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To share or not to share: The role of content and emotion in viral marketing

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Abstract

One of the most recent influential trends in the global environment has been the rise of social media. Stakeholders have found a strong voice in social media, and messages are spread among social media users at an astounding speed across a global landscape. As a result of this phenomenon and in an effort to use this viral spread of messages across social media, companies are increasingly making use of viral marketing. Viral messages are playing an increasingly important role in influencing and shifting public opinion on corporate reputations, brands, and products as well as political parties and public personalities to name but a few. Very little is known about the motivations, attitudes, and behavior of the people who forward viral messages to their online networks. Through in-depth interviews with college-going Generation Y consumers, we explore this relationship between viral media and emotions. We look at two very specific components of online videos that have gone viral: first, the relevance of the video's content and, second, participants' emotional reaction to these videos to try and better explain the viral spread of online video messages. The paper concludes by proposing a decision tree that interusers might subconsciously experience when deciding whether to share a video with their friends or not. The article concludes with a discussion about future research avenues in the area of emotions and viral marketing. Copyright

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... Approche dyadique médiée de la relation de service Botha et Reyneke, 2013 ;Poor et al., 2013 ;Small et Verrochi, 2009 ;Söderlund et Rosengren, 2007Hatfield, et al., 19921994 ;Neumann et Strack, 2000 La contagion émotionnelle via une vidéo est plus forte lorsque son contenu est familier (Botha et Reyneke, 2013). Le récepteur d'un message de bouche à oreille assimile la valence du message à celle des émotions de l'émetteur, ce qui détermine la valence de ses propres émotions (Söderlund et Rosengren, 2007). ...
... Approche dyadique médiée de la relation de service Botha et Reyneke, 2013 ;Poor et al., 2013 ;Small et Verrochi, 2009 ;Söderlund et Rosengren, 2007Hatfield, et al., 19921994 ;Neumann et Strack, 2000 La contagion émotionnelle via une vidéo est plus forte lorsque son contenu est familier (Botha et Reyneke, 2013). Le récepteur d'un message de bouche à oreille assimile la valence du message à celle des émotions de l'émetteur, ce qui détermine la valence de ses propres émotions (Söderlund et Rosengren, 2007). ...
... Consommation en ligne s'entend ici au sens large (fréquentation des forums, réseaux sociaux, gaming, etc.) et ne se limite pas aux achats. Rares il y a 10 ans (Sun et Zhang, 2006), des études récentes ont montré le rôle des émotions sur le comportement de consommation en ligne (Berger et Milkman, 2012 ;Botha et Reyneke, 2013), mais aussi l'impact de l'agencement virtuel sur les émotions de l'internaute (Guadagno et al., 2011 ;Kalbach, 2006 ;Lemoine, 2008 ;Pelet, 2008 ;Teubner et al., 2015). Cependant, les outils sociaux en ligne ont encore été peu étudiés sous l'angle affectif (Teubner et al., 2015). ...
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This article focuses on the emotional dynamics at work in a collective experience. It thus fills a gap in research on emotions in the field of marketing, where emotions are usually tackled from an individual perspective. Its contribution is twofold. First, it draws on a review of the existing literature in psychology, social psychology, and sociology in order to identify, define, and characterize the main concepts related to emotions when they are experienced in a collective context. It also builds on this review by distinguishing the processes of emotional transfer from the collective emotional states that result from these transfers. Second, this article shows that the existing marketing literature almost exclusively addresses these topics through the lens of the buyer–seller dyadic relationship. Finally, it proposes further avenues of research that are focused on integrating collective emotional dynamics into marketing research.
... The emotional response to a message has been found to influence individuals' behaviours as well (Botha and Reyneke 2013;Eckler and Bolls 2011;Guadagno et al. 2013). Sharing is a common behaviour elicited by emotions across the nations. ...
... Higher negative emotion arousal increases the likelihood of sharing microblog posts (Xie et al. 2017). Individuals are more likely to forward the videos that they find it is funny (Botha and Reyneke 2013;Eckler and Bolls 2011;Guadagno et al. 2013). More specifically, people who elicit high emotions generate more message diffusion behaviour than people who elicit low emotions (Berger and Milkman 2012). ...
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Message diffusion is associated with ‘going viral’ that many communicators strive for in spreading their words. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) provides a framework for the current study to understand the effects of emotions generated from a message on persuasion – how high- and low-effort processes of comprehending information influence people's decision in spreading societal issue-related Facebook posts. The researcher conducted a survey experiment to explore the effects of emotional response to societal issues on message diffusion. The findings suggest individuals’ diffusion decisions depend on issue controversy considering their imagined audience. Emotions trigger both cognitive and heuristic processing of information. The results reveal that message elaboration mediates the effects of both positive and negative emotion arousal on diffusing moderate-controversial issues to the more symmetrical audience. Positive and negative emotions were only directly associated with diffusion high-controversial issues to the symmetrical audience via Facebook. Theoretical contributions to ELM and practical implication of strategic communications were discussed.
... Jacobson (2020) further suggests that this process of branding oneself, allows for the development of a comprehensive narrative that allows others to easily understand one's identity. Botha and Reyneke (2013) considered the role of emotion in the virality of social media posts, examining the willingness of individuals to share content on social media platforms. Their study found that the stronger the emotional connection to the content, the higher the likelihood that the social media user would share a post. ...
... Brands with stronger brand equity are more likely to provide the sharer with attributes to communicate their personal brand. Furthermore, based on the findings of Botha and Reyneke (2013) and Nikolinakou and King (2018), posts that carry positive emotion or have better known content are likely to be shared more readily by social media users. This brand-related user-generated content is thus more likely to perform well in terms of online engagement in a social media user's network. ...
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This paper considers the evaluation of social media performance from a user’s perspective using the expectation confirmation theory as the theoretical framework. The interplay between initial expectations and subsequent evaluations of social media performance, in particular, forms the basis of the evaluation. The research focuses on the influence that the performance of brand-related user-generated content is able to exert on a user’s brand attitude, self-image, and the development of their personal brand. This conceptual paper develops three propositions suggesting that the social media performance of brand-related user-generated content is able to influence one’s brand attitude, self-image, and personal brand respectively. A typology of four different social media user types is developed through an evaluation of the disconfirmation experienced as a result of the interplay between initial expectations and the actual evaluation of the performance of brand-related, user-generated content. The concept of social media performance is proposed, which considers the subjective evaluation of the performance of a brand-related post shared on social media platforms. In addition, the research expands the expectation confirmation theory to a new context in order to offer a more nuanced understanding of an existing yet under researched phenomenon.
... Virality on social media is often considered a barometer by which to measure the effectiveness of communication messages (Alhabash, Almutairi, Lou, & Kim, 2019;Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Dafonte-Gomez, 2015;Mills, 2012;Tucker, 2011). Therefore, organizations are paying more attention to creating viral content, so they can leverage the interactive behaviors of social media users to strengthen the reach of organizational online content. ...
... Social media virality received considerable attention from marketing scholars (Akpinar & Berger, 2017;Berger & Milkman, 2012;Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Mills, 2012). However, the connection between advocacy strategies, advocacy tactics, and virality remains under-examined. ...
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The communicative affordances of Facebook transformed the way nonprofit organizations communicate with publics. However, the connection between advocacy and virality received limited scholarly scrutiny. This study extends our knowledge of advocacy by examining the relationships between advocacy strategies, tactics, and virality. For this study, Facebook posts of LGBTQ advocacy organizations from January 2016 to December 2018 were collected. Content analysis of 1,500 Facebook posts revealed advocacy and relationship building strategies of LGBTQ nonprofit organizations. MANOVA analyses signaled that advocacy strategies and tactics are significant predictors for virality. Furthermore, LGBTQ advocacy organizations predominately utilized affective and cohesive social presence strategies on Facebook to build relationships with publics.
... Funny videos help to gain more views and likes but not comments. In contrast, creative videos help to gain more comments, but not views and likes, even though creativity is considered to drive more views and likes by other researchers (Botha & Reyneke, 2013). Silly 525 videos do not seem to drive popularity and may even reduce the volume of comments. ...
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In the current fragmented media landscape, online video is becoming an important outlet for content dissemination. Online video channels provide content creators a way of organizing content and building an online following through subscriptions and social sharing. This paper describes a decision support systems (DSS) based framework for online video channel management and content creation. The relevant DSS literature was reviewed along with both modeling and behavioral aspects of online videos and video channels. An empirical case study was run on a dataset consisting of views, shares, and subscriptions from over 1000 videos from nine YouTube channels. This paper contributes to DSS theory by proposing a flexible framework for incorporating both behavioral and empirical work into an integrative process for online video content creation. This framework builds on existing data-driven DSS theory, but includes specific entities and processes for online content creation.
... For example, if users want to indicate support or like for a social-media post, they can express publicly an idea through a simple click on the 'like' button. Similarly the information-sharing behavior (share) demonstrates users' emotional reaction toward the contents that determine their decision to accept and share these contents with others through their own social-media account (Botha and Reyneke, 2013). An individual's decision to 'share' certain content is contingent upon community connections as it affects the relational strengths between sender and receiver (Alhabash et al., 2019). ...
Article
This study examines the Pakistan military’s strategic use of social media in encouraging and sustaining public support for the ongoing war against terrorism in Pakistan. Its findings indicate that the military used significantly different types of strategic frames in response to a fast-changing, evolving security situation in the country. Framing was used strategically to facilitate public–military and people-to-people engagements. Motivational frames were the most dominant forms of communication used to generate dialogue between the military and the public in the war against terrorism and to enhance public participation in it. This study also indicates that different frames used by Pakistan’s military on social media significantly mediated military engagement with different segments of society during the critical phases of Pakistan’s ongoing war against terrorism.
... Nonetheless, among the potentially significant predictors of news engagement, a relatively understudied realm is the role of emotion. Given that social sharing of emotion is a key driving force behind people's engagement with content (Botha & Reyneke, 2013) and that the arousal of specific emotions determines how people process the related information (Marcus et al., 2000), there is a pressing need to further investigate the role of emotion in news engagement. ...
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This study sheds new light on the relationship between emotion and engagement. Specifically, we investigate how the six discrete emotions that news visuals deliver, as well as the positiveness of news text, are associated with three engagement activities: sharing, commenting, and reacting. The findings show that users are less likely to share or comment on news posts that convey positive emotions, although they tend to react to such news frequently. The most prominent kind of emotion associated with user engagement activities was “sadness.” We analyzed 12,179 news stories posted on the four major U.S. newspapers’ Facebook pages.
... Researchers have studied what increases the likelihood of e-WOM (electronic word-of-mouth) recommendations; for example, factors studied include both emotional involvement and excitement about visitation experience. Berger and Milkman (2012) and Botha and Reyneke (2013) argue that people used both to engage on e-WOM and share content when they are emotionally involved. ...
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Museums are educational institutions that nurture and maintain the cultural heritage of humanity, playing vital roles in economic development by attracting local and foreign tourists. However, the future of museums as a destination can be significantly affected by new technologies. That is particularly relevant, considering Generation Z's education and expectations. In fact, their satisfaction can result in E-WOM recommendations, increasing visitation. Museums can increase quality perception, excitation, and recommendation intention by increasing IT usage, which can change visitor experience. We test the relationship between E-WOM intentions and arousal based on technology. Results show a strong correlation between quality perceptions and arousal (0,68) and between arousal and E-WOM intentions (0,87) when a higher level of IT usage was presented. Despite technology levels allowing a higher emotional charge and greater e-WOM recommendation intentions, operational issues are already important. Instead of just increasing spending on technology, it is needed to focus on training and internal organization. Also, technologies can help not only to make content more attractive but more understandable.
... ). Plusieurs travaux ont essayé d'expliquer cet effet, en mobilisant par exemple les théories de la régulation émotionnelle et la contagion émotionnelle (e.g.: Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Ho & Dempsey, 2010;Kramer, Guillory, & Hancock, 2014). Pratiquement, les émotions peuvent être transmises sur des réseaux sociaux via le contenu(Kramer et al., 2014) et les travaux récentsde Liu, Pan, & Li (2018) indiquent que le partage des émotions via les réseaux virtuels, a un effet significatif sur la régulation émotionnelle.Les émotions négatives impactent positivement le comportement de don(Albouy, 2017 ;Bagozzi & Moore, 1994 ;Cialdini & Kenrick, 1976 ;Fisher, Vandenbosch, & Antia, 2008 ;Wang & Wang, 2008). ...
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Purpose—Identifying the characteristics of fundraising messages generated by French charities and exploring which of these features engage the most social media users. Methodology — A qualitative approach was conducted on 444 fundraising messages from two of the most popular social media platforms [Facebook & Twitter]. Research implications/limitations—This paper identifies how social media users evaluate content and therefore explore what makes this prosocial content more engaging than another. Practical implications—Charities managers could use the findings of this paper, to design an engaging content and thereby optimizing the efficiency of fundraising campaigns. Keywords Social Media, Message Characteristics, Fundraising Messages, Social media content, Interactions in social media
... Predicting whether an advertisement (or company-generated content) will go viral on digital media is an important issue. Although a growing body of research has demonstrated which type of content will effectively go viral, these studies have primarily relied on self-report measures relating to static stimuli (e.g., news articles) (e.g., Babić Rosario et al., 2016;Berger & Milkman, 2012;Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Lee & Ma, 2012) and dynamic stimuli (e.g., video ads) (e.g., MacInnis, Tirunillai, & Zhang, 2019;Quesenberry & Coolsen, 2019). However, people may lack the ability or desire to express their thoughts accurately or to explain their behavior (Dijksterhuis, 2004;Nisbett & Wilson, 1977). ...
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Consumers often share product-related content (e.g., advertising), and highly shared advertising has a huge impact on consumer behavior. Despite its apparent effectiveness, prediction of whether such advertising will be highly shared is a poorly understood area of marketing. Advances in brain imaging techniques may allow researchers to forecast aggregate consumer behavior beyond subjective reports. Using neuroimaging techniques, previous research has established models showing that expectations of self-related outcomes (potential for self-enhancement) and the social impact of sharing (potential for social approval) contribute to the likelihood of users sharing non-commercial static content (i.e., text-based health news). However, whether this finding can be applied to forecasting the virality of dynamic commercial stimuli, which is more relevant to interactive marketing (i.e., video ads), remains unknown. Combining brain imaging techniques, cross-validation methods, and real-world data regarding sharing on social media, the present study investigated whether brain data can be used to forecast the viral marketing success of video ads. We used neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging: fMRI) to measure neural activity during three sets of theory-driven neural measures implicated in value, self, and social (mentalizing) processes while 40 participants viewed video ads that brands had posted on Facebook. Contrary to previous findings regarding value-related virality in non-commercial static content, our results indicate that social-related neural activity contributes significantly to forecasting the virality of dynamic marketing-related content. The model that included both social-related neural measures and subjective intentions to share forecasted viral marketing success better than the model that included only social-related neural measures. The model that included only subjective intention to share did not forecast viral marketing success. Overall, these findings provide a novel connection between neurophysiological measures and real-world dynamic commercial content. Contrary to previous neuroforecasting findings, social-related but not value-related neural measures can significantly improve our ability to predict market-level sharing of video ads.
... Millennial consumers also tend to spread emotional content through online forums and SNS. This is evidenced in a study by Botha and Reyneke (2013) in which they found that Millennials distributed emotional content through SNS, indicating that they tend to respond more to emotional stimuli. This trend is important for viral marketing. ...
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Research question: The purpose of the study was to identify consumption traits that might influence millennial sport fan behavior. Research methods: We accomplished this objective by using mixed methods (i.e. review of literature, focus group (N = 18), and survey (N = 300)). We analyzed the millennial sport fan consumption traits by calculating descriptive statistics and conducting ANOVA to compare their traits with Baby Boomers and Generation X. Results and findings: The literature review revealed the five traits of millennial fan consumption: (a) technology-driven, (b) community-driven, (c) peer pressure (FoMO), (d) emotional consumption, and (e) fan engagement. These prominent traits also emerged from focus group interviews and the survey. Generational differences among sport fans were also found. Implications: With regard to theoretical and practical implications we identified traits that influenced millennial consumption behaviors. The results of the current study suggest that segmentation research is an effective and efficient way to reach target consumer groups, an approach that can benefit sport organizations. Differences among the three generations indicate the necessity of developing specific marketing strategies to target millennial fans, for which practitioners should apply five millennial consumption traits when deploying marketing strategies.
... Emotions have been inquired by different disciplines such as psychology, media and communication, music, and marketing (Buijzen, Walma van der Molen, & Sondij, 2007;Guadagno, et al., 2013;Richins, 1997;Scherer, 2004). The emotional response to a message has been found to influence individuals' behaviors (Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Eckler & Bolls, 2011;Guadagno, Rempala, Murphy, & Okdie, 2013). Sharing information is one of the common behaviors elicited by emotions (Myrick, 2015). ...
Article
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Sharing, a term that is associated with “going viral,” is something all strategic communicators strive for in their communication campaigns. The current study explored sharing as message diffusion. The nature of information sharing is perceived as a form of word-of-mouth (WOM)—a voluntary act by the consumers to tell others their experience of a product or consumption of certain information. Online sharing is a form of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) which not only includes the experience originated by customers but also the reposting of retailers’ or other consumers’ messages. Sharing is an important social and economic phenomenon to study, because it maximizes the visibility of a company, a brand, a nonprofit, a policy, a product, and a service. The purpose of the study is to examine how sharing is influenced by the message factors—the source and emotions generated by the message itself, because they are crucial for effective communication. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) provides a framework for researchers to understand the effects of a source and emotions generated from the message on persuasion—how high- and low-effort processes of information influence people's judgment and decision to spread or share the message. This study aimed to create a comprehensive model explaining the process of individuals’ decisions in the sharing of messages to their imagined audience on social media through considering the primary and secondary sources of the messages, their perceived credibility, emotion valence, and elaboration of the messages, while controlling audience variables such as issue involvement, personalities, past sharing experience, and demographics. To answer the research questions and test hypotheses, the researcher conducted a two-wave experiment with a two by two factorial design. The study adopted Facebook as the subject of study. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Hayes PROCESS Model were used in hypothesis testing. The findings suggest that exposure to a Facebook post carried by a non-profit source is more likely to be shared, compared to a for-profit source. When the original source is a for-profit organization, the post from the two-layered source is more likely to be shared than original source only. However, when the original source is a non-profit organization, the post from the direct source was more likely to be shared than a two-layered source. In addition, sharer credibility moderates the effects of the credibility of original sources on sharing Facebook posts. Message elaboration mediates the effects of both positive and negative emotion arousal on sharing non-controversial issues, but not in controversial issues. Furthermore, positive emotions were directly and indirectly associated with sharing non-controversial issues through a mediator of message elaboration that is conditioned by sharer credibility. The findings reveal that the audience's perceptions of communicators have a great impact on the persuasive effects such as reinforcing or changing attitudes and behavior. People are less likely to forward controversial issues because of social risks when expressing their positions. A secondary source encourages individuals to endorse the message by decreasing the doubt on potential risks. However, controversial messages are actually more likely to be forwarded by impulse rather than rational decision. This study advances and contributes ELM, the Two-Step Flow Theory, and demonstrates the merit of multi-stimuli experimental design. It also provides practical implications for strategic communicators on how messages can be diffused and spread to a wider audience based on their organization credibility and general source cue as for-profit or non-profit organizations.
... In the context of social advocacy, the point is to translate people's behavioral intention into a socially shared outcome -for example, a performative social media communication (Coombs & Holladay, 2007, 2011. Social media virality is often considered a barometer of communication effectiveness (Alhabash et al., 2019;Botha & Reyneke, 2013); so that it makes sense to expand the notion of behavioral intention, as we do here, to include an active willingness to spread positive viral messages, and a readiness to purchase the products or services of a particular company. Seen this way, it seems likely that such readiness to act -what Gibbons, Gerard, Ouellette & Burzette (1998) term behavioral willingness -is related in some way to social advocacy legitimacy. ...
Article
This study experimentally interrogates the critical preconditions of how an organization legitimizes its corporate social advocacy (CSA) initiatives as an integral part of strategic communication. A 2 × 2 factorial design survey (N = 398) indicates that companies must find a way to bridge two perceptual gaps − a factual gap and a conformity gap. The factual gap refers to perceived inconsistency of values – that is, that the company may not walk its talk on moral values. In contrast, the conformity gap refers to values incongruity between public expectations and corporate performance. Using these two conceptual constructs, we classify CSA initiatives into authentic, faulty, and fake. Authentic CSA initiatives project clear corporate moral values and meet public value expectations; unsurprisingly, they are found to generate more substantial perceptions of legitimacy and more positive behavioral willingness than other types of CSA initiative. Previously, few attempts to measure experimentally the legitimacy gaps that frequently arise between public expectations and companies’ actual CSA performance. The authentic CSA could not only fulfill corporate strategic communication missions but also generate the legitimate end of mutual understanding between the organization and the publics.
... However, viral content typically displays one or more traits that trigger a sense of value to the person sharing and receiving the content. The value may be an increased social currency and visibility because of the qualities of content, particularly in cases where content elicits a positive emotional response (Botha and Reyneke 2013;Del Vicario et al. 2016), is humorous, and/or tells a compelling story that is more likely to have a greater reach on social networks (McDonald 2009;Berger 2013). ...
... It is perhaps because positive emotion supports linkages with WOM in promotional advertising. Botha and Reyneke (2013) find that viewers who have positive emotional reactions to audiovisual content have more intention to share it. In a decision-making process, "the emotional connection" to content is regarded as an essential element for consumers to share (p. ...
Article
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This experimental study with a national online sample (n = 300) tested the effects of storytelling in radio advertisements on participants' positive emotional responses and intentions to share information about the product, depending on audiences' narrative engagement level. Treatments included a commercial for a fictitious brand of luggage using a story told by the founder of the company, another version of the same commercial manipulated so the speaker was a customer of the company, and a control stimulus consisting only of information about the product. Results showed that narrative transportation and narrative preference are positively associated with favorable responses toward ad. Stories elicited more favorable emotional responses and had some effect on participants' intention to share information about the product by wordof-mouth. This was especially true among participants hearing the founder's story. Results support previous assumptions about the power of storytelling in advertising, including distinctions regarding the identity of the speaker (founder vs. customer).
... However, viral content typically displays one or more traits that trigger a sense of value to the person sharing and receiving the content. The value may be an increased social currency and visibility because of the qualities of content, particularly in cases where content elicits a positive emotional response (Botha and Reyneke 2013;Del Vicario et al. 2016), is humorous, and/or tells a compelling story that is more likely to have a greater reach on social networks (McDonald 2009;Berger 2013). ...
Chapter
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On May 19, 2017, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau took to the Vancouver seawall for a run. The seawall is an idyllic setting, backdropped by both the city and the ocean; the wall circumscribes Stanley Park and is a popular location for tourists and locals alike. Trudeau was in Vancouver to participate in a “roundtable with technology leaders” to promote his government’s Canada Child Benefit, and meet with ethnic communities in nearby Surrey and Abbotsford (Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada 2017a, 2017b). Known for his athleticism, Trudeau’s decision to jog along the seawall was not, in itself, noteworthy. However, as he passed a group of students gathered for their graduation celebration, something unique took place. Adam Scotti, official Photographer for Prime Minister’s Office (PMO), who would sometimes join the PM for his runs, captured a photo of Trudeau running past the prom-goers. The image is subtle. Foregrounded is a group of nearly 20 young people. Dressed to celebrate their graduation, the young women are in gowns and dresses, the young men in suits. In the middle of the image, seemingly spontaneously emerging from behind the group is a man in a black T-shirt, black running shorts; he’s in mid-stride, his focus on the road ahead of him. The man, of course, is the Prime Minister. Without proper introduction, or without the recognition of Justin Trudeau in the frame, the image would be a throwaway, a test shot of a soon-to-be orchestrated group picture. Part of what makes the image remarkable, then, is the unremarkable nature of its composition. Of course, once we recognize the true subject of the image, this appearance …
... How did the mystery box video come to be so popular and how can content strategists work towards duplicating the video's enthusiastic reception? Scholars have been eager to examine the characteristics of videos that are shared to the point of being considered viral (Ashley & Tuten, 2015;Berger & Milkman, 2012;Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Dafonte-Gomez, 2014;Guadagno, Rempala, Murphy, & Okdie, 2013;Nelson-Field, Riebe, & Newstead, 2013;Shehu, Bijmolt, & Clement, 2016;Southgate, Westoby, & Page, 2010). A branded video appealing to millions of viewers and deemed viral becomes an asset to a brand . ...
Chapter
This chapter begins with an exploratory approach to understanding how online branded video results in positive impressions among viewers. Scholars have examined the characteristics of videos that contribute to their appeal (e.g. Ashley & Tuten, 2015; Berger & Milkman, 2012; Botha & Reyneke, 2013; Dafonte-Gomez, 2014; Southgate, Westoby, & Page, 2010). Separate strands of literature have identified social practices and emotions likely to influence the perceptions of branded content. This chapter bridges the gap between those two strands by asking which social practices produce the emotions that lead to greater enjoyment of a video. Using a series of multiple regressions, we constructed a path analysis model linking key social practices and emotions that lead to positive evaluations of branded videos. The model provides strategic direction for the makers of online branded video
... Some claim that the virality of content also happens accidentally (Berger & Milkman, 2012). Researchers have shown (e.g., Berger & Milkman, 2012;Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Heimbach & Hinz, 2016) that some mechanisms in VM can already be explained. However, there are factors that can influence virality and cannot be controlled. ...
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Viral marketing is used to widely distribute content. To achieve this goal, the basic decision‐making process from content reception to interaction must be clarified. This paper examines the decision‐making process of individuals in viral marketing using a new dynamic model. In addition, this work reviews the existing literature on viral marketing and structures to identify existing issues for further research. The decision‐making process is basically divided into two stages. In the first decision stage, individuals decide whether content should be considered. When individuals agree to view the content, they decide in the second stage whether they want to interact with it. These two decisions are influenced by three factors: the framework conditions, content, and interaction aims. With the help of the decision model, this paper summarizes the most important findings from viral marketing research over the last 20 years. In addition, this work provides new opportunities for further research in the field of viral marketing.
... Thông tin, hỗ trợ truy cập và bảo mật là những nhân tố quan trọng ảnh hưởng đến ý định mua hàng của người tiêu dùng (Nguyễn, 2018). Khi internet trở nên phổ biến, sự chuyển đổi số càng mạnh mẽ thì marketing lan tỏa sẽ là công cụ truyền thông hữu hiệu và phổ biến (Botha & Reyneke, 2013). Khi thông tin tràn ngập và không thống nhất trên internet, các nội dung của marketing muốn được lan tỏa cần phải có sự thu hút và cung cấp cho người xem một lý do để chia sẻ, lan truyền (Ho & Dempsey, 2010). ...
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CÁC NHÂN TỐ MARKETING LAN TỎA ẢNH HƯỞNG ĐẾN Ý ĐỊNH MUA SẢN PHẨM ĐỒ UỐNG: NGHIÊN CỨU TẠI THỊ TRƯỜNG HÀ NỘI Nguyễn Hồng Quân 1 Trường Đại học Ngoại thương, Hà Nội, Việt Nam Ngày nhận: 22/06/2020; Ngày hoàn thành biên tập: 28/09//2020; Ngày duyệt đăng: 02/10/2020 Tóm tắt: Nghiên cứu nhằm kiểm định các nhân tố marketing lan tỏa tác động đến ý định mua các sản phẩm đồ uống tại thị trường Hà Nội và kiểm chứng mối quan hệ giữa các biến tác động. Trong bài viết này, dữ liệu nghiên cứu thực hiện bằng phương pháp điều tra ngẫu nhiên với 186 người tiêu dùng thông qua điều tra bằng bảng hỏi và được xử lý bằng phần mềm SPSS 22.0, AMOS 22.0 thông qua các bước phân tích độ tin cậy, phân tích khám phá nhân tố, phân tích khẳng định nhân tố và mô hình cấu trúc SEM. Kết quả nghiên cứu chỉ ra rằng, giá trị cảm xúc, giá trị xã hội, nhận thức về thương hiệu và khía cạnh bảo mật thông tin của marketing lan tỏa có tác động tích cực đến ý định mua hàng của người tiêu dùng đối với sản phẩm đồ uống. Từ khóa: Marketing lan tỏa, Ý định mua sắm, Sản phẩm đồ uống VIRAL MARKETING'S FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMERS' INTENTION TO BUY BEVERAGE PRODUCTS: RESEARCH IN HANOI MARKET Abstract: The study examines the impact of spreading marketing factors on the purchase intent of customers for beverage products in Hanoi market and verifies the relationship between the impact variables. An analysis was conducted by the random survey method with 186 consumers through questionnaire surveys. The data were processed by SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 softwares with steps including reliability analysis, factor discovery analysis, factor confirmation analysis, and SEM structure model. The results show that emotional value, social value, brand awareness, and information security aspects of spreading marketing have a positive impact on consumers' buying intentions for beverage products.
... The method of sharing and re-sharing in social media could be done in several ways through hashtags or aliases, in a public or private space, or in the form of text (articles, status) or visuals (pictures, videos). An attractive topic has an element of feeling or emotion (Botha & Reyneke, 2013), rational and in visual forms (Kim & Yang, 2017). Therefore, when information shares continuously on social media, it will become viral. ...
... Disciplines that approach such studies range from second language acquisition, to computer mediated communication or even therapeutic. Consequently, emotions are being analysed from an increasing number of perspectives, such as medical-psychological, neuronal (Kassam et al., 2013;Uljarevic and Hamilton, 2012), sociological (Barbalet, 2002;Bericat, 2015;Patulny et al., 2019), or even commercial (Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Yung et al., 2021). From a slightly different perspective, sentiment analyses approach the study of emotion based on automatic Natural Language Processing (NLP) (Abbasi et al., 2008;Pozzi et al., 2016). ...
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An ever-increasing interest on the expression of emotions can be seen in the proliferation of studies from different perspectives; medical-psychological, sociological, linguistic, or computer based, to name but a few. From a pragmalinguistic standpoint, ethnopragmatics is interested in the cross-cultural study of emotion. The present confrontation in political discussion, aggravated by the pandemic sanitary crisis, invites an exploration of political debate. Traditionally, political discussion has been studied from a discourse analysis viewpoint. New investigations, able to compile abundant amount of data in order to provide different contexts of political language, can complement these views. The present paper shows a comparative study of a set of session diaries of the Valencian and the Scottish Parliaments during 2020. Its aim was to identify the basic emotion words used in the debate sessions, to investigate them from a cross-cultural perspective and to establish whether these emotion words are culturally transferable, in terms of meaning, use and polarity. The methodology used, corpus linguistics, permits quantitative and qualitative analyses of the corpus assembled. Results show that there exist significant differences in the use of terms in the two subcorpora, and that even when the same words are used in the two contexts, they don’t necessarily infer the same emotions and sentiments—nor the same polarity. The comparison also elucidates the usefulness of existing emotion lexicons for this kind of research.
... individuation; the extent to which an individual is willing to stand out in the crowd) were found to be significant predictors of forwarding behavior. Botha and Reyneke's (2013) study also found that viral message viewers' emotional connection/reaction to the message is key to forwarding behavior. Viewers' emotional reaction building, however, depends on their familiarity with the content of the message. ...
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Purpose This study aims to examine the difference between personalized and non-personalized recommendations in influencing YouTube users’ video choices. In addition, whether men and women have a significant difference in using recommendations was compared and the predictors of recommendation video use frequency were explored. Design/methodology/approach A survey of 524 Saudi Arabia college students was conducted using computer-assisted self-administered interviews to collect their video recommendation sources and how likely they follow the recommendation from different sources. Findings Video links posted on social media used by the digital natives were found as the most effective form of recommendation shows that social approval is important in influencing trials. Recommendations can succeed in both personalized and non-personalized ways. Personalized recommendations as in YouTube recommended videos are almost the same as friends and family’s non-personalized posting of video links on social media in convincing people to watch the videos. Contrary to expectations, Saudi men college students are more likely to use recommendations than women students. Research limitations/implications The use of a non-probability sample is a major limitation and self-reported frequency may result in over- or under-estimation of video use. Practical implications Marketers will realize that they may not need the personalized recommendation from the large site. They can use social media recommendations by the consumers’ friends and family. E-mail is the worst platform for a recommendation. Social implications Recommendation is a credible source and can overcome the avoidance of advertising. Its influence on consumers will be increasing in years to come with the algorithmic recommendation and social media use. Originality/value This is the first study to compare the influence of different online recommendation sources and compare personalized and non-personalized recommendations. As recommendation is growing more and more important with algorithm development online, the study results have high reference values to marketers in Islamic countries and beyond.
... For valence, positive affect was found to increase people's motivation to share with others (Heimbach & Hinz, 2016). The emotion such as "happy," "excited," and "inspired" induced by the e-mails made people more likely to forward the e-mails to their friends and family (Botha & Reyneke, 2013;Phelps et al., 2004). ...
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Sharing what we know with others has an important role in facilitating people's social learning and communication across settings. To advance the understanding of when and how people share, the present study examined the role of inspiration, an emotion that contains strong motivational elements, on people's sharing tendencies in three studies. Study 1 showed a positive association between the inspiring level of a given message and its likelihood of being shared. Study 2 replicated the finding with carefully controlling for the effect of positivity of a given message. Study 3 further provided evidence that inspiration shaped how people share. The results showed that participants shared inspiring messages in a more innovative way than when they shared less inspiring messages. The present research has implications for how to promote the sharing process in different settings through the role of inspiration.
... Boyd et al. (2010) pointed out that users usually retweet for some purpose, such as hoping to expand the scope of tweet dissemination, expressing their support and recognition of a certain point of view, and expecting to receive more attention, and they found that users will consider whether their fans are the target audience of the tweet content before deciding to retweet, aiming to enhance their own image. Botha and Reyneke (2013) found that users have preferences for forwarded content, and it is easy to forward content that is interesting or has emotional resonance. However, in the context of disaster, research on the role of public forwarding behavior on the chartable crowdfunding platform is relatively lacking. ...
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The COVID-19 outbreak has been a public health crisis of international concern, causing huge impact on people’s lives. As an important part of social public crisis management, how to quickly and effectively raise resources to participate in emergency relief in the era of self-media is a common challenge faced by global charitable organizations. This article attempts to use empirical evidence from Tencent charitable crowdfunding platform, the largest charitable crowdfunding platform in China, to answer this question. We consider 205 COVID-19 charitable projects and 11,177,249 donors to assess the process by which non-profit organizations raise funds through the information about project descriptions. Based on the effects of information and emotional framing, we explore the effects of the readability (i.e., complexity and understandability) and negative tone of the project description on fundraising amount. We then investigate the mediating role of forwarding times, as affective response to the text might explain forwarding times, which in turn affects money raised by increasing the visibility of the campaign. On this basis, the moderating role of recipient’s crisis involvement is tested during this process. The empirical results indicate that the complexity of the description will reduce the fundraising amount, while understandability and negative tone help to improve it. Furthermore, we found that forwarding times played an important mediating role in this process. Then the buffer effect of crisis involvement on the negative effect of complexity was validated, and its amplification on the positive effects of understandability was also verified.
... Next, although the current study identified the main determinants of OVA sharing behaviour, there is still room for future studies to explore other factors that may influence this phenomenon. For example, the impact of emotions on consumers in viral marketing (Botha & Reyneke, 2013) or the moderating role of emotions may provide better explanatory power in future models. Other external factors should also be considered; for example, cause-related motivations for promoting trusted brands or other traits highly displayed by Millennials can be tested as antecedents to OVA sharing behaviour. ...
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This study aimed to uncover the internal and external factors driving Millennial consumers to engage in Online Video Advertisements (OVAs) sharing. Underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the internal factors tested in this study were attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control. The external factors predicted to influence consumers’ intention and actual sharing behaviour of OVAs were company reputation, brand awareness, and celebrity endorsement were underpinned by Stimulus Organism Response Model (S-O-R). The study included perceived intrusiveness as a moderator between the aforementioned antecedents and the sharing behaviour of OVAs. A total of 220 Millennial respondents was collected in Selangor, Malaysia. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis showed that attitude and subjective norms significantly predict consumers’ intention to share OVAs. In terms of external antecedents, only celebrity endorsements were found to positively influence the sharing intention of OVAs. The study also revealed that perceived intrusiveness negatively moderates the effects of attitude and social norms on the intention to share OVAs.
... They respond to the expectations of personalization of the browsing and consumption experience, of an interaction that reflects modern consumer needs and attitudes (Light, 2014). Secondly, they are a vehicle for emotions, a fundamental component for attracting and maintaining people's attention and interest (Wylie, 2014), and could be engaging: engagement is critical as it stimulates content sharing in the mainstream (Botha and Reyneke, 2013). But above all, web contents can -and mustcommunicate a sense of ethics and honesty (Syzdek, 2014), as signals of corporate reliability and legitimacy in public opinion (Colleoni, 2013), incorporating sustainability messages. ...
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Purpose For companies that intend to respond to the modern conscious consumers' needs, a great competitive advantage is played on the ability to incorporate sustainability messages in marketing communications. The aim of this paper is to address this important priority in the web context, building a semantic algorithm that allows content managers to evaluate the quality of sustainability web contents for search engines, considering the current semantic web development. Design/methodology/approach Following the Design Science (DS) methodological approach, the study develops the algorithm as an artefact capable of solving a practical problem and improving the operation of content managerial process. Findings The algorithm considers multiple factors of evaluation, grouped in three parameters: completeness, clarity and consistency. An applicability test of the algorithm was conducted on a sample of web pages of the Google blog on sustainability to highlight the correspondence between the established evaluation factors and those actually used by Google. Practical implications Studying content marketing for sustainability communication constitutes a new field of research that offers exciting opportunities. Writing sustainability contents in an effective way is a fundamental step to trigger stakeholder engagement mechanisms online. It could be a positive social engineering technique in the hands of marketers to make web users able to pursue sustainable development in their choices. Originality/value This is the first study that creates a theoretical connection between digital content marketing and sustainability communication focussing, especially, on the aspects of search engine optimization (SEO). The algorithm of “Sustainability-contents SEO” is the first operational software tool, with a regulatory nature, that is able to analyse the web contents, detecting the terms of the sustainability language and measuring the compliance to SEO requirements.
... Un papel importante en la difusión de los contenidos son las emociones (Botha y Reyneke, 2013). En los vídeos del Tercer Sector las emociones dominantes son las positivas (Arroyo Almaraz, Baños González y Van-Wyck, 2013) y, en general, en los más exitosos prevalece la sorpresa y la alegría (Dafonte Gómez, 2014), aunque se comparten más cuando provocan arousal o agitación (Nelson-Field, Riebe y Newstead, 2013). ...
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El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar descriptivamente los fenómenos comunicativos de la iniciativa Unidos por un Cambio Global/United for Global Change como ejemplo paradigmático de ciberactivismo para la participación ciudadana internacional estrechamente relacionado con los distintos ejes del videoactivismo.
... It has been found that emotions play an influential role in motivating customers to spread positive WOM (Berger and Milkman, 2013;Kang et al., 2020). Customers are more likely to talk about content that can establish an emotional connection with them (Botha and Reyneke, 2013). Söderlund and Rosengren (2007) suggest that both positive (e.g. ...
Underpinned by feelings-as-information theory and construal level theory, this present research examines the effect of mixed emotions in advertising on word of mouth (WOM) and the moderating role of a narrative person. Two experiments were conducted featuring two different products (cake mix in Study 1; watch in Study 2) and different narratives to elicit mixed emotions. The objective of Study 1 was to confirm the moderating effect of the narrative person on the relationship between mixed emotion and positive WOM. Study 2 aimed to provide stronger empirical evidence for the findings of Study 1 and test the mediating effects of inspiration (when it uses a third-person narration) and discomfort (when it uses the first-person narration). In general, the results show that a mixed emotional appeal is more effective than pure happiness in increasing positive WOM when the third-person narration is used. The relationship between mixed emotions and WOM is mediated by inspiration (when using a third-person narration) and discomfort (when using the first-person narration). This extends previous research which provides inconclusive evidence on the consequences of mixed emotional appeal. The current study also broadens the application of linguistics in emotion and consumer behavior literature while providing important implications for marketers in their advertising strategy.
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Preprint
Social media has become a relevant content dissemination channel in recent years. Each user has the capacity to potentially reach others, and in this way, social media challenges the traditional distribution of content through mass media. The advertising industry has had to adapt to this new ecosystem and develop audiovisual pieces specifically tailored to this environment as part of their communication strategies. These pieces aim at achieving not only views but to engage viewers in sharing content with their contacts. Recent research indicates that there are certain aspects of human behaviour related to emotions and motivations that have an impact on the decision to share information, news and content with others. However, there are few studies analysing how the features of the content shared influence that decision. This article presents the content analysis results of the 100 most widely shared advertising viral videos around the world from 2011 to 2015 according to Adweek. The analysis was conducted from an emotional perspective in order to establish the common features of the most shared videos and to identify the frequency in which emotional narrative resources are used.
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Book
This book presents new and innovative current discoveries in social networking which contribute enough knowledge to the research community. The book includes chapters presenting research advances in social network analysis and issues emerged with diverse social media data. The book also presents applications of the theoretical algorithms and network models to analyze real-world large-scale social networks and the data emanating from them as well as characterize the topology and behavior of these networks. Furthermore, the book covers extremely debated topics, surveys, future trends, issues, and challenges.
Chapter
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Viral communication has experienced noticeable changes since its first definition by Rushkoff in 1994. Some changes have been of such a nature that they have rendered the notions employed at the end of the last century and at the start of the 21st century obsolete. This present article tries to update and synthesize the concept of virality as the backbone of the current forms of communication and, especially, those that are born and triggered in social networks. For this we will use a classic bibliographic review methodology, which will try to investigate the background, the elements and the foundations of the concept. As a result of this revision, we will extract a new concept of viral communication, as a form of integration between the media and their messages or, also, as a form of global hybridization. In this context, the article will try to establish the theoretical foundations of virality as a paradigm of digital and connected communication. Personal communication, originally developed from leader theory and personal influence starting with contacts in close proximity (word-of-mouth), is redefined by the Internet and by the application of marketing (which has developed it under the name of permission or relational). With its rapid expansion in the early 1990s, the phenomenon of personal influence took on a new dimension. This happened mainly because the Internet is essentially a decentralized structure, where the nodes and points of influence are crucial for the flow of information. So we must think of network-based communication as a collaborative process. These forms of communication stand out for requiring personal information and allowing segmentation of the public and personalization of communication related actions.
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Brand content strategies have spread far and wide since the advent of digital media. Although they have only recently started to attract scholarly attention, studies have already examined them from various perspectives, including the consumer, the brand, the organization, and, more recently, a holistic perspective. Digital brand content (DBC) appears to be a multifaceted tactic that is simultaneously both customer- and product-centric. The purpose of our research is to get a detailed understanding of the hybrid nature of DBC by using the transactional and relational perspectives. Based on 20 interviews with experts, our study shows that a DBC strategy has both transactional and relational marketing managerial dimensions. In particular, our research revitalizes the question of whether the transactional marketing and the relational marketing perspectives continue to coexist inside organizations in the digital era.
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Despite a long period of neglect, research on emotion in organizational behavior has developed into a major field over the past 15 years, and is now seen to be part of an affective revolution in the organization sciences. In this article, we review current research on emotion in the organizational behavior field based on five levels of analysis: within person, between persons, dyadic interactions, leadership and teams, and organization-wide. Specific topics we cover include affective events theory, state and trait affect and mood, emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional contagion, emotions and leadership, and building a healthy emotional climate. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
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More than 800,000 tweets on topics related to the Egyptian revolution were studied. The study was aimed to find how sentiment evolved in response to unfolding events, how the most influential tweeters and popular tweets shed light on the most influential Twitter users and what types of tweets reverberated most strongly, and how user sentiment and follower relationships relate in terms of dynamic social network characteristics and sentiment. Tweets for each day Egypt-related topics were collected and the sentiment was assessed of daily tweets. The sentiment value for most topics decreased, possibly due to decreased interest outside Egypt or the realization that Mubarak would not willingly step aside as president. Almost two-thirds of the most popular tweets on Egypt-related topics were news, communicating important updates on unfolding events, while inspirational and humor tweets each represented 15% 20% of the popular tweets.
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This study examined whether the psychological climate for service friendliness correlated positively with employee displayed positive emotions, and whether such positive emotional displays influenced customer purchase decision and customer reactions concerning an organization. Data were collected from 290 sales clerks in 156 retail shoe stores in Taiwan, and from 284 customers who were served by one of the sales clerks. Results indicated a positive relationship between psychological climate for service friendliness and employees’ displayed positive emotions. The study also indicated that employees’ positive emotional displays would increase customer willingness to return to the store and pass positive comments to friends.
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Rimé makes the important observation that the literature on adult emotion and emotion regulation has largely focused on the individual level of analysis. He argues, we believe correctly, that emotion research would benefit by addressing the fact that emotional events provoke not only individual responses, but systematic social responses as well. We present examples of our own research that are in accord with Rimé's central claims, and that demonstrate the benefits of considering the goals that are provoked and satisfied by emotions, as well as the social context of emotional responding. We conclude by advocating a dynamic systems approach that would allow an integration of individual and social levels of analysis in the study of adult emotion and emotion regulation.
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Group emotional contagion, the transfer of moods among people in a group, and its influence on work group dynamics was examined in a laboratory study of managerial decision making using multiple, convergent measures of mood, individual attitudes, behavior, and group-level dynamics. Using a 2 times 2 experimental design, with a trained confederate enacting mood conditions, the predicted effect of emotional contagion was found among group members, using both outside coders' ratings of participants' mood and participants' self-reported mood. No hypothesized differences in contagion effects due to the degree of pleasantness of the mood expressed and the energy level with which it was conveyed were found. There was a significant influence of emotional contagion on individual-level attitudes and group processes. As predicted, the positive emotional contagion group members experienced improved cooperation, decreased conflict, and increased perceived task performance. Theoretical implications and practical ramifications of emotional contagion in groups and organizations are discussed.
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This study focuses on the antecedents and consequences of displayed emotion in organizations. I propose that customers "catch" the affect of employees through emotional contagion processes. Results indicate that the display of positive emotion by employees is positively related to customers' positive affect following service encounters and to their evaluations of service quality. In a replication and extension of prior research, transaction busyness and employee emotional expressiveness are shown to predict displays of emotion by employees.
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Executive Overview Interest in and research about affect in organizations have expanded dramatically in recent years. This article reviews what we know about affect in organizations, focusing on how employees' moods, emotions, and dispositional affect influence critical organizational outcomes such as job performance, decision making, creativity, turnover, prosocial behavior, teamwork, negotiation, and leadership. This review highlights pervasive and consistent effects, showing the importance of affect in shaping a wide variety of organizational behaviors, the knowledge of which is critical for researchers, managers, and employees. CEO wanted to cut our budget by 6%! Jerry's voice had an edge to it, and I could tell that my explanations about the budget were not going to solve this one. Would he ex-plode? Would he blame me? Worse, would he threaten to quit? I could feel the good mood I had started with this morning rapidly disappearing. The insistent brittleness in his voice made me feel defensive and I was starting to get angry myself. I needed to decide what to do next, but I was having trouble remembering the rationale for the raise. I felt like yelling at him. That, I told myself, cannot happen. I need to keep it under control. . .I'm the boss here, remember? He's watching how I act. I need to figure out how I want to deal with his anger—and mine. . .
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Aberrant consumer behaviour costs firms millions of pounds a year, and the Internet has provided young techno-literate consumers with a new medium to exploit businesses. This paper addresses Internet related ethics and describes the ways in which young consumers misdemean on the Internet and their attitudes towards these. Using a sample of 219 generation Y consumers, the study identified 24 aberrant behaviours which grouped into five factors; illegal, questionable activities, hacking related, human Internet trade and downloading. Those perceived as least wrong were; "Downloading movie and music files from the Internet for free". The consequences of these behaviours have implications for educators, consumer policy and marketers.
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In this article, we identify that successful viral marketing campaigns trigger an emotional response in recipients. Working under this premise, we examine the effects of viral messages containing the six primary emotions (surprise, joy, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) on recipients' emotional responses to viral marketing campaigns and subsequent forwarding behavior. According to our findings, in order to be effective, viral messages need to contain the element of surprise. By itself, however, surprise is not enough to guarantee message success; therefore, it must be combined with other emotions. The effectiveness of the viral message is also moderated by gender, with disgust-based and fear-based campaigns being more likely to be forwarded by male recipients than female recipients. To ensure forwarding behavior, the message must capture the imagination of the recipient, as well as be clearly targeted. Moreover, achieving fit between a campaign and the featured emotions is important, as this ensures an increased chance of forwarding. In addition to relaying these and other findings, we share and discuss the managerial implications of using different emotions in viral marketing campaigns. Finally, culture is recognized as an influencer.
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Multiparty deliberative processes have become a popular way to increase public participation in public policy choices. Their legitimacy depends on participants' ability, first, to understand the issues facing them and, then, to form and express their own positions on them. These tasks pose significant cognitive and emotional challenges. This paper argues that decision analysis, informed by behavioral decision research, offers procedures and standards for creating responsible deliberative processes. These involve (a) formal analysis of decisions, identifying the kernel of most relevant information, (b) communication procedures, recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of lay understanding, and (c) interactive elicitation methods, helping individuals to articulate the implications of their values for specific settings. A construct validity criterion assesses the extent to which the resulting valuations are properly sensitive to decision features. Feasible extensions of traditional decision analysis create opportunities to formalize the aspirations of participants and ensure that the intellectual content of deliberative processes is worthy of the political hopes vested in them.
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Use of the focus group technique is widespread in qualitative marketing research. The technique is considered here from a philosophy of science perspective which points to a confusion of three distinct approaches to focus groups in current commercial practice. An understanding of the differences among these approaches, and of the complex nature of qualitative research, is shown to have important implications for the use of focus groups.
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Past empirical evidence has indicated that employee affective delivery can influence customer reactions (e.g., customer satisfaction, service quality evaluation). This study extends previous research by empirically examining mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions. Data were collected from 352 employee-customer pairs in 169 retail shoe stores in Taiwan. Results showed that the influence of employee affective delivery on customers' willingness to return to the store and pass positive comments to friends was indirect through the mediating processes of customer in-store positive moods and perceived friendliness. The study also indicated that employee affective delivery influences customers' time spent in store, which, in turn, influences customer behavioral intentions.
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Although viral marketing has garnered a great deal of attention in the trade press, almost nothing is known about the motivations, attitudes, and behaviors of the people (those sending the email to others) that constitute the essential component of any such strategy. This article reports the results of three studies that examine consumer responses and motivations to pass along email. Implications for target selection and message creation are discussed for advertising practitioners interested in implementing viral efforts, and suggestions for future research relating to computer-mediated consumer-to-consumer interactions are presented for academic researchers.These studies were sponsored by Planetfeedback.com (www.planetfeedback.com), an internet-based infomediary company based in Cincinnati.An earlier version of this work will appear as a chapter in the forthcoming book, Online Consumer Psychology, C. Haugvedt, K. Macleit, and R. Yalch (eds.).
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Use of the focus group technique is widespread in qualitative marketing research. The technique is considered here from a philosophy of science perspective which points to a confusion of three distinct approaches to focus groups in current commercial practice. An understanding of the differences among these approaches, and of the complex nature of qualitative research, is shown to have important implications for the use of focus groups.
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A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The purpose of this paper is to employ an extended notion of gift giving by showing that much of the gifts exchanged in social media are driven by social emotions. We argue that consumers have migrated from the production of services to the production of experiences and that, in social media, the primary experience of value is emotion. Web 2.0 is markedly different compared with its predecessor Web 1.0, in that it empowered social media, the fastest growing phenomenon on the Internet to occur; yet people are struggling to make money from it. Much value is created and exchanged, but most of it escapes monetization. Whereas, consumption on Web 1.0 was mostly goal-oriented, rational, and functional, consumption on Web 2.0 is exploratory, idiosyncratic, and social. Traditional economic paradigms of market exchange have struggled to explain consumer behavior in this new dispensation: most exchange is ‘free’. So the question is, what is the currency and motivation driving social relations in Web 2.0? We argue that it is gifts and social emotions. We develop a circumplex of social emotions and show how different organizations utilize these emotions to archive their objectives. Implications for managers and researchers are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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“Viral videos”—online video clips that gain widespread popularity when they are passed from person to person via e-mail, instant messages, and media-sharing Web sites—can exert a strong influence on election campaigns. Unfortunately, there has been almost no systematic empirical research on the factors that lead viral videos to spread across the Internet and permeate into the dominant political discourse. This article provides an initial assessment of the complex relationships that drive viral political videos by examining the interplay between audience size, blog discussion, campaign statements, and mainstream media coverage of the most popular online political video of the 2008 campaign—will.i.am's “Yes We Can” music video. Using vector autoregression, I find strong evidence that the relationship between these variables is complex and multidirectional. More specifically, I argue that bloggers and members of the Obama campaign played crucial roles in convincing people to watch the video and in attracting media coverage, while journalists had little influence on the levels of online viewership, blog discussion, or campaign support. Bloggers and campaign members, in other words, seem to occupy a unique and influential position in determining whether an online political video goes viral.
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While affect and emotion have been theoretically linked to leadership for decades, only recently has this relationship come under empirical scrutiny. The current research examines the effects of emotional contagion on follower affect at work and examines the outcomes of follower affect at work in a field setting. Leader positive and negative affect at work related to follower positive affect at work via emotional contagion. Follower positive and negative affect at work related to perceptions of charismatic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Follower perceptions of charismatic leadership related to organizational citizenship behavior.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Emotions are mental states of readiness that arise from appraisals of events or one’s own thoughts. In this article, the authors discuss the differentiation of emotions from affect, moods, and attitudes, and outline an appraisal theory of emotions. Next, various measurement issues are considered. This is followed by an analysis of the role of arousal in emotions. Emotions as markers, mediators, and moderators of consumer responses are then analyzed. The authors turn next to the influence of emotions on cognitive processes, which is followed by a study of the implications of emotions for volitions, goal-directed behavior, and decisions to help. Emotions and customer satisfaction are briefly explored, too. The article closes with a number of questions for future research.
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Purpose – The aim of this paper is to go beyond the received view, which is solely rational and economic minded, and to introduce the concept of self-regulation of behavior by salespersons and customers as essential mechanisms for initiating, maintaining, and resolving business-to-business exchanges. Design/methodology/approach – By reviewing emerging research, this paper examines the role of positive and negative social and self-conscious emotions in salesperson-customer interactions and how salespersons and customers cope with the response of these emotions so as to better function and adapt to their own, their organizations, and the interpersonal needs of their relationships and to do so mindful of the requisites of co-workers and the common good. Findings – Four positive emotions were singled-out as essential to salesperson-customer relations: pride, attachment, empathy, and emotional wisdom. Six negative emotions were highlighted as key processes in salesperson-customer relations: guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, jealousy, and social anxiety. Some research was reviewed as well, suggesting that cultural factors in the form of different self-construal (e.g. independent versus independent-based self-images) moderate the expression of felt positive and negative emotions and their effects on performance and relations with customers and co-workers. Originality/value – The ideas presented in this paper can complement economic and other extreme rational explanations of salesperson and customer behavior and point to new practices in such managerial areas as staffing, training, coaching, compensating, and promoting employees.
Although malls have been a topic of interest to marketing researchers for at least 35 years, the attraction between malls and Generation Y consumers has received little interest from marketing academics. This study focuses on the attitudes that the older segment of Generation Y consumers (19-25) have toward a mall, and on their consumption motivation. Key findings include that Generation Y consumers are more likely to be objectively rather than socially motivated to consume. The findings also suggest that objective motivations to consume predict an individual consumer's perception of a shopping mall's ambience, layout, and his or her involvement in the shopping process. Social motivations to consume predict perceptions of a mall's ambience, design, variety, and excitement, as well as the consumer's desire to stay and intent to return to the mall. Managerial implications include using objective information, such as price-oriented promotions, when trying to attract older Generation Y consumers.
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▪ Abstract We analyze and review how research on emotion and emotional phenomena can elaborate and improve contemporary social exchange theory. After identifying six approaches from the psychology and sociology of emotion, we illustrate how these ideas bear on the context, process, and outcome of exchange in networks and groups. The paper reviews the current state of the field, develops testable hypotheses for empirical study, and provides specific suggestions for developing links between theories of emotion and theories of exchange.
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This article reports the results of studies intended to explore further the semantic relations among English terms related to emotional states. The intent was to develop a hierarchical model of semantically homogeneous groups of terms, the features defining each group, and distinguishing characteristics of closely related groups. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, hierarchical clustering was the primary method used to identify a preliminary organization. In the second phase, four highly educated speakers of English, sensitive to fine verbal distinctions, agreed on the classification of a larger set of terms, using the groups identified in the first phase as a starting point. The judges also attempted to specify the features differentiating groups at each level of the hierarchy. Comparisons with other descriptions of the emotional domain and possible uses of the taxonomy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Companies spend millions of dollars researching consumers, consumer attitudes to brands, and consumer uses of products. Yet the irony is that consumers are now doing this research themselves and posting their material to video-sharing sites such as YouTube. In this paper we argue that the BASIC IDS framework (Cohen, 1999) for dimensional qualitative research can be used to deconstruct consumer-generated videos to yield valuable insights into the paradoxes of consumer–service interactions. One category of service that has gained huge media attention of late, and yet is poorly understood, is the phenomenon of online social networks. Using three consumer-generated ads about the social networking site Facebook, we explore the paradoxes of consumer–service interaction, namely consumers' ambivalent attitudes to the service, how the consumer uses and is used by the service, how the service both facilitates behavior and changes behavior, and how the service mediates social interactions yet drives social actors. Finally, we locate the findings in terms of the wider context of Gen Y and the digital revolution, specify limitations, and cite implications and avenues for future research. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The boost to activism to which the internet has largely contributed has been underlined by financial and image issues growing from hacker attacks and the online promotion of activist groups. Emergency corporate counteractions with regard to these cyber threats have not analysed this new phenomenon. The state of the research in this area has consistently remained at the period before the development and widespread use of the internet. Cyberactivism, therefore, is a cyber phenomenon without a clear meaning or a clear definition. In order to understand cyberactivism, it is important to understand that it is much more than simply about hacking and activists' online promotion. It is a new phenomenon, growing out of activism but changing the pressure on corporations. With the internet, new dynamics of issue selection have been established and a different aggregation within groups has taken place. A new organisational set-up among activist groups puts new pressure on corporations, which must develop new strategies concerning online rules. Cyber actions are originated by individuals triggering a spontaneous relationship between many users. The pressure is no longer the result of a long aggregation into association, but of an immediate and spontaneous network of relationships. Copyright
Article
A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Primitive emotional contagion has been proposed to explain why "service with a smile" predicts encounter satisfaction. We provide a comprehensive test of this mechanism by examining mimicry and mood as mediators in service encounters, contrasting such mediation with a direct path through perceived service quality. Independent coders recorded the strength of employees' and customers' smiles at three points in time during real service encounters, and 173 customers completed postencounter surveys. Mimicry effects were supported; however, only service quality appraisals, and not customers' affect, fully mediated the relationship of employee smiling and encounter satisfaction.
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This paper investigates the dynamic impact of multiple sequential emotional displays by employees on customers’ negative emotions. Using video-based stimuli to manipulate emotional displays by employees, this study shows the sequential occurrences of negative and positive emotional contagions in service failure and recovery encounters. The results suggest that higher levels of employees’ negative emotional displays lead to a greater increase in customers’ negative emotions through the process of negative emotional contagion during service failure. More importantly, we find that positive emotional displays by employees can decrease customers’ negative emotions through the process of positive emotional contagion during service recovery, i.e., higher levels of employee positive emotional displays lead to a greater decrease in customers’ negative emotions. In addition, no matter whether customers experience higher or lower levels of employee positive emotional displays during service recovery, their final negative emotions cannot fully return to their emotional levels prior to service failure. However, for customers experiencing higher levels of employee positive emotional displays, their final negative emotions can be greatly mitigated and are closer to their initial emotional levels, as compared to customers experiencing lower levels of employee positive emotional displays. The results further indicate that susceptibility to emotional contagion increases the effect of employees’ negative (positive) emotional displays on customers’ negative emotions during service failure (recovery). The findings of this study suggest that service firms should provide effective training to their frontline service employees so that they can display proper positive emotions during service encounters. KeywordsMultiple emotional contagions–Emotional displays–Negative emotions–Service encounters–Service failure and recovery
Article
Generation Y (individuals ages 14–31 in 2008) are in the marketplace with the numbers and the purchasing power to have an unprecedented impact on the economy. Despite the potential of this group as a whole, especially the middle-aged members of this generation (ages 18–22) who are in the highly coveted college-student market, much is unknown about the motivations behind these individuals' consumption behavior and preferences. This study attempts to address this gap in the literature by exploring the antecedents of the consumption behavior of college-aged Generation Y individuals. The findings indicate that issues relating to socialization, uncertainty reduction, reactance, self-discrepancy, and feelings of accomplishment and connectedness drive Y consumers' product purchases and retail patronage. This article discusses these issues as well as their theoretical and managerial implications.
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This paper discusses emotions as mediators in business-to-business relationships which is an understudied topic. Yet within consumer marketing, emotions have been widely studied, and calls have been made for business relationship research to take account of managers' emotions. This study addresses the gap by firstly establishing the relevance of emotions in problematic business relationships and secondly showing how emotions are a major component in determining the outcomes of the problematic relationships. Interview data in the form of narratives describing problematic relationships is analyzed and identifies both the emotions experienced by participants and their role in the future course of the business relationship.
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In the latest decades, emotions have become an important research topic in all behavioral sciences, and not the least in advertising. Yet, advertising literature on how to measure emotions is not straightforward. The major aim of this article is to give an update on the different methods used for measuring emotions in advertising and to discuss their validity and applicability. We further draw conclusions on the relation between emotions and traditional measures of advertising effectiveness. We finally formulate recommendations on the use of the different methods and make suggestions for future research.
Article
Human populations are arranged in social networks that determine interactions and influence the spread of diseases, behaviours and ideas. We evaluate the spread of long-term emotional states across a social network. We introduce a novel form of the classical susceptible-infected-susceptible disease model which includes the possibility for 'spontaneous' (or 'automatic') infection, in addition to disease transmission (the SISa model). Using this framework and data from the Framingham Heart Study, we provide formal evidence that positive and negative emotional states behave like infectious diseases spreading across social networks over long periods of time. The probability of becoming content is increased by 0.02 per year for each content contact, and the probability of becoming discontent is increased by 0.04 per year per discontent contact. Our mathematical formalism allows us to derive various quantities from the data, such as the average lifetime of a contentment 'infection' (10 years) or discontentment 'infection' (5 years). Our results give insight into the transmissive nature of positive and negative emotional states. Determining to what extent particular emotions or behaviours are infectious is a promising direction for further research with important implications for social science, epidemiology and health policy. Our model provides a theoretical framework for studying the interpersonal spread of any state that may also arise spontaneously, such as emotions, behaviours, health states, ideas or diseases with reservoirs.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
Reanalyses of a number of studies of self-reported mood indicate that Positive and Negative Affect consistently emerge as the first two Varimax rotated dimensions in orthogonal factor analyses or as the first two second-order factors derived from oblique solutions. The two factors emerged with varying sets of descriptors and were even replicated in several data sets characterized by possible methodological problems noted by earlier writers (acquiescence response bias, inappropriate response formats, and so on). The results thus strongly attest to the stability and robustness of Positive and Negative Affect in self-report. Because this same two-dimensional configuration has also been consistently identified in all of the other major lines of mood research, it is now firmly established as the basic structure of English-language affect at the general factor level.
Article
In this paper, I question the assumption that emotions are first and foremost individual reactions, and suggest instead that they are often best viewed as social phenomena. I show that many of the causes of emotions are interpersonally, institutionally or culturally defined; that emotions usually have consequences for other people; and that they serve interpersonal as well as cultural functions in everyday life. Furthermore, many cases of emotion are essentially communicative rather than internal and reactive phenomena. Previous research has often underestimated the importance of social factors in the causation and constitution of emotion. In conclusion, I recommend that existing cognitive and physiological approaches to emotional phenomena be supplemented or supplanted by social psychological analysis.
Article
The amygdala and hippocampal complex, two medial temporal lobe structures, are linked to two independent memory systems, each with unique characteristic functions. In emotional situations, these two systems interact in subtle but important ways. Specifically, the amygdala can modulate both the encoding and the storage of hippocampal-dependent memories. The hippocampal complex, by forming episodic representations of the emotional significance and interpretation of events, can influence the amygdala response when emotional stimuli are encountered. Although these are independent memory systems, they act in concert when emotion meets memory.
Article
Much of the marketing and management literature is concerned with the relationship between service providers' positive affective displays, the consumers' perception of authentic service delivery and their reported satisfaction [Grandey AA. When “The Show Must Go On”: surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Acad Manage J 2003;46(1):86–96; Tsai WC, Huang YM. Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioural intentions. J Appl Psychol 2002;87(5):1001–8. Pugh SD. Service with a smile: emotional contagion in the service encounter. Acad Manage J 2001;44(5):1018–1927; Price L, Arnould E, Tierney P. Going to extremes: managing service encounters and assessing provider performance. In: Bateson J, Hoffman, Douglas K. (Eds.), Managing Services Marketing, 1999, Orlando, FL: Dryden Press (pp. 249–266)]. This paper responds to the need for further research in the relationship between service providers' positive affective displays and consumers' perception of authentic service delivery; and the relationship between these and reported satisfaction [Price L, Arnould E, Tierney P. Going to extremes: managing service encounters and assessing provider performance. In: Bateson J, Hoffman, Douglas K. (Eds.), Managing Services Marketing, 1999, Orlando, FL: Dryden Press (pp. 249–266); Pugh SD. Service with a smile: emotional contagion in the service encounter. Acad Manage J 2001;44(5):1018–1927; Grandey AA. When “The Show Must Go On”: surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Acad Manage J 2003;46(1):86–96]. Research conducted with a national airline in 2003 is analysed to measure the influence of service providers' positive expressive displays on life satisfaction, overall consumption satisfaction and intention to repurchase. The findings indicate a strong positive relationship between, and within affective displays, overall service satisfaction and life satisfaction. A path model tests the direct, indirect and total effects of expressive display on overall service satisfaction, life satisfaction and likelihood of repurchase. Finally, we discuss implications for industry and academic research.
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