Article

Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.27). 06/2014; 71(8). DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101833
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:
While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment.

Methods:
Data for 1997-2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs.

Results:
Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8).

Conclusions:
Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring.

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    • "A study showed that pregnant women exposed to chemicals and solvents at work had children with pulmonary wheezing two years after birth (Bajeux et al., 2014). Moreover, exposure of pregnant women to aromatics and preservatives in food industry led to giving birth to infants too small for gestational age (Langlois et al., 2014). A study on Norwegian women investigated sick leave in terms of age and type of work. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    • "A study showed that pregnant women exposed to chemicals and solvents at work had children with pulmonary wheezing two years after birth (Bajeux et al., 2014). Moreover, exposure of pregnant women to aromatics and preservatives in food industry led to giving birth to infants too small for gestational age (Langlois et al., 2014). A study on Norwegian women investigated sick leave in terms of age and type of work. "
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    ABSTRACT: & OBJECTIVES: Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran.MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA).RESULTS: Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to employed women, but not significantly. Type of delivery was significantly related to employment, and employed mothers had more cesarean deliveries (P=0.0001).CONCLUSION: The results suggest more frequent lifting of heavy objects by housewives than by employed mothers, leading to increased complications such as reduced amniotic fluid, placental abruption, and low birth weight. Perhaps due to higher education levels, frequency of cesarean section and preterm labor was higher among employed mothers. However, employment alone does not predict pregnancy outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Global journal of health science
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    • "In spite of this increase, there has been little work to characterize the type and frequency of potential occupational exposures related to physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors pregnant women encounter. Understanding these exposures is important, because several occupational exposures have been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes in previous studies [Loomans et al., 2013; Palmer et al., 2013; Runge et al., 2013; Langlois et al., 2014]. Furthermore, compared to occupational hazards such as solvents, pesticides, and radiation, other exposures including physical activity (e.g., standing), sedentary behaviors (e.g., sitting), and emotional stressors (e.g., dealing with unpleasant or angry people) that women may be more likely to encounter at work during pregnancy have been less-commonly studied, but have the potential to impact birth outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Methods: Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. Results: The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Conclusions: Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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