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Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad para el Bienestar Humano. Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio de España. Síntesis de resultados

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Abstract

La biodiversidad es esencial para la supervivencia del ser humano en la Tierra. Del buen funcionamiento de los ecosistemas acuáticos y terrestres españoles y de la biodiversidad que albergan, depende en buena medida el futuro social, cultural y económico de la población, ya que constituyen el capital natural de nuestro país. El bienestar humano en España estriba, de esta forma, en la capacidad de los ecosistemas para generar servicios esenciales: agua limpia, alimentos, regulación climática, polinización, actividades recreativas, etc. Por tanto, la conservación de los ecosistemas, además de ser una res ponsabilidad ética, se presenta como una necesidad crucial, y no como un lujo, para el bienestar de la sociedad española. Desde el Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino trabajamos para preservar el buen estado de los ecosistemas, restaurar su funcionalidad y garantizar el mantenimiento de los importantes servicios que prestan a la sociedad. Por ello, somos conscientes de la importancia de conta r con información científica fiable sobre el valor de la biodiversidad y de fomentar su difusión y consideración en la toma de decisiones. Esta necesidad de reforzar la relación entre el conocimiento científico y la toma de decisiones ha sido reconocida también a nivel internacional. En junio de 2010 se alcanzó un acuerdo sobre el establecimiento de un órgano intergubernamental (conocido por sus siglas, IPBES) para la integración de la información sobre biodiversidad y servicios de los ecosistemas, de forma que sea accesible para la toma de decisiones técnicas y políticas. La importancia conocer y valorar adecuadamente la biodiversidad y los servicios de los ecosistemas también se ha destacado en el Plan Estratégico 2011-2020 del Convenio de Naciones Unidas sobre Diversidad Biológica y en la Estrategia de la Unión Europea sobre biodiversidad para 2020. La Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio de España (EME), promovida por la Fundación Biodiversidad del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino desde el año 2009 siguiendo la iniciativa de las Naciones Unidas, tiene la finalidad de generar información robusta, validada científicamente, sobre la relevancia de los servicios de los ecosistemas en España y su importancia para el bienestar de nuestra sociedad. Los resultados de este proyecto aportan una valiosa información sobre el estado y las tendencias de los servicios de los ecosistemas españoles y sobre las consecuencias que tienen la degradación de los ecosistemas y la pérdida de la biodiversidad de España. Este resumen del informe está especialmente dirigido a los gestores, y recoge las conclusiones iniciales alcanzadas por 6o expertos procedentes de distintos campos de las ciencias ecológicas y sociales de más de 20 centros de investigación a los que, desde estas líneas, queremos agradecer su valiosa aportación. Estamos convencidos de que servirá para tender puentes entre el conocimiento científico interdisciplinar y la toma de decisiones, mostrando los estrechos vínculos que existen entre la conservación de los ecosistemas y el bienestar humano de las generaciones actuales y futuras. Esperamos que sirva igualmente para incrementar la conciencia de la sociedad española sobre la importancia que tienen los ecosistemas y la biodiversidad para nuestro desarrollo sostenible, y que contribuya así a fomentar una mayor implicación de todos los sectores y actores sociales en el reto común de proteger nuestra rica diversidad biológica.
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... Spain is a Euro-Mediterranean country rich in biodiversity (Araújo et al., 2007;Médail & Quézel, 1998;Montes et al., 2011) which expands across four biogeographic regions: Alpine, Atlantic, Mediterranean and Macaronesian (EEA, 2015). Its geological, geographic, climatic and relief diversity determine extraordinary biodiversity figures in the European context, with 75% of all European vertebrate species and 50% of all endemic plant species of the continent (Spanish Government, 2008). ...
... Its geological, geographic, climatic and relief diversity determine extraordinary biodiversity figures in the European context, with 75% of all European vertebrate species and 50% of all endemic plant species of the continent (Spanish Government, 2008). Spain has experienced enormous socioeconomic changes in recent decades leading to intense LULC changes and landscape transformation (Jiménez, 2012;Montes et al., 2011;Stellmes et al., 2013). Residential, industrial and infrastructural development along the 1990's and, especially, early 2000s', has expanded the countries' artificial areas hugely, with widespread impact on territorial sustainability and wildlife (García-Ayllón, 2015;Jiménez, 2012;Torres et al., 2016). ...
... coast, are the main pressures leading to biodiversity loss in Spain (Custodio et al., 2016;de Andrés et al., 2017;Montes et al., 2011;Rey Benayas et al., 2007). LULC change has been largely studied in Spain, across its whole territory (Jiménez, 2012;Stellmes et al., 2013), inside and around PAs (Hewitt et al., 2016;Martínez-Fernández et al., 2015;Rodríguez-Rodríguez & Martínez-Vega, 2018a), across biogeographic regions (Martínez-Fernández et al., 2015), and on specific environments such as the coast (Jiménez, 2007(Jiménez, , 2012Jiménez, et al. 2005). ...
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Protected areas (PAs) aim at safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services in the long-term. Despite the remarkable growth in area covered by PAs in recent years, biodiversity trends continue to worsen as a result of serious global pressures such as habitat destruction and degradation. One main cause of habitat destruction and degradation is land development that implies the replacement of natural land uses-land covers with artificial ones. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of four PA networks at preventing land development in Spain, a biodiversity-rich country that has experienced recent rapid environmental transformations, using two models of increased validity: an Original Model and a Bio-physically Enhanced Model (BEM). We applied a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design whereby Absolute Artificial Area Increase (AAI) and Relative Artificial Area Increase (RAI) were compared across PA categories (Nature Reserves ¿NRs-; Nature Parks ¿NPs-; Sites of Community Importance ¿SCIs-; and Special Protection Areas ¿SPAs-), study zones (coastal and inland), and climates (Atlantic and Mediterranean) using CORINE Land Cover data and two control zones: 1km buffers and 5km buffers around protected polygons (PPs). NRs prevented land development, whereas other categories reduced it moderately to very substantially in the assessed period. AAI was especially intense in inland SPAs and NPs. NRs and NPs were the most effective PA categories inland, whereas NRs and SPAs were the most effective ones on the coast. Land development was greater on the Spanish coast than inland inside and outside PAs, especially around Macaronesian and Mediterranean PAs and in Atlantic PAs, which experienced similar or greater land development values than surrounding areas. Our results are intended to guide future conservation efforts in Spain, chiefly on its heavily pressured coastal environment.
... The Mediterranean basin is recognized as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, where high degrees of endemicity coexist with high rates of transformation of natural and semi-natural habitats (Myers, Mittermeier, Mittermeier, da Fonseca, & Kent, 2000;Olson & Dinerstein, 2002 Thus, concern exists that current PA schemes might not suffice to effectively conserve biodiversity in the country in the long term (Rodríguez-Rodríguez & Martínez-Vega, 2018a). Consequently, whereas enhanced protection of existing PAs is suggested (Martínez-Fernández, Ruiz-Benito, & Zavala, 2015;Rodríguez-Rodríguez & Martínez-Vega, 2018a), wider landscape-scale measures are also needed to revert negative biodiversity figures in the country (Montes et al., 2011). As a result, the Spanish Government recently approved a national Strategy on Green Infrastructure, Connectivity and Ecological Restoration (Spanish Government, 2020) in which natural and semi-natural areas outside PAs are likely to play a crucial role. ...
... As a result, Spain is one of the world's countries with the largest proportion of its territory covered under some PA category (World Bank, 2017). Nevertheless, good policy figures do not automatically translate into effective conservation, which still needs substantial improvement to stop and reverse current degradation of biodiversity, especially on spatially restricted species and habitats, such as coastal ones (Montes et al., 2011). ...
... Thus, concerns exist that meeting existing policy targets may not suffice to improve the status of biodiversity (Noss et al., 2012;Wilson, 2016). Actually, despite Spain's high degree of policy compliance, the status of Spanish biodiversity and ecosystem services keeps deteriorating (Montes et al., 2011;Rodríguez-Rodríguez & Martínez-Vega, 2018a). The same occurs elsewhere to a larger or lesser extent (IPBES, 2019), which raises concerns on the ambition and effectiveness of political targets (Noss et al., 2012). ...
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Other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) are new conservation tools intended to complement protected areas (PAs) at achieving effective biodiversity conservation and meeting international area-based targets. However, OECMs have been rarely considered in practical terms until recently. Here, we performed a rapid evaluation on the degree of fulfilment of current area-based international biodiversity targets, post-2020 foreseeable oncoming targets, and ecological targets by considering: 1) Protection coverage; 2) Inclusiveness of important areas for biodiversity; 3) Protection management; 4) Connectivity; and 5) Habitat representation, on land and at sea in Spain, a Euro-Mediterranean, biodiversity rich country. We conducted the evaluation under two scenarios: 1) Scenario 1 considers designated PAs; and 2) Scenario 2, that also includes potential OECMs. In order to generate Scenario 2, thirteen legal categories were assessed against international guidance on OECMs as a first step to screen their likelihood of providing OECMs in Spain. Our findings show that some potentially satisfactory OECM categories such as Public Utility Forests, River Reserves or Geoparks meet the OECM criteria to a large degree and deserve further study. Our results also highlight that Spain is currently well above most foreseeable post-2020 biodiversity targets and even close to some ecological targets using just PAs, except for marine protected area (MPA) management and MPA offshore coverage. Adding OECMs would noticeably improve the country’s figures yet without reaching many exigent ecological targets. OECMs can become a useful, cost-effective biodiversity conservation tool that contributes to international targets under new, more ambitious area-based conservation requirements in Spain and elsewhere. Nevertheless, for this to happen, suitable biodiversity management and monitoring schemes must be ensured.
... Different studies have evaluated the current status of the ES provided mainly by perennial rivers at regional (e.g., [148]), national (e.g., [149][150][151][152]) and international (e.g., [153][154][155][156][157]) scales. However, specific works that focus on ES in non-perennial rivers are missing, except for two recent studies that have analyzed the ES provided by IRES throughout their different hydrological phases (i.e., flow, non-flowing and loss of surface water) [64,158]. ...
... Different studies have evaluated the current status of the ES provided mainly by perennial rivers at regional (e.g., [148]), national (e.g., [149][150][151][152]) and international (e.g., [153][154][155][156][157]) scales. However, specific works that focus on ES in non-perennial rivers are missing, except for two recent studies that have analyzed the ES provided by IRES throughout their different hydrological phases (i.e., flow, non-flowing and loss of surface water) [64,158]. ...
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... En el informe se hacen algunas sugerencias, pero habría que implementarlas la recogida desagregada de datos nacionales (mujeres/hombres; rural/urbano). Fig. 6 Wangari Maathai (1940-2011, bióloga, ecologista y premio nobel de la Paz. © Antônio Cruz/ABr -Agência Brasil Fig. 7 2012 h. ...
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Desde nuestra experiencia en Ecología Humana y Bio Antropología, hemos investigado las consecuencias del cambio ambiental sobre la brecha de género y la salud sexual y reproductiva en las diferentes etapas del ciclo vital, analizando poblaciones que ocupan muy diferentes tipos de socio-ecosistemas. En 2015, coincidiendo con el lanzamiento desde UN del Programa 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible, iniciamos una nueva investigación “Mujeres, Diversidad Biocultural y Sostenibilidad (2016-2020)”, con tres objetivos principales: Identificar las dimensiones e indicadores de género, salud y de otros determinantes de la sostenibilidad; trabajar desde la Universidad, con asociaciones científicas y ONGD; proporcionar una herramienta virtual, (Museo virtual de Ecología Humana), como un recurso educativo abierto a colaboraciones externas. Tres años después, reflexionamos aquí sobre los primeros resultados obtenidos, con especial referencia al Museo virtual de Ecología Humana.
... Canarian SAs have the singularity of belonging to the Macaronesian region, a small biogeographic region rich in endemic biodiversity (Santamarta, Naranjo, & Arraiza, 2014). Moreover, in the Canary Islands, over 75% of the species of conservation concern are in unfavourable or unknown conservation status ) and ecosystem services are deteriorating (Montes, Benayas, & Santos, 2011). These figures underline the importance of sustainability of LULC changes, not only in Canarian NPs and their peripheral areas, but across this entire biodiversity relevant Spanish region. ...
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Land use-land cover (LULC) changes and wildfires in the Spanish Network of terrestrial National Parks (NPs) and their legally designated peripheral areas, including Peripheral Protection Zones (PPZs) and Socioeconomic Influence Zones (SIZs), were assessed as indicators of recent territorial environmental sustainability trends. Level three, Corine Land Cover (CLC) data between 2005 and 2011 were compared. Official wildfire digital data were obtained from the European Commission for the 2005–2011 period. Results show increasing numbers of LULC changes along the protection gradient: NPs < PPZs < SIZs. NPs were, in general, highly stable regarding LULC changes and less affected by wildfires, which suggests high environmental effectiveness of legal and managerial protection afforded to the Spanish NP Network. Three study areas (SAs) were very stable in the analysed period in all their zones: Aigüestortes, Ordesa y Monte Perdido and Caldera de Taburiente. In turn, Teide and Doñana were the SAs where LULC changes were more abundant. Unsustainable LULC changes concentrate in NPs' peripheral areas, chiefly in their SIZs, with wildfires being the most widespread pressure in the analysed period. Teide's SA outstands due to its environmentally unsustainable recent LULC changes, with urbanisation and wildfires affecting natural and semi-natural areas. Sustainable territorial planning and management practices should prioritise this SA.
... From the 1990's, various landscape architects have developed their approaches to planting design, incorporating ecological criteria focused on the design of the groundcover of extensive areas, often looking to promote biodiversity and reduce the maintenance costs of urban green spaces. This has been helped in recent decades by a growing concern about the continued loss of biodiversity and increased interest among the population in ecology (Ecosystems and Biodiversity, the role of cities, 2005; Montes et al., 2011). Each of these landscape architects has their particular approach. ...
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