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Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar) (Coleptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae)

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Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae). The male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824) are described and illustrated for the first time. The male reproductive system shows no difference from the subfamily pattern, which is a tubular well-developed median lobe; "Y", "V" or T-shaped tegmen; reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular; flagellum generally well developed needle-like structured and gastral spiculum absent. However, the female differs from the pattern proposed for Stolas in two aspects: ovary with 28 ovarioles and a reduced ampulla with indistinct velum.
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Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 56(1): 19–22, março, 2012
Reproductive systems are a traditional source of phyloge-
netic characters in entomology (Chaboo 2007). However, there
were only a few papers concerning the genitalia morphology
on a broad spectrum within the subfamily Cassidinae. Mann
(1988) was the only paper on the comparative morphology in
male genitalia in Cassidinae sensu lato and Swietojanska
(2001) is the only large monograph of Cassidinae where struc-
ture of male genitalia was used as diagnostic character to all
reviewed taxa within the tribe Aspidimorphini of the Oriental
Region. Bordy & Doguet (1987) proposed the female genita-
lia as an important character in classification of species groups
in Cassidinae and recent studies on genitalia of some species
have indicated a large diversity of spermathecal morphology
(Rodriguez 1994a, b; Chaboo 2001; Borowiec & Swietojanska
2001, Borowiec & Skuza 2004; Borowiec & Opalinska 2007;
Borowiec & Pomorska 2009).
The genus Stolas Billberg, 1820 is classified in the tribe
Mesomphaliini Hope, 1840 and comprises 185 species which
are distributed in the Neotropical region (Borowiec &
Swietojanska 2011). Stolas species are moderately large
cassids, about 7–21 mm long. Sexual dimorphism is usually
indistinct, many species are polymorphic in respect of dor-
sal pattern and polymorphic groups of species are partly dif-
ficult to identify (Borowiec & Pomorska 2009). Only 11%
of the species present host plant record and they are usually
associated with plants from families Convolvulaceae and
Asteraceae (Borowiec & Swietojanska 2011).
Borowiec & Pomorska (2009) described and illustrated
the spermathecae of seventy-two species, and divided Stolas
into species groups based on its morphology. They concluded
that spermathecae of externally similar species are often very
similar and their diagnostic value is of little use, plus it was
not observed any degree of complication of spermathecal
structure.
In this paper the male and female reproductive systems
of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824) are described and illus-
trated for the first time, aiming to bring some light to the
reproductive system that has been generally neglected and
considered to be unvarying in males or females.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The two examined exemplars were collected by hand at
the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI) at 1.200 m, state of
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on 02.10.2010. The specimen identifi-
cation was made by comparison with previously identified
specimens from the MNRJ/UFRJ collection.
They were caught during copulation and taken to labora-
tory where oviposition occurred five days later. The speci-
mens were kept alive for two more days and then left at the
freezer to conserve the tissue. Integument structures were
examined and illustrated using a Leica Mz 7.5 stereomicro-
scope and drawing tube. The specimens were fixed in 70%
alcohol, and the genitalia were preserved in small vials with
Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar)
(Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae)
Marianna V. P. Simões1
1Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, São Cristovão, 20940–040 Rio de Janeiro – RJ, Brazil.
marianna_simoes@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT. Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae). The
male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824) are described and illustrated for the first time. The male
reproductive system shows no difference from the subfamily pattern, which is a tubular well-developed median lobe; “Y”, “V” or
T-shaped tegmen; reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular; flagellum generally well developed needle-like struc-
tured and gastral spiculum absent. However, the female differs from the pattern proposed for Stolas in two aspects: ovary with 28
ovarioles and a reduced ampulla with indistinct velum.
KEYWORDS. Genitalia; Mesomphaliini; morphology; Neotropical.
RESUMO. Sistema reprodutivo masculino e feminino de Stolas conspersa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae). O
sistema reprodutivo do macho e fêmea de Stolas conspersa (Germar, 1824) são descritos pela primeira vez. Neste estudo, foi
observado que o macho não diverge do padrão proposto para a subfamília, que é edeago tubular e bem desenvolvido; tégmen em
forma de “Y”, “V” ou “T”; pigídio reduzido; saco interno membranoso e tubular; flagellum geralmente bem desenvolvido, em
forma de agulha e espículo gastral ausente. Por outro lado, o sistema reprodutor feminino diverge do padrão usual proposto para o
gênero Stolas em dois aspectos: ovário com 28 ovaríolos e ampola reduzida com velum não distinto.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE. Genitália; Mesomphaliini; morfologia; Neotropical.
20 Simões
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 56(1): 19–22, março, 2012
glycerine. These are deposited in the collection of the Museu
Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Terminology generally follows Snodgrass (1935) and
Chaboo (2007) with some male genitalia terms from Mann
(1988) and some female genitalic terms from Rodriguez
(1994b), Chaboo (2007) and Borowiec & Opalinska (2007).
RESULTS
Male reproductive system (Figs. 1–6). Median lobe (Fig.
1) in a 90° angle with tegmen, tubular, parallel-sided, neck
constricted dorso-ventrally; basal orifice oval, margin
explanate; apex flat small hood flanking the ostium; lower
wall of ostium, differentially sclerotized into paired lateral
plates. Internal sac weakly sclerotized, surface with spicules.
Ejaculatory guide cross-like under dorsal view. Tegmen Y-
shaped (Figs. 2–3) edge of the aedeagus, with muscles com-
pleting the connection around the base; manubrium, as long
as arms dorsally, laterally compressed, and lateral view about
three times wider than in dorsal view, with rounded apex.
Pygidium punctuate, with long and dense setae, base later-
ally with hook-shaped extentions, apex semioval. Ejacula-
tory duct long, about 12 times longer than aedeagus, coils
loose proximally and tight distally. Flagellum feebly sclero-
tized, with a short distal hook. Seminal vesicle (Fig. 4) wide
distally and tapered proximally with proximal portion de-
flexed into vas deferens. One pair of bilobed testes (Figs. 5–
6), with around 20 distinct loculli around the Lens of
Demokidoff. Accessory gland absent.
Female reproductive system (Fig. 7–13). Mature ovaries
lie laterad of the alimentary canal, occupying almost the en-
tire abdomen. Lateral oviduct with anterior end expanded to
form a calyx, where seven pedicels of the ovarioles open.
Pedicels with 2–3 branches (Fig. 8). Each ovary with 28 ova-
rioles. Lateral oviduct short and robust, about 2.5 times shorter
than ovariole size. Bursa copulatrix rounded (Fig. 9), coated
in thick muscle fibers. Each ovariole with pedicel, vitellarium,
germinarium and terminal filament. The ovarioles were on
the stage IV of development, with germinarium white, fol-
lowed by three yellow creamy colored egg chambers show-
ing completed vitellogenesis. Ovipositor (Fig. 10) on lateral
view, with coxites “U” shaped and sclerotized, enlarged with
dense and long distal setation and the other extremity acumi-
nated; sclerotized sternite VIII (Fig. 13), with long and dis-
tal setation. Tergite IX (Fig. 10) with two short and transverse
separated plates. Colleterial glands paired and bursiform,
white colored. Spermatheca (Fig. 7) well-sclerotized, with
muscle on inner margin, large vasculum with broad base and
hook-shaped apex; receptacle simple, with distinguish cham-
ber. Ampulla and velum indistinct. Ductus thin, long with
stronger spiralization in basal and central part of the ductus
than close to bursa copulatrix. Ductus and vasculum ratio
5:1. Gland elongate and basally positioned; duct and gland
opening separately and directly into receptacle.
DISCUSSION
There is no previously description of the male reproduc-
tive system within the tribe, but the general aspect of the
male genitalia of Stolas conspersa follows the pattern pro-
posed to the subfamily by Mann (1988), which is a tubular
well-developed median lobe; “Y”, “V” or T-shaped tegmen;
reduced pygidium; internal sac membranous and tubular and
gastral spiculum absent. The tegmen is clearly similar to
Glyphocassis trilineata (Hope) (Mann 1988: 126, figs. 7b,
8b), with median arm laterally compressed and the median
lobe resembling that of Laccoptera nepalensis Boheman,
1855, (Mann 1988: 126, fig. 11b) with tubular, parallel-sided,
neck-constricted, but glabrous, not showing row of short se-
tae. The ejaculatory guide is quite similar to Laccoptera
quadrimaculata (Thumberg) (Mann 1988: 126, fig. 11c) with
a cross-like aspect. The internal sac surface of S. conspersa
is armed with spicules.
Figs. 1–6. Stolas conspersa, male reproductive system. 1, aedeagus; 2–3,
tegmen, (2) dorsal and (3) lateral view; 4, seminal vesicle; 5–6, bilobed
test, (5) dorsal and (6) ventral view.
Flagellum
Lens of Demokidoff
Manubrium
1
Luculli
4
2
56
3
Ejaculatory duct
Tegmen
21Male and female reproductive systems of Stolas conspersa
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 56(1): 19–22, março, 2012
The ovarioles studied here were of stage IV development,
with the germinarium white, followed by three yellow creamy
colored egg chambers showing completed vitellogenesis,
according to Ganho & Marinoni (2000). Each ovary con-
tained 28 ovarioles; previously the number of cassidine ova-
rioles were described as ranging from 3 to 21 (Robertson
1961; Mann & Singh 1979; Chaboo 2007). This variation
might be consequence of environmental factors (Jolivet &
Verma 2002) or probably from the large size of S. conspersa.
Borowiec and Pomorska (2009) studied the structure of
the spermathecae in the genus Stolas, and suggested seven
groups of species. S. conspersa was not included in the analy-
Figs. 7–13. Stolas conspersa, female reproductive system. 7, reproductive system; 8, pedicels divided into two or three branches; 9–10, bursa copulatrix,
(9) ventral view and (10) lateral view showing tergite IX and coxites; 11, coxites; 12, spermatheca, spermathecal duct and gland; 13, sternite VIII.
Lateral oviduct
Spermatheca
Gland
Coxitos
Duct
Colleterial gland
Calyx
Bursa copulatrix
7
8
11
1312
10
9
Tergite IX
22 Simões
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 56(1): 19–22, março, 2012
ses, however it was considered to be part of group VII, which
shows the velum present, ampulla short, hardly marked, the
ductus thin, very long and spiral, close to the bursa copulatrix
and the spiral coils sometimes less dense than in the basal
and central part of ductus. This study corroborates the posi-
tion of S. conspersa within the group VII (Borowiec and
Pomorska 2009: 218–219, figs. 53–64), differing only on the
reduced ampulla with an indistinct velum, what may vary
within the species.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I thank Marcela Monné (MNRJ/UFRJ) for comments on
the manuscript. To Caroline Chaboo (Department of Ecol-
ogy and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas) for
comments on the manuscript and revision the English text.
To Lech Borowiec (Zoological Institute, University of
Wroclaw) and Caroline Chaboo for providing part of the bib-
liography. I would like to express my sincere thanks to anony-
mous reviewers for the critical comments on the manuscript
and the financial support of a CNPq fellowship.
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Received 25/3/2011; accepted 12/12/2011
Editor: Lúcia Massutti de Almeida
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