Control biológico por aumento en moscas de la fruta (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Folia entomologica Mexicana 01/2004; 43.
Source: DOAJ


La creciente preocupación de la comunidad internacional por la contaminación ambiental, la pérdida de la biodiversidad y el deterioro paulatino de los ecosistemas, promueve la búsqueda de alternativas en el manejo de plagas que estén soportadas en principios bioracionales con mínimos efectos colaterales. Las moscas de la fruta se consideran entre las plagas de mayor importancia comercial y cuarentenaria a nivel internacional, por lo que para su control se establecen programas fitosanitarios a gran escala. Esta situación ubica al control biológico por aumento como una estrategia que puede complementar algunos requerimientos en materia de protección al medio ambiente que actualmente demanda el combate de estas plagas. En este trabajo se presenta una síntesis literaria sobre las características del control biológico aumentativo y de los antecedentes que se tienen de este tipo de control contra moscas de la fruta, de donde se desprende que dos de las especies de parasitoides con mayor potencial para establecer programas de esta naturaleza son Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) y Fopius arisanus (Sonan). La historia natural de estas dos especies, sus características como enemigos naturales de moscas de la fruta, así como las implicaciones de costos que tienen su cría masiva dependiendo de los niveles de producción que se requieran, son analizadas. Varios autores concluyen que el control biológico por aumento en moscas de la fruta puede ser integrado con otros métodos de combate, lo que refuerza la propuesta de que bajo determinadas condiciones ecológicas y sociales, este tipo de control puede ser una herramienta convenientemente elegible.

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Available from: Jorge Cancino
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    • "Therefore , in this case, the objective would be a reduction of fly movement from wild sites to nearby orchards. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) (Ashmead) is a known parasitoid of A. ludens (Ovruski et al. 2000) and is recognized as an attractive form of augmentative biological control (Montoya and Cancino 2004). Finally, the citrus region characterization of Santa Engracia at risk levels with a geostatistical approach integrated into a GIS offered a useful tool to analyze A. ludens populations at a regional scale. "
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    • "Furthermore, the use of biological control offers alternatives to avoid side effects by use of chemical agents. Biological control of tephritid pest has been primarily through mass releases of parasitoids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and D. tryoni (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)[8,9]. So far, the documentation of the activity of entomopathogenic fungi against A. ludens in Mexico, little being reduced to the evaluation of Metharizium anisopliae strains (Metschnikoff) Sorokin[10,11], however, there are no reports documenting the implementation of methods to assess the pathogenicity of isolates of other genera and/or species of entomopathogenic fungi against the different stages of A. ludens in the laboratory, therefore the objective of this study was to determine the toxic activity of native strains of I. fumosorosea in two stages of A. ludens. "
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    • "The parasitoids were able to find and parasitize an important percentage of those larvae that were not removed through mechanical control or fruit sampling, and with a high probability of reaching the adult stage. This is particularly relevant in situations were chemical control is an ineffective or an inadequate option controlling fruit fly populations , such as canyons, marginal and urban areas with non commercial hosts, zones with organic fruit culture, during the rainy season, etc. (Montoya & Cancino 2004). In all these cases augmentative biological control is a promising tactic for suppressing fruit fly populations, as suggested by Knipling (1992). "
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