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The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

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Magnetic susceptibility of soils is a common proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite, and maghemite and/or magnetite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and/or maghemite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5–8.5 ka) corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1–4.3 ka) corresponds with a wet to dry transitional phase and a previously documented incision event along the valley bottom. In this case the incision and terrace development resulted in prolonged surface exposure and more time for the accumulation of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals, enhancing Xlf. The results of this study agree with previous modeling efforts, and show that in Quaternary (and possibly pre-Quaternary) periglacial and alluvial soils and paleosols that weathered for 101–104 years, duration of pedogenesis, rather than climate, is an important control on magnetic enhancement.
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... The formation of magnetic minerals in soils due to factors other than the change in pH and Eh caused by the oscillation of the water table was reported by Viana et al. (2006), who detected the presence of magnetite in the surface horizons of savanna (Cerrado) soils and attributed the genesis of the magnetite to natural and frequent burnings. Stinchcomb and Peppe (2014) also reported the genesis of magnetite in burnt soils along the Delaware River in the USA. In paleoenvironmental studies, magnetite and magnetic minerals are commonly reported (Bourne et al., 2015;Dong et al., 2015;Hu et al., 2015;Maxbauer et al., 2016), Marmet et al. (1999) mentioned the production of magnetite and maghemite due to the heating of soils, resulting in the increase in the magnetic susceptibility of the soil. ...
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