Article

To Monitor or Not To Monitor: Effectiveness of Cyberloafing Countermeasure

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Abstract

The goal of this study is to explore and analyze the effectiveness of a possible countermeasure to this so-called “cyberloafing” problem through a technical solution of Internet filtering and monitoring. Through a multi-theoretical lens, we utilize operant conditioning as well as one's psychological morals of procedural justice and social norms to study the effectiveness of such countermeasure in addressing the associated agency problem and promoting behavior compliance with the organization's Internet usage policy. We find confirmation and quota modules of Internet filtering and monitoring also can prevent shirking and promote better compliance through employee empowerment and attention resource replenishment.

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... In this case, other well-established correlates of burnout, specifically increased turnover intentions and decreased organizational commitment, may also be associated with cyberloafing (Aghaz & Sheikh, 2016). Additionally, if organizational policies prohibiting production cyber-deviance are applied, organizations may experience higher turnover as the organization terminates employees who cyberloaf (Glassman et al., 2015). Since this requires organizational resources to be directed towards disciplinary actions, profit and performance may be negatively affected (Shamsudin, Subramaniam & Alshuaibi, 2012). ...
... Thus, given these premises, it is evident that if cyber-deviance continues within the organization, there is some form of reinforcement occurring, be it extrinsic reinforcement (coming from someone else) or intrinsic (emanating from the behavior itself). Glassman, et al., (2015) compared agency theory, operant conditioning, procedural justice, social norms, employee empowerment, and resource replenishment to cyberloafing to demonstrate the type of organizational policy most effective for limiting cyberloafing. It should be noted that the authors confused positive punishment and negative reinforcement when they stated, "negative reinforcers reprimand or cause displeasure for the test subject for engaging in inappropriate behaviors" (p. ...
... This prompt would appear on 5 minute intervals. They found the confirmation model of monitoring was more effective than the blocking or quota model, which they argued was due to its' empowerment of employees and alignment with procedural justice (Glassman et al., 2015). An alternative explanation is that the five minute interval "reminders" (interruptions) were a form of response cost which is a mild form of punishment (the occurrence of an aversive stimulus: the interruption to their enjoyment), as per operant conditioning theory. ...
... Today, most of the organizations use policies and strategies for reducing the effect of cyberloafing in the workplace and increase the productivity such as monitoring or blocking some of the website (Baturay & Toker, 2015;Moody & Siponen, 2013). According to Glassman, Prosch, and Shao (2015), the Internet monitoring and filtering software industry has grown exponentially with revenue of $ 1.18 billion in 2012. As J-Ho and Ramayah (2016) refer to the organizations needs to use policies which might control and reduce the cyberloafing actives from the employee's intention, and the employers and manager must give awards to employees who follow the rules. ...
... Some concerns about the misuse of personal information of employees when employers monitor their employees' Internet activities including storing employee data and retrieving data for occasional review to ensure employee productivity and to avoid any financial liability that employees by "cyberloafing monitoring strategy" in terms of changing the work environment and worker behavior (Gökçearslan, Mumcu, Haşlaman & Çevik , 2016). Additional concerns are focused on making employees feel discomfort, although organizational managers can monitor employees when they use the organization's resources, as computers and other devices (Glassman et al., 2015). The monitoring and punishment for the employee who does cyberloafing activities may offend to employees by causing them to feel undervalued and distrusted. ...
... Organizational managers should follow some steps to start an effective preventive strategy. The first step is to make sure that online policy contains clear points about the organization's policies and rules (Glassman et al., 2015). It is difficult for employers to assess the risks faced by employees without real knowledge of the concept of security. ...
Article
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As the Internet has brought a lot of benefits to the work the Internet also creates new problems that were not found before as the cyberloafing. the cyberloafing defined as an activity involving the use of smart mobile and computers devices at the workplace for personal purpose activity by employees. In this paper, the researcher going to show some the demographic areas and the factors that effect on the employees’ attraction to cyberloafing from the previous studies have been shown consciences of cyberloafing in both of employees and organization. Finally, this paper will present some of the strategies to control and reduce the cyberloafing in the organizations.
... Management and organizational restrictions regarding Internet usage within large organizations are common (Coles-Kemp & Theoharidou, 2010;J. Glassman et al., 2015;Schulman, 2001;Symantec, 2016). Management and organizational Internet restrictions within agencies of the U.S. government are managed by policies detailing ethical guidelines (Department of Defense, 2012), however, these restrictions impede the ability of intelligence analysts to conduct Internet based research (M. Glassman & Kang, 2012 ...
... The use of Web filters and other information technology approaches to limit the accessibility of potentially inflammatory, objectionable, or ostensibly non work-related websites are largely effective in reducing employee misuse of information technology resources (J. Glassman et al., 2015); however, when access to Internet resources that are necessary to accomplishing work related tasks are restricted, these constraints may encourage employees to bypass organizational constraints by using their own devices and networks to access Internet based information. The use of personal devices and Internet resources to conduct work related activities increase the risk of information compromise (Garba et al., 2015;Hovav & Putri, 2016). ...
... By V. H. Bala, 2008, Decision Sciences, 39(2), 273-315. Copyright 2003 by Decision Sciences, by permission.Insider ThreatSignificant research has been conducted regarding the implementation and effectiveness of Internet use policies(Herath & Rao, 2009), Web filtering and other formal and informal control mechanisms and sanctions (J.Glassman et al., 2015), and behavioral and motivational pressures(Willison & Lowry, 2018), all which have undoubtably decreased misuse of information technology systems(D'Arcy & Devaraj, 2012). However, there is limited research as to what effect these policies have on users avoiding using provided enterprise information systems in order to more efficiently access information, leading to what might be referred to as a non-malicious extraorganizational insider threat. ...
Thesis
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Information technology security policies are designed explicitly to protect IT systems. However, overly restrictive information security policies may be inadvertently creating an unforeseen information risk by encouraging users to bypass protected systems in favor of personal devices, where the potential loss of organizational intellectual property is greater. Current models regarding the acceptance and use of technology, Technology Acceptance Model Version 3 (TAM3) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Version 2 (UTAUT2), address the use of technology in organizations and by consumers, but little research has been done to identify an appropriate model to begin to understand what factors would influence users that can choose between using their own personal device and using organizational IT assets, separate and distinct from “bring your own device” constructs. There are few organizations with radical demarcations between organizational assets and personal devices. One such organization, the United States Intelligence Community (USIC), provides a controlled environment where personal devices are expressly forbidden in workspaces and therefore provides a uniquely situated organizational milieu in that the use of personal devices would have to occur outside of the organizational environment. This research aims to bridge the divide between these choices by identifying the factors that influence users to select their own devices to overcome organizational restrictions in order to conduct open-source research. The research model was amalgamated from the two primary theoretical frameworks, TAM3 and UTAUT2, and is the first to integrate these theories as they relate to the intention to use personal or organizational systems to address the choices employees make when choosing between personal and organizational assets to accomplish work related tasks. Using survey data collected from a sample of 240 employees of the USIC, Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) statistical techniques were used to evaluate and test the model, estimate the path relationships, and provide reliability and validity checks. The results indicated that the Perception of Risk in the Enterprise (PoRE) significantly increased the Intention to Use Private Internet and decreased the Intention to Use Enterprise devices, as well as increasing the Perceived Ease of Use of Private Internet (PEUPI). The results of this study provide support to the concept that organizations must do more to balance threats to information systems with threats to information security. The imposition of safeguards to protect networks and systems, as well as employee misuse of information technology resources, may unwittingly incentivize users to use their own Internet and devices instead, where enterprise safeguards and protections are absent. This incentive is particularly pronounced when organizations increase the perceived threat of risk to users, whether intentional or inadvertent, and when the perception of the ease of use and usefulness of private Internet devices is high.
... In this case, other well-established correlates of burnout, specifically increased turnover intentions and decreased organizational commitment, may also be associated with cyberloafing (Aghaz & Sheikh, 2016). Additionally, if organizational policies prohibiting production cyber-deviance are applied, organizations may experience higher turnover as the organization terminates employees who cyberloaf (Glassman et al., 2015). Since this requires organizational resources to be directed towards disciplinary actions, profit and performance may be negatively affected (Shamsudin, Subramaniam & Alshuaibi, 2012). ...
... Thus, given these premises, it is evident that if cyber-deviance continues within the organization, there is some form of reinforcement occurring, be it extrinsic reinforcement (coming from someone else) or intrinsic (emanating from the behavior itself). Glassman, et al., (2015) compared agency theory, operant conditioning, procedural justice, social norms, employee empowerment, and resource replenishment to cyberloafing to demonstrate the type of organizational policy most effective for limiting cyberloafing. It should be noted that the authors confused positive punishment and negative reinforcement when they stated, "negative reinforcers reprimand or cause displeasure for the test subject for engaging in inappropriate behaviors" (p. ...
... This prompt would appear on 5 minute intervals. They found the confirmation model of monitoring was more effective than the blocking or quota model, which they argued was due to its' empowerment of employees and alignment with procedural justice (Glassman et al., 2015). An alternative explanation is that the five minute interval "reminders" (interruptions) were a form of response cost which is a mild form of punishment (the occurrence of an aversive stimulus: the interruption to their enjoyment), as per operant conditioning theory. ...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers February 2019
... These studies examined the effectiveness of diverse control mechanisms, such as monitoring, IT control policy, punishment, organizational policies and sanctions, in mitigating cyberslacking (e.g., Glassman et al. 2015;Khansa et al. 2017;Wang et al. 2013). ...
... Researchers examined the effectiveness of various forms of formal controls such as blocking (Glassman et al. 2015), organizational policies and sanctions (Ozler and Polat 2012), electronic monitoring (Wang et al 2013), and punishment (Zoghbi-Manrique de Lara and Olivares-Mesa 2010). By consolidating prior findings, perceived IT policy control is defined as the perception about organizational policies that monitor and prohibit nonwork use of IT in the workplace. ...
... Perceived IT control policy refers to the perception about organizational policies that monitor and prohibit nonwork use of IT in the workplace. Most firms today monitor employees' workplace activities through cameras and other detection devices to minimize deviant behaviors (Glassman et al. 2015;Holland et al. 2015). Based on the IT control and compliance literature (e.g., Liang et al. 2013;Xue et al. 2011), formal controls can increase employees' perceptions of accountability and risk of punishment, and thus employees are more likely to follow rules and less willing to engage in nonuse or misuse of IT. ...
Article
Full-text available
Employees' nonwork use of information technology (IT), or cyberslacking, is of growing concern due to its erosion of job performance and other negative organizational consequences. Research on cyberslacking antecedents has drawn on diverse theoretical perspectives, resulting in a lack of cohesive explanation of cyberslacking. Further, prior studies generally overlooked IT-specific variables. To address the cyberslacking problems in organizations and research gaps in the literature, we used a combination of a literature-based approach and a qualitative inquiry to develop a model of cyberslacking that includes a 2x2 typology of antecedents. The proposed model was tested and supported in a three-wave field study of 395 employees in a Fortune-100 US organization. For research, this work organizes antecedents from diverse research streams and validates their relative impact on cyberslacking, thus providing a cohesive theoretical explanation of cyberslacking. This work also incorporates contextualization (i.e., IT-specific factors) into theory development and enriches IS literature by examining the nonwork aspects of IT use and their negative consequences to organizations. For practice, the results provide practitioners with insights into nonwork use of IT in organizations, particularly on how they can take organizational action to mitigate cyberslacking and maintain employee productivity.
... The results suggested that Internet monitoring was useful to reduce employees' cyberloafing behavior (e.g. Glassman et al., 2015) and to increase employees' compliance with information systems (IS) security policies (e.g. D' Arcy et al., 2009). ...
... According to Ugrin and Pearson (2008), the explanation is that Internet monitoring may increase employees' perception of sanctions, which negatively affects employees' cyberloafing intentions. Based on a similar rationale, Glassman et al. (2015) also found that the functions of Internet monitoring systems can reduce employees' cyberloafing behavior. ...
Article
Purpose Internet monitoring in organizations can be used to monitor risks associated with Internet usage and information systems in organizations, such as employees' cyberloafing behavior and information security incidents. Extant research has mainly discussed the effect of Internet monitoring in achieving the targeted goals (e.g. mitigating cyberloafing behavior and information security incidents), but little attention has been paid to the possible side effects of Internet monitoring. Drawing on affective events theory, the authors attempt to reveal that Internet monitoring may cause side effects on employees' Internet usage policy satisfaction, intrinsic work motivation and affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a field experiment in a software development company. In total, 70 employees participated in the study. Mann–Whitney U test was employed to analyze the data. Findings The results suggest that Internet monitoring decreased employees' satisfaction with the Internet usage policy, intrinsic work motivation, as well as affective organizational commitment. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature by examining the side effects of Internet monitoring on employees. It also has implications for organizations to make appropriate decisions regarding whether to implement Internet monitoring.
... Users can be "habitually" distracted, due to functionalities and the pervasive accessibility to online content and smartphones [43,66]. Self-interruptions can be more disruptive, especially when it leads to off-task smartphone use such as checking social media or playing games [26,51]. Prior studies have indicated that both external and internal interruptions can cause multitasking situations in which different tasks are combined at the same time [27,58]. ...
... This result shows that participants who frequently check their smartphone or immediately respond to external interruptions are more prone to distraction than other participants in the same context. In many cases, habitual checking behaviors may lead to off-task smartphone use (e.g., utilizing apps irrelevant to ongoing activities), leading to increased smartphone distraction [26]. ...
Article
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Smartphones are often distraction for everyday life activities. In this work, we envision designing a context-aware system that helps users better manage smartphone distractions. This system design requires us to have an in-depth understanding of users' contexts of smartphone distractions and their coping strategies. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the contexts in which users perceive that smartphones are distracting in their everyday lives. Furthermore, prior studies did not systematically examine users' preferred coping strategies for handling interruptions caused by smartphones, possibly supported by context-aware systems that proactively manage smartphone distraction. To bridge this gap, we collect in-situ user contexts and their corresponding levels of perceived smartphone distraction as well as analyze the daily contexts in which users perceive smartphones as distracting. Moreover, we also explore how users want to manage phone distraction by asking them to write simple if-then rules. Our results on user contexts and coping strategies provide important implications for designing and implementing context-aware distraction management systems.
... Besides, one way to conceptualize perceived behavior control is the confidence of an employee to navigate to favorite websites while at work. In theory, this skill depends on three factors: navigating to a website via a search engine (ie: Google, Yahoo, and so on) or the ability to navigate to the desired website by typing a uniform resource locator (URL); the ability to circumvent blocking technology if any by using a proxy server or other means; and the presence or absence of website blocking technology in the workplace (Liberman et al., 2011;Askew, 2012;Askew et al., 2014;Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015). The way to overcome this is by prohibiting employees from using cellphones in the office during working hours (Abdullahi, Mohammed, & Otori, 2019). ...
... The results of testing the fifth hypothesis (H 5 ) show that self-efficacy on accessing websites (WA) does not influence exhaustion (EX), because P = 0.891. It means that the fifth hypothesis (H 5 ) proposed in this study does not support the results of previous research conducted by Liberman (2011), Coker (2011), Doorn (2011), Askew (2012, Askew et al. (2014), Glassman (2015), Jandaghi et al. (2015) Gökcearslan et al. (2016), and Abdullahi, Mohammed, and Otori (2019). Exhaustion as a mediating variable of cyberloafing is caused by various factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cyberloafing is activity deviation at the workplace where employees intentionally avoid doing their job during working hours that results in a decrease in productivity. Particularly in the context of this study, cyberloafing activity is the usage of the Internet while working. Yet, studies on the antecedents and consequences of cyberloafing in the context of industrial revolution 4.0 and society 5.0 have not been conducted. This research used a purposive convenient sampling of 280 employees in the business services branches in Indonesia, particularly the representative business service branches located in some cities and regencies, including Yogyakarta City, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency (Special Region of Yogyakarta) and its surroundings. The results show 3 antecedents of cyberloafing and 1 consequence of cyberloafing which influence each other. Furthermore, these findings have filled the existing gaps regarding the antecedents and consequences of cyberloafing in service provider industries in the context of industrial revolution 4.0 and society 5.0. From the results of this research, it can be concluded that the five hypotheses proposed in this study are supported. The antecedents and consequences of cyberloafing have been tested and proven in this study as a contribution to science and technology.
... SNS attachment for employees of organizations has drawn criticism due to unwarranted information leaks, and loss of productivity (Houghton et al., 2020). In the past, scholars have studied employees spending unproductive time on SNS, a phenomenon referred to as cyberloafing (Glassman et al., 2015). Studies have reported a loss of productivity due to employee engagement on SNS at work (Priyadarshini et al., 2020). ...
... Studies have reported a loss of productivity due to employee engagement on SNS at work (Priyadarshini et al., 2020). Many organizations have blocked employee access to public SNS sites as a part of corporate policy (Glassman et al., 2015). Such policies have obstructed corporate users from using public SNS at work. Figure 1(a) depicts a range of news snippets on the organizational dilemma in allowing employee access to SNS. ...
Article
Full-text available
The debate on the pros and cons of employee attachment to social networking sites (SNS) has led to social media policy paralysis in many organizations, and often a prohibition on employee use of SNS. This paper examines corporate users’ attachment to SNS. An analysis of 316 survey responses showed that corporate users’ socialization in large public SNS was steeped in perceived work-related benefits, which in turn nourished their SNS attachment. Social use outperformed informational use in generating perceived work-related benefits from SNS. Weak ties in large heterogeneous networks resulted in strategic and operational benefits, whereas the effects of strong bonding in homogenous networks were limited to operational benefits. The paper contributes to research on SNS use by corporate users and the debate on the effect of SNS use for work. The findings will benefit SNS strategists of organizations and policymakers to exploit the benefit potential of public SNS.
... For employees, cyberloafing acts as a micro-break that allows them to cope with stressors arising from their work tasks or roles (Syrek et al., 2018;Varghese and Barber, 2017;Wu et al., 2020) and their private lives (K€ onig and Caner De La Guardia, 2014). Contrarily, for employers, cyberloafing is a counterproductive behavior that limits employee productivity (Andel et al., 2019;Glassman et al., 2015;Pindek et al., 2018). Recent studies also indicate that different types of cyberloafing (minor or major) may show different prevalence rates contingent on the status Cyberloafing and cyberslacking in the workplace of the individual (e.g. ...
... Control and monitoring. Many studies have considered whether control and monitoring strategies (Hensel and Kacprzak, 2021;Zoghbi-Manrique-De-Lara et al., 2006) can deter cyberloafing, although most of these have explored coercive forms of control, such as perceived sanctions (Henle and Blanchard, 2008) or punishment (Hensel and Kacprzak, 2021), perceived abusiveness (past enforcement for less abusive behaviors) (Ugrin and Pearson, 2013) and utilization of blocking and confirmation modules to ensure appropriate Internet use (Glassman et al., 2015). Scholars have discussed that the presence of formal Internet use and monitoring policies and their enforcement (Ugrin and Pearson, 2013) can influence the prevalence of cyberloafing (Askew and Buckner, 2017;Khansa et al., 2018; Zoghbi-Manrique-De-Lara and Olivares-Mesa, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose Scholars are increasingly focusing on the adverse effects of digitization on human lives in personal and professional contexts. Cyberloafing is one such effect and digitization-related workplace behavior that has garnered attention in both academic and mainstream media. However, the existing literature is fragmented and needs to be consolidated to generate a comprehensive and contemporary overview of cyberloafing research and map its current intellectual boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on systematic literature review (SLR) in cyberloafing and cyberslacking in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach A SLR is conducted to assimilate the existing research. A total of 87 studies selected through a robust protocol are analyzed through content analysis. Findings A total of four thematic research areas and inherent gaps are identified, including conceptualization, operationalization, antecedents and stakeholders and consequences. Results are used to assimilate thematic gaps and potential research questions (RQs) to be addressed by future scholars. To advance cyberloafing research, the authors propose a theoretically grounded comprehensive framework based on the SLR findings. Originality/value Our study's novelty rests in its state-of-the-art synthesis of cyberloafing research, which encompasses a broader scope than prior SLRs. Furthermore, developing a theoretically grounded comprehensive framework for advancing future research is a unique contribution of this study.
... Research disciplines that have focused on cyberloafing issues have ranged from information technology and security (as demonstrated by Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015), organizational behavior and leadership studies (Lim, 2002;Jia, Jia, & Karau, 2013), psychology (Wagner et al., 2012), public administration (Hernandez-Castro, 2016;Ozler & Polat, 2012), human resources (Weatherbee, 2010), education (Taneja, Fiore, & Fischer, 2015), and business ethics (Block, 2011). The emerging interdisciplinary field of "cyberpsychology" also developed as a vehicle for studying cyberloafing and other emerging computer-related phenomena (Anandarajan, Simmers, & D'Ovidio, 2011;Oravec, 2015). ...
... Technological approaches to constraining cyberloafing have included surveillance of employee and student activity (Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015). However, monitoring of individuals' activities in many kinds of jobs (especially knowledge work, creative activity, and technological design) may not provide an accurate measure of their productivity (Oravec, 2004b). ...
Chapter
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“Cyberloafing” in workplace and educational contexts refers to the uses of computer-related applications and devices in ways or at times that are not directly sanctioned by employers, managers, or teachers. It has often been considered as a kind of “time theft” on the part of employees, possibly decreasing workplace and educational productivity by consuming attention, energies, and resources designated for organizational operations. In contrast, many employees and students have construed cyberloafing as a stress reliever and as support for personal wellbeing, often with the rationale that they are able to engage effectively in alternating or multitasking between and among their various work and off-work endeavors. “Constructive recreation,” in contrast with cyberloafing, comprises online recreation and gamification initiatives designed by employees along with managers; these initiatives are designed to be in sync with productive efforts and support the wellbeing of all organizational participants. The chapter analyzes research trends and public discourse related to both to cyberloafing and to constructive recreation.
... Employees' cyberloafing has become a significant concern for managers and a hot topic for academic scholars due to the potential consequences [9]. Researchers have examined antecedents of employees' cyberloafing in individual, job, and organizational contexts. ...
... Robinson and O'Leary-Kelly [27] state that "individuals carefully analyze their work environments and adjust their individual actions accordingly." Akinyele [44] find that workplace productivity problems can namely be attributed to the work environment and cyberloafing behavior is affected by a wide range of workplace factors, including employees stress [45], mechanisms for self-management [46], Internet monitoring [9], and the use of policies and sanctions [14], amongst other things. ...
Article
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Despite the documented individual, job, and organizational antecedents of cyberloafing at the workplace, few studies have addressed whether, how and when group factors affect employees’ cyberloafing behaviors. Drawing on social learning theory and general deterrence theory, the purpose of this study is to test if observability of coworkers’ cyberloafing behavior affects employees’ perceptions of norms related to cyberloafing and subsequent cyberloafing behaviors and to test if sanctions can play a role in buffering these effects. An investigation of 335 employees working at Chinese enterprises establishes that observing others engaging in cyberloafing influences the employees’ perceived norms and cyberloafing behaviors and that employees’ perceived norms related to cyberloafing play a partial mediating role in the relationship between observability and employees’ cyberloafing. As predicted, we also found that perceived certainty and severity of potential sanctions for cyberloafing moderate the effect of observability on employees’ cyberloafing as well as the indirect effect of observability on employees’ cyberloafing via perceived norms related to cyberloafing. This study enriched the cyberloafing literature by revealing how observability of cyberloafing influences employees’ cyberloafing and by unveiling two boundary conditions under which the cyberloafing learning effect can be buffered.
... It is possible a single norm (e.g., supervisor approval of cyberloafing) is driving personal computer use at work. The second reason is practical: many managers are interested in curtailing cyberloafing, and there has been great interest in developing cyberloafing countermeasures (Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015). Social norms could be a potential intervention point in this regard. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cyberloafing—the use of an electronic device at work for an activity that an immediate supervisor would not consider work-related—is now the most common way that employees waste time at work. It is well established that social norms play a role in cyberloafing, but it is unknown what specific normative information employees attend to when deciding whether or not to cyberloaf. In Study 1, we tested which of four types of normative information could underlie the observed correlation between social norms and cyberloafing. We found that both perceptions of supervisor cyberloafing and perceptions of coworker cyberloafing accounted for unique variance in cyberloafing, and also discovered some evidence that the approval of these referents also had the same effect. In Study 2, we cross-validated these results from Study 1 using a sample that was reasonably representative of the general working population—supporting the generalizability of our findings from Study 1. Furthermore, we conducted supplemental analyses (relative weights analysis and polynomial regression) to untangle nuances in how normative data relates to cyberloafing. In Study 1, we also examined the role of actual norms—as opposed to perceived norms—and found evidence that actual supervisor cyberloafing does influence cyberloafing through employee perceptions of supervisor cyberloafing. Overall, this investigation serves to clarify how social influence plays a role in the cyberloafing phenomenon.
... Specifically, much of the previous research has focused on deterring cyberloafing through internet monitoring (Glassman et al., 2015), the implementation of sanctions (Ugrin & Pearson, 2013), and through the development of internet usage policies (Wang, Tian, & Shen, 2013). However, our results suggest that these approaches address the symptom rather than the underlying reasons (i.e., workplace stress) that employees engage in cyberloafing in the first place. ...
Article
Employees spend approximately 2 h per day engaging in cyberloafing (i.e., using the internet at work for nonwork purposes) behaviors, costing organizations almost $85 billion dollars per year. As a result, cyberloafing is often considered a counterproductive type of withdrawal behavior. However, recent research suggests that cyberloafing may have some unexpected positive workplace outcomes. Therefore, we argue that the role of workplace cyberloafing is more complex than previously assumed and posit that cyberloafing may provide employees with a way to cope with workplace stress such as exposure to workplace aggression. To examine this proposition, we used a heterogeneous sample of 258 employees to test whether cyberloafing buffers the detrimental effects of workplace aggression exposure on two outcome variables: employees’ turnover intentions and job satisfaction. Overall, results supported the notion that employees use cyberloafing as a workplace coping mechanism, which runs counter to the majority of research that conceptualizes cyberloafing as a counterproductive workplace behavior. These findings suggest that managers may consider allowing some degree of cyberloafing so that employees can better cope with work stress. Moreover, managers should directly target stressful workplace conditions (e.g., aggression) that serve as the impetus for cyberloafing behaviors.
... They are useful for numerous reasons, but at the same time are tainted with problems associated with self-reporting on sensitive issues (Dalal & Hakel, 2016;Podsakoff & Organ, 1986). Second, studies based on field evidence are often focused on the introduction of technologies to curb misconduct (Glassman et al., 2015), rather than on imposing punishment, thus the specific deterrence effect (impact of punishment and punishment avoidance on the punished employees) and general deterrence effect (impact of punishment and punishment avoidance on those, who were not punished) cannot be studied. Third, studies of technical solutions to the problem of cyberloafing (like the application of internet filters) are associated with one more problemthe used technology makes it impossible for the employees to continue their engagement in cyberloafing. ...
Article
Although the General Deterrence Theory has frequently been employed to study the prevention of misconduct associated with computer use, the common reliance on survey data makes it difficult to measure the general and specific deterrence effects. We use one-group pre-testpost- test quasi-experiment based on data from a monitoring system covering 230 employees for nine months to study general and specific effects of two interventions: the reminder about possible punishment and the actual punishment. The interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) with ARIMA modelling employed to study the longitudinal effects of the interventions allowed to deliver novel findings. Punishing the violators of organisational policy affected both the punished and unpunished employees (decrease in cyberloafing by 41% and 24%, respectively). The effect was maintained for three months, that is until the end of our dataset. The punishment had a stronger effect on unpunished employees located closer in the organisational structure to the punished ones than on the remaining unpunished employees. Moreover, we show that reminder about the possibility of punishment brought no statistically significant effect, likely due to the earlier experience of punishment avoidance. We discuss implications for theory and designing organisational policies intended to curb cyberloafing.
... This finding is corroborated by Liu et al. (2015), who postulated that the level of innovation of the founder influences the way resources are managed for the firm to remain competitive. Similarly, Glassman et al. (2015) identified business owner's strategic decisions such as internet filtering and monitoring systems to be effective ways of promoting better compliance which leads to employee empowerment and resource replenishment. ...
Conference Paper
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Africa has a higher business discontinuation rate of 13 percent when compared with that of Europe and the USA. This situation calls for a study that explores the strategic actions and growth of digital enterprises which are able to survive within the African context. Again, studies on Digital Business Strategy (DBS) which is a multidimensional concept focus on digital enterprises with formalised structures. Against this background, using a comprehensive DBS framework, this study explored the DBS evolution of a digital enterprise in a developing economy in the quest to survive and grow. Miles and Huberman’s transcendental realism technique was adopted for the case analysis. Three major growth events were identified in the case. The digital business strategic actions of the enterprise were reviewed for each of the phases of growth. It was discovered that the survival of the digital enterprise, in the first stage of growth, depends largely on the entrepreneur's innovativeness, and the competence to govern the available resources to achieve competitive advantage. This research is arguably the first to explore the growth and survival of a digital enterprise using a multidimensional DBS framework. Lessons from the study are of practical importance to managers and executives of digital enterprises who are struggling to develop digital business strategic actions to survive and grow. This study is useful for entrepreneurs who wish to develop DBS to survive and thrive in the digital economy of an African country.
... These perspectives are behavioral (Aghaz & Sheikh, 2016;Askew et al., 2014); control mechanism, e.g. (Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015;Rahimnia & Mazidi, 2015); descriptive (Henle & Blanchard, 2008;Vitak et al., 2011) and demographic (Baturay & Toker, 2015;Yılmaz, Yılmaz, Öztürk, Sezer, & Karademir, 2015). ...
Article
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The growing use of smartphones at workplaces necessitates investigating its reasons and consequent effects on employees' task performance. Moreover, this paper proposes three hypotheses to test a sequential model that elucidates both the antecedents and consequences of cyberloafing activities through smartphones. Multiple sampling designs are used to collect the data through a questionnaire. The sample size is 750 with a response rate of 92%. A structured questionnaire is used by adapting items for each construct from different established instruments available in the literature. The findings reveal that job stress creates cynicism among the employees that induces them to indulge in smartphone loafing that proves to be detrimental to their task performance. However, if employees self-regulate their counterproductive behavior, it tends to mitigate the negative impact on their task performance. This paper provides substantial theoretical and practical implications for HR managers to devise policies to reduce smartphone loafing activities.
... The organization which served as a study site acquired an employee monitoring software eleven months before we contacted it and had been using it since. Importantly, even though employees' activities are monitored, the organization does not use any blocking software (Glassman et al., 2015), thus allowing the collection of data on cyberloafing. Together with the authorities of the organization, we agreed that the data gathering for our project would last four months (November 2015 -February 2016). ...
Article
The study aims to investigate how organization‐related factors, such as job overload, organizational commitment, and motivation, affect the level of cyberloafing. While research on cyberloafing has been blooming recently, most of the studies are based on self‐reports. Thus the validity of obtained results is threatened by the possibility of deliberate response distortion resulting in the underreporting of cyberloafing. We address this issue by using a unique data‐set collected by the organization‐wide computer‐tracking system. Data gathered from the sample of 379 employees whose computer usage was automatically monitored during a four‐month period was combined with a survey intended to measure independent variables. We find that job overload is negatively related to cyberloafing and organizational commitment. The results allow questioning the inclusion of cyberloafing in the category of counterproductive work behaviors, while at the same time, they increase the validity of findings on the relationships between the studied variables and cyberloafing.
... Meanwhile, to reduce the numbers of cyberloafing, companies need to apply several approaches such as applying online practice policies, install online observing system or filtering system or alternatively impose warning letter or punishments (Glassman et al., 2015;Kimberly, 2010). Therefore, there are companies have conduct internet use policies and intense control methods, or conducted management trainings (Cheng et al., 2014). ...
... The relationship of self-interruptions and social media use with well-being is complicated -there can be benefits [22,105,107,127], but excessive social media use can also lead to reduced well-being [21,24,65,128]. A number of sociotechnical approaches have emerged to reduce self-interruptions, including deactivating social network accounts [15], internet addiction bootcamps [67], workplace site filters [46], time trackers [58,59], as well as various productivity interventions delivered via browser extensions [2,63,77,78], phone applications [57,62], and chatbots [129]. ...
Preprint
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How effectively do we adhere to nudges and interventions that help us control our online browsing habits? If we have a temporary lapse and disable the behavior change system, do we later resume our adherence, or has the dam broken? In this paper, we investigate these questions through log analyses of 8,000+ users on HabitLab, a behavior change platform that helps users reduce their time online. We find that, while users typically begin with high-challenge interventions, over time they allow themselves to slip into easier and easier interventions. Despite this, many still expect to return to the harder interventions imminently: they repeatedly choose to be asked to change difficulty again on the next visit, declining to have the system save their preference for easy interventions.
... Cyber slacking is defined as the use of digital devices in the workplace beyond its purpose (Akbulut et al., 2016;Friedman, 2000;Kalaycı, 2010;Lim, 2002). The necessity of using the Internet and digital devices in the workplace can make employees work more effectively and efficiently (Askew et al., 2014), as well as these technologies cause to digital distraction and use these technologies for non-business purposes (Glassman et al., 2015). Employees can easily interfere with digital environments in the workplace via the Internet and digital devices during work hours, which may lead to a decrease in their productivity (Askew et al., 2014;Jia et al., 2013). ...
... Since managing the balance and/or conflict between work and personal demands constitutes a source of stress and anxiety among employees (Bulger, Matthews, & Hoffman, 2007;Haar, Russo, Suñe, & Ollier-Malaterre, 2014), the demand for task management solutions and work-life balance programs is unsurprisingly high. Likewise, organizations face difficult decisions regarding how (and to what extent) they should police their employees' PUTW (Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015). Simple neutralization (e.g., Cheng, Li, Zhai, & Smyth, 2014) may be an insufficient solution to a complex problem. ...
... Epstein et al. [23] identified that resuming work after a break can often be difficult if the worker does not feel ready to work. As a result, workers will often engage in non-work-related online activities when they return to their desk (e.g., reading news, checking personal email, browsing Facebook) rather than engaging in work tasks, potentially leading to a "chain of diversions" [33] and "Cyberloafing" -defined as the voluntarily use of digital technologies for non-work purposes during working hours [27,43]. ...
Conference Paper
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Work breaks--both physical and digital--play an important role in productivity and workplace wellbeing. Yet, the growing availability of digital distractions from online content can turn breaks into prolonged "cyberloafing". In this paper, we present UpTime, a system that aims to support workers' transitions from breaks back to work--moments susceptible to digital distractions. Combining a browser extension and chatbot, users interact with UpTime through proactive and reactive chat prompts. By sensing transitions from inactivity, UpTime helps workers avoid distractions by automatically blocking distracting websites temporarily, while still giving them control to take necessary digital breaks. We report findings from a 3-week comparative field study with 15 workers. Our results show that automatic, temporary blocking at transition points can significantly reduce digital distractions and stress without sacrificing workers' sense of control. Our findings, however, also emphasize that overloading users' existing communication channels for chatbot interaction should be done thoughtfully.
... Prior studies mainly focused on the nature and effectiveness of security countermeasures in deterring the intentional and unintentional misuse of computers. 3,[24][25][26][27][28] In recent years, researchers have paid increasing attention to the motives for employee IS misuse. Our review and assessment of the literature on this topic showed that some scholars discussed motives at a more abstract conceptual level, whereas others focused on specific motives in practical contexts. ...
Article
The relationship between abusive supervision and employee workplace deviance has received much attention. Conceptualizing information systems (IS) misuse as a form of workplace deviance, the literature on IS security lacks a theoretical and empirical investigation of the relationship between abusive supervision and employee IS misuse. Drawing on retaliation, displaced aggression, and neutralization, we develop and empirically test a research model of the relationships among abusive supervision, neutralization, and two types of employees’ IS misuse. Results of a two-stage survey of 203 responses showed that when individuals perceived abusive supervision, they were likely to invoke the metaphor of the ledger as a neutralization technique to rationalize their engagement in IS misuse. Our results also reveal that employees’ reactions to abusive supervision could be influenced by their tenure with supervisor. These findings contribute to the IS security field and provide important guidance for learning how leaders influence employees’ IS security behaviors.
... Literatürdeki genel bulgu, sanal kaytarmanın iş performansını düşürdüğü yönündedir (Verton, 2006 Glassman, Prosch, & Shao, 2015). Nitekim yapılan bir araştırmada çalışanların %85'i uygulanan internet kısıtlamalarını rahatsız edici ve tuhaf bulduklarını belirtmişlerdir (Verton, 2006). ...
Thesis
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Üretkenlik, literatürde sıklıkla incelenen ve birçok farklı konu ile ilişkilendirilen çalışma alanlarından biridir. Sanayi devrimi sonrası üretkenlik, yönetim ve teknoloji kavramları birlikte değerlendirilmeye başlanmıştır. 1800’lerin başından günümüze dek, bu kavramların birbirleri ile ilişkileri çok sayıdaki çalışmada bulgulanmıştır. Bu çalışmada da günümüzde yaygın olarak görülen yıkıcı yönetimin ve gelişen teknoloji ile yaygınlaşarak önemli maliyet ve verimlilik kayıplarına neden olduğu bulgulanan sanal kaytarma davranışının işteki üretkenlik üzerine etkileri araştırılmıştır. Ayrıca yıkıcı yönetimin sanal kaytarma davranışlarına olan etkileri de incelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda şu sorulara yanıt aranmıştır: Gelişen teknolojiye bağlı olarak özellikle son on yılda artış gösteren ve çalışma saatleri içerisinde internetin iş dışı amaçlarla kullanılması anlamına gelen sanal kaytarma davranışları işteki üretkenliği etkilemekte midir? Yöneticilerin çalışanlara karşı gösterdikleri fiziksel olmayan sadist ve tiran davranışlar olarak açıklanan yıkıcı yönetim işteki üretkenliğe engel midir? Yıkıcı yönetim sanal kaytarma davranışlarını arttırmakta mıdır? Çalışmanın araştırma sorularını cevaplamak için, Adana'da faaliyet gösteren kamu ve özel banka çalışanlarından anket yöntemi ile 317 adet veri toplanmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında temin edilen veriler; doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesi ile incelenmiştir. Yapısal modele ilişkin uyum iyiliği değerlerinin kabul edilebilir düzeyde olduğu görüldükten sonra değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin gücü ve yönü incelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda, yıkıcı yönetim algısının işteki üretkenlik ve sanal kaytarmanın her iki boyutu ile anlamlı ilişkilerinin olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Yıkıcı yönetimin işteki üretkenliği negatif yönde etkilediği görülürken, hem önemsiz hem de önemli sanal kaytarmayı pozitif yönde etkilediği görülmüştür. Sanal kaytarmanın davranışının her iki boyutunun ise işteki üretkenlik ile negatif yönde ilişkili olduğu ancak etkilerinin anlamlı olmadığı bulgulanmıştır. Anahtar kelimeler: İşteki üretkenlik, yıkıcı yönetim, sanal kaytarma, banka çalışanları. ***************************************ABSTRACT**********Productivity is one of the frequently analyzed topics in the literature. The concept has been associated with various topics in time. Subsequent to the industrial revolution, productivity has started to be analyzed together with the concepts of management and technology. Since the begining of the 1800s the association among these concepts was analyzed in a great number of studies. In this study, the effect of abusive supervision, which is an widely-observed topic today, and the effect of the prevelant concept of cyberloafing, which was found to be an important source for high cost and low efficiency, on productivity was analyzed. Additionally, how abusive supervision and cyberloafing are assocaiated was analyzed. In this context, it was attemped to seek out and find the answers to these questions: Does cyberloafing, which is on the rise due to technological developments in the last ten years, and defined as the use of the internet in the working hours for non-work related issues has an impact on productivity at work? Is abusive supervision, which refers to nonphysical, sadist and tyrant behaviors of managers directed towards employees an obstacle to productivity at work? Does abusive supervision boost cyberloafing behaviors? In order to answer the research questions, data were gathered from public and private bank employees working in Adana by survey method. A total of 317 surveys were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling. Since the analyzes revealed that the structural model has adequate level of goodness-of-fit, the direction and strength of relationships among the variables were evaluated. In this context, it was found that abusive supervision has a significant effect on productivity at work and on the two dimensions of cyberloafing. The effect of abusive supervision on productivity at work was negative, however it was positive for two dimensions of cyberloafing. Additionally, despite the negative relationship between minor and serious cyberloafing and productivity at work, the impact of minor and serious cyberloafing on productivity at work was not significant. Keywords: Productivity at work, abusive supervision, abusive leadership, cyberloafing, cyberslacking, bank employees.
... In negative PUTW studies, scholars have primarily discussed deterrence-based policies for curbing PUTW, such as internet monitoring and sanctions. Although some of the findings are mixed (Chen et al., 2008;Rahimnia & Mazidi, 2015;Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, 2006), these studies have generally found that monitoring and sanctions are useful for mitigating PUTW (Glassman et al., 2015;Henle et al., 2009;Shepherd et al., 2014;Ugrin & Pearson, 2013Urbaczewski & Jessup, 2002;Wang et al., 2013), especially when internet monitoring and sanctions are combined together (Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara & Olivares-Mesa, 2010). Deterrence-based policies can curb PUTW because monitoring and sanctions can increase employees' perceived risk of engaging in PUTW. ...
Article
Employee personal use of technology at work (PUTW) – defined as employees’ activities using organisational or personal IT resources for non-work-related purposes while at work – is increasingly common. Our review of existing PUTW studies (n = 137) suggests that previous studies widely discussed PUTW outcomes, antecedents, and policies. The literature review also indicates that previous studies proposed opposing viewpoints regarding the effect of PUTW on employee job performance, but few studies offered empirical evidence. Consequently, the conditions under which PUTW can increase or decrease employee job performance have not been discussed. We develop a theoretical model for increasing the understanding of this issue. Our model suggests that executive attention is an important underlying mechanism through which PUTW affects employee job performance. We further suggest the effect of PUTW on executive attention (and job performance) depends on PUTW behavioural characteristics in terms of four dimensions: PUTW cognitive load, PUTW arousal level, PUTW timing, and PUTW frequency/duration. The model can advance researchers’ understanding of the possible conditions under which PUTW may increase or decrease employee job performance. The model also offers new insights into existing studies on PUTW antecedents and policies. As a result, our proposed model provides new theoretical guidance for future studies on PUTW.
... For example, past studies have shown that people are often unable to focus on or return to their goals when using a web browser due to the prevalence of distractions on the web [1,63]. Research on Cyberloafing [20,37] and task resumption on the web [19,43,48] have shown that individuals experience difficulty when resuming their main task after external-or self-interruptions [3,13]. ...
Preprint
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Motives or goals are recognized in psychology literature as the most fundamental drive that explains and predicts why people do what they do, including when they browse the web. Although providing enormous value, these higher-ordered goals are often unobserved, and little is known about how to leverage such goals to assist people's browsing activities. This paper proposes to take a new approach to address this problem, which is fulfilled through a novel neural framework, Goal-directed Web Browsing (GoWeB). We adopt a psychologically-sound taxonomy of higher-ordered goals and learn to build their representations in a structure-preserving manner. Then we incorporate the resulting representations for enhancing the experiences of common activities people perform on the web. Experiments on large-scale data from Microsoft Edge web browser show that GoWeB significantly outperforms competitive baselines for in-session web page recommendation, re-visitation classification, and goal-based web page grouping. A follow-up analysis further characterizes how the variety of human motives can affect the difference observed in human behavioral patterns.
... The meaning behind the second system is "from zero to zero"going seven days a week without rest, commonly known as 24/7. In this context, cyberloafing in individuals' scheduleswhen included separately from routine breakscan cause an upsurge in their productivity levels by affecting their attentiveness in a positive manner (Glassman et al., 2015). Employees with high Zhong-Yong thinking will choose cyberloafing behaviour to relax so as to protect their mental health. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to integrate conservation of resources theory discus the antecedents and consequences of cyberloafing as well as the boundary effect between cyberloafing and mental health. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected 431 valid questionnaires in four months. Each questionnaire was divided into two parts that had to be distributed. The interval between the first distribution and the second distribution was 15 days. Findings The research study revealed that employees’ Zhong-Yong thinking and cyberloafing promote mental health, and cyberloafing has a mediating effect. Mindfulness weakens the positive impact of cyberloafing on mental health. Originality/value The research study’s results break the stereotype that cyberloafing is not good for organizations. When managers allow employees to engage in cyberloafing at work, this is conducive to employees’ mental health, which can ensure the company’s sustainable development.
... They are useful for numerous reasons, but at the same time are tainted with problems associated with self-reporting on sensitive issues (Dalal & Hakel, 2016;Podsakoff & Organ, 1986). Second, studies based on field evidence are often focused on the introduction of technologies to curb misconduct (Glassman et al., 2015), rather than on imposing punishment, thus the specific deterrence effect (impact of punishment and punishment avoidance on the punished employees) and general deterrence effect (impact of punishment and punishment avoidance on those, who were not punished) cannot be studied. Third, studies of technical solutions to the problem of cyberloafing (like the application of internet filters) are associated with one more problemthe used technology makes it impossible for the employees to continue their engagement in cyberloafing. ...
Article
Although the General Deterrence Theory has frequently been employed to study the prevention of misconduct associated with computer use, the common reliance on survey data makes it difficult to measure the general and specific deterrence effects. We use one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experiment based on data from a monitoring system covering 230 employees for nine months to study general and specific effects of two interventions: the reminder about possible punishment and the actual punishment. The interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) with ARIMA modelling employed to study the longitudinal effects of the interventions allowed to deliver novel findings. Punishing the violators of organisational policy affected both the punished and unpunished employees (decrease in cyberloafing by 41% and 24%, respectively). The effect was maintained for three months, that is until the end of our dataset. The punishment had a stronger effect on unpunished employees located closer in the organisational structure to the punished ones than on the remaining unpunished employees. Moreover, we show that reminder about the possibility of punishment brought no statistically significant effect, likely due to the earlier experience of punishment avoidance. We discuss implications for theory and designing organisational policies intended to curb cyberloafing. FREE COPY LINK: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/2KZIDQWVH3HXBPEZXNSS/full?target=10.1080/0960085X.2020.1756701
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Este artigo é resultante de uma pesquisa de doutorado realizada com profissionais da área de infraestrutura de Tecnologia da Informação que trabalham no Distrito Federal. Utiliza-se metodologia de natureza quanti-qualitativa, com aplicação de questionário e realização de entrevistas individuais de natureza semiestruturada. Os resultados mostram que esses profissionais estão conectados durante a maior parte do tempo e, em geral, acessam informações sem relevância para o trabalho imediato, fenômeno denominado cyberloafing. Os principais motivos para o acesso são: atualização sobre os últimos acontecimentos, redução do nível de estresse e aumento do nível de conhecimento técnico. Reconhece-se que o acesso à internet desvia a atenção, mesmo assim muitos profissionais criticaram as organizações em que trabalham devido à prática de bloqueio de sites e de conteúdos. Os principais impactos no trabalho são o pouco aproveitamento do tempo para as tarefas na empresa e desvio da atenção. As organizações precisam se adaptar a essa nova realidade e encontrar soluções de gerenciamento e controle ao invés do uso exclusivo de ferramentas de bloqueio do acesso a certos tipos de sites e aplicativos.
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Em um contexto organizacional cada vez mais digital e tecnológico, pode-se perceber de maneira recorrente o cyberloafing: o uso das TICs no âmbito laboral para fins pessoais, não pertinentes ao trabalho. Esse fenômeno pode ser exemplificado em diversas práticas, em especial, o acesso a redes sociais virtuais no ambiente de trabalho para fins não profissionais. O objetivo geral da presente pesquisa foi compreender o cyberloafing através do engajamento nas interações online entre usuários da rede social virtual Reddit. Para tal, realizou-se uma netnografia de abordagem qualitativa mediante imersão na comunidade Reddit r/brasil. Procedeu-se a uma análise documental, reunindo conteúdo produzido pelos membros da comunidade sem interferência das pesquisadoras, e a uma observação participante, realizando comentários ou postagens que incentivassem o(s) informante(s) a se manifestar sobre suas experiências de cyberloafing. Consideraram-se como manifestações os relatos específicos sobre o fenômeno ou acerca de qualquer outra questão relacionada. Verificou-se uma grande frequência de práticas de cyberloafing grave, além de manifestações acerca de antecedentes organizacionais e individuais. Apesar de se identificar consequentes positivos, os consequentes negativos sobressaíram. Quanto aos posicionamentos organizacionais em relação ao uso pessoal de TICs, identificaram-se o restritivo e o permissivo. Verificaram-se, em maior número, manifestações de estratégias ou medidas de controle coercitivas. Considera-se que a pesquisa traz consigo relevância visto que apresenta o cyberloafing de maneira ampla, manifestado espontaneamente por seus praticantes, em um ambiente virtual favorável para a ocorrência do fenômeno.
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Cyberloafing has received increasing research interest in recent years and from a diversity of research streams. The implications of cyberloafing have proved to be significant, stronger and costly as compared to other less knowledge-based settings. Among other antecedents, the interrelationship of knowledge-workers’ personality traits and their inclinations to cyberloaf has not been studied to date. This survey investigates the relationship between the mentioned factors within and across a number of knowledge-intensive professional services firms in Iran. The findings show the significant positive impact of neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience on both types of cyberloafing (namely activities and behaviours) and the negative impact of agreeableness on only cyberloafing activities.
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Giriş Bir üretim girdisi olarak bilgi ve teknoloji,sürdürülebilir rekabet üstünlüğü sağlamak açısından oldukça önemlidir. Günümüzde tüm örgütler üretim faktörlerini bir araya getirmekle kalmayıp, insan kaynakları, teknoloji, bilgi, etkin zaman yönetimi (Afacan Fındıklı, 2016:35) ve liderlik gibi stratejik konularda rakiplerine karşı daha güçlü olup avantaj sağlamaya çalışmaktadır. 20. yüzyılın sonlarına doğru teknolojide yaşanan baş döndürücü gelişmeler mesafeleri kısaltmış, iletişimi anlık hale getirmiş; internet, bilgisayar, tablet, akıllı telefon gibi ürünlerle birlikte sms, mms, e-mail, whatsapp ve skype gibi birçok teknolojik hizmetin hayatımıza girmesine yol açmıştır. Hiç şüphesiz bu kavramlar insanların sosyal hayatında ve bu sosyal hayatın bir parçası olan çalışma hayatında büyük bir değişim yaratmıştır. Bilgisayar destekli üretim, uzaktan (internet yoluyla) erişim, çalışanlar arasında mesaj ve talimatların e-mail ve sms gibi hizmetler kullanılarak anında iletilebilmesi, eğitimde internet ve dijital teknolojilerin kullanılması gibi kavram veya olaylar bu konuda örnek olarak verilebilir.
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Cyberloafing refer to web surfing activities which are not related to business. Cyberloafing poses a threat risk for the organizations and employees. These threats mainly include material damage to the organizations, decrease in efficiency, tarnishing image, disruption of organizational justice and deterioration of the psychological health of the employees. This study was done to remark the cyberloafing behaviour which causes negative results for both organizations and employees and it has researched the effects of the demographic variables, the sector and the duration of the use of internet on the cyberloafing behaviour. Total 496 persons who are working at public and private hospitals participated in the research. Confirmatory factor analysis, two-category logistic regression analysis and variance analysis were made on the data obtained. Based on the research results; it was found that some demographic variables (sex, age, income and working year) influenced the cyberloafing level of the employees and that there was a difference between the public employees and private employees in terms of cyberloafing activities.
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The purpose of this book is to provide a concise [and] current . . . summary of the essentials of conditioning and learning for students and professionals in those areas. [This book examines contemporary perspectives on] the basic procedures of habituation, classical conditioning, and instrumental conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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New research identifies online users who became hooked on chat rooms, interactive games, and even eBay only to see their lives become increasingly unmanageable because of the Internet. Prior research explores the addictive qualities sustaining drug and alcohol abuse, pathological gambling, and even video game addiction; however, given the relative newness of Internet addiction, little is understood about the habit-forming nature of the Internet and its potential for abuse. As the Internet permeates our lives at home, school, and work, this article takes a closer look at how the Internet can create marital-, academic-, and job-related problems. This article outlines a workable definition of Internet addiction and as a clinical new phenomenon, explores the major consequences created by Internet addiction, including online affairs, student Internet abuse, and employee Internet abuse. Future areas for research and practice are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Much attention has been devoted to how technological advancements have created a brave new workplace, revolutionzing the ways in which work is being carried out, and how employees can improve their productivity and efficiency. However, the advent of technology has also opened up new avenues and opportunities for individuals to misbehave. This study focused on cyberloafing—the act of employees using their companies' internet access for personal purposes during work hours. Cyberloafing, thus, represents a form of production deviance. Using the theoretical frameworks offered by social exchange, organizational justice and neutralization, we examined the often-neglected dark side of the internet and the role that neutralization techniques play in facilitating this misbehavior at the workplace. Specifically, we developed a model which suggested that when individuals perceived their organizations to be distributively, procedurally and interactionally unjust, they were likely to invoke the metaphor of the ledger as a neutralization technique to legitimize their subsequent engagement in the act of cyberloafing. Data were collected with the use of an electronic questionnaire and focus group interviews from 188 working adults with access to the internet at the workplace. Results of structural equation modelling provided empirical support for all of our hypotheses. Implications of our findings for organizational internet policies are discussed. Copyright
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The Internet is a fast growing mechanism for providing workplace monitoring. We examined how its implementation affects employees’ trust in the organization. We hypothesized that giving employees advance notice of monitoring and providing them a justification for it would enhance their trust. We investigated how employees’ perceptions of organizational support prior to monitoring moderated these relationships by conducting a longitudinal field experiment. We found that advance notice and perceived organizational support exerted significant main and interactive effects on post-implementation trust. In turn, trust significantly affected employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions.
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A framework on worker motivations is tested with an extensive US survey; 82.7% of the respondents report that they are very likely to keep an agreement to work hard, even if it was almost impossible for their employer to monitor them. Based on mean responses, the rank order of motivations is moral, intrinsic, peer pressure, and positive incentives. Respondents also report that fairness considerations are important and that they are especially likely to keep agreements with honest employers. Logit analysis indicates that increases in moral and intrinsic motivations increase the likelihood of keeping agreements to provide effort. The evidence suggests that we might need to reexamine a foundational assumption underlying the theory of the firm.
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The Internet has made a significant impact on work and the personal lives of people around the world. While access to the Internet has changed the ways work can be carried out, it has also increased the opportunities for people to cyberloaf, while under the guise of doing work. Cyberloafing is the act of employees using their companies’ Internet access for personal purposes during work hours. Our study examined the perceived prevalence and seriousness of various cyberloafing activities through a survey of 226 working adults. We examined how employees justify cyberloafing and the organizational regulation of personal Web usage at their workplace. Results suggest that cyberloafing activities that are perceived to be more serious tend to be less prevalent. We also found that the Internet has made the boundary between work and non-work (home) less distinct, facilitating the intrusion of work into home and personal activities into the work domain. Implications of the results are discussed.
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This paper integrates elements from the theory of agency, the theory of property rights and the theory of finance to develop a theory of the ownership structure of the firm. We define the concept of agency costs, show its relationship to the ‘separation and control’ issue, investigate the nature of the agency costs generated by the existence of debt and outside equity, demonstrate who bears these costs and why, and investigate the Pareto optimality of their existence. We also provide a new definition of the firm, and show how our analysis of the factors influencing the creation and issuance of debt and equity claims is a special case of the supply side of the completeness of markets problem.The directors of such [joint-stock] companies, however, being the managers rather of other people's money than of their own, it cannot well be expected, that they should watch over it with the same anxious vigilance with which the partners in a private copartnery frequently watch over their own. Like the stewards of a rich man, they are apt to consider attention to small matters as not for their master's honour, and very easily give themselves a dispensation from having it. Negligence and profusion, therefore, must always prevail, more or less, in the management of the affairs of such a company.Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1776, Cannan Edition(Modern Library, New York, 1937) p. 700.
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Organizations are attempting to curtail cyberloafing or employee use of company Internet and email systems for non-work purposes by implementing electronic use policies, but their design is based on anecdotal support instead of theory or empirical research. Using procedural justice theory, we propose policies containing signed versus implied consent, for cause versus periodic monitoring, zero tolerance or progressive discipline versus managerial discretion in disciplinary procedures, and appeals to peers or management versus no appeals will improve employee perceptions of policy fairness and thus, decrease cyberloafing. Results from two experiments and a field study found that zero tolerance, progressive discipline, and appeal processes were related to higher perceptions of policy fairness while periodic monitoring was related to less cyberloafing.
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Allowing users to actively participate in the development and implementation of a new IS is supposed to increase their satisfaction with it. This type of participation, representing aspects relating to distributive and procedural justice, is increasingly impractical in current organizational settings, because many IS are used by thousands of employees and having them involved is impossible. Nonetheless, there are still benefits to be gained in other ways. Extrapolating from interactional justice, we proposed a passive participation method of engaging users. Its effect was tested in a large company in the USA and proved effective. Interactional justice, the perception of fairness in the way that people were treated at an interpersonal level, was found to increase user assessment of the value of their IS. Implications and expansions to interactional justice theory and how this antecedent affects IS implementation are discussed.
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Since the introduction of personal computers (PCs) in the early 1980s, Saudi Arabia has made major investments in PCs to match its rapidly growing economy. As a result, the PC business has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Our paper reports on the results of a study which investigates the relationships between end-users' attitudes and PC utilization among knowledge workers in the context of Saudi Arabia. To gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the use of PCs, we adopted Triandis' theory which suggests that behavior is determined by attitudes, social norms, habits and expected consequences of behavior. Our study is based on previous efforts to test the theory's validity in Saudi Arabia.Our results suggest that PC utilization is determined by individual attitudes, personal characteristics, such as PC experience, facilitating conditions, such as PC access and social factors. We also observed that respondents to our questionnaire differ in the level of importance they attribute to the factors hypothesized as influencing PC utilization compared to Canadian respondents in a previous study.
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In recent years, several organizations have implemented nonmandatory information and communication systems that escape the conventional behavioral logic of understanding acceptance and usage from a normative perspective of compliance with the beliefs of others. Because voluntary systems require users' volitional behavior, researchers have traced recent implementation failures to a lack of user commitment. However, gaps in our understanding of volitional usage behavior and user commitment have made it difficult to advance theory, research, and practice on this issue. To validate a proposed research model, cross-sectional, between-subjects, and within-subjects field data were collected from 714 users at the time of initial adoption and after six months of extended use. The model explained between 44.1 percent and 58.5 percent of the variance in adoption and usage behavior based upon direct effects of user commitment. Findings suggest that user commitment plays a critical role in the volitional acceptance and usage of such systems. Affective commitment--that is, internalization and identification based upon personal norms--exhibits a sustained positive influence on usage behavior. In contrast, continuance commitment--that is, compliance based upon social norms--shows a sustained negative influence from initial adoption to extended use. Theory development based upon Kelman's social influence framework offers new empirical insights about system users' commitment and how it affects volitional usage behavior.
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Blogs have emerged as an innovative tool for sharing information and knowledge, and they command significant interest from information technology IT users as well as providers. Our study establishes a research framework to provide an understanding of the factors affecting knowledge sharing among bloggers in online social networks. The research results indicate that bloggers' trust, strength of social ties, and reciprocity all have a positive effect on their knowledge-sharing behavior. Further, the impact of each factor on such behavior varies by gender. Our results provide evidence that offline expected social norms tend to persist in the online blogosphere and that gender differences need to be considered as a significant factor in understanding the IT usage behavior in the context of social capital theory. For IT managers and blog service providers, our results also highlight the importance of being gender aware in an effort to elicit participation from all constituent members for the successful adoption and usage of blogs as a knowledge-sharing mechanism.
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Industry analysts estimate that billions of dollars in lost revenue were attributed to employee Internet abuse. Trends also suggest that lost job productivity and corporate liability have emerged as new workplace concerns due to growth of new online technologies and mobile computing. Such employee Internet misuse creates new management dilemmas on how to respond to incidences of such misuse as well poses network security risks and drains on network bandwidth. Within an organization, it is imperative to ensure that employees are using computing resources effectively and appropriately. Utilizing the previous literature in the field, this paper proposed a revised framework to manage employee Internet abuse. The former model proposed did not account for new digital media and recommended screening applicants for Internet addiction, using more of a clinical test than a job performance test. This new model describes both prevention and intervention methods to address incidents of online misuse in the workplace and refocuses hiring decisions into post-employment training. It also examines the new hiring concerns with the new iGeneration of college graduates and it examines how organizations should best utilize acceptable Internet use policies with clear methods of Internet monitoring to enforce that workers are complying with company policies. This paper also talks about the potential benefits of rehabilitation approaches to manage employees who abuse instead of terminating them to decrease job turnover and improve job retention. Implications for current management practices are also discussed.
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Current studies on compliance with security policies have largely ignored the impact of the perceived benefits of deviant behavior, personal norms, and organizational context. Drawing on the literature in criminology, this paper applies rational choice theory to examine how employees' intention to comply with Internet use policy is driven by cost–benefit assessments, personal norms and organizational context factors. The results indicate that employees' compliance intention is the result of competing influences of perceived benefits, formal sanctions, and security risks. Furthermore, the effect of sanction severity is found to be moderated by personal norms.
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This paper examines adherence to social customs. Models of social customs are found to be inherently multi-equilibrial. It is found that social customs which are disadvantageous to the individual may nevertheless persist without erosion, if individuals are sanctioned by loss of reputation for disobedience of the custom. One example of such a social custom is the persistence of a fair (rather than a market-clearing) wage. In this fashion, involuntary unemployment is explained.
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Computer operators at two work sites (n = 73, n = 19) were prompted to take three 30-s and one 3-min break from computer work each hour in addition to conventional rest breaks. Some operators were asked to perform stretching exercises during the short breaks. Mood state and musculoskeletal discomfort were assessed at each work site over a 2- or 3-week baseline period and a 4- or 6-week treatment period, respectively. Operator productivity measures were obtained from company records. Operators complied with about half of the added breaks but favoured 3-min breaks over 30-s breaks. No improvement in productivity or well-being was found at the larger work site. At the smaller work site, productivity, eye, leg and foot comfort all improved when the short breaks included stretching exercises. These results provide evidence that frequent short breaks from continuous computer-mediated work can benefit worker productivity and well-being when the breaks integrate with task demands.
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When one thinks of "power", one often assumes that a person is the source of it and that some mystical charismatic element is at work. Of course, with some people this is undoubtedly so; they derive power from how other people perceive them. In organizations, however--says this author--power is not so much a question of people but of positions. Drawing a distinction between productive and oppressive power, the author maintains that the former is a function of having open channels to supplies, support, and information; the latter is a function of these channels being closed. She then descriges three positions that are classically powerless: first-line supervisors, staff professionals, and, surprisingly, chief executive officers. These positions can be powerless because of difficulties in maintaining open lines of information and support. Seeing powerlessness in these positions as dangerous for organizations, she urges managers to restructure and redesign their organizations in order to eliminate pockets of powerlessness.
Article
This paper explores the consequences of cognitive dissonance, coupled with time-inconsistent preferences, in an intertemporal decision problem with two distinct goals: acting decisively on early information (vision) and adjusting flexibly to late information (flexibility). The decision maker considered here is capable of manipulating information to serve her self-interests, but a tradeoff between distorted beliefs and distorted actions constrains the extent of information manipulation. Building on this tradeoff, the present model provides a unified framework to account for the conformity bias (excessive reliance on precedents) and the confirmatory bias (excessive attachment to initial perceptions).
Employee Internet management: getting people back to work
  • P R Johnson
  • C Rawlins
P.R. Johnson, C. Rawlins, Employee Internet management: getting people back to work, J. Organ. Culture Commun. Conflict 12 (1), 2008, pp. 43-48.
Magic quadrant for secure web gateways
  • L Orans
  • P Firstbrook
L. Orans, P. Firstbrook, Magic quadrant for secure web gateways, Gartner Reports, 2013.
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