Article

Mixed-Income Housing and Neighborhood Integration: Evidence from Inclusionary Zoning Programs

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Abstract

Using propensity score matching and regression techniques, together with an original database of approximately 12,000 inclusionary zoning (IZ) units built in Montgomery County, Maryland and Suffolk County, New York, this article comparatively analyzes the effect of IZ programs on racial and income integration and neighborhood change at the census tract level between 1980 and 2000. In particular, the article explores the question of whether IZ programs encourage stable neighborhood integration over time. This analysis fills a gap in the current empirical literature on the effect of IZ programs on neighborhood change and integration, an original policy goal that has not been evaluated previously due to data limitations. The findings indicate that the effect of IZ units on neighborhood racial and income transition is dependent on the siting of IZ units, the initial characteristics of the neighborhoods in which they are built, and the institutional framework of the IZ program. In the aggregate, IZ units positively affect the level of both racial and income integration in neighborhoods where units are built, although stark differences emerge between the two study areas. The findings do reveal the potential for IZ programs to exacerbate existing concentrations of poverty and patterns of residential racial segregation.

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... Table 2 summarises the connection between indicators and the three level of spatial justice. [10,62,63,68] Social mix is defned as mixed-income housing that either requires or encourages incomeintegrated residential developments through the inclusion of low-income housing units as part of a market-rate project [66][67][68][69][70]. The notion could be expressed in different ways: mix tenure [71], inclusionary zoning [68] or mixed communities [65]. ...
... The notion could be expressed in different ways: mix tenure [71], inclusionary zoning [68] or mixed communities [65]. The social mix is usually related to social segregation that was debated in different studies [60,61,65,66,71] and showed its limits regarding the question of spatial justice. In fact, Michelle Norris [71] states that tenure mixing in urban areas is of particular importance to avoid undue social segregation. ...
... In fact, Michelle Norris [71] states that tenure mixing in urban areas is of particular importance to avoid undue social segregation. In the same vein, the "inclusionary zoning programs may serve to limit residential racial segregation and discrimination by creating housing opportunities for a range of incomes and by counteracting the exclusionary effects of restrictive land use regulations [66,[72][73][74][75]. In the face of growing urban segregation and the idea that working-class neighbourhoods have become "places of relegation ", the aim of social mixing is to mix socially diverse populations in a given area (…) and to re-establish "republican integration" [60]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, urban sprawl, urban densifcation, housing shortages, and land scarcity are some problems that intervene in the practice of urban planning. Those specifc problems are currently more than ever emergent because they imply the notion of spatial justice and socio-spatial inequalities. Hence, it seems necessary to promptly research and describe these from a new and different perspective. Thus, we consider the Institutional Analysis and Development to defne a conceptual framework to assess spatial justice. We simplify it into a three-dimensional model (rule, process, and outcomes) in which a matrix of indicators applies on each level. We elaborate the indicators to measure spatial inequalities in an urban development project, for which the reason we refer to the egalitarian paradigm of spatial justice. While spatial inequalities raise questions about land management, we elaborate those indicators related to three land management interventions: the use, access to, and redistribution of land use.
... These two areas allow for the analysis of contrasting institutional frameworks relating to housing provision and land use decision making. In Suffolk County, IZ policies are adopted by local governments (the 43 towns and villages) and structures vary across these municipalities, although all IZ policies in place during the study period for this analysis were voluntary in nature (Kontokosta 2014). The Suffolk County regional government, through the Suffolk County Planning Commission, maintains non-binding review authority over certain land use decisions, but county-level decisions can be overturned at the local level. ...
... Montgomery County, on the other hand, retains regional control over land use and zoning decision and the county's IZ polices-known as the MPDU (Moderately Priced Dwelling Unit) ordinance. Decision authority over the approval of residential development, as well as the standards for the MPDU ordinance and its implementation, is held by the county planning agency (Kontokosta 2014). Although there are numerous variations and differences in policy structure and history, these two counties provide a reasonable comparative environment to understand how affordable housing is dispersed in areas with regional land use and housing policies and in those where local ''home-rule'' authority exists. ...
Article
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This article examines the impact of inclusionary zoning (IZ) policies on the production and spatial distribution of low-income housing at the neighborhood level. Using an original, geo-coded property-specific database of more than 11,000 IZ units built between 1980 and 2000 in Montgomery County, Maryland, and Suffolk County, New York, this study provides the first evidence of the locational determinants of IZ unit production and spatial clustering by census tracts. Using a comparative analytic approach, the impact of institutional framework—more specifically, the difference between jurisdictions with regional versus local housing and land use authority—is examined in relation to the effectiveness of IZ programs in promoting an equitable dispersal of low-income housing units. This analysis provides evidence of spatial concentrations of IZ units built between 1980 and 2000, although the characteristics of neighborhoods in which clustering occurs differ between the two study areas.
... Such fears are not new as literature is replete with the notion that most of the expected benefits accruable from such developments are usually not focused on the original residents, hence resulting in an exodus of sorts by these persons when such developments come to fruition (Kontokosta, 2014). Therefore, there is a need for these residents to be properly educated on the usefulness of the MIH development in combating urban poverty by the relevant personnel. ...
... The issue of value depreciation of properties in neighbouring localities as a result of the siting of a MIH development has become an issue of concern. According to Joseph and Chaskin (2010), Kontokosta (2014), and Vale and Shamsuddin (2017), adopting a wrong approach in the allocation of low-income housing in MIH developments and the percentage of households holding different tenures will culminate in these fears among the original residents of the area. Such fears will bother on insecurity and value depreciation. ...
Conference Paper
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Although several studies have sort to establish the influence of mixed income housing (MIH) on eradicating urban poverty, few of such studies have appraised the utility of MIH initiatives in combating spatial inequalities in a manner that tackles the incidence of urban poverty, particularly in South African cities. This is the gap which this study seeks to contribute to bridging. Adopting a case study research design, this study elicits the perceptions of a cross-section of stakeholders on the development of a new MIH scheme as it pertains to the usefulness or otherwise of proposed scheme in combating urban poverty through spatial restructuring. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion exercise was conducted with purposively selected interviewees and discussants. The emergent data was analysed thematically. Preliminary findings highlight a consensus among relevant ring. However, they observe that the MIH under the present delivery arrangements was only inclined to the geographical aspects of resolving spatial inequalities and not the social relations aspect. This inadequate consideration of the social relation facets signals the potential of the approach to underperform with regards to resolving spatial inequalities, and by extension, urban poverty. This study holds salient implications for stakeholders involved with the planning of MIH developments.
... Although diverse in methods and outcomes, previous IZ policy studies have shown that inclusionary zoning programs can serve as an effective policy tool to counter the negative outcomes of various zoning regulations that limit the supply of affordable housing. While there is hardly any research on the allocation of units produced through IZ policy, a few studies such as Kontokosta (2014) and Schwartz (2010) have attempted to look how IZ policy can impact neighborhood integration by income and race. ...
... Research on IZ in particular as a tool to integrate neighborhoods economically and racially have looked into whether places with IZ units are more integrated than those without. Kontokosta (2014) investigates this question using administrative data from MC and Suffolk County, NY. His results show that even though units are scattered throughout the neighborhoods in MC, certain race groups purchased more than others which in turn might limit the level of integration. Using propensity score matching method, he asserts that in MC, neighborhoods receiving IZ units were mostly integrated from the outset and that there is not enough evidence to conclude that the program led to increased integration. ...
... The SHAs had similar traits to the inclusionary zoning (IZ) programmes implemented in the United States, which are considered ground-breaking approaches to generate affordable housing through focused and flexible local policy rather than through distant and rigid national prescription (Calavita & Grimes, 1998). It was then expected for the SHAs to become an alternative to produce affordable housing that would not otherwise be produced without resorting to public subsidies or by producing the affordable units in segregated, stigmatised and geographically dispersed areas (Kontokosta, 2014;Schuetz, Meltzer, & Been, 2011, 2009. The remarkable feature of the SHAs is that the programme relied on the fast-tracking of the resource consenting processes to decrease transaction costs for the developers in order to motivate them to deliver more (affordable) housing into the market (Auckland Council, 2013). ...
... The SHAs fall somewhere in the midst of those views as many of them are located in urban and relatively dense zones of Auckland, and responded to the IZ in particular has been argued as an effective mechanism to mitigate housing unaffordability through focused and flexible local policy rather than through distant and rigid national prescription (Calavita & Grimes, 1998). IZ may be an alternative to produce affordable housing that would not otherwise be produced without resorting to public subsidies or by producing the affordable units in segregated, stigmatised and geographically dispersed areas (Kontokosta, 2014;Schuetz et al., 2011Schuetz et al., , 2009. The IZ in general may be separated into two broad categories: those with a clear and enforced mandate for developers to set aside, from new residential developments, a percentage of units to be affordable to low-or moderate-income households (mandatory IZ); and, those that are based solely on incentives with the expectation that affordable housing will be delivered (voluntary IZ). ...
Article
Housing prices in Auckland have persistently increased in the last decade. To fast-track development of housing, Special Housing Areas (SHAs) were created in September 2013 as a measure to improve affordability. It is not clear the extent of the success (or failure) of SHAs as they were disestablished by May 2017. This paper investigates the causal effects of the SHAs programme on housing prices and the implications on affordability. We used a dataset comprising more than 170 thousand sales transactions between 2011 and 2016 in Auckland. Our approach consists of a Difference-in-Difference approach where the treatment consists of tranches of land designated as SHAs. Our results indicate that the SHAs caused an average price increase of approximately 5% and did not contribute to increases in the likelihood of affordable transactions. These findings are robust across several specifications and question the effectiveness of the SHAs on improving affordability.
... For example, as in the cases of Sweden and Denver investigated in this Special Issue, social mix could be enhanced by state-supported construction and acquisition of subsidized housing in mixed residential settings. It also could be generated in the private sector by inclusionary zoning, whereby a minimum percentage of dwelling units in developments exceeding a certain threshold are mandatorily set aside and offered at below-market-rate rents or prices (Kontokosta, 2014). Yet another option is to provide economic incentives to private or nonprofit housing developers (like density bonuses, tax credits, or low-interest mortgages) to provide more affordable units as part of the mix of dwellings in a new development (Brophy & Smith, 1997). ...
Article
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We review the longstanding dialectic that has characterized theorizing, evidence-gathering, and policy-making in the realm of neighborhood social mix, take stock of where the debate now stands, and offer suggestions of where next steps in scholarship might be most fruitful. The preponderance of plausibly causal evidence from Europe and North America indicates that disadvantaged individuals are (1) harmed by the presence of sizable disadvantaged groups concentrated in their neighborhood and (2) helped by the presence of more advantaged groups in their neighborhood, probably due to positive role modeling, stronger collective control over disorder, and violence and elimination of geographic stigma, not cross-class social ties. Thus, there is a sufficient evidentiary base to justify the goal of social mix on grounds of improving the absolute well-being of the disadvantaged. This goal should be achieved by voluntary, gradualist, housing option-enhancing strategies that over the longer term expand opportunities for lower income families to live in communities with households of greater economic means. We advocate for these approaches because they impose fewer hardships on the disadvantaged and, hopefully, are also more effective over time.
... IZ leverages policy, private projects, developers, and capital markets to create new affordable housing units (Hughen and Read, 2014). A tool with its own literature (e.g., Dietderich, 1996;Schuetz et al. 2011;Kontokosta, 2014), IZ has been used in high land cost markets to facilitate mixed-income housing development-though not without controversy (Read, 2009). ...
Article
Where the federal government has increasingly relinquished control of affordable housing creation, local governments have frequently turned to public-private partnerships to fund mixed-income housing projects. We describe the primary rationales for implementing mixed-income housing development strategies. We also identify distinct types of criticism from the real estate, public policy, and urban planning literatures. In addition, we describe the best practices that have emerged to help these projects promote neighborhood revitalization and serve the interests of low-to-moderate income families. We provide new insights about the factors to consider when evaluating the merits of proposed mixed-income housing policies and developments.
... where P j is the proportion of properties in the jth land use class. Since such an entropy index is normalized by the natural logarithm of the total number of land use types within each buffer, it ranges from 0 (homogeneous) to 1 (diverse) representing the diversity of land use ( Kockelman 1997;Brownson et al. 2009;Brown et al. 2009;Frank et al. 2005;Kontokosta 2014;Kontokosta 2015); ( 5) Jobs represents the proportion of the working population who live elsewhere and commute to the buffer area for work. Different from U.S. Census Data, LEHD captures total local population and composition of residents and workers. ...
Conference Paper
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Pedestrian activity and mobility are key factors for transportation modeling, public health, and city planning. Traditionally, city agencies conduct manual counts by location and time as a proxy of pedestrian volume in surrounding area. With increasing data sources in the urban domain, particularly open city data, social media, wireless networks, new methods, and data analytics approaches are needed to extract deeper insights on pedestrian activity, volume, and mobility. This paper utilizes a dataset of pedestrian counts conducted by the New York City Department of Transportation (DOT) from 2007 to 2015, and integrates these data with geocoded public transit, land use, building, and streetscape information. Based on 100 locations defined by DOT, the study further explores correlations between pedestrian volume and the surrounding localized urban context. Through data mining, visualization, and statistical modeling, this study aims to (1) identify baseline and key indicators of pedestrian volume, and explore potential integration of new data sources with current methodologies; (2) use integrated approaches to exam how pedestrian volume changes by location and time; and (3) use regression models to predict pedestrian volume across other intersections in NYC. The results provide key indicators for pedestrian volume estimation without conducting manual counts. Overall, this study demonstrates a novel approach in utilizing new data sources and generating deeper analytical insights to understand the determinants and predictors of pedestrian activity.
... In much of the literature studying urban spatial dynamics, census tracts are typically used as a geographic proxy for neighborhoods, as operationalized in a recent analysis of the social vulnerability of New York City and in the rich urban planning literature on neighborhood change (Kontokosta, 2014;Kontokosta, 2015;Madrigano et al., 2015;Wallace & Wallace, 2008). Census tracts are chosen as the REDI score spatial unit of analysis for two reasons: (1) most socio-economic data are already available at this geographic scale removing the need for areal interpolation and associated margins of error, and (2) census tract boundaries provide a reasonable geographic delineation of New York City neighborhoods and have been used in previous studies as proxies for neighborhoods in cities (Wallace & Wallace, 2008). ...
Article
Resilience planning and emergency management require policymakers and agency leaders to make difficult decisions regarding which at-risk populations should be given priority in the allocation of limited resources. Our work focuses on benchmarking neighborhood resilience by developing a unified, multi-factor index of local and regional resilience capacity: the Resilience to Emergencies and Disasters Index (REDI). The strength of the REDI methodology is the integration of measures of physical, natural, and social systems – operationalized through the collection and analysis of large-scale, heterogeneous, and high resolution urban data – to classify and rank the relative resilience capacity embedded in localized urban systems. Feature selection methodologies are discussed to justify the selection of included indicator variables. Hurricane Sandy is used to validate the REDI scores by measuring the recovery periods for neighborhoods directly impacted by the storm. Using over 12,000,000 records for New York City’s 311 service request system, we develop a proxy for neighborhood activity, both pre- and post-event. Hurricane Sandy had a significant and immediate impact on neighborhoods classified as least resilient based on the calculated REDI scores, while the most resilient neighborhoods were shown to better withstand disruption to normal activity patterns and more quickly recover to pre-event functional capacity.
... • Inclusionary zoning" (Kontokosta, 2014;Morrison and Burgess, 2014): novas áreas de urbanização/ requalificação com determinada dimensão, devem incluir uma percentagem de habitação económica acessível a famílias de baixo e rendimento médio. ...
Presentation
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Este artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para o debate sobre estratégias de mix social como forma de combater a segregação socio-espacial. Para esse efeito, discutem-se os propósitos e os instrumentos da aplicação do mix social em políticas de planeamento urbano, de habitação e de regeneração urbana, distinguindo-se as estratégias de mix social associadas a operações de demolição e de requalificação habitacional, das que são usadas em instrumentos de ordenamento do território para assegurar a mistura de regimes de ocupação e de tipos de habitação, acessíveis a famílias de diferente condição socioeconómica. Conclui-se que o contexto português se reveste de particularidades que têm vindo a limitar a aplicação do mix social, mas também de problemas, nomeadamente de desigualdade socioeconómica e espacial, que requerem a aplicação de modelos mais integrados e inclusivos, à semelhança do que tem vindo a ocorrer nos países da Europa do Norte (Dinamarca e Reino Unido).
... Consciously evading the primary focus from contemporary and clearly essential discussions whether social mix should accurately be considered desirable and, if so, tenure mix strategies is a viable approach (see e.g. Bond, Sautkina, & Kearns, 2011;Graham, Manley, Hiscock, Boyle, & Doherty, 2009;Galster & Friedrichs, 2015;Kearns & Mason, 2007;Kleinhans, 2004;Kontokosta, 2014;Musterd & Andersson, 2005;Sautkina, Bond, & Kearns, 2012;Tunstall, 2003), this article intend to empirically assess whether Stockholm seems to follow its stated ambitions concerning mixture of tenures. Additionally, it investigates in which role Stockholm utilizes its three municipal developers within its tenure mix ambition, and especially if the municipality seems to increase the share of public rental apartments in neighbourhoods were this type is under-represented. ...
Article
A socially mixed population is a political ambition in Stockholm. By providing a mix of tenure alternatives throughout all neighbourhoods this objective could, at least partially, be fulfilled. Since current tenure proportions display a weak balance in many neighbourhoods it could be assumed that governing politicians – by primarily utilizing Stockholm’s vast landownership and municipal housing developers – attempt to bridge observed gaps. Distribution of new rental and ownership apartments in municipal land allocations should acknowledge the existing tenure composition in a neighbourhood. Methodically this article focuses on all (nearly 50,000) apartments channelled through Stockholm’s land allocation system between 2002 and 2012. After classification of all apartments based on tenure, location, year and developer (private or municipal) the information is merged with yearly housing stock characteristics for 128 neighbourhoods. The outcome is a unique data set allowing for statistical assessment of whether Stockholm’s tenure (and in extension social) mix ambition is reflected in practice. The present article aims to highlight the crucial importance of landownership in Swedish municipalities with an aspiration to achieve or maintain a balanced tenure mix. While the findings indicate Stockholm is complying fairly well with its ambition, the results do reveal some contradicting signs.
... where P j is the proportion of development in the jth land use type. The entropy index is normalized by the natural logarithm of the total number of land use types within the buffer, ranging from 0 (homogeneous) to 1 (diverse) to represent the relative diversity of mixed uses (Brown et al., 2009;Kockelman, 1997;Kontokosta, 2014;Leslie et al., 2007). For data contained within specific administrative boundaries (e.g. ...
Article
Understanding pedestrian behavior is critical for many aspects of city planning, design, and management, including transportation, public health, emergency response, and economic development. This study bridges in-situ observations of pedestrian activity and urban computing by integrating high-resolution, large-scale, and heterogeneous urban datasets and analyzing both fixed attributes of the urban landscape (e.g. physical and transit infrastructure) with dynamic environmental and socio-psychological factors, such as weather, air quality, and perceived crime risk. We use local pedestrian count data collected by the New York City (NYC) Department of Transportation (DOT) and an extensive array of open datasets from NYC to test how pedestrian volumes relate to land use, building density, streetscape quality, transportation infrastructure, and other factors typically associated with urban walkability. We quantify, classify, and analyze place dynamics, including contextual and situational factors that influence pedestrian activity at high spatial–temporal resolution. The quantification process measures the urban context by extracting rich, yet initially fragmented and siloed, urban data for individual geolocations. Based on these features, we then construct contextual indicators by selecting and combining features relevant to pedestrian activity, and develop a typology of place to support the generalizability of our analysis. Finally, we use multivariate regression models with panel-corrected standard errors to estimate how specific contextual features and time-varying situational indicators impact pedestrian activity across time of day, day of the week, season, and year. The results provide insights into the key drivers of local pedestrian activity and highlight the importance accounting for the immediate urban environment and socio-spatial dynamics in pedestrian behavior modeling.
... Most large developments had to provide at least 10 per cent of affordable housing set at prices that were affordable to specified income groups (Auckland Council, 2013). SHA were argued to be effective alternatives to produce affordable housing that would not otherwise be produced without resorting to public subsidies and producing the affordable units in segregated, stigmatized and geographically dispersed areas (Schuetz et al., 2009(Schuetz et al., , 2011Kontokosta, 2014). We control for the effects of these areas by including them as housing characteristics. ...
... Additionally, he finds strong effects of spatial proximity on selection of destination neighborhoods, as well as strong associations with similarities in income, perceptions of physical disorder, and social network connectedness between origin and destination neighborhoods. These findings may help explain results from other researchers that have found limited impact of housing policies and programs such as inclusionary zoning and housing choice vouchers to reduce neighborhood racial segregation (Glaeser 2003;Kontokosta 2013;Chaskin 2013). The literature on gentrification, discussed below, revisits this question of how in-migration patterns reshape neighborhoods. ...
... From the perspective of reducing social differentiation, it could be judged that the development of a mixed habitation environment is important. Alongside environmental improvement, urban renovation and community development have been heeded in the United States for a long time [15][16][17]. The living conditions of low-income groups became severe, along with public housing aging problems around the 1990s. ...
Article
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Mixed habitation environments have gradually proved to be an effective planning method to promote social integration in many countries. However, due to the differences in the social backgrounds of each country, it is essential to implement construction methods suitable for local conditions. On the other hand, the planning theories and construction methods discussed from multiple perspectives, including an architectural perspective of spatial forms, have been insufficient, which is not conducive to constructing a sustainable dwelling environment. This article aims to clarify the planning status of spatial forms and their issues by investigating existing projects with mixed habitation environments in China. Unlike other countries that have implemented relevant policies for many years, China has just begun to explore relevant schemes (i.e., public-rental housing in private-owned housing complexes) aiming to promote mixed habitation environments. The selected research objects included all projects already inhabited at the end of June 2017 in the city of Beijing. Through field survey, the research objects were divided into eight types via an analysis of building layouts and residents’ traffic lines. The results show that out of the many research objects, two kinds of housing were clearly distinctive, and only a few research objects matched the basic conditions to be defined as a mixed habitation. The conditions are not conducive to the formation of mixed habitation; therefore, a more detailed discussion on how to design a mixed habitation environment is necessary to aid further research.
... Angeles with an active IZ program allow in-lieu options if developers can demonstrate that building units on-site would cause financial hardship (Kontokosta, 2014;Schuetz et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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This study examined the relationship between investments in affordable housing by a non-profit organization (Greater Des Moines Habitat for Humanity- GDMH), proximity to public transit, and housing prices in the City of Des Moines, in 2000 and 2018. The hypotheses were: the closer the residential unit is to the GDMH housing investment, the higher the housing price in the surroundings of the residential unit; and the closer the residential unit is to the public transit stop, the lower the housing price in the surroundings of the residential unit. The Hedonic model has used with 2000 and 2018 housing prices as dependent variables, 2003- 2014 GDMH investments, and public transit proximity as independent variables of interest. In addition, control variables such as housing structural characteristics were included in the models’ specifications. The estimation results indicated that the relationship between housing prices and GDMH investments at the block groups was negative, opposite to what was found in many past studies. In other words, the housing units closer to the investment locations have a lower price compared to those in distance. Based on the Oaxaca Decomposition test, combining 2000 and 2018 data, GDMH investments at the block groups contributed to a decrease in housing prices by approximately $2,940 in 18 years (2000-2018), resulting in a decrease of approximately $163 per year). Even before the GDMH investments were started, the 2000 housing price regression models showed a decline in the areas where the 2003-2014 investments were located. An Inclusionary zoning strategy was recommended to ensure that affordable housing provision could have a positive relationship with housing prices (Mukhija et al., 2015). Moreover, the regression estimation results varied in magnitude between 2000 and 2018. Both indicated that the relationship between housing prices and public transit proximity was negative. For 2000, the estimated coefficients had a smaller magnitude than in 2018, illustrating that the situation may get worse. Oaxaca results, combining 2000 and 2018 data, indicated that public transit proximity was positively contributing to housing price until around 90m (increased by around $400) but had a negative effect of around $4,000 when the distance was 500m, during the 18 years (2000-2018). As included in the 2035 DART Plan, increasing frequency and numbers of bus routes were recommended.
... According to the development are made accessible to households along a range of incomes. Inclusionary zoning programs have been shown to improve neighborhood racial and economic integration, allowing the benefits of denser neighborhoods to be enjoyed by a more households(Kontokosta 2014).Map 16 highlights the area of land that is zoned single family in Louisville/Jefferson County and the resulting limitation of land available for building affordable multifamily housing.National Fair Housing Alliance, along with 9 other organizations, sued Redfin, a Seattle based national brokerage firm that primarily operates online, on October 28, 2020 for alleged discriminatory housing practices that perpetuate residential segregation in Louisville, KY and 9 other areas: Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Kansas City, Essex County, Philadelphia, City of Memphis and Shelby County, and Milwaukee and Waukesha Counties (Graham 2020). A two-year investigation found that Redfin's alleged arbitrary minimum house listing price policy, which sets the minimum listing price required for a house to qualify for their services, disqualified the majority of homes from theirSource: Louisville Metro Planning & DesignMAP 16 Single-Family ZoningNearly three-quarters of land in Jefferson County is zoned for single-family residential use.In December of 2016, LMHA received a $29.574 million U.S. HUD Choice Neighborhood Initiative (CNI) Implementation grant. ...
Technical Report
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This report provides an inventory of the federal, state, and local policies and funding intended to address economic hardship and looming mass evictions as a result of COVID-19. It also updates several measures from previous annual reports, discusses the 2020 Louisville Fair Housing Ordinance, addresses efforts to address racial housing inequity and zoning, summarizes the status of two pending fair housing cases, and examines activities associated with the redevelopment of Beecher Terrace in the Russell neighborhood.
... Chohan et al. (2015) studied design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing, and adopted eight dimensions: architecture and site planning, structure, construction, building services, health and safety, users' comfort, maintenance, and sustainability. Several studies investigated the role of the neighbourhood in a household's life (Curley, 2005;Cutler et al., 2008;Galster et al., 2015;Helms, 2012;Kontokosta, 2014;Sampson et al., 2002;Turner, 2008). Housing quality comprises not only technical and quantitative parameters but also objective and subjective social security levels. ...
Article
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This study aims to determine the scale of housing poverty and its determinants using a multi-dimensional tool to measure housing quality. Its main contribution is the proposed new approach to the study of housing poverty using the Integrated Fuzzy and Relative (IFR) methodology, which allows a large number of variables of a quantitative and qualitative as well as objective and subjective nature to be included in the analysis. This approach solves the problem of correlation between variables by assigning weights, rather than limiting the number of variables as before. The risk evaluation of bad housing situation is based on micro-data from the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Central Statistical Office in Poland in 2017. Polish households falling into the housing poverty sphere in different sections of society were also examined. The multidimensional approach adopted in this study captures the diversity of housing poverty risk between areas of assessment, which is impossible to achieve using traditional housing deprivation measures.
... Specifically, mixed-income development has been more prevalent in the United States and other Western countries as a means to tackle poverty concentration and social segregation caused by the historical practice of high-density public housing [2][3][4]. Social mix policy and planning aim to provide lowincome residents with more occupational access in order to reduce income segregation and discrimination in a move toward social equity and universal well-being [5][6][7][8]. The strategy fundamentally targets declining and deprived neighborhoods with the goal of transforming them into more vibrant, accessible, and safer communities through "positive gentrification," which is intended to capitalize on the available resources and attract higher-income residents for revitalization [3,5]. ...
Article
Although many researchers and policy makers have argued that social mixing could contribute to sustainable communities, most people still prefer to live in a homogeneous rather than a diverse community. Considering the large gap between the political need for social mixing and people's preference, it is essential to understand residents' perceptions and preferences regarding socially-mixed neighborhoods in order to promote sustainable community development. This study explorers residents' willingness to accept living in mixed-income communities in Korea, with attention to various levels of income mix. This study conducted an online survey of 2,000 respondents living in seven metropolitan cities in Korea, including Seoul. The study aimed to investigate residents' comfortability and willingness to move into different mixed-income communities. The results showed that residents with higher openness to diversity are more likely to accept mixed-income communities, but frequent interaction with low-income people reduces higher-income people's willingness to accept mixed-income communities. As both personal attitudes and experience are important determinants of individuals' social mix preference, a more systematic community development strategy is required to achieve successful social mixing.
... Drawing on 73 interviews with a diverse sample of family heads in Cuyahoga County, Ohio-anchored by the city of Cleveland-this article envisions policing as a key located institution that shapes neighborhood frames and residential preferences, thus contributing to the reproduction of segregation. 2 To the extent that institutions are already explicitly recognized in the literature on residential choice, neighborhood frames, and residential segregation, the primary focuses have been on neighborhood schools (e.g., Goyette, Farrie, and Freely 2012;Owens 2017;Rhodes and Warkentien 2017) and publicly subsidized housing (e.g. , Saltman 1990;Galster and Keeney 1993;Lee, Culhane, and Wachter 1999;Deng 2011;Kontokosta 2014;Dillman, Horn, and Verrilli 2017). Important research has also discussed the importance of other institutions in poor neighborhoods, noting that some poor neighborhoods have organizations, such as day care centers, that contribute to social capital even in the face of other forms of disadvantage (Small 2009b). ...
Article
Tax increment financing (TIF) and other development incentives have become American cities’ primary means of encouraging local economic development. However, these incentives typically receive less oversight than traditional government spending, potentially leaving them open to corruption and abuse. This article presents a case study of “Team TIF,” a novel community–academic partnership focused on government transparency and racial equity in the use of TIF and other incentives. We begin by describing TIF and tax abatement in the St. Louis context, including specific examples of their misuse. We then present the online and offline strategies that Team TIF has used to educate the public on this issue. We close with a discussion of possible local and state-level reforms.
Article
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Federal housing programs in rapidly urbanizing countries like India are targeting the expansion of low-income housing stocks. However, most of these large-scale low-income housing developments occur in the urban peripheries, and they are cut off from opportunities and essential urban infrastructure. They not only indicate policy failure but also exacerbate urban segregation in growing cities. Federal policies to tackle these problems in India are geared toward relatively small-scale mixed-income initiatives like inclusionary housing and public-private partnerships. Evaluating these efforts based on four cases in the city of Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh, this paper expands the literature on social-mix and mixed-income housing initiatives that is dominated by studies from the Global North. It identifies multi-pronged approaches to address (1) the failure of the current Indian federal policy involving small-scale mixed-income initiatives, and (2) the need to integrate housing initiatives with urban development at multiple levels, especially in the urban peripheries.
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The purpose of this paper is to address the key issues of spatial exclusion of the urban poor, including slum-dwellers through the mechanisms of ‘inclusionary zoning’ and ‘inclusionary housing’ to augment affordable housing in developing countries of the Asia–Pacific, with particular focus on India. These instruments aim at promoting affordable housing through the market place based on a system of incentives to developers. The motivation of the study stems from the realization that the biggest bottleneck in providing affordable housing to the urban poor is the lack of supply of suitable, litigation-free, and adequately serviced urban land located at a reasonable commuting distance from their workplaces. The paper reviews international best practices, and explores their underpinning theories, and proposes innovative ways to promote inclusion of the urban poor in planned urban development process. Major findings suggest that inclusionary zoning and housing programmes can be designed combining both efficiency and equity objectives. Inclusion works when rooted in the processes of urban land and housing markets and the urban planning system to correct for market failure. Policy-makers and planners may consider planned urban development as a process of value creation through the market, giving ample scope for value capture and recycling to promote inclusive urbanization.
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Background Providing an adequate supply of affordable housing has become an increasingly difficult challenge for US cities. Inclusionary zoning (IZ) policies have become an increasingly popular response. Substantial research has demonstrated the health benefits of stable, affordable housing. There is anecdotal but not systematic evidence that IZ policies may be associated with some health benefits of affordable housing. Methods We rely on data from the 2017 500 Cities Project, the 2016 to 2017 Lincoln Institute for Land Policy survey, and the 2011 to 2015 American Community Survey. We perform bivariate tests and cluster ordinary least squares regression to examine associations at the municipal level between having inclusionary zoning (IZ) policies, the attributes of those policies, and the prevalence of several cardiovascular outcomes. Results Cardiovascular outcomes and socioeconomic characteristics were uniformly better in cities with IZ policies. IZ policies were associated with lower blood pressure (95% CI, −0.50 to −0.13), cholesterol (CI, −0.89 to −0.31), and blood pressure medication (CI, −0.57 to −0.03) prevalence. Some characteristics of IZ programs such as being mandatory, prioritizing rental development, and allocating a larger share of affordable housing are associated with cardiovascular risk prevalence. Conclusions Characteristics of IZ programs that ultimately benefit low-income residents are associated with favorable municipal-level cardiovascular health. Further, IZ policies could potentially address complex health challenges among economically vulnerable households.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse how the staged implementation of inclusionary zoning (IZ) performs relative to conventional IZ programmes in terms of increasing the number of low- and moderate-income households become homeowners. Design/methodology/approach The paper applies a matching model implemented through a mixed-integer programme model taking Auckland (New Zealand) housing market as a case study. The IZ is simulated by two features: a target price (below which affordable houses are defined) and the income threshold (below which any household gains access to the programme). The staging of IZ consists of first directing affordable houses to low-income households, where those houses that are not sold are cascaded to subsequent population groups with higher incomes. Findings The staged implementation of IZ does not necessarily imply that the number of sales will increase both for affordable and market-rate houses. However, a hybrid approach defined by two target prices results in a greater number of sales relative to a conventional IZ and a baseline affordable market while achieving market efficiency and equity. Research limitations/implications The paper is limited to the marginal impact of new affordable houses entering the market. It does not address further market rounds for houses left empty for tractability purposes. Also, the analysis is circumscribed to current renters and not owners, if owners were included they would outbid renters and distort the intended impact of IZ as an affordable housing policy. Originality/value The paper has relevance for policymakers because it provides evidence about the dimensions of IZ to have a lasting effect on housing affordability. The model is applied to a single housing market but is suitable to be generalized and adapted to a different urban environment.
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Heritage places are one of many urban features that shape the form and identity of a city. Local government regulations protect and conserve heritage but in so doing also generate restrictions or opportunity costs for homebuyers and developers. In this paper, we take Auckland, New Zealand, as case study and estimate price effects of two different forms of local government heritage protection: scheduled heritage places and Special Character Areas. We find a statistically significant price penalty of around -9.6% for houses protected for heritage values, between years 2006-2016. Yet, we also identify an external and local price premium, related to the number of heritage places around a house. This local density effect is approximately 1.7% for an additional heritage place in a radius of 50 meters around the house, and decreases as the radius under analysis expands. We also find a price premium for a house located in Special Character Areas, for which the effect is positive and reaches 4.3%. Reported effects are robust to several specifications but are highly dependent on time dynamics.
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This book explains the nuts and bolts of affordable housing development. Divided into two complementary sections, the book first provides an overview of the effectiveness of existing federal and state housing programs in the United States, such as the LIHTC and TIF programs. In turn, the book’s second section presents an extensive discussion of and insights into the financial feasibility of an affordable real estate development project. Researchers, policymakers and organizations in the public, private and nonprofit sectors will find this book a valuable resource in addressing the concrete needs of affordable housing development. “Luque, Ikromov, and Noseworthy’s new book on Affordable Housing Development is a “must read” for all those seeking to address the growing and vexing problem of affordable housing supply. The authors provide important insights and practical demonstration of important financial tools often necessary to the financial feasibility of such projects, including tax-increment financing and the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit. Further, the authors provide important backdrop to the affordability crisis and homelessness. I highly recommend this book to all who seek both to articulate and enhance housing access.” By Stuart Gabriel, Arden Realty Chair, Professor of Finance and Director, Richard S. Ziman Center for Real Estate at UCLA "Over several years Jaime Luque, Nuriddin Ikromov and William Noseworthy applied their analytical bent, and no small measure of empathy, to homelessness as actually experienced in Madison, Wisconsin – and they inspired multiple classes of urban economics students to join them. “Homelessness” is a complex web of issues affecting a spectrum of populations, from individuals struggling with addiction or emotional disorders, to families who’ve been dealt a bad hand in an often-unforgiving economy. Read this book to follow Jaime, Nuriddin, and William as they evaluate a panoply of housing and social programs, complementing the usual top-down design perspective with practical analysis of the feasibility of actual developments and their effectiveness. Analytical but written for a broad audience, this book will be of interest to anyone running a low-income housing program, private and public developers, students, and any instructor designing a learning-by-doing course that blends rigor with real-world application to a local problem." By Stephen Malpezzi, Professor Emeritus, James A. Graaskamp Center for Real Estate, Wisconsin School of Business, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Dean, Weimer School of the Homer Hoyt Institute.
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It is often said that real estate is a people business. Whether you are a broker or an investor, it is incredibly beneficial to have effective communication skills, ability to establish rapport and trust with other people, and have an extensive network of clients and colleagues. But if real estate is a “people business”, then real estate development is the ultimate people business. A successful developer needs to maintain and manage a large and diverse network of professionals, including their internal team, architects, contractors, lawyers, lenders, local government officials, neighborhood associations, current and potential tenants, and others. This, of course in addition to understanding the “nuts and bolts” of the development process, such as being able to understand feasibility, relevant laws, and regulations, financing, construction, leasing, and marketing. While most of this book is dedicated to this “nuts and bolts” side of development, we want to emphasize that the “people” aspect is equally important. To that end, this chapter focuses on the nuances of affordable housing development that are typically not described in textbooks and are customarily learned through years of experience.
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Community land trusts (CLTs) are a unique model of shared equity homeownership that promote equitable development and empower homebuyers in historically exclusive real estate markets. As a timely study about the potential future governance around affordable housing, the multiple case studies here identify places that have both a CLT and land bank, and where nascent initiatives by local governments focused on creating permanent affordable housing are facilitating collaborations between local CLTs and land banks. By exploring the themes and dynamics of these emerging collaborations with qualitative methods, the authors evaluate how CLTs can leverage collaborations with land banks as a tool to scale up permanent affordable housing and community control. Understanding how CLTs may benefit from collaborations with land banks is timely considering the current affordable housing crisis and an increasingly widespread recognition of systemic inequitable access to property ownership.
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This review evaluates the perception that subsidized housing results in negative neighborhood impacts by considering four commonly studied putative impacts of subsidized housing location: property values, racial transition, poverty concentration, and crime. The authors assess theoretical and methodological bases for discerning impacts and determine which study results inspire confidence. Research reveals a relationship between the presence of subsidized housing and both property values and crime in certain circumstances, with both positive and negative impacts, and suggests that the presence of subsidized housing does not lead to racial transition. Research on the impact of subsidized housing on poverty concentration is too flawed methodologically to permit conclusions. Future research must, among other steps, control for variability of impacts across types of neighborhoods, use data that distinguish between residents of subsidized and nonsubsidized housing, and take into account changing attitudes as well as the context in which housing is proposed.
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Many people have argued that inclusionary housing (IH) is a desirable land use strategy to address lower‐income housing needs and to further the geographic dispersal of the lower‐income population. In an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of IH, this article examines the experiences of New Jersey and California, two states where IH has been applied frequently over an extended period.While the concept of regional “fair share” is central to both states’ experiences, the origins of the programs, their applications, and their evolutions are quite dissimilar. IH originated in New Jersey from the famous Mount Laurel cases and in California from housing affordability crises and a legislatively mandated housing element. The experiences of both states indicate that IH can and should be part of an overall affordable housing strategy but that it is unlikely to become the core of such a strategy.
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Whites, blacks and Latinos in the United States tend to live in different neighborhoods and attend different schools. Does this segregation influence youth in the long run? This study used longitudinal data from the NELS to see whether neighborhoods' or schools' proportion black and/or Latino during the high school years influences educational attainment through age 26. The analyses indicate that concentrations of blacks and Latinos in schools, but not zip code areas, associates with lower attainment in the long run. Students in predominantly black and Latino schools are less likely to earn a high school diploma or equivalent and to earn a bachelor's degree or more than similar students in predominantly white schools.
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Problem: Over the past several decades, inclusionary zoning (IZ) has become an increasingly popular, but sometimes controversial, local means of producing affordable housing without direct public subsidy. The conversation about IZ has thus far largely ignored variations in the structure of IZ policies, although these variations can impact the amount of affordable housing produced and the effects of IZ on production and prices of market rate housing.Purpose: We provide a detailed comparison of the ways in which IZ programs have been structured in the San Francisco and Washington metropolitan areas and in suburban Boston.Methods: We create a unique dataset on IZ in these three regions by combining original data collected from several previous surveys. We use these data to compare the prevalence, structure, and affordable housing output of local IZ programs.Results and conclusions: In the San Francisco Bay Area, IZ programs tend to be mandatory and apply broadly across locations and structure types, while including cost offsets and alternatives to onsite construction. In the Washington, DC, area, most IZ programs are also mandatory, but have broader exemptions for small developments and low-density housing. IZ programs in the Boston suburbs exhibit the most heterogeneity. They are more likely to be voluntary and to apply only to a narrow range of developments, such as multifamily housing, or within certain zoning districts. The amount of affordable housing produced under IZ varies considerably, both within and across the regions. There is some evidence that IZ programs that grant density bonuses and exempt smaller projects produce more affordable housing.Takeaway for practice: Although variation in IZ program structures makes it hard to predict effectiveness, IZ's adaptability to local circumstances makes it a particularly attractive policy tool. IZ programs can easily be tailored to accommodate specific policy goals, housing market conditions, and residents' preferences, as well as variations in state or local regulatory and political environments.Research support: This article is adapted from a longer working paper written with financial support from the Center for Housing Policy, the research affiliate of the National Housing Conference.
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Historically, public and other federally assisted housing developments have contributed to urban racial segregation. In the 1970s, however, HUD adopted regulations that discouraged the location of assisted housing developments in areas with high percentages of minority households. This article looks at the role of race, ethnicity, and poverty in the siting of five types of assisted housing during the 1980s. HUD data are combined with census data to identify the characteristics of the tracts that received public and assisted housing. Although the value of owner-occupied units in tracts was the strongest predictor of the placement of most types of assisted housing, the results indicate that race and ethnicity still mattered. The percentage of African Americans in a neighborhood was a relatively strong predictor of the siting of Low Income Housing Tax Credit developments, and the combination of African American acid Hispanic households in tracts was a relatively strong predictor of the siting of both public family and other HUD family housing developments. In addition, four of the five types of housing considered were more likely to be placed in tracts with relatively high proportions of poor households.
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This article suggests ways to better design, conduct, and interpret evaluations of the effects of housing mobility programs on participants, with emphasis on how to isolate neighborhood effects. It reviews earlier critiques of neighborhood effects research and discusses the key assumptions of housing mobility programs—about the benefits of affluent neighbors, the spatial organization of opportunity for the urban poor, and the meanings of “neighborhood” to residents, researchers, and policy makers.Studying mobility contexts, especially in suburban areas, offers special challenges to researchers. More research is needed that looks at residents’ social ties and uses mixed‐methods approaches. Ethnographic data, in particular, would enhance the validity of the quantitative data that now dominate studies of neighborhood effects. Adding substantially to what we know about the processes or mechanisms—the “how” of neighborhood effects—mixed‐methods approaches would also make research much more useful to policy makers and program managers.
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This chapter discusses the politics of multiculturalism as a kind of identity politics. It argues the concept of structural difference, as distinct from cultural group. Analysing structural difference and structural inequality, then, helps to show why these movements are not properly interpreted as identity politics. The chapter defines social structure, and more specifically structural inequality, by rebuilding elements from different accounts. Norms of inclusive communicative democracy require that claims directed at a public with the aim of persuading members of that public that injustices occur must be given a hearing, and require criticism of those who refuse to listen. Common good theorists no doubt fear that attending to group differences in public discussion endangers commitment to co-operative decision-making. Only explicit and differentiated forms of inclusion can diminish the occurrence of such refusals, especially when members of some groups are more privileged in some or many respects.
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The author uses the unique properties of the entropy index to explore trends in segregation by race/ethnicity and income class for families from 1970 to 2000. Declines in segregation by race and increases in segregation by income class were found until the 1990s, when segregation by income declined. Segregation among certain subgroups was then examined; some groups remain more segregated, even as segregation in general has declined. In particular, the poor families experience greater segregation from others than do families in other income groups from each other. Blacks experience higher levels of segregation from other groups than those other groups do from each other. Finally, the segregation of poor, black families compared to the poor of other race/ethnic groups was examined. The author finds that poor black families are uniquely segregated and that this segregation declines only slightly with time.
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Inclusionary zoning (IZ), also known as inclusionary housing or incentive zoning, is a class of policies that make use of land-use planning and zoning regimes to mandate or encourage the production of affordable housing from market-rate housing developers. The structure of programmes varies greatly within and across countries. IZ programmes are most common in the United States, but similar types of policies have also been adopted internationally. There exists little systematic research on the impact of these programmes on affordable housing production and local housing markets. Still, IZ has become a well-known and politically viable tool for locally driven social housing production.
Book
"The Truly Disadvantagedshould spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policy makers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis."—Robert Greenstein,New York Times Book Review "'Must reading' for civil-rights leaders, leaders of advocacy organizations for the poor, and for elected officials in our major urban centers."—Bernard C. Watson,Journal of Negro Education "Required reading for anyone, presidential candidate or private citizen, who really wants to address the growing plight of the black urban underclass."—David J. Garrow,Washington Post Book World Selected by the editors of theNew York Times Book Reviewas one of the sixteen best books of 1987. Winner of the 1988 C. Wright Mills Award of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The authors used panel data on enrollments in suburban public schools from 1987 to 1995 to explore the relationship between minority suburbanization and patterns of school segregation in suburban areas. Using fixed-effects regression models, they found that increases in suburban enrollment shares of black, Hispanic, and Asian students were strongly and positively related to increases in suburban segregation levels during the 1987-95 period. Moreover, changes in black segregation were predominantly related to changes in between-district (residential) suburban segregation, while changes in Hispanic and Asian segregation were related to a combination of between- and within-district segregation changes.
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This article synthesizes findings from a wide range of empirical research into how neighborhoods affect families and children. It lays out a conceptual framework for understanding how neighborhoods may affect people at differ-ent life stages. It then identifies methodological challenges, summarizes past research findings, and suggests priorities for future work. Despite a growing body of evidence that neighborhood conditions play a role in shaping individual outcomes, serious methodological challenges remain that suggest some caution in interpreting this evidence. Moreover, no consensus emerges about which neighborhood characteristics affect which outcomes, or about what types of families may be most influenced by neighborhood condi-tions. Finally, existing studies provide little empirical evidence about the causal mechanisms through which neighborhood environment influences individual outcomes. To be useful to policy makers, future empirical research should tackle the critical question of how and for whom neighborhood matters.
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This controversial new look at democracy in a multicultural society considers the ideals of political inclusion and exclusion, and recommends ways to engage in democratic politics in a more inclusive way. Processes of debate and decision making often marginalize individuals and groups because the norms of political discussion are biased against some forms of expression. Inclusion and Democracy broadens our understanding of democratic communication by reflecting on the positive political functions of narrative, rhetorically situated appeals, and public protest. It reconstructs concepts of civil society and public sphere as enacting such plural forms of communication among debating citizens in large-scale societies. Iris Marion Young thoroughly discusses class, race, and gender bias in democratic processes, and argues that the scope of a polity should extend as wide as the scope of social and economic interactions that raise issues of justice. Today this implies the need for global democratic institutions. Young also contends that due to processes of residential segregation and the design of municipal jurisdictions, metropolitan governments which preserve significant local autonomy may be necessary to promote political equality. This latest work from one of the world's leading political philosophers will appeal to audiences from a variety of fields, including philosophy, political science, women's studies, ethnic studies, sociology, and communications studies.
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The author uses the unique properties of the entropy index to explore trends in segregation by race/ethnicity and income class for families from 1970 to 2000. Declines in segregation by race and increases in segregation by income class were found until the 1990s, when segregation by income declined. Segregation among certain subgroups was then examined; some groups remain more segregated, even as segregation in general has declined. In particular, the poor families experience greater segregation from others than do families in other income groups from each other. Blacks experience higher levels of segregation from other groups than those other groups do from each other. Finally, the segregation of poor, black families compared to the poor of other race/ethnic groups was examined. The author finds that poor black families are uniquely segregated and that this segregation declines only slightly with time.
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In this article, the authors assemble, synthesize, and assess the disparate, fragmented literature concerning thresholds related to neighborhood change. They find several theories of neighborhood change that imply the existence of thresholds and identify six alternative mechanisms for generating threshold effects. They critically examine empirical evidence on changing neighborhood racial group composition, income group composition, social and economic conditions (criminal activity, friendship, teen child-bearing, marriage, educational attainment, employment and earnings, social relationships, health, and welfare dependency), and housing investment. The authors find evidence of threshold effects in dynamics of all these neighborhood attributes. The possibility of identifying thresholds provides guidance to planners for spatially targeting reinvestments to those neighborhoods approaching or past critical thresholds. Future research needs to devise careful empirical tests designed to distinguish the alternative mechanisms producing thresholds and ascertain the generality of findings summarized in this review.
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Answering the call for a 'new comprehensiveness' in planning that enhances community equity, this paper presents a case study of Inclusionary Housing (IH), a program that can foster both residential integration and affordable housing. IH in California has evolved in response to, and has adapted to changing economic and political conditions. Survey findings for 75 IH programs show that they have produced more than 24 000 units, provide flexibility to the developers in meeting program requirements, establish affordability terms that are usually met at 30 yr or longer, and favor moderate-income home buyers. Interviews with planners in San Diego County reveal that IH programs are usually established as a response to an actual or perceived threat of litigation due to noncompliance with state 'housing element' law. Planners can enhance a new comprehensiveness by emphasising stage mandates and regional housing needs and by pursuing IH as one f the regulatory choices available to decision-makers.
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This article looks at the patterns of diversity in the City of Chicago and its surrounding suburban towns in Cook County, Illinois, focusing in particular on the economic diversity of census block groups to draw several conclusions. First, I find that different types of neighborhood-level social diversity have different spatial patterns, and thus may require different supportive planning strategies. Second, an increase in density predicts an increase in social diversity, but only up to a point. Third, providing varied housing unit types is an important means for promoting diversity, but offering a variety of housing values and choice between renting and owning is also important. Fourth, older urban and pre-World War II suburban areas are the most socially diverse places in the Chicago area. This may be a strength of first-tier suburbs that deserves more attention. Finally, the diversity of any residential area is in constant flux. Planners interested in sustaining diversity should focus in particular on areas where it is in decline.
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In our era, planning has evolved into a more catholic and eclectic discipline. As a result, it has become hospitable to concepts and terms from other disciplines and professions. At times, planners also use the buzzwords that show up in the public discourse of these disciplines and professions, as well as in the news media, official reports, and other informational material targeted at elite and college-educated Americans.
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This paper reviews the literature related to five questions that we would like to have answered about local land-use regulations that exclude lower-income households from suburban communities. Also reviewed are the policy options for dealing with this exclusion.
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An econometric model of 1970-80 residential turnover rates for white households is estimated for census tracts in Cuyahoga County, Cleveland, Ohio. Results indicate that 1970 tract percentage black, coupled with its interaction with estimated segregationist sentiment for white residents, was the dominant explanatory variable, although the relationship was highly non-linear. Ceteris paribus, the maximum rate of racially motivated turnover by whites occurred in tracts that were at least 55 per cent black in 1970, regardless of whites' segregationist sentiments. However, tracts had negligible amounts of such turnover if they had below-average levels of segregationist sentiment and blacks did not represent a majority in the tract. Application of the results to the Schelling model indicated that white neighbourhood 'tipping-out' points varied from 98 per cent to 53 per cent white, within 1 standard deviation of the mean level of segregationist sentiment. Integration management policies conducted by the suburban Shaker Heights and Cleveland Heights jurisdictions during the period did not succeed in dampening this pattern of white flight. On the contrary, ceteris paribus, Heights tracts had white turnover rates 16.6 percentage points greater.
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According to a cohesiveness perspective, neighborhood stability is good for communities and the individuals who live in them, and may be especially beneficial in poor neighborhoods. In contrast, a social isolation perspective proposes that neighborhood stability has negative effects on residents' psychological well-being in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. This analysis of multilevel data-data in which survey information from a representative sample of Illinois residents is linked to census-tract information about poverty and stability in their neighborhood-supports a social isolation perspective. In affluent neighborhoods, stability is associated with low levels of distress; under conditions of poverty the opposite is true. In part this occurs because residents of poor, stable neighborhoods face high levels of disorder in their neighborhoods. Stability does not reduce perceived disorder under conditions of poverty, as it does in more affluent neighborhoods, which leaves residents feeling powerless to leave a dangerous place. Finally, the negative effects of poor, stable neighborhoods on residents' psychological well-being do not stem from a lack of social ties among neighbors.
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Citizen responses to two successful growth-management referenda on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, are analyzed. A development moratorium and the creation of a regional land-use management agency represented contrasting strategies for managing growth problems; differences in support between the two approaches are examined. Individuals with direct links to the local economy provided the least support for a moratorium. Regionalism was supported by individuals with strong provincial attitudes because they were aware of the extra local impacts of development and anticipated tangible benefits from regional land-use planning. A two-tier approach was supported by a majority of the respondents, but generally, regionalism was given greater support than was the moratorium.
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Current federal housing policy and the planning approaches of many local governments focus on the dispersal of subsidized families. There have been, in fact, two generations of dispersal policy. The first, occurring in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s, was part of the fair housing movement that was aimed at addressing issues of racial discrimination and suburban exclusionism in housing, and the second, dating from the early 1990s, is focused on deconcentrating poverty in American cities. Both generations of dispersal efforts, regardless of their differing justifications, use roughly the same policy strategies. This article reviews the policy history of housing dispersal and offers a schematic interpretation of different programmatic approaches.
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Why are the social problems of ghettos so bad? This article proposes that ghettos are communities that have experienced epidemics of social problems. One important implication of this theory is that the pattern of neighborhood effects on social problems should be nonlinear in large cities. As neighborhood quality decreases, there should be a sharp increase in the probability that an individual will develop a social problem. The jump should occur somewhere near the bottom of the distribution of neighborhood quality. This hypothesis is tested by analyzing the pattern of neighborhood effects on dropping out and teenage childbearing. The analysis strongly supports the hypothesis, with exceptions for certain subgroups. Even after controlling for individual characteristics, black and white adolescents are exposed to sharp increases in the risk of dropping out and having a child in the worst neighborhoods in large cities.
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Residential segregation between blacks and whites persists in urban America. However evidence from the 1990 Census suggests that peak segregation levels were reached in the past. We evaluate segregation patterns in 1990 and trends in segregation between 1980 and 1990 for the 232 U.S. metropolitan areas with substantial black populations. We review the historical forces that intensified segregation for much of the twentieth century, and identify key developments after 1960 that challenged institutionalized segregation. The results suggest that the modest declines in segregation observed during the 1970s continued through the 1980s. While segregation decreased in most metropolitan areas, the magnitude of these changes was uneven. Testing hypotheses developed from an ecological model, we find that the lowest segregation levels in 1990 and the largest percentage decreases in segregation scores between 1980 and 1990 occurred in young, southern and western metropolitan areas with significant recent housing construction. Because the black population continues to migrate to such areas, residential segregation between blacks and whites should decline further but remain well above that for Hispanics or Asians.
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The study reported in this article rested connections between five land use controls and the racial composition of the communities that use them. A survey of localities in the 25 largest U.S. metropolitan areas showed that low density-only zoning, which restricts residential densities to fewer than eight dwelling units per acre, consistently reduced rental housing; this, in turn, limited the number of Black and Hispanic residents. Building permit caps were also associated with lowered proportions of Hispanic residents. Other controls tested-urban growth boundaries, adequate public facilities ordinances, and moratoria-had limited effects on either housing types or racial distribution.
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This paper uses an exploratory regression model to discern whether subsidized housing has had any independent association with changes in neighborhood racial composition in Yonkers, New York. Using data from all Yonkers census tracts for 1970 to 1980, the model shows that, all else equal, a higher increase in the percentage of blacks in a tract was associated with both the prior existence of subsidized (especially family-occupied) housing and the construction of such units during the decade. On average, one-third of the observed increase in the percentage of black residents in tracts having subsidized construction during the 1970s can be so attributed. However, projections based on the model suggest that the proposed court-ordered subsidized housing for Yonkers would yield from 1990 to 2000 only a minimal increase in the percentage of black residents in the affected tracts.
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Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “ The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review