systems thinking. The combination of the three variables, which eliminated organizational learning along the process, made up the best fit model. This implies that women entrepreneurs in the region are maintaining positive relationships within their organization as part and parcel of their systems thinking in understanding the complexity of sustainable development for their own business.
... From scripts theory certain behaviors like kissing or the lack thereof may be related to satisfying or dissatisfying experiences. Research on these types of outcomes with other variables has demonstrated that relationship satisfaction/ dissatisfaction are unique phenomenon and that for most people there are degrees of satisfaction and dissatisfaction occurring simultaneously in relationships (Fincham & Linfield, 1997;Fincham & Rogge, 2010;Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013). This same research shows that sometimes different variables can predict satisfaction versus dissatisfaction. ...
... In other words, it is highly likely that kissing and other relationship behaviors may have differential influences on sexual and relationship satisfaction as compared to dissatisfaction. This distinction is an important one as knowing what variables influence satisfaction versus dissatisfaction may assist scholars and applied practitioners in helping couples avoid the degradation of relationship quality that typically occurs over time, or to enhance a relationship that is already functioning well (James, 2015;Mattson et al., 2013). Currently no research on kissing has distinguished between sexual or relationship satisfaction and dissatisfaction. ...
Article
In this study we explored how the amount of kissing during the most recent sexual experience (specific kissing) and amount of kissing during the last year (global kissing) were both associated with the quality of the sexual relationship and overall relationship satisfaction and dissatisfaction. To understand these associations, we obtained surveys from a national sample of 878 participants who had been in a romantic relationship for at least two years. We evaluated their results through a structural equation model and found that for women the rates of specific kissing were associated with their ability to orgasm, sexual frequency, and indirectly to sexual satisfaction. For both men and women, measures of global kissing were associated with both sexual and relationship satisfaction but more strongly with measures of sexual and relationship dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that measures of kissing could be used as a bellwether of both the quality of the sexual relationship for women and of feelings of dissatisfaction about both the sexual and overall relationship for both sexes.
... Indifferent and ambivalent couples might differ in important ways, for example risk of interpartner abuse might be higher in ambivalent couples with their higher rates of negativity than in indifferent couples. Fincham and colleagues have developed three iterations of a scale that separated out evaluations of positive and negative relationship qualities (Fincham & Linchfield, 1997;Mattson et al., 2013;Rogge et al., 2017). In each study, the positive and negative quality scales were distinguishable, although with large intercorrelation, and these bidimensional scales provided some incremental concurrent validity with relationship behaviors relative to unidimensional scales of satisfaction (Fincham & Linchfield, 1997;Mattson et al., 2013;Rogge et al., 2017). ...
... Fincham and colleagues have developed three iterations of a scale that separated out evaluations of positive and negative relationship qualities (Fincham & Linchfield, 1997;Mattson et al., 2013;Rogge et al., 2017). In each study, the positive and negative quality scales were distinguishable, although with large intercorrelation, and these bidimensional scales provided some incremental concurrent validity with relationship behaviors relative to unidimensional scales of satisfaction (Fincham & Linchfield, 1997;Mattson et al., 2013;Rogge et al., 2017). ...
Article
Couple satisfaction has been extensively investigated, but little attention has been paid to the nature and assessment of high-quality, flourishing couple relationships. Particularly, current measures of relationship quality are insensitive at the upper end of the continuum, which in turn hinders progress toward understanding and facilitating flourishing couple relationships. Drawing on concepts developed in positive psychology, we proposed a theoretical framework of couple flourishing that incorporates hedonic and eudemonic components. Items to assess these aspects of couple flourishing were generated and administered online to a sample of 1,116 participants. Using combined methods of classical test theory and item response theory (IRT), we selected the most informative items to form 4-, 8-, 16-item versions of a Couple Flourishing Measure (CFM). IRT analyses show that the CFM discriminated variation at the upper range of relationship quality better than widely used measures of relationship satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that couple flourishing was related to, but distinguishable from, relationship satisfaction. In an independent sample of 330 participants, we replicated the unifactorial structure of the CFM, and the distinguishability of couple flourishing from couple satisfaction. This research offers new insight into the concept of relationship flourishing. The sensitivity of the CFM at the high end of relationship quality makes it possible to test for predictors of relationship flourishing and evaluate interventions that seek to enhance flourishing.
... Relationship satisfaction has traditionally been conceptualized as single dimension from high dissatisfaction to high satisfaction. Measured in this way, relationship satisfaction is connected with higher received support (Rogge, Fincham, Crasta, & Maniaci, 2017), higher support availability (Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013), and fewer support gaps (Dehle et al., 2001;Lawrence et al., 2008). However, a more nuanced approach to relationship evaluations has shown that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two correlated (r ¼ À.39) but separated dimensions (Fincham & Linfield, 1997). ...
... Negative feelings. Separate from relationship satisfaction, relationship dissatisfaction has been connected to less received support (Rogge et al., 2017) and less available support (Mattson et al., 2013). Support gaps have also been associated with increased dissatisfaction (Dehle et al., 2001). ...
Article
Support gaps occur when an individual receives less or more of a certain type of social support than the individual desires. Existing research suggests that support gaps are associated with unwanted relationship and psychological outcomes. However, many of the outcomes associated with support gaps are also associated with received support and support availability—and it is not clear that support gaps explain anything about such outcomes beyond what is known from these longer established constructs. In samples of community members (n = 430) and students (n = 755), we examined associations between received support, available support, and support gaps and several positive and negative personal and relationship outcomes. Whereas received support and available support were more strongly associated with increased positive outcomes than decreased negative outcomes, support gaps were more strongly associated with increased negative outcomes than decreased positive outcomes. When all three support constructs were simultaneously included in multilevel structural equation models, they each demonstrated incremental predictive value for most of the outcomes we examined. A full understanding of the social contributions to mood and relationship outcomes requires assessment of received support, available support, and support gaps.
... Although broad measures of romantic and family relationship satisfaction have been linked to stress and health, the measures used often provide a limited overview of solely relationship satisfaction. Many have argued for the need to examine positive and negative aspects of relationships separately, as it may provide more valid measurement and a more comprehensive view of relationship quality (e.g., Donoho et al., 2013;Kiecolt-Glaser & Newton, 2001;Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013). Similarly, in their study of adult children's relationships with aging parents and in-laws, Willson, Shuey, and Elder (2003) examined health as a predictor of intergenerational relationships, and state, "Feeling close to and supported by a parent does not preclude one from also harboring negative feelings toward that parent" (p. ...
... In this study, we examined the differential impacts of positive and negative aspects of romantic and family relationship quality on health separately. The results of the present study support the recommendation of considering the valence of relational quality in health research, as positive and negative aspects of close relationships showed different and unique associations with biobehavioral reactivity and disease activity (e.g., Donoho et al., 2013;Kiecolt-Glaser & Newton, 2001;Mattson et al., 2013;Willson et al., 2003). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to use the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM) to delineate which psychophysiological variables link romantic and family relationship satisfaction variables to health outcomes. Data from individuals who reported being partnered from the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), Project 4 (n = 812) were used to test a structural equation model which explored which psychophysiological variables potentially mediated associations between positive and negative family emotional climate variables and disease activity. This model found that current and past family variables had larger associations with the psychophysiological variables than romantic partner variables; depressive symptoms, anxiety, and inflammation partially mediated associations between family relationships and health; and, contrary to the hypotheses, romantic partner and family support were linked to worse health outcomes. However, the findings should be viewed with regard to the cross-sectional design of the study. Overall, the findings support the use of the BBFM as a model that can guide clinical interventions. © 2018 Family Process Institute.
... The family environment includes interactions between parents, between parents and children, and between children in the household. Numerous theoretical conceptualizations and measurement approaches have been applied to interparental/marital (Fincham & Linfield, 1997;Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013), parent-child (Skinner, Johnson, & Snyder, 2005), and intersibling interactions (Brody, 1998) in the family, and conflict and warmth appear as key dimensions across all those types of interactions (Repetti et al., 2002). Conflict is characterized by recurrent episodes of aversive behavior, including anger, hostility, and aggression. ...
... Family conflict and warmth were conceptualized as separate but correlated dimensions, consistent with prior theory and research (Brody, 1998;Fincham & Linfield, 1997;Mattson et al., 2013;Repetti et al., 2002;Skinner et al., 2005). That said, the warmth and conflict summary (within reporter) and composite scores (between family) had high levels of shared variance, particularly among the children in our sample. ...
Article
High conflict and low warmth in families may contribute to immune cells developing a tendency to respond to threats with exaggerated inflammation that is insensitive to inhibitory signaling. We tested associations between family environments and expression of genes bearing response elements for transcription factors that regulate inflammation: nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and glucocorticoid receptor. The overall sample (47 families) completed interviews, questionnaires, and 8-week daily diary assessments of conflict and warmth, which were used to create composite family conflict and warmth scores. The diaries assessed upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms, and URI episodes were clinically verified. Leukocyte RNA was extracted from whole blood samples provided by a subsample of 42 children (8–13 years of age) and 73 parents. In children, higher conflict and lower warmth were related to greater expression of genes bearing response elements for the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, and more severe URI symptoms. In parents, higher conflict and lower warmth were also related to greater NF-κB–associated gene expression. Monocytes and dendritic cells were implicated as primary cellular sources of differential gene expression in the sample. Consistent with existing conceptual frameworks, stressful family environments were related to a proinflammatory phenotype at the level of the circulating leukocyte transcriptome.
... The ISS-CYC-J could be utilized in research looking at longitudinal changes in the relationship between sexual satisfaction and dissatisfaction as well as the level of sexual satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Previous studies have noted that bi-dimensional scales of satisfaction and dissatisfaction give useful insights into sexual relationship quality in sexually active individuals with a mean age of 27.0 (SD = 9.4) [51] and relational quality [52][53][54]. ...
Article
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The occurrence of sexual dysfunction in couples after childbirth is well recognized, yet sexual satisfaction in couples with young children (CYC) has received little research attention. This study sought to enable this construct to be measured by developing and validating a Japanese version of the Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS) in CYC. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Scale construction and validation were conducted using two independent samples drawn from 316 mothers and 272 fathers in Japan who had at least one child aged 6 or younger. Two underlying factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis: sexual satisfaction, measured by eight items, and sexual dissatisfaction, measured by three. Polychoric ordinal alpha coefficients indicated the reliability of the resulting scale (overall: 0.89, factor 1: 0.89, factor 2: 0.78), and confirmatory factor analysis and testing supported its validity, showing good model fit (goodness of fit index: 0.984, root mean square residual: 0.062) and satisfactory composite reliability (scale: 0.93, factor 1: 0.90, factor 2: 0.81) and average variance extracted (all ≥0.5). The Japanese version of the ISS for Couples with Young Children will be useful for investigating sexual satisfaction, which is essential to marital stability.
... Researchers in the field have postulated that dyadic satisfaction represents a person's overall assessment of their own romantic relationship, and there are some indicators that measure dyadic satisfaction and assesses how different aspects of a relationship are related to individual partner functioning [37,38]. According to Spanier [39], dyadic satisfaction is a concept that has several components, such as dyadic consensus (the level of agreement on matters important to the relationship such as religion, recreation, friends, house tasks, and time spent together), dyadic satisfaction (which represents the amount of tension in the relationship and the extent to which partners have considered ending it), affectional expression (the level of satisfaction regarding affection and sex in the relationship), and dyadic cohesion (interests and activities that the two partners have in common). ...
Article
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Little research has been focused on offline or online infidelity in GL dating relationships, especially in a post-communist socio-cultural context. Infidelity–related (IR) behaviors on social media sites might be as hurtful to relationships as offline infidelity, both in gay, lesbian (GL) and heterosexual romantic monogamous relationships. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to examine the associations between dyadic satisfaction, attitudes toward infidelity, and problematic internet usage, with IR behaviors on social media sites among GL and heterosexual unmarried individuals in Romanian sexual minority communities. Results showed that GL respondents did not significantly differ from heterosexual participants regarding IR behaviors. Furthermore, we found the main effect of attitudes toward infidelity and problematic internet use on IR behaviors. Sexual orientation highlights the main effect of IR behaviors when analyzed with dyadic satisfaction. The current study may be a precursor to further research investigating correlations in online IR behavior among lesbian and gay individuals engaging in consensual nonmonogamy. Implications of the findings are discussed in the social context of a post-communist country where GL individuals may face discrimination and stigma because of their sexual orientation.
... Do these responses indicate that both ends of the bipolar scale are relevant or that neither is relevant? Using separate positive and negative dimensions has been shown to yield information that is not captured by bipolar scales in research on close relationships (Mattson et al., 2012;Rogge et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Systematic research on divine forgiveness is notably absent from the literature on forgiveness. Two studies therefore explored the relationship between divine forgiveness and well-being, and what might account for any association found. Study 1 (N = 574) documented an inverse relationship between divine forgiveness and anxiety and showed that this relationship was mediated by attitude toward God. Study 2 (N = 430) replicated and extended the findings of the first study using a different measure of anxiety and documented a positive relationship between divine forgiveness and satisfaction with life. It also showed that both positive and negative evaluations of one’s relationship with God mediated these relationships. These results emphasize the need for systematic research on divine forgiveness, and several directions for future research are outlined.
... İlişki doyumunun önemi ve ilişki doyumunu artıran veya azaltan faktörlerin neler olduğunun belirlenmesi araştırmacıların uzun zamandır ilgi duyduğu konuların başında gelmektedir (Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson ve Fincham, 2013;Saraç, Hamamcı ve Güçray, 2015;Troy, 2000;Vannier ve O'sullivan, 2017). İlişki doyumu, bireyin partneri için duygularının pozitifliğinin ve ilişkiye olan ilgisinin bir değerlendirmesini içermekte (Rusbult ve Buunk, 1993) ve bireylerin ilişkilerine yönelik genel öznel değerlendirmelerini ve memnuniyetlerini yansıtmaktadır (Cepukiene, 2019). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between irrational beliefs about romantic relationships, cognitive flexibility and relationship satisfaction in individuals who are in a romantic relationship. A convenience sample of 296 single participants who are currently involved in a romantic relationship completed a questionnaire consisting of Personal Information Form, Irrational Romantic Relationship Beliefs Inventory, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, and Relationship Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis, standard multiple regression analysis and relative importance analysis. The results of the regression analysis indicated that individuals with over expectations, irrational beliefs and high cognitive flexibility, and low irrational beliefs about relationship-specific gender differences and different thinking in this sample have high relationship satisfaction. Relative importance analyses also suggested that relationship specific irrational beliefs about divergent thinking and gender differences had a significant importance in relationship satisfaction among significant predictors in this sample. Marriage and family therapists can focus on reducing relationship-specific irrational beliefs and increasing cognitive flexibility in individuals with low relationship satisfaction during the therapy seasons.
... Furthermore, insecure attachment would be associated with higher PC, and both would be associated with lower relational authenticity and satisfaction regarding one's romantic relationships. We included satisfaction as an outcome measure as it is considered to be one of the most important variables in romantic relationship research, and we presumed our mediation models would operate similarly regarding both authenticity and satisfaction (Mattson et al. 2013). To conclude, our specific hypotheses are as follows: ...
Article
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Attachment theory has long been a theoretical framework for addressing individual differences regarding well-being in romantic relationships. Forms of concern have also received growing attention regarding relational well-being and satisfaction. In the current study, we comprised an adult sample and investigated a theoretically driven model in which forms of concern mediate the covariance between attachment orientation and relational romantic authenticity and satisfaction. Our results largely support our hypotheses and we discuss how they underscore the importance of the caregiving experience within romantic relationships.
... Relationship satisfaction is a foremost topic of research in current intimate relationship literature. Relationship satisfaction is defined as an individual's general level of satisfaction in regard to his/her relationship (Mattson et al., 2013). A healthy and stable intimate relationship is described as being key to an individual's happiness (Coyne et al., 2011) since a person usually first experiences romantic love during adolescence or even earlier. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which the length, status and importance of current romantic relationship, the number of previous romantic relationship, as well as individual factors, such as levels of self-compassion, and anxiety about social appearance, are predictors of the romantic relationship satisfaction of young adults. The study included 284 university students but 34 of them were removed for several reasons and analysis was carried out with 250 participants (59.6% female, 40.4% male). Relationship Assessment Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, Social Appearance Anxiety Scale, and demographic information form were used to collect data. Hierarchical regression analysis results showed that the importance of the current romantic relationship, the number of previous romantic relationships, and levels of self-compassion were positive predictors but the length and the status of the relationship, along with the level of anxiety regarding social appearance were not significant predictors of romantic relationship satisfaction. The model explained 37% of the variance in the romantic relationship satisfaction of young adults.
... The goals of this study were to provide the rst French version of the Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI) and to examine its reliability with a small sample of French-speaking men from the general population in Canada. Over the years, relationship dissatisfaction has repeatedly been linked to negative physical and psychological outcomes [2,13,14,20,21,22,23]. Since language also has a determinant role in health [24], there is evident need to validate translated relationship satisfaction scales, such as the CSI. ...
Preprint
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Background It is imperative for health care professionals to have access to valid and reliable tools to evaluate the quality of romantic relationships, as it has been repeatedly shown to be related to psychological and physical health outcomes. The Couples Satisfaction Index (CSI) was developed to address the shortcomings of the most widely cited measures of satisfaction by increasing precision and power of measurement. However, the use of this questionnaire is limited due to a lack of translated versions. The purpose of the current study was therefore to translate the CSI to Canadian French (CanFrench-CSI) and to evaluate its reliability in a sample of male Canadians. Methods The CSI questionnaire was adapted and translated into Canadian French using a forward-backward approach. Its reliability was then evaluated by means of Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficients, corrected item-total correlation coefficients, and a test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient at a two-week interval. Results Data from 53 men in committed relationships were analyzed. The French adaptation of the CSI demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Conclusions Overall, the results provided evidence supporting the translation consistency and reliability of the CanFrench-CSI, and thus, paved the way for further research on romantic relationships and health outcomes among French-speaking individuals.
... To gain an even more nuanced perspective on relationship satisfaction, positive and negative aspects of roommate relationship satisfaction were assessed with the Positive and Negative Semantic Differential (Mattson et al., 2013). This is a 14-item measure, with half of the items assessing positive aspects and half assessing negative aspects. ...
Article
Subclinical paranoia is associated with negative psychological and general health consequences including poorer social functioning. Despite extensive research on the outcomes of individuals with greater paranoia, the consequences of interacting with someone who is paranoid are less clear. As social functioning involves interactions between individuals, investigating associations between paranoia and relationship outcomes from a dyadic perspective may aid in elucidating the mechanisms underlying social dysfunction in subclinical paranoia. This study examined the trajectory of new roommate relationships over the course of the college semester. One hundred three same-sex roommate dyads were assessed on pathological personality traits at the beginning of the semester and on roommate relationship satisfaction and college adjustment at 2-week intervals. Individuals who were more paranoid reported lower satisfaction in their roommate relationship and poorer overall college adjustment. Importantly, individuals who lived with a more paranoid roommate also reported lower satisfaction in their roommate relationship. In contrast, elevated psychoticism, in either the individual or their roommate, was not associated with lower roommate relationship satisfaction. These findings demonstrate that the effects of subclinical paranoia extend beyond the paranoid individual to social partners as well. Further, poorer relationship satisfaction appears specifically related to paranoia and does not seem to be associated with increased psychoticism. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Relationship satisfaction is a foremost topic of research in current intimate relationship literature. Relationship satisfaction is defined as an individual's general level of satisfaction in regard to his/her relationship (Mattson et al., 2013). A healthy and stable intimate relationship is described as being key to an individual's happiness (Coyne et al., 2011) since a person usually first experiences romantic love during adolescence or even earlier. ...
Conference Paper
Problem: The purpose of this study is to examine the predictor roles of relationship characteristics (length of the relationship, importance given to the relationship, relationship status, number of previous romantic relationships), self-compassion, and social appearance anxiety in explaining emerging adults’ romantic relationship satisfaction. Method: In this relational research, participants were recruited from two different state universities located in the same region by using convenient sampling method. Two hundred seventy-one university students (156 females, 115 males) participated in the study. The age of the participants varied between 17 and 33 years (M = 21.95, SD = 2.35). Data were collected through Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS). In addition to these scales, a brief demographic information form was used. It included questions about gender, age, faculty, the length of the relationship, the importance of the relationship, the number of the previous romantic relationships and the status of the relationship. Findings: Hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Prior to the main analysis, assumptions of the multiple regression analysis were checked and all of the assumptions were met. Then, three stepped hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to evaluate how well relationship characteristics (length of the relationship, importance given to the relationship, the relationship status, and the number of previous romantic relationships), self-compassion, and social appearance anxiety predicted relationship satisfaction. In the first step, all of the relationship characteristics variables (the length of the relationship, the importance given to the relationship, the relationship status, the number of previous romantic relationships) were entered to the model and results revealed that the importance of the romantic relationship (β = .57, p < .001) and the number of the previous romantic relationship (β = .13, p < .001) were significant positive predictors, whereas the length of the relationship (β = .06, p > .05) and the relationship status [pre-engaged (β = .03, p > .05, engaged (β = .07, p > .05)] were non-significant. In the second step, self-compassion (β = .19, p < .001) was entered to the model and also found as a significant positive predictor. In the third step, social appearance anxiety (β = - .10, p > .05) was added to the model and found as a non-significant negative predictor. The overall model explained 38% of the variance in emerging adults’ romantic relationship satisfaction. Results: The current study revealed that the importance of the romantic relationship, the number of the previous romantic relationship and self-compassion significantly contributed in explaining emerging adults’ romantic relationship satisfaction whereas the length of the relationship, the relationship status and social appearance anxiety did not. It should be noted that in this correlational study, findings do not show causation but they pointed out the variables associated with emerging adults’ romantic relationship satisfaction. The findings of the study were discussed in the light of the recent literature on romantic relationship satisfaction. Keywords: Relationship satisfaction, relationship characteristics, self-compassion, social appearance anxiety
... The positive and negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction were measured using a relationship satisfaction scale (PN-SMD) [109]. The participants were asked to rate the 14 items (7 positive and 7 negative) on an 8-point Likert-type scale from 0 (not at all) to 7 (always). ...
Article
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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the mediating effects of individual affect and relationship satisfaction on the relationship between self-esteem and Problematic Internet Use (PIU). Affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), relationship satisfaction was assessed using a positive and negative semantic dimension scale, self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and PIU was measured using the Problematic Internet Use scale with a sample of 507 Chinese university students (Mage = 20.41 years, SD = 2.49). The relationships between the variables were tested using structural equation modelling with a multiple mediation model. The results revealed that negative affect and the negative semantic dimensions of relationship satisfaction mediated the relationship between self-esteem and PIU. The implications of the results and the study’s theoretical contributions are discussed.
... Satisfaction is a hallmark of positive relationship with little or no conflict (Ertz & Sarigollu, 2019). Mattson et al. (2012) indicated that relationships higher in positive characteristics tend to have couples feeling more satisfied with each other and being less likely to cause conflicts. Couples who are satisfied in their relationships generally have less conflict, presumably because they take less offence, make more concessions, and respect different opinions (Bertoni & Bodenmann, 2010). ...
Article
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Social media provides a useful platform for people to share information, develop networks, and connect with each other online. While social media allows one to foster relationships with ease, it may pose challenges for individuals in a romantic relationship. Mounting evidence suggests that social media use may have an adverse impact on relationship dynamics, largely due to reduced time and attention for relationship partners. However, it remains unclear (1) how the increased use of social media may lead to negative consequences of relationship quality; (2) how the increased use of social media and negative relationship consequences together may trigger social media addiction; and (3) whether there are psychological factors that may contribute to the mitigation of the negative consequences. Here, we explored these issues by selecting Instagram (IG) as the target platform because the unique feature of tracking objective time of usage within the IG app allowed us to more accurately determine the length of IG usage. Using a structural equation modeling approach, we found that increased IG usage reduced relationship satisfaction, which led to an increase in both conflicts and negative outcomes. The sequential effects of reduced relationship satisfaction and increased conflicts then triggered addictive use of IG. In contrast, tendency to make sacrifice for the relationship partner in everyday life produced a positive effect on relationship satisfaction, which in turn reduced the likelihood of conflicts, negative outcomes, and addiction. Taken together, we have delineated pathways through which excessive social media use may detrimentally affect both relationship and personal well-being and identified sacrifice as a possible psychological factor to mitigate the detrimental effects. We believe that these findings add to our understanding of the processes by which social media influences romantic relationship and highlight the interactive effects of social media and relationship on causing unexpected, adverse consequences.
... Relationship satisfaction: According to Mattson and others, relationship satisfaction is one of the most important variables in romantic relationship research [9]. Romantic relationship satisfaction corresponds to judgment of an individual about the positivity of his/her relationship [10][11]. ...
Article
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Background: The present study was aimed at discerning the impact of physical proximity in romantic relationships on trust, commitment and relationship satisfaction among young adults. Methodology: For the purpose, a sample of 40 young adults was taken. The participants were divided into two groups: (young adults involved in long distance relationship and proximally close relationship) on the basis of their physical proximity. Participants were assessed for their trust, commitment and relationship satisfaction, quantitatively with the help of Trust Scale, Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale and Relationship Assessment scale. Results: The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference in the levels of trust and commitment, although an insignificant difference was observed in the levels of relationship satisfaction among couples in long distance and proximally close relationship. And it was observed that, young adults involved in long distance relationship elicited higher levels of commitment with a mean of 115.15 as compared to young adults involved in proximally close relationship with a mean of 98.95; while lower levels of trust was observed among young adults in long distance relationship with a mean of 30.45 as compared to young adults in proximally close relationship with a mean of 38.35. Conclusions: There was a significant difference in the levels of trust and commitment, although an insignificant difference was observed in the levels of relationship satisfaction among couples in long distance and proximally close relationship.
... The reviews show that numerous variables have relationship with marital satisfaction [31,32,33,34,35]. Among these variables we are focusing on marital adjustment love, intimacy, personality, spirituality and dyadic coping. ...
Article
Marital Stability is interpreted as whether a couple in a marriage remains together, instead of separating or getting divorced. It is also called as marital longevity or duration of marriage. The aim of the study is to find the relationship between different psychosocial factor (marital adjustment, love, personal intimacy personality, dyadic coping, and spirituality) and marital stability. For the purpose of sampling, thirty married couples were randomly selected using stratified random sampling. The measuring tools used were Locke-Wallace marital adjustment questionnaire (Marital adjustment), Love scale (Love), Personal assessment of intimacy in relationship (Personal intimacy), Big five inventory (personality), Dyadic coping inventory (Dyadic coping) and the daily spiritual experience scale (Spirituality).Six null hypotheses were raised and tested using descriptive and inferential statistics (Percentage, mean, standard deviation and correlation). The research finding shows that there is a significant negative correlation between sexual intimacy and marital stability(r= -.44 and p<.01). All other variables (Marital adjustment, love, personal intimacy, personality, dyadic coping and spirituality) are not shown to be contributing to marital stability.
... For example, a person may be in a close family relationship that has high levels of support and high levels of strain. Prior research highlights that positivity and negativity frequently co-occur in close relationships, and that these two aspects of relationship quality are unique constructs (Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013;Rook, 2015;Uchino, Holt-Lunstad, Uno, & Flinders, 2001). However, most research examines either negativity or the positive impact of support and relationship satisfaction (Pietromonaco, Uchino, & Dunkel Schetter, 2013); fewer studies investigate a more nuanced conceptualization of close relationship quality (Smith, 2019;Uchino et al., 2013). ...
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This study tested the extent to which the emotional climate (positive and negative relationship quality) in family relationships and intimate partnerships are each uniquely linked to specific domains of aging health outcomes, over and above the impact of earlier health. Data included partnered participants who completed all three waves of the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). We used measures of family and intimate partner strain and support, at MIDUS 1, 2, and 3, and estimated the effects of each on subsequent morbidity and health appraisal (i.e., 10 and 20 years later). Autoregressive cross-lagged paths were modeled using maximum likelihood estimation with robust standard errors. Family strain was associated with later health in both the morbidity, χ²(35) = 411.01, p < .001; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .062, comparative fit index (CFI) = .952; standardized root-mean-square residual (SRMR) = .034 and health appraisal, χ²(35) = 376.80, p < .001; RMSEA = .058, CFI = .956; SRMR = .032 models. Morbidity and health appraisal also predicted later family emotional climate, reciprocally. Intimate partner emotional climate-health pathways were nonsignificant at each wave, in both models. Results are novel and may be the first to indicate the quality of family relationships are a more powerful predictor of aging health than the quality of intimate partnerships. Findings implicate the health of adults should be considered in the systemic context of families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Satisfaction in committed relationships has been a focal point for scholars, therapists, policy makers, etc., and is one of the most studied relationship research variables (Glenn 1998;Larson et al. 2010). Relational satisfaction, narrowly defined, refers to a person's overall evaluation of their relationship and is assumed to be a unidimentional construct ranging from low/poor/unsatisfied to high/very satisfied (Mattson et al. 2013). Some scholars have connected poor marital satisfaction with higher chances for relationship dissolution (Coontz 2007;Previti and Amato 2004) and subsequent negative effects on health and wellness of those terminating the relationship (Amato and Kane 2011;Carr and Springer 2010) and to negative educational, income, and relationship outcomes of their descendants (Amato 2000) up to three generations after the relationship dissolution (Amato and Cheadle 2005). ...
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The commonly used double translation method fails to provide evidence for cross-cultural equivalence of instruments used in multicultural research thus increasing measurement error-variance. This study exemplified the rigorous acculturation steps needed to negate this cross-cultural error-variance by verifying cultural appropriateness and psychometric equivalence between the instruments. Through application of a cutting-edge adaptation methodology, we created a Russian version of the 16-item Couple Satisfaction Index (CSI; Funk and Rogge in J Fam Psychol 21:572–583, 2007) that is semantically, idiomatically, experientially, conceptually, and linguistically equivalent to the original scale. Next, using the data from 406 Russian-speaking respondents, we employed parallel and exploratory factor analyses to explore the factorial structure of the adapted version subsequently named CSI-16(Russian). Internal reliability and convergent validity with another measure used frequently in Russian scholarship were high. Additionally, results suggested that couples’ satisfaction—when assessed as a unidimensional phenomenon—is similar across the two cultures in spite of linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic differences between the cultures. The CSI-16(Russian) can be used in comparative cross-cultural studies with sufficient assurance of high convergent linguistic reliability and psychometric similarity with the original CSI scale.
... Currently, there are several well-validated measures of several aspects of intimate relationships that assess separate positive and negative dimensions (e.g., Campo et al., 2009;Fincham & Linfield, 1997;Herrington et al., 2008;Rogge at al., 2017;Sanford et al., 2016;Whisman & Li, 2015). The availability of multiple sets of positivity and negativity measures can be important in several applications, such as selection of measured indicators of latent positivity and negativity factors in structural equation modeling, a common approach in relationship science (e.g., Malinen, Tolvanen, & Rönkä, 2012;Mattson, Paldino, & Johnson, 2007;Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013). ...
Article
Single-dimension measures of marital quality can obscure distinct effects of positive and negative aspects of relationships. The present study extended evidence regarding the two-dimension relationship quality model generally, and the Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI) Support and Conflict scales in particular, by examining associations with overall marital adjustment, represented continuously and as a discrete category of significant marital discord, and depressive symptoms, using younger, middle-aged and older couples. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), QRI Support and Conflict scales were independently associated with overall marital adjustment in the continuous and categorical analyses. As expected, QRI Conflict was more consistently associated with depressive symptoms than was QRI Support. Results were consistent across age and sex. Hence, the two-dimension model is applicable for continuous and more clinically relevant categorical representations of marital quality across adulthood, and the QRI Support and Conflict scales provide additional measures of positive and negative aspects of relationship quality.
... Research on marital relationships suggests that indifference could be one pathway to deteriorating marital quality (Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013), potentially indicating disengagement, apathy, or neglect that precedes the end of a relationship (DeLongis et al., 2004). Thus, indifferent close relationships could indicate a form of relationship distress, with downstream implications for health and well-being. ...
Article
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Most health research focuses on the independent associations of positive or negative aspects of close relationships with health outcomes. A small but growing literature has begun to examine interactive effects of positive and negative aspects. These interactive effects frequently predict health independently or above‐and‐beyond main effects of either the positive or the negative aspects, suggesting unique relationship processes or emergent features of these close relationship patterns. Our goal in this review is to lay out the existing approaches to studying the interactive effects of positive and negative aspects of close relationships and to review available evidence linking these interactive effects to health outcomes. We conclude by discussing important unresolved issues and highlighting critical directions for future research.
... The positive and negative indicators can also be conceptualized as estimations of satisfaction with the partner. More positive attitudes reflect higher satisfaction while more negative attitudes reflect higher levels of dissatisfaction with the partner.Positive and Negative Semantic Differential -PNSDThe PNSD(Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013) measures global attitudes toward the relationship. It is an internally consistent, two-factor scale consisting of 14 highly precise and informative semantically differentiating items, 7 measuring the positive and 7 the negative relationship attitudes on 8-point Likert scales ranging from not at all (1) to absolutely (8). ...
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It is commonly known from the literature that Machiavellian individuals have negative attitudes towards people and in general towards the world´s affairs. They are distrustful of the intentions of others, and they get cautiously involved into interpersonal interactions and take risks only if that may not have any severe negative consequence. It is also a fact that there are few ventures in life that potentially involve as much insecurity and personal vulnerability as the establishment and maintenance of close relationships. In our study, we were seeking the answer to the question: do people with high levels of Machiavellianism show a generally negative, distrustful and cautious attitude in their intimate relationships, as well? What effect their pessimistic approaches have on the other consequences of the relationship (satisfaction, commitment, investment, quality of alternatives)? This question was investigated on a dyadic sample of heterosexual couples (N = 101 pairs) with Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The results of the correlations and actor effects show that men with high levels of Machiavellianism perceive in a negative way not just people in general, but their romantic partners and relationships as well and they experience an increased level of distrust, risk, and dissatisfaction into their close relationships. Women with high levels of Machiavellianism are less negativistic and feel less discontent towards their intimate partner and relationship, but even they are unable to put their distrust and precaution aside. The results of partner effects have revealed that women's Machiavellianism undermines men's trust, while men's Machiavellianism has the effect of minimizing women's investment into their relationship.
... Psychological reward has been explored in this way, in which reward is defined as the evaluation and selection of a choice based on reward, risk, and uncertainty, indicative of hidden favor processing (Fennell & Baddeley, 2013). Relationship satisfaction has been studied by inclusion of a second dimension (indifference versus ambivalence), in which psychological evaluation of a social relationship was measured in terms of relationship satisfaction (similar to reward; Mattson et al., 2013). The meaning of the relationship was shown to include multiple dimensions (bad to good in one dimension and mixed attitudes in the other). ...
Research Proposal
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Abstract: The focus of this research is to explore the possibility of prejudice between what is more mental than biological, framed as a form of mental idolatry in the biological search for a lasting conceptual authority. The equivalence between ingroup favoritism and mental favoritism, along with the equivalence between outgroup antipathy and human antipathy toward biologically directed creatures, warrants exploration as a form of prejudice (Biernat & Danaher, 2013; Leyens, Cortes, Collange, & Renesse, 2014). In addition, the unequal treatment of most species by the human mental species, wherein only humans benefit and most non-human animals are harmed, farmed, or destroyed, approximates the concept of biological amensalism, in addition to exploring it as a form of prejudice. (Martin & Schwab, 2013). The human species’ uncanny reverence for its mental phenomena while exploiting and sacrificing creatures to nurture that phenomena suggests a correspondence with the ancient practice of idolatry.
... The child-bearing years may provide a unique context in which a woman's partner relationship has potentially powerful effects. ''Indifferent'' partner relationships may indicate a lack of partner engagement, reflecting withdrawal, neglect or apathy that could precede separation or divorce (DeLongis et al., 2004;Fincham & Linfield, 1997;Mattson et al., 2013;Vinokur & van Ryn, 1993). As such, a general lack of partner engagement during postpartum months-both positively and negatively-may be more potent for longer term maternal health than partner conflict, which can be thought of as a byproduct of any relationship, and is not, in and of itself, detrimental if well managed or not extreme in severity. ...
Article
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Intimate partner relationship quality during the child-bearing years has implications for maternal health. The purpose of this study was to test whether partner satisfaction, partner conflict, and their interaction predicted maternal cardio-metabolic health at 12-months postpartum. Women were recruited in 5 U.S. sites. Partner conflict and satisfaction were measured at 6-months postpartum, and cardio-metabolic indicators (blood pressure, waist-hip ratio, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol:HDL ratio) were assessed at 6- and 12-months. Cardio-metabolic indices were scored continuously (CM risk) and using clinical risk cutoffs (CM scores). A significant conflict-by-satisfaction interaction emerged for the CM risk, b(SE) = .043 (.016), p = .006, and CM scores, b(SE)= .089 (.028), p = .002, such that when partner satisfaction was low, low partner conflict was associated with poorer postpartum cardio-metabolic health. This is the first study to examine close relationships and cardio-metabolic health during the child-bearing years, an issue warranting further attention.
... This scale allowed observation of hidden attitudes toward any mental object, such as events or non-human objects in addition to other humans. Rather than challenging the extant antipathy model or more recent models, the Osgood SD model has allowed inspection of mental/social attitudes in general, using spectrums of attitudinal contrast such as unsatisfactory/inadequate to satisfactory/adequate, bad/evil to good, and valueless to valuable (Fennell & Baddeley, 2013;Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013). ...
Thesis
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All individuals with end stage renal disease (ESRD) will perish from the disease unless they receive a donor kidney in time. The purpose of this research was to compare groups of candidates on the kidney transplant waiting list in the U.S. Renal Data System, to test whether some groups waited longer to receive a kidney due to a physical or mental assessment bias. A review of the literature suggested that most who perished prematurely also waited the longest and thus perished by neglect, fitting a theoretical framework called the stereotype content model (prejudice based on value to society). A causal-comparative study was conducted to examine the wait times of kidney candidates on the official waiting list categorized as too young or too old (n = 17,914). The results of one-way ANOVA, Welch’s F(2, 494.46) = 113.71, p < .0005, ω2 = 0.13, suggested that the most mentally fit (not physically fit) children had significantly lower wait times (M = 250.02, SD = 296.33) despite not having contributed, whereas seniors had the longest wait times (M = 786.27, SD = 717.51) despite having contributed a lifetime to society. Further analysis revealed that, all else considered, primarily those assessed as mentally capable will be selected to survive ESRD, Welch's F(3, 819.03) = 53.97, p < .0005, ω2 = 0.08. This study concluded there was an inadvertent irony in candidate assessment criteria. The need to ethically allocate scarce organs has resulted in criteria that favor the survival of human kidneys over human candidates.
... Dentro do estudo científi co dos relacionamentos românticos, um dos temas de maior interesse e importância é a qualidade e/ou satisfação com o relacionamento (Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013). Defi nida como o julgamento da qualidade do relacionamento a partir de aspectos cognitivos (avaliações), emocionais e comportamentais das interações diádicas dos envolvidos no relacionamento, a avaliação do relacionamento envolve, além de componentes emocionais (ex. ...
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Research in the field of social and psychological phenomena has aspects that are characterized by interdependence of different actors, such as the case of the relationships of couples. The aim of this article is to present the dyadic data analysis model from a study in the context of loving relationships to Brazilian scientific community. An empirical study, focusing on the interaction between aspects of obsessive passion and quality dimensions in the relationship, was performed with 212 Brazilian couples. A particular emphasis is given to the assembly of the database, which may have the individual structure, the dyadic structure or even the pairwise structure. The results show a step by step guidance of the main stages of dyadic analysis. In additional, we presented considerations about passion and qualityfor both members of relationship. Although not limited to this theme, the dyadic analysis model is an important tool for the study of romantic relationships.
... Several researchers have already used such scores to investigate customer and employee satisfaction (e.g. Aguwa, Monplaisir, & Turgut, 2012;Mattson, Rogge, Johnson, Davidson, & Fincham, 2013;Ren & Quan, 2012). With big data, the scores quantified from qualitative data are more effective than reading all messages for researchers or marketers to calculate and visualize the patterns in portions or amounts of positive or negative opinions. ...
Article
This study suggests a research framework for social network analytics and demonstrates the process of integrating data and applying methodologies to understand visitor experiences at a destination. We applied both social media analytics and geographic information system (GIS) analysis to identify major topics and emotional expressions in a social network. A total of 56,418 tweets sent from Disneyland in California was used for analysis. The results identified three hot spots in the park where significantly pleasant tweets were posted. How to apply the research framework is discussed, and suggestions to researchers and marketers are given.
... Mining and measuring sentiment expressed in Twitter messages has been applied for conducting post-evaluations by the public. Studies have especially deemed that the sentiment in messages is strongly related to satisfaction or emotional attitude toward certain issues (Ren and Quan, 2012;Mattson et al, 2013;Kang and Park, 2014;Moniz et al, 2014;Luong and Houston, 2015). ...
Article
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A public space is a daily life environment for peoples’ social, cultural and recreational activities. Understanding people’s use and experience of urban public space is essential to create a better ground to design and improve the everyday spaces of people. Conventional methods for post-occupancy evaluation, like surveys, have common limitations: high-cost, time-consuming and non-real time interactions. Can social media data provide real-time and valuable insights about public space uses more effectively and promptly? This data-driven qualitative study explores the potential use of social media data for public space evaluation, focusing on the utilization of user-generated contents from social media as the source of user feedbacks. The High Line in New York City was selected as a case, and its related 9974 tweets were collected from Twitter over 14 months (August 2014–Oct 2015). The Twitter data were pre-processed through text-mining techniques and, for analysis, advanced computational techniques in social media analytics were performed. The research findings help us identify opportunities and challenges of using social media data analytics that can be adapted for research and practice in urban design, as part of public space evaluation in particular.
Chapter
How can we get the most out of our close relationships? Research in the area of personal relationships continues to grow, but most prior work has emphasized how to overcome negative aspects. This volume demonstrates that a good relationship is more than simply the absence of a bad relationship, and that establishing and maintaining optimal relationships entails enacting a set of processes that are distinct from merely avoiding negative or harmful behaviors. Drawing on recent relationship science to explore issues such as intimacy, attachment, passion, sacrifice, and compassionate goals, the essays in this volume emphasize the positive features that allow relationships to flourish. In doing so, they integrate several theoretical perspectives, concepts, and mechanisms that produce optimal relationships. The volume also includes a section on intensive and abbreviated interventions that have been empirically validated to be effective in promoting the positive features of close relationships.
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The cultural theory of naïve dialecticism, denoting Chinese lay beliefs about expectation of change and tolerance of contradiction, was employed to examine Chinese and European Americans' representation and evaluation of their romantic partners and relationships across three studies. We found that Chinese were more likely than Euro‐Americans to spontaneously describe their partners with contradictory attributes (Study 1). While Chinese and Euro‐Americans organized their evaluative partner knowledge in equally compartmentalized ways, Chinese were more likely to hold complex knowledge structures and to value both positive and negative partner knowledge (Study 2). Moreover, Chinese were more likely than Euro‐Americans to simultaneously hold positive and negative attitudes toward their partner and relationship (i.e., being ambivalent), both implicitly and explicitly (Study 3). These findings illuminate theories and research on contradictions in intimate relationships from a cultural perspective.
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Extending previous research, we explored the relation of family-of-origin communication patterns to emerging adults’ romantic relationship satisfaction in a sample of college students (N = 312). We hypothesized a model where romantic attachment statistically mediates the relation of family communication with romantic relationship satisfaction. Open family communication was positively related to satisfaction through attachment anxiety and avoidance; conformity communication was negatively related to satisfaction through anxiety, but not avoidance. After controlling for attachment, conformity communication was positively directly related to relationship satisfaction. Findings provide important insight into the importance of family communication patterns in the development of relationships.
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Dating is a process of exploration and investigation of individuals in an intimate relationship. Having a relationship has a positive impact, but also has negative effects, one of which is abusive dating relationship. In an abusive dating relationship, women can choose to leave or stay in the relationship. A women’s decision to stay on the relationship caused by various factors. This research aimed to discover factors behind women’s decision to stay in abusive dating, utilizing a qualitative approach with a case study method. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling method. The respondents on this research were three women aged 21-23 years old who have been dating for more than one year and are staying in the abusive dating relationship. The results showed that commitment, cognitive bias, social support, relationship satisfaction, and positive reinforcement were factors behind women’s decision to stay on abusive dating relationship.
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Elméleti háttér A szerelem jelenségének tanulmányozására fejlesztett egyik mérőeszköz a Sternberg-féle Háromszögű Szerelem Kérdőív (STLS), amely a szerelem háromszögelméletén alapszik. Ennek lényege, hogy a szerelem egy komplex érzelem, amely leírható három összetevőjének (az intimitás, a szenvedély, az elköteleződés) sajátos kombinációjaként. A kérdőívet már több mint 25 nyelvre lefordították, és több száz kutatás kiindulópontjává vált. A kutatás célja Kutatásunk célja az STLS magyar változatának elkészítése, pszichometriai ellenőrzése és validálása volt. Mó dszer A kutatásban két mintát használtunk, és online kérdőívcsomagokkal végeztünk felmérést. A kérdőív faktorszerkezetének elemzésekor 1305 fő (739 nő és 566 férfi ; átlagéletkor = 30,01 év; SD = 10,92; 18–72 év között) adataival dolgoztunk. A validáláskor az előző minta egy része, 465 fő (319 nő és 146 férfi , átlagéletkor 30,4 év; SD = 10,9 év, 18–72 év között) töltötte ki a következő kérdőíveket: Sternberg-féle Trianguláris Szerelem Kérdőív (STLS), kapcsolati elégedettség skála (RAS-H), páros megküzdés kérdőív (DCI-H), szexuális motiváció kérdőív (YSEX?-HSF). Eredmények A faktorelemzés megmutatta, hogy a Szerelem Kérdőív magyarra fordított itemei ugyanolyan hármas szerkezetbe illeszkednek, mint az amerikai változatban. A Szerelem Kérdőív mindhárom skálája pozitív irányú, közepes erősségű korrelációt mutat a páros megküzdés kérdőív összesített skáláival, valamint a párkapcsolati elégedettséggel. Ugyanakkor mindhárom szerelem skála csak alacsony vagy értelmezhetetlenül alacsony korrelációt mutat a szexuális motivációval. Következtetések A Sternberg-féle Háromszögű Szerelem Kérdőív magyar változata (STLS-H) az eredetivel megegyező faktorszerkezetű, magas belső megbízhatósági mutatókkal rendelkező valid eszköz, amely alkalmas lehet a magyar nyelvű kutatásokban a szerelem mérésére. Theoretical background Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale (STLS) is one of the questionnaires developed to study the phenomenon of romantic love. The rationale of Sternberg’s triangular love theory that romantic love is a complex emotion that can be described as a peculiar combination of its three components (intimacy, passion, commitment). STLS has already been translated into more than 25 languages and has become the starting point for hundreds of studies. Aim of current study The aim of our research was to prepare, psychometrically check and validate the Hungarian version of STLS. Method In the research, we used two samples and conducted a survey with online questionnaire packages. Sample 1 Factor analysis: we worked with the data of 1305 subjects (739 women and 566 men; mean age = 30.01 years; SD = 10.92; 18-72 years). Sample 2 Validation: Our questionnaire-package completed by 465 individuals (319 women and 146 men, mean age 30.4 years; SD = 10.9 years, 18-72 years): Stern-berg’s Triangular Love Scale (STLS), Hungarian version of Relationship Satisfaction Scale (RAS-H), Hungarian version of Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI-H), sexual motivation questionnaire (YSEX?-HSF). Results The factor analysis showed that the items of the love questionnaire translated into Hungarian fit into the same triple structure as in the American version. All three scales of the love questionnaire show a positive medium strength correlation with the overall scales of the Dyadic Coping Inventory as well as the Relationship Satisfaction Scale. However, all three scales of STLS show only a low or incomprehensibly low correlation with sexual motivation. Conclusions The Hungarian version of the Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale (STLS-H) is a valid tool with the same factor structure as the original, with high internal reliability indicators, which may be suitable for measuring love in Hungarian research.
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Nostalgia is an emotion that confers psychological benefits. The literature has neglected romantic nostalgia—that is, nostalgia specifically for past experiences shared with one’s partner—and its potential advantages for relationships. We examined romantic nostalgia in one correlational study, two experiments, and one daily diary study (N = 638). Romantic nostalgia was positively associated with greater relationship commitment, satisfaction, and closeness (Study 1). Additionally, inducing romantic nostalgia via a writing task (Study 2) or music (Study 3) strengthened relational benefits. Finally, participants reported more positive relationship-specific experiences on days when they felt greater romantic nostalgia (Study 4). We discuss contributions to the nostalgia and relationships literatures.
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This study examined the intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of vocational interests (VI) on two indicators of romantic relationship satisfaction (RS), specifically women and men's perceived relationship quality and their satisfaction with partner attributes. We hypothesized investigative, artistic, social, and enterprising interests would predict higher own or partner's RS. Additionally, we explored the role of interest profile attributes: differentiation and elevation. The study employs actor-partner interdependence modeling on data of 215 heterosexual romantic couples. Results from both RS measures converged on several findings: realistic and enterprising interests in women, and investigative interests in men positively predicted own RS. Women were more satisfied if their partner had higher investigative interests, artistic interests, higher interest elevation and a lower differentiation of interest profile. Although the effects were relatively small, the present results contribute to the literature by showing that VI, which has been previously investigated principally for the prediction of career outcomes, are also relevant for romantic relationship outcomes.
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Despite romantic relationships being characterized by high positives (e.g., enjoyable activities, positive feelings) early in commitment, many couples experience a loss of positives over time. However, interventions are typically not as effective at enhancing positives as they are at reducing negatives (e.g., hostile conflict). Thus, it is important to understand why positives decrease and how to use interventions to enhance positives optimally. In this article, we present how the field has evolved to (a) heighten focus on positives independent of negatives, (b) identify trajectories of positives over time, and (c) clarify major factors which predict loss of positives. From a Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy perspective, we offer therapeutic strategies that may hold promise for enhancing positives in relationships.
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Objective: The present study aimed to examine the role of positive problem solving in the relation between perspective taking and relationship satisfaction. Participants: One hundred and four college students participated in the present study, if they had been in a romantic relationship for a minimum of six months. Methods: Participants completed measures of relationship satisfaction, perspective-taking relative to romantic couples, and of positive problem-solving in couples. Results: As predicted, both perspective-taking and positive problem-solving were significantly related to relationship satisfaction. In addition, positive problem-solving emerged as a significant partial mediator of the relation between perspective-taking and relationship satisfaction. Conclusions: The benefits of skills training in the areas of perspective-taking and problem-solving in college student health and functioning are discussed.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, İlişki Doyum İndeksi’ni (İDİ-4) Türkçe’ye uyarlamaktır. Araştırmaya romantik ilişkisi bulunan toplam 670 birey (517 kadın, %77.2; 153 erkek, %22.8) katılmıştır. Katılımcıların yaşları, 18 ile 59 arasında (Ort = 25.66; ss = 8.12) değişmiştir. İlişki süreleri 1 ay ile 444 ay arasında değişmiş (Ort = 57.33, ss = 78.48) ve medyan ilişki süresi 24.5 ay olarak hesaplanmıştır. Demografik Bilgi Formu, İlişki Doyum İndeksi, Algılanan Romantik İlişki Kalitesi Ölçeği ve Öznel Zindelik Ölçeği veri toplama araçları olarak kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları, İDİ-4’ün tek faktörlü orijinal yapısının Türk toplumunda doğrulandığını ve ölçüt-bağıntılı geçerliğe sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Cronbach alfa ve test-tekrar test güvenirlik katsayıları sırasıyla .93 ve .71 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ölçme değişmezliği test sonuçları, İDİ-4’ün faktör yapısının ve yüklerinin medeni duruma göre ölçme değişmezliğine sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Sonuç olarak, araştırma bulguları, İDİ-4’ün Türkiye’deki çiftlerde romantik ilişki doyumunu ölçmede kısa, geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğuna ilişkin kanıtlar sunmaktadır.
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This study showed that couples' newlywed marriages and changes in their union over the first 2 years foreshadow their long-term marital fate after 13 years. Consistent with the enduring dynamics model, differences in the intensity of newlyweds' romance as well as the extent to which they expressed negative feelings toward each other predicted (a) whether or nor they were happy 13 years later (among those who stayed married) and (b) how long their marriage lasted prior to separation (for those who divorced). The results provide little support for the idea that emergence of distress (e.g., increasing negativity) early in marriage leads to marital failure but instead show that disillusionment-as reflected in an abatement of love, a decline in overt affection, a lessening of the conviction that one's spouse is responsive, and an increase in ambivalence-distinguishes couples headed for divorce from those who establish ii stable marital bond.
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This study examined the longitudinal relation between causal attributions and marital satisfaction and tested rival hypotheses that might account for any longitudinal association found between these variables. Data on attributions for negative partner behaviors, marital satisfaction, depression, and self-esteem were provided by 130 couples at 2 points separated by 12 months. To the extent that spouses made nonbenign attributions for negative partner behavior, their marital satisfaction was lower a year later. This finding was not due to depression, self-esteem, or initial level of marital satisfaction, and also emerged when persons reporting chronic individual or marital disorder were removed. Results support a possible causal relation between attributions and marital satisfaction.
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Marital quality is examined as a 2-dimensional construct comprising positive and negative evaluations. Assessments of marital quality, behavior, attributions, and general affect were completed by 123 couples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of positive and negative marital quality dimensions. These dimensions also explained unique variance in reported behavior and attributions beyond that explained by a conventional marital quality measure and by positive and negative affect. Ambivalent (high-positive and high-negative) and indifferent (low-positive and low-negative) wives differed in reports of behaviors and attributions but did not differ in scores on the conventional marital quality test, The implications of a 2-dimensional analysis of marital quality for theory and research are outlined.
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Some studies of marital satisfaction with advancing age have suggested a linear decline over time; others a U-shaped curve with an upswing in satisfaction during the later stages of the family cycle. Contradictory findings may in part be due to orthogonal dimensions underlying "marital satisfaction." Data from 1,056 married members of three-generation families were used to develop a two-dimensional measure of marital satisfaction reflecting positive interaction and negative sentiment. Results suggest marked differences by generation on both dimensions, with the youngest generation highest on both positive and negative factors. The oldest showed moderately low levels on positive interaction but even lower scores on negative sentiment. Further analyses using chronological age and duration of marriage displayed results similar to the three-generational analysis; no differences emerged by sex or by first versus second marriages. Thus, the "career" of self-reported marital satisfaction parsimoniously may be described by examining two dimensions which evidence a linear decline by age (negative sentiment) and a U-shaped curve (positive interaction).
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Relationship quality is studied in a variety of disciplines, yet widely accepted practices promulgate a lack of conceptual clarity. We build on a conceptually simple and theoretically advantageous view of relationship quality and suggest a shift to conceptualizing it as two distinct yet related dimensions—positive and negative evaluations of relationships. We introduce item response theory as a powerful tool for measure development, demonstrating how relationship quality can be optimally pursued in the context of modern test theory, thus leading to better theory development. Recognizing the limitations of self-reported relationship quality, we extend this two-dimensional conceptualization further by drawing on developments in the derivation of implicit measures. After briefly introducing such measures, we illustrate their application to assessment of relationship quality.
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Although much has been learned from cross-sectional research on marriage, an understanding of how marriages develop, succeed, and fail is best achieved with longitudinal data. In view of growing interest in longitudinal research on marriage, the authors reviewed and evaluated the literature on how the quality and stability of marriages change over time. First, prevailing theoretical perspectives are examined for their ability to explain change in marital quality and stability. Second, the methods and findings of 115 longitudinal studies—representing over 45,000 marriages—are summarized and evaluated, yielding specific suggestions for improving this research. Finally, a model is outlined that integrates the strengths of previous theories of marriage, accounts for established findings, and indicates new directions for research on how marriages change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Change is constant in everyday life. Infants crawl and then walk, children learn to read and write, teenagers mature in myriad ways, and the elderly become frail and forgetful. Beyond these natural processes and events, external forces and interventions instigate and disrupt change: test scores may rise after a coaching course, drug abusers may remain abstinent after residential treatment. By charting changes over time and investigating whether and when events occur, researchers reveal the temporal rhythms of our lives. This book is concerned with behavioral, social, and biomedical sciences. It offers a presentation of two of today's most popular statistical methods: multilevel models for individual change and hazard/survival models for event occurrence (in both discrete- and continuous-time). Using data sets from published studies, the book takes you step by step through complete analyses, from simple exploratory displays that reveal underlying patterns through sophisticated specifications of complex statistical models.
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This paper critically examines the operationalization of marital quality indices used as dependent variables. First, it looks at the functioning and construction of marital quality variables. In particular, Spanier's Dyadic Adjustment Scale is used to illustrate the arguments. Second, it presents both semantic and empirical criteria to judge the development of a marital quality index. Finally, it presents a Quality Marriage Index (QMI) based on the introduced criteria. This index was constructed using data from 430 people across four states. Several advantages of the QMI over more traditional measures are shown in terms of how covariates relate to the index.
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The dimensionality of five conceptually distinct components of marital quality was evaluated in a representative national sample of 1845 married people. Confirmatory factor analysis found two dimensions, one consisting of scales of marital happiness and interaction; the other, of marital disagreements, problems, and instability. Further examination of the two dimensions showed that they operate in distinctly different ways over forms of marital structure including wife's employment, marital duration, sex, and presence of children. It was concluded that scales of marital quality that combine measures from these two dimensions are likely to yield ambiguous findings and contribute little to an understanding of marital process.
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If respondents to a Thurstone-type attitude scale can make a middlemost response, in addition to agreement or disagreement, what concept underlies such responses when they are made? Ambivalence, neutrality, and uncertainty are three processes that can determine choice of the middlemost response. Definitions reflecting one of these processes or an innocuous control definition were presented to subjects as appropriate for a middlemost response on each of two attitude scales. The definitions presented differentially affected use of the middlemost response on one of the two scales. On that scale, an ambivalence definition yielded the greatest use of the middlemost response and differed from an uncertainty definition, which yielded the least use.
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This paper presents a new short‐form scale for use by clinical workers and researchers in measuring the degree or magnitude of a problem in the sexual component of a dyadic relationship, as seen by the respondent. The scale was designed for use in repeated administrations at periodic intervals in order that therapists might continually monitor and evaluate their clients' response to treatment. Internal consistency and test‐retest reliability were found to be in excess of .90, and the scale has a discriminant validity coefficient of .76.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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This chapter explores the concept of ambivalence and its relationship to attitudes. Definitions and different measures of ambivalence are reviewed. We present three dimensions on which measures of ambivalence can be classified. We then go on to examine some of the elicitors of ambivalence and present some preliminary findings on attitude objects that generate high levels of ambivalence. The major section of the chapter then reviews findings related to treating the ambivalence construct as an aspect of attitude strength. Research is presented in relation to four major predictions: (a) temporal stability of attitudes; (b) impact of attitudes on intentions and behavior, (c) pliability of attitudes; and (d) impacts on information processing. The final section offers suggestions for further research in this area.
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This study reports on the development of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, a new measure for assessing the quality of marriage and other similar dyads. The 32 item scale is designed for use with either married or unmarried cohabiting couples. Despite widespread criticisms of the concept of adjustment, the study proceeds from the pragmatic position that a new measure, which is theoretically grounded, relevant, valid, and highly reliable, is necessary since marital and dyadic adjustment continue to be researched. This factor analytic study tests a conceptual definition set forth in earlier work and suggests the existence of four empirically verified components of dyadic adjustment which can be used as subscales [dyadic satisfaction, dyadic cohesion, dyadic consensus and affectional expression]. Evidence is presented suggesting content, criterion related, and construct validity. High scale reliability is reported. The possibility of item weighting is considered and endorsed as a potential measurement technique, but it is not adopted for the present Dyadic Adjustment Scale. It is concluded that the Dyadic Adjustment Scale represents a significant improvement over other measures of marital adjustment, but a number of troublesome methodological issues remain for future research.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three different methods for testing all pairs of $\overline{{\rm Y}}_{\text{k}}-\overline{{\rm Y}}_{\text{k}}$, were contrasted under varying sample size (n) and variance conditions. With unequal n's of six and up, only the Behrens-Fisher statistic provided satisfactory control of both the familywise rate of Type I errors and Type I error rate on each contrast. Satisfactory control with unequal n's of three and up is dubious even with this statistic.
Book
(Publisher-supplied data) The classic text is Psychometric Theory. Like the previous edition, this text is designed as a comprehensive text in measurement for researchers and for use in graduate courses in psychology, education and areas of business such as management and marketing. It is intended to consider the broad measurement problems that arise in these areas and is written for a reader who needs only a basic background in statistics to comprehend the material. It also combines classical procedures that explain variance with modern inferential procedures.
Article
The current study examines whether a two-dimensional indicator of marital quality advances empirical understanding of the association between marital quality and physiological arousal. Thirty-two married couples completed baseline and problem-solving interactions while both spouses' heart rates and skin conductance were continuously monitored. Each spouse's changes in physiology from the baseline to problem-solving task served as the independent variables. Dependent variables included a single-dimension measure of marital quality (Dyadic Adjustment Scale DAS; Spanier, 1976), and a two-dimensional measure of marital quality (Positive and Negative Quality in Marriage Scale PANQIMS; Fincham & Linfield, 1997). Results indicated that changes in physiological arousal during a problem-solving marital interaction accounted for significant unique variance in wives', but not husbands' ratings of negative marital quality. Discussion focuses on implications for the social psychophysiological model of marriage and the use of two-dimensional measures of marital quality in the study of marriage.
Article
Marital quality is examined as a 2-dimensional construct comprising positive and negative evaluations. Assessments of marital quality, behavior, attributions, and general affect were completed by 123 couples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of positive and negative marital quality dimensions. These dimensions also explained unique variance in reported behavior and attributions beyond that explained by a conventional marital quality measure and by positive and negative affect. Ambivalent (high-positive and high-negative) and indifferent (low positive and low-negative) wives differed in reports of behaviors and attributions but did not differ in scores on the conventional marital quality test. The implications of a 2-dimensional analysis of marital quality for theory and research are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Provides simple but accurate methods for comparing correlation coefficients between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables. The methods are simple extensions of O. J. Dunn and V. A. Clark's (1969) work using the Fisher z transformation and include a test and confidence interval for comparing 2 correlated correlations, a test for heterogeneity, and a test and confidence interval for a contrast among k (>2) correlated correlations. Also briefly discussed is why the traditional Hotelling's t test for comparing correlations is generally not appropriate in practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explores alternate meanings of attitudinal neutrality in the context of the bipolarity-reciprocal antagonism issue, and proposes a modification of the semantic differential technique wherein the liking and disliking components of attitude can be separately measured. A geometrical model is developed in which 3 nondirectional attitude variables (total affect, ambivalence, and polarization) are distinguished from the usual attitude variable. Reliability and validity data are presented, and an application of the model is discussed. (31 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The doctrine of attitudes, which has almost completely captured and refashioned the science of social psychology, requires clarification. Historical considerations make it necessary to include a wide range of subjective determining tendencies among attitudes; yet it is possible and desirable to distinguish between attitudes and many correlative forms of readiness-for-response. Attitudes may be –idriving–n or –idirective, specific–n or –igeneral, common–n or –iindividual–n. They characteristically have a material or conceptual object of reference, and are "pointed" in some direction with respect to this object. If so generalized that the object and the direction are not identifiable, they merge into the "traits" of personality. Common attitudes can be roughly classified and measured, and when abstracted from the personalities which contain them they constitute the "socius," which is that portion of the unique personality of special interest to social science. Though attitudes are inferred rather than observed, they must be admitted as real and substantial ingredients in human nature, for without them it is impossible to account satisfactorily either for the consistency of any individual's behavior or for the stability of any society. Bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
Article
Scientific study of marital satisfaction attracted widespread attention in the 1990s from scholars representing diverse orientations and goals. This article highlights key conceptual and empirical advances that have emerged in the past decade, with particular emphasis on (a) interpersonal processes that operate within marriage, including cognition, affect, physiology, behavioral patterning, social support, and violence; (b) the milieus within which marriages operate, including microcontexts (e.g., the presence of children, life stressors and transitions) and macrocontexts (e.g., economic factors, perceived mate availability); and (c) the conceptualization and measurement of marital satisfaction, including 2-dimensional, trajectory-based, and social-cognitive approaches. Notwithstanding the continued need for theoretical progress in understanding the nature and determinants of marital satisfaction, we conclude by calling for more large-scale longitudinal research that links marital processes with sociocultural contexts, for more disconfirmatory than confirmatory research, and for research that directly guides preventive, clinical, and policy-level interventions.
Article
We focus on the finite-sample behavior of heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimators and associated quasi-t tests. The estimator most commonly used is that proposed by Halbert White. Its finite-sample behavior under both homoskedasticity and heteroskedasticity is analyzed using Monte Carlo methods. We also consider two other consistent estimators, namely: the HC3 estimator, which is an approximation to the jackknife estimator, and the weighted bootstrap estimator. Additionally, we evaluate the finite-sample behavior of two bootstrap quasi-t tests: the test based on a single bootstrapping scheme and the test based on a double, nested bootstrapping scheme. The latter is very computer-intensive, but proves to work well in small samples. Finally, we propose a new estimator, which we call HC4; it is tailored to take into account the effect of leverage points in the design matrix on associated quasi-t tests.