ArticlePDF Available

Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Mobbing and Discrimination in Employee Relations

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

In the article the works of early mobbing researches H. Leymann, K. Niedl, D. Zapf, K. Warth, R. F. Thomas and the works of the past decade, pointing out sociodemographic aspects‘ characteristics are discussed. After the analysis of scientific literature and after the performance of exploratory analysis there was created a questionnaire to diagnose mobbing and discrimination in employee relations. The reliability of the inventory was proved by high Cronbach alpha values; the questionnaire was answered 1379 respondents which represent public and private sector. The diagnosis of mobbing and discrimination in employee relations was one of the components of the research, which was performed to state the influence of the discusses phenomenon on the organization‘s climate. In the article the phenomenon of mobbing is viewed from the socio demographic aspect: according to the sector (private, public), according to the professional activity, work experience in the current organization, according to the position (subordinates, chiefs of different rank), according to the age, education etc. Socio demographic point of view is chosen in order to state which peculiarities point out the victim of mobbing.
Content may be subject to copyright.
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOBBING
AND DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
Pranas Žukauskas
1
Faculty of Economics and Management
Vytautas Magnus University
44246 Kaunas, Lithuania
Tel: +370 37 327850
Fax: +370 37 327857
E-mail: p.zukauskas@evf.vdu.lt
Jolita Vveinhardt
2
Faculty of Economics and
Management
Vytautas Magnus University
44246 Kaunas, Lithuania
Tel: +370 37 327850
Fax: +370 37 327857
E-mail: jolitaw@gmail.com
1Pranas Žukauskas, Professor, Habil. Dr., Dean of the Faculty
of Economics and Management, Vytautas Magnus University,
Lithuania. In 1986, he took PhD from Academy of National
Economy in Moscow (Russia), in 2000 defended Doctoral
Habilitus Thesis in Vytautas Magnus University (Lithuania). Has
worked at Kaunas Technological University, Academy of
Management of Lithuania, since 1990 Professor at Vytautas
Magnus University, former Head of Department of Management,
recently Dean of the Faculty. Has published two monographs
and more than 100 scientific publications in books, journals, and
proceedings of conferences. Number of them is published in
foreign countries: USA, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Estonia,
Russia, Ukraine and Latvia.
2Jolita Vveinhardt, PhD Candidate of Social Sciences
(Management and Administration, 03S) at the Department of
Management, the Faculty of Economics and Management,
Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania. Currently is preparing
the dissertationThe Diagnosis of Mobbing as the
Discrimination in Personnel Relationships, while improving the
Climate in Lithuanian Organizations. J. Vveinhardt has
obtained her BBA degree from Šiauliai University (Lithuania),
where further obtained her MBA degree. She lectures on the
subjects of Management, Organizational Behavior, Mobbing in
Personnel Relationships, and The Methodology of Social
Research in Bachelor and Professional Bachelor studies. She is
the author and co-author of 60 articles; the author and co-author
of three educational books. J. Vveinhardts scientific research
trends are: mobbing as the discrimination in personnel
relationships, organizational climate.
---------TRANSFORMATIONS IN --------
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
© Vilnius University, 2002-2009
© Brno University of Technology, 2002-2009
© University of Latvia, 2002-2009
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
Received
:
December
, 200
8
1st Revision: March, 2009
2nd Revision: September, 2009
Accepted: November, 2009
ABSTRACT
. In the article the works of early mobbing researches H.
Leymann, K. Niedl, D. Zapf, K. Warth, R. F. Thomas and the works of the
past decade, pointing out sociodemographic aspects characteristics are
discussed. After the analysis of scientific literature and after the
performance of exploratory analysis there was created a questionnaire to
diagnose mobbing and discrimination in employee relations. The reliability
of the inventory was proved by high Cronbach alpha values; the
questionnaire was answered 1379 respondents which represent public and
private sector. The diagnosis of mobbing and discrimination in employee
relations was one of the components of the research, which was performed
to state the influence of the discusses phenomenon on the organizations
climate. In the article the phenomenon of mobbing is viewed from the socio
demographic aspect: according to the sector (private, public), according to
the professional activity, work experience in the current organization,
according to the position (subordinates, chiefs of different rank), according
to the age, education etc. Socio demographic point of view is chosen in
order to state which peculiarities point out the victim of mobbing.
KEYWORDS
: employee, interpersonal relations, discrimination, mobbing,
diagnosis of mobbing, jeer, victim, harassment, Lithuania.
JEL classification
: M12, M14, M19, P2.
Introduction
Even if mobbing and discrimination are closely connected and determine a specific
way of action mobbing, as discrimination in employee relations there is a task to highlight
the social and demographic peculiarities of discrimination and mobbing. This task is
determined by a number of reasons. The described socio-demographic characteristics of the
phenomenon will presuppose the conditions to forecast the dysfunctional relations in
employee relations and will allow creating as early as possible the mechanisms of prevention
and apply the models which already exist in foreign countries by adapting them.
In early mobbing researches (Leymann, 1990) there were not or only partly were
proved the links with different socio-demographic characteristics. Nevertheless, the latest,
more detailed researches (Zapf, 2000; Salin, 2005; Pranjič, Maleš-Bilič, 2006; Mole, 2007;
Grunau, 2007; Wood III, 2008; Moreno-Jimenez, Munoz, Salin, Benadero, 2008; Miedzik,
2008) prove the existence of such link. We are used to connect discrimination with the skin
colour, gender, social status and role, health condition, handicap etc. Discrimination is
presupposed by such actions as culture and subculture, the prejudices that live in society,
stereotypes and myths.
Mobbing in employee relations is revealed as a special way of discrimination, which
goes out of the ordinary frames of discrimination understanding. Mobbing is described by
pointing out the discriminative intention, but the victim can become the employee of the same
race, social status, and gender, physically and psychologically healthy and even promising
employee, the loss of which would create human and economical wastages to the
organization. Without mentioning, the image of organization in different societies and the
requirements to the socially responsible organization might differ. While analyzing mobbing
as discrimination in employee relations, it is possible to notice certain transformations of the
discrimination mechanism in work environment. Transformations are presupposed by specific
ways of attacking and attacked groups actions, which can be described as refined, polite way
to get rid of the victim. This transformed mechanism is skillfully implies the stereotypes,
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
myths and fears which exist in societys mind. It is possible to make supposition, that higher
education eliminates the mentioned reasons, but the research shows a different picture. Higher
education, not manual labor professions allow to forecast the greatest probability of such
attack. We should not forget and the specialists which have lower qualifications. For example
in the sales sphere we could expect weaker mobbing appearance, but the researches show
quite big intensiveness, which could be influenced by a number of reasons: gender factor and
the mobbing identification possibilities connected to it, higher education, which was
presupposed by reproduction of higher education graduates, age etc.
All this makes the phenomenon and its reasons to be analyzed in complex. The
person which applies mobbing or the mechanism which evokes mobbers frustration includes
deep psychological, social, cultural aspects and economic context. That is why while
analyzing mobbing and discrimination there appears a question if it is possible to apply
mechanically the experience of foreign scientists? Especially, when the studies were
performed in different periods of time, in different social and cultural environment, which
formed a unique system of mentality. That is why in order princely identify a potential victim
of mobbing and discrimination it is necessary to point out socio-demographic groups
according to mobbing and discrimination appearance intensity. And it is also possible to
suggest a hypothesis after evaluating the cultural and social circumstance which were
historically created in Lithuania, that the phenomenon of mobbing in the organizations of our
country can be different. Some of the researches that were performed in Lithuania
(Malinauskiene, 2004; Gruzevskis, Okuneviciute-Neverauskienė, Pocius, 2004;
Malinauskiene et al., 2005; Malinauskiene et al., 2007; Zukauskas, Vveinhardt, 2009) show
mobbing features among the specialists which have higher education and work educational
and health care spheres. In these spheres traditionally work female gender representatives.
Nevertheless there is a lack of certain information which does not allow drawing a more
precise portrait of a mobbing victim, to point out more precise socio-demographic
characteristics according to the age, gender, education etc.
Research problem is defined by a question: how to identify a potential mobbing
victim by a reference to socio demographic characteristics?
Research object: socio demographic characteristics of mobbing and discrimination
victims.
Research goal: to analyze socio demographic characteristics of mobbing and
discrimination victims.
Research tasks:
1. To discuss the scientific researches, which analyze socio demographic characteristics
of mobbing participants.
2. To compare socio demographic characteristics of foreign and Lithuanian victims of
mobbing in organizations.
Research methods: the article is prepared by using the methods of the systemizing
the scientific literature, common and logical analysis, comparative and summing methods.
Questionnaire, data processing by SPSS set of statistics programmes, data analysis. The
sources used articles by Lithuanian and foreign authors, books analyzing mobbing and
discrimination phenomenon,
1. Mobbing as Discrimination on Employee Relations: Socio-Demographic
Characteristics
Organizations reputation. Mobbing appear in organizations, which do not pay enough
attention to the organizations culture, values, the conflicts that take place among the
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
employees are not solved and are evaluated offhandedly. Mobbing is a very tricky
phenomenon, which more often takes place between two people and that is why is hardly
identified. But the phenomenon of mobbing is very dangerous because it damages the image
of organization and influences work results. According to Smaiziene and Jucevicius (2009),
the reputation of the organization is not a novelty in everyday life, in business and education
world. Even now, when the importance of organizations reputation is recognized as an
essential for the business success, reputation is understood only intuitively and very often is
treated as immeasurable and phenomenon which impossible to rule beyond the borders of
organizations (Smaiziene and Jucevicius, 2009).
A main task in order to achieve the effectiveness of private sector is to modernize the
activities of public institutions. In order to improve the public sector permanently and in
complex, a systematic modernization strategy is needed (modernization vision, mission,
regulations, and concepts) (Skietrys et al., 2008). The effectiveness of the private sector
depends on the leaders attitude and financial relation. According to Vasiljevienė (2004), in
Lithuania, same as in all post Soviet range there is a lack of clear activity, and first of all clear,
unified rules and norms; sometimes even a surprising misunderstanding of meanings and
necessities. According to the authors statement the additional problems appear because in
post Soviet countries, where the objective criteria of activity evaluation didnt come to power,
ethic standards and the obedience law were not formed as well as morals and mental
acceptance, and decentralization politics and autonomy are still performed, and all this cannot
influence the optimization of activity and the raise of effectiveness, by influences chaos,
misuse, the priority of illegal interests, corruption, nepotism, mobbing, as well as the feeling
of slavery, bad health condition of the employee, insecure work environment etc.
Lately more and more often appear talks about the social responsibility of the
organization. In this discourse the responsibility of organization for organizations climate and
employee relations violated by mobbing become obvious. That is why the responsibility
should be organizational and professional and not only moral sensitivity of the individual;
nowadays such responsibility became not only life important, but also relevant for the whole
globe. The more important the work that is performed by individual or a group, the more
power they have, the more high positions in society they have, the greater is the responsibility
(Vasiljevienė, 2006).
Discrimination and mobbing in employee relations. All the actions which prevail in
possibilities to improve the quality of the societys life, development, progress and
perspectives are directly connected to human resources and show the qualities and dynamics
of these resources. That is why all the problems , questions and solutions connected to human
resources must be understood as a priority goal in modern development of the society, its
progress, in search of the possibilities and realization. (Melnikas, 2002; Melnikas, 2008). But
so far not a lot of attention is paid to interrelations between employees, to discrimination
phenomenon in organization and for sure not to mobbing which is unknown to many of the
organizations leaders. Discrimination in employee relation is an escalation of conflicts,
hostile behavior, physical and psychological violence, terror. The term of discrimination is
widely used in politics, economics, sociology etc.
The most known in society meaning is used to reflect negative social relations which
humiliate persons dignity. Usually when we are talking about the discrimination we add a
marker racial, national, gender (Zukauskas and Zakarevicius, 2007; Ciarniene, et al.,
2007; Zukauskas and Zakarevicius, 2008; Rees and Althakhri, 2008; Zukauskas and
Vveinhardt, 2008a; Zukauskas and Vveinhardt, 2008b; Zukauskas and Vveinhardt, 2009).
Mobbing is a form of discrimination at the work place, a special way to push the victim out of
the social group, organization. This is a long lasting psychological terror, which ends in
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
victims loss. In other words mobbing can also called a polite way to get rid of the victim
(Zukauskas and Vveinhardt, 2009; Vveinhardt, 2009). Mobbing (Leymann, 1993, 1996;
Einarsen and Skogstad, 1996; Niedl, 1995; Zapf, 2000) is described as an attack which lasts
not less than 6 months and repeats not less than once per week.
Mobbing division according to sectors and spheres of activity. Niedl (1995) states that
until now in researches a connection between professional sphere of activity and mobbing
victim is not stated. Leymann (1993) states that researches which were performed in Sweden
didnt suggest any particular specification, but just paid attention to some of mobbing
tendencies, connected to different probabilities in different spheres of activity. According to
Leymann (1993) research data in manufacture, commerce, agriculture, forestry mobbing
appears very rarely, but in the sphere of education he had noticed a lot of mobbing cases,
twice more than in the other analyzed spheres. But in later researches Zapf (2002) stated quite
big difference in mobbing frequency in different types of organizations.
Mobbing according to the position in organization. Mobbing can be vertical (leaders
against subordinates/subordinates against leaders) and horizontal (colleagues against
colleagues), but most of this entire phenomenon takes place between the employees of the
same rank (Niedl, 1995). The researches, which were performed after Niedl in German
speaking countries by Zapf (1999) show that 70 percent of people who apply mobbing are
leaders, in other European countries (Zapf, 2002) the percentage of mobbing actions is
decreasing until 50 percent. That is connected to the institutional power of the leader.
Mobbing division according to gender. The results of Zapf and Warth (1997) researches
show, that women experience mobbing twice more than men. Thomas (1993) who analyzed
the researches of Zapf and Warth states that men still take higher positions than women and
that means that they dont become mobbing victims that often, because they occupy ruling
work positions. Leymann (1993) while presenting the results of the Switzerland research,
marked, that 76 percent of men experience mobbing from me and only 3 percent from women,
21 percent from men and women at the same time. In 40 percent of cases women are mocked
by the representatives of the same gender, 30 percent by men and 30 percent by both genders.
So it is clear that there are more men-mobbers, than women-mobbers, and that can be
influenced by patriarchal ideology (or may be competitiveness among men?) Salin (2005)
states in her research, that men present the victim as uncompetitive and weak and women tried
to underline the personality of the victim and group dynamics. Women were more often
thinking that mobbing is a planned action, but men were eager to recognize that it could be the
result of the stress.
According to Salin (2005), women more often sought medical help, men got involved
into the battle. The relation between harassment cases and gender can be hardly stated,
because the high percentage of mobbing cases is noticed among same gender representatives.
Mobbing according to the work experience and age. Niedl (1995) in the research that
was performed in Norway singled out the result which revealed the connection between old
age and mobbing cases, that means, that people who are older than 61 years of age are chosen
as mobbing victims. Kolodej (2007) while analyzing Niedl works states, that this phenomenon
could be explained by the wish to exchange an employee of such an age, because of the
reduce of economic effectiveness, where the younger one will be more useful. In this case
mobbing is used as a provocative mean to retreat from the work place and leave it for the
young employee. In Leymann (1993) researches there was not noticed any connection
between the age of the employee and mobbing cases, but according to some data people
between 21-30 and 31-40 years of age become mobbing victims more often than their older
colleagues. The tendency that mobbing according to the age is more often appears between
young people and people in retirement age becomes more obvious. We can make a
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
precondition, that the risk to become a victim of mobbing is waiting at the beginning and the
end of the career.
Mobbing according to education. Same as in western researches (Leymann, 1993;
Zapf, 2002), mobbing relations are more often noticed in educational sphere (10.9 proc.),
health care and social work spheres (10.3%), where high or higher education prevails.
After analyzing early mobbing researches, after sorting out the results from the socio
demographic point of view, there was performed a similar research in organizations of
Lithuania. Unequal perception and the harm done to the employees can be called harassment.
In the research the word harassment is used as a behavior, which seeks to harm or create
hostile and humiliate atmosphere to mark the actions. Harassment is described as an action
which characterizes not only discrimination, but also discriminative actions which are
transforming into mobbing. Discrimination in the article is analyzed as a negative
phenomenon, which provokes unhealthy employee relations, which can stay in discrimination
stage, but it can become mobbing. It is necessary to underline, that mobbing should be
analyzed together with discrimination as a specific discriminative phenomenon. But mobbing
is revealed through frequency and duration criteria.
2. The Socio-Demographic Links in Relation to Mobbing and Discrimination in
Employee Relations
After the performance of an exploratory research (Žukauskas and Vveinhardt, 2009)
some improvements to the questionnaire were added, which was placed at
http://www.mobingas.lt/anketa. The survey answers of the respondents were collected in
http://193.219.168.19/phpsql data base and later transformed into Microsoft Excel 2000 file.
All the collected answers were moved into SPSS, with the help of which there was made data
matrix. The questionnaires which were answered by using informational technologies had
made one third of all the questionnaires. Two thirds of the questionnaires were printed and
spread in different work organizations. The questionnaire was performed from December
2008 till February 2009.
In the first table there are presented the meanings of Cronbach alpha, which are very high,
that means that they balance between 0.82 till 0.91 (Table 1). That proves a high reliability of
the instrument.
Table 1. Characteristics of the instrument’s subscales and their methodological qualities
Subscales Explained
dispersion %
Cronbach
alpha
Spearman-
Brown
Methodological characteristics of the discriminative actions
subscales in organization (N = 1340) 70.12 0.91 0.87
Characteristics of meth
odological quality of discrimination’s
subscales. (N = 1340) 58.64 0.85 0.8
Methodological characteristics of subscales of additional
discrimination factors
(N = 1343)
57.28 0.82 0.91
Source: created by authors.
The respondents received 1000 printed questionnaire, 882 were sent back. 557
questionnaires were filled in on internet. During the research time there were questioned 1379
respondents from state and private sector (the private sector 998 and the state sector 381).
In the research, 890 women (65%) and 480 men (35%) took part.
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
Figure 1. The division of the respondents according to their professional spheres
N=1379
In the research, the respondents represented 22 professional activity spheres in
Lithuania. The biggest part of the respondents were made by trade organizations, which is
17.5 percent, second place is represented by educational institutions, third place is represented
by transport (7.8 percent) (Figure 1). Almost equally the respondents were divided between
health care and social work spheres (5.9 ppercent), hotel and restaurants sphere (5.9 percent),
buinding organizations (6.3 percent). The division of the respondents according to the sectors
with one tenth of error corresponds with the data of Lithuanian department of statistics. In
public sector there were involved 27.5 percent of employees and in private 72.5 percent.
The division of the respondents: state or public sector 27.6 percent and in private 72.4
percent. In the research took part 66.5 percent of subordinates and 33.5 percent of leaders
where the high rank leaders are represented by 3.6 percent. 75.9 percent of all the respondents
were presented by people of 18-39 years of age. According to the statistics of Lithuanian
department in 2007 this is the most active work age of the employee.
The biggest part of the respondents are people who have higher education (37.6 percent)
and secondary education (26.3 percent). That corresponds with the common Lithuanian
tendencies. Compared to other countries we can state that a very big part of the society seeks
higher education. According to the data of Lithuanian department of statistics, in 2007 almost
one fourth of all the employees were represented by individuals with high education. The
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
second numerous group is represented by the employees with secondary education, they
represent one fifth of all the employees.
Figure 2. The division of the respondents according to the years of works experience in current
organization
Almost two thirds of all the respondents in organization work almost for 3 years
(Figure 2). The rating according to the length of work would look as follows: 1-3 years (34.9
percent); under 1 year (29.2. percent); 4-7 years (20.3 percent). Discrimination not always
turns into mobbing, that why while performing the research the nature of the actions,
frequency and length criteria were strictly observed and according to which mobbing is
pointed out.
Figure 3. The division of the respondents according to experienced chicanery
Dysfunctional actions of the employees are also described as harassment or chicanery.
Chicanery was experienced by 30.1 percent of 1379 respondents, and that shows that
chicanery is experienced by every third employee. But the length of chicanery differs a lot.
The biggest part of chicanery has discriminative nature and never grows into mobbing (18.1
percent.) (Figure 3). 12 percent of the respondents who had gone through chicanery can be
added to the group which is being mobbed.
In Figure 4, we can see the data for the length of the chicanery which was experienced
by the respondents in public and private sectors. In public sector chicanery for one month was
experienced by 28.4 percent of the respondents and in private sector 30.8 percent, which
means that new employees are met in a hostile way. During the first twelve months of work in
public sector chicanery has a tendency to diminish and in private sector chicanery is very
intensive during the whole first year. Later chicanery becomes even more intensive and 36
months are the lowest border. That can be influenced by a number of reasons a part of the
victims is accepted into a group and others put up with their positions.
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
Note: State sector (N=108), private sector (N=309).
Figure 4. The division of the respndents according to the length of chicanery experience
Note: State sector (N=108), private sector (N=309).
Figure 5. The division of the respondents according to the frequency of the experiences chicanery
So we can say that the employees are met in the same way (Figure 5) both in private
and public sectors. The growth of chicanery in public sector can be connected with the fact
that in society the work, which is paid by state or municipality budget, is considered more
valuable because of better social guarantees and higher position in the society. Until the 3-4
quarter of 2008 because of the economical growth and the immigration of potential employees
the Lithuanian work market was marked by high level specialists and the lack of working
professions on the work market. That could be influenced by the mobility of the work power,
greater rotation because of the unfavorable work environment. In public sector market has
always been stable and had a high competitiveness level, which could be inspired by active
attack and the attempts of the victim to keep the work place. We also cant forget the fact that
a private sector is described by the abundance of professions by the lower level of education.
In the earlier mentioned researches performed in Western countries there were not noticed any
connections between mobbing and a certain work activity, even if the attention is paid and
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
there are certain tendencies, especially in educational sphere. But in the later researches there
was stated a big difference between mobbing frequency in different types of organizations.
That is why it is necessary to state the tendencies of dysfunctional relations in Lithuanian
organizations.
Note: experienced discrimination (N=250), experienced mobbing (N=165).
Figure 6. The division of the respondents according to the spheres of activity
An employee can be discriminated for years, but that does not mean that he
experiences mobbing. Discrimination and discriminative relations which grow into mobbing
can be recognized by the length of chicanery. Mobbing is described by intensive, directed
attack of the victim. There is an opinion, that people who had experienced chicanery for more
than six months had experienced mobbing (if chicanery was repeated not less than once per
week). The results of the research correspond with the tendencies of Western scientists in
spheres of education, health care and social work. Similar mobbing appearance (10.3 percent)
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
as in the spheres of social work and health care it is also noticed in printing and inscription. In
this sphere the tendency of discriminative action growing into mobbing is very clear.
Mobbing and discrimination cases correspond according to frequency only in light
manufacture. According to the frequency of mobbing and the relation of discriminative
relations which did not transform into mobbing health care, social work and education stand
out (see Figure 6).
It is a fact that education, healthcare and social work are female professions catch the
eye. Partly it could be influenced by cultural and social understanding of the phenomenon.
But to prove or deny a gender dependence of mobbing it is necessary to perform a special
study, which could be the subject of a separate research. Summing up the experience of the
respondents in discrimination and mobbing according the spheres of activity it is possible to
rank all the organizations according to the frequency of mobbing and discrimination cases.
Comparing first five positions it would be possible to look for the links to employees
education.
According to appearance of mobbing, education sphere takes a leading position. In this
sphere work people, who have higher education, whos attacking actions can be refined in a
certain way. According to the appearance of discrimination the sphere of education takes the
third place. We also cannot forget about the fact that part of the educational systems
environment is represented by people of professional or lower level education and it had its
influence on the results. The first three places both in discrimination and mobbing are
represented by traditionally female professions. It is also necessary to mark, that mobbing and
discrimination zones correspond, and that gives us a precondition to study the phenomenon in
complex. The hottest zones according to the frequency of appearance of discrimination and
mobbing in employee relations are presented in the decreasing order in Table 2.
Table 2. The frequency of mobbing and discrimination appearance
Discrimination % Mobbing %
1
Trade
1
Education
10.9
2
Health
care and social work
2
Health care and social work
10.3
3
Education
8.8
2
Publishing, printing, inscription
10.3
4
Transport
7.6
3
Trade
9.1
5
Construction
7.6
4
Transport
8.5
6
Hotels and restaurants
6
5
Social management and defense
7.9
7
Agric
ulture
4.8
5
Hotels and restaurants
7.9
8
Chemical production
4
6
Agriculture
6.7
9
Light industry
3.6
7
Recreational,
5.5
9
Metal manufacture
3.6
8
Manufacturing industry of building
materials
4.8
9
Forestry
3.6
9
Light industry
3.6
Publishing,
printing and inscription
3.2
Information and connections
3.0
Wood manufacture
2.8
Wood manufacture
1.8
Administrational and service activity
2.8
The supply of electricity, water , gas
1.8
The supply of electricity, water, gas.
2.4
1
1
Other business activity
1.8
Recreational, cultural, sports activities
2.4
Metal manufacture
1.2
Manufacturing industry of building
materials
2.4
Forestry
1.2
Other service activity
1.6
Administration and other service
1.2
Financ
ial and insurance activity
1.6
Other service activity
0.6
Information and connections
1.2
Other business activity
0.8
Source: created by authors.
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
Source: Experienced mobbing (N=250), experienced mobbing (N=165).
Figure 7. The division of the respondents who had experiences mobbing according to sectors
As we see in Figure 7 both mobbing and discrimination in public and private sectors
obviously differ. The data shows that the probability of dysfunctional relations is much bigger
than in private sector. But differently from the state sector 25.5 percent more frequent are the
relations which never grow into mobbing. In state sector the tendency of transformation of
discriminative relations into mobbing is more obvious. So, even if the tendencies of mobbing
and discrimination in these two different types of organizations differ, but the link between
mobbing and discrimination is obvious.
Note: Experienced discrimination (N=249), experienced mobbing (N=164).
Figure 8. The division of the respondents who had experienced mobbing according to the position
From Figure 8 it becomes clear that the victims of both discriminative actions and the
actions which grow into mobbing become ordinary subordinates (correspondingly 68.7 and
71.3 percent). (Intermediate results of leader link illustrate the experienced discrimination
number which is similar to both lower and middle level of leaders (correspondingly 14.5
percent for lower rank of the leaders and middle rank leaders 14.8 percent), but it should be
noticed that 5.5 percent of mobbing actions frequency depends on the higher position in the
rank scale, that means that the possibility of bossing grows. Organizations leaders also have
leaders the members of the board, shareholders, which possess the power of pressing.
The results of the survey show the tendency, that mobbing as discrimination in
employee relations is more frequently experienced by Lithuanian women. 59.8 percent of
women reported their mobbing experience and 56.5 percent reported the actions which did not
transform into mobbing. Professional characteristics could influence the higher appearance of
mobbing as discrimination in employee relations. Such spheres as education, health care,
social care are known by greater concentration of female employees. Because of this reason
Zapf (1999; 2002) very carefully evaluates the attempts to connect the dysfunctional relations
with female socialization. The authors also mark the fact that the researches of stress had
shown, that women are more opened and tend to reveal their health problems and properly
take part in mobbing researches.
P. Žukauskas, J.
Vveinhardt
ISSN 1648
-
4460
Transformational Challenges for Stakeholders Role in CEEC Business
TRANSFORMATIONS IN BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, Vol. 8, No 3 (18), Supplement A, 2009
Note: Experience discrimination (N=250), experienced mobbing (N=163).
Figure 9. The dividion of the respondents who had experienced discrimination and mobbing according to
the age
After the received research data it is possible to make a supposition, that
discrimination and mobbing can be experienced by young or middle-aged employees. First of
all it is connected to the fact the majority of people in nowadays market belong to this group.
This is the most productive period of human work activity, which is characterized by the
highest competitiveness on the work place. In this period of time the resources of the
individual are the greatest, which is all the potential of the energy in used for self-realization.
The mention conditions, only partly explain the high mobbing index for this age group. Such
lucky people usually reveal the inactivity, passive attitude, distrust of the personal powers,
of other colleagues, which influence their negative emotions.
According to the opinion of many authors, unfair competitiveness becomes angular
reason of mobbing plots at work. It is even worse when the relation between the competitors
is vertical, when the competition is between the leader and the subordinate. Such situations
are usually caused not business conflict, but a personal one and create favorable environment
for mobbing. It is very important to mention, that young grownups are responsible not only
for themselves, but also their family and children, and all this narrows their freedom of choice
and changes.
A high mobbing index exist and among older people. That would correspond with the
tendency that the employees in the organization are less welcomed the closer to pension they
are. But the results of the research also show that the older a person is the higher is the
discrimination index, but the indexes of mobbing tend to diminish. The statistics of the
Lithuanian Employment office shows that the highest number of the unemployed is
represented by people who are close to the pension age. And their possibility to be hired is
also the smallest. Comparatively well valued is a young employee, whose activity corresponds
with the effectiveness. The retirement of the employee is connected to the expenses for social
compensations, the search of new employees, tr