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Seasonal Activity of Tick Infestation in Goats and Buffalo of Punjab Province (District Sargodha), Pakistan

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Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of tick infestation in buffalo and goats of Punjab Province (District Sargodha), Pakistan. There were a total of twelve hundred buffalo and goats examined from October 2012 to September 2013 to determine the prevalence of ticks infestation. The results showed that the prevalence of tick infestation in buffalo was 84.33% (1012/1200). The ticks were collected and identified. In buffalo, the higher prevalence rate was Hyalomma aegyptium (37.91%) followed by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (22.59%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.15%), Hyalomma marginatum (9.45%), Hyalomma anatolicum (9.03%) and Rhipicephalus sanquineus (3.84%) respectively. The breed wise prevalence was in Chenab breed (84.59%), Ravi breed (79.10%) and Hybrid breed (91.66%) respectively. The sex wise prevalence was in male (87.71%) and in female (83.53%). The prevalence based on age showed that the rate of infestation in buffalo having age group (1-4 year) was 85.48%, (4-8 year) was 86.02% and (>8 year) was 66.66%, respectively. The prevalence based on grazing pattern showed that rate of infestation in intensive grazing 85.28%, extensive grazing 86.41% and both (intensive and extensive) was 81.94%.While in case of goats the tick infestation was 86.50% (1038/1200). In goats, the higher prevalence was Hyalomma anatolicum (31.56%), Rhipicephalus spp. (25.95%), Haemophysalis spp. (21.07%), Ixodes spp. (15.46%), and Ambylomma spp. (5.93%) respectively. The breed wise prevalence was in Desi breed (91.12%), Taidi breed (90.97%), Lail Poori breed (91.78%) and Hybrid breed (66.66%) respectively. The sex wise prevalence was in male (79.16%) and in female (88.81%). The prevalence based on age showed that the rate of infestation in goats having age group (1-4 year) was 86.17%, (4-8 year) was 91.66%, respectively. The prevalence based on grazing pattern showed that rate of infestation in intensive grazing 86.71%, extensive grazing 85.97% and both (intensive grazing and extensive grazing) was 87.12%.The present study showed that these epidemiological factors have a significant effect on the prevalence of tick infestation in buffalo and goats of Sargodha district, Pakistan. The results of this survey showed that the ticks are active throughout the year except January but highly active from June to August. It would be very helpful in devising the future strategies towards the eradication and control of ticks in other endemic areas of Pakistan. Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı Pakistan'ın Sargodha Bölgesi Punjab Eyaletinde keçi ve yaban sığırlarında kene enfestasyonunun prevalansını belirlemektir. Kene prevalansını tespit etmek amacıyla toplam Her birinden 1200'er yaban sığırı ve keçi Ekim 2012 ile Eylül 2013 yılları arasında incelendi. Yaban sığırlarında kene enfestasyonu %84.33 (1012/1200). Keneler toplandı ve tanımlandı. Yaban sığırlarında en yüksek prevalans Hyalomma aegyptium (%37.91) iken bunu sırasıyla Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (%22.59), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (%17,15), Hyalomma marginatum (%9.45), Hyalomma anatolicum (%9.03) ve Rhipicephalus sanquineus (%3.84) takip etti. Türlere göre prevalans Chenab (%84.59), Ravi (%79.10) ve Hibrit (%91.66) olarak tespit edildi. Cinsiyete göre prevalans erkeklerde %87.71, dişilerde %83.53 olarak saptandı. Yaş gruplarına göre yaban sığrlarında enfestasyon oranları 1-4 yaş arası %85.48, 4-8 yaş arası %86.02 ve 8 yaş üzeri olanlarda %66.66 olarak bulundu. Otlama şekillerine göre prevalans yoğun otlatılanlarda %85.28, seyrek otlatılanlarda %86.41 ve her iki şekilde birden olanlarda %81.94 olarak tespit edildi. Keçilerde kene enfestasyonu %86.50 (1038/1200) olarak belirlendi. Kene prevalansları türlere göre sırasıyla %31.56 Hyalomma anatolicum, %25.95 Rhipicephalus spp., %21.07, Haemophysalis spp., %15.46 Ixodes spp. ve %5.93 Ambylomma spp. olarak tespit edildi. Keçi türlerine göre %91.12 Desi, %90.97 Taidi, %91.78 Lail Poori ve %66,66 Hibrit olarak belirlendi. Cinsiyete göre prevalans erkeklerde %79.16 dişilerde %88.81 olarak saptandı. Yaş gruplarına göre keçilerde enfestasyon oranları 1-4 yaş arası %86.17, 4-8 yaş arası %91.66 olarak bulundu. Otlama şekillerine göre prevalans yoğun otlatılan keçilerde %86.71, seyrek otlatılanlarda %85.97 ve her iki şekilde birden olanlarda %87.12 olarak tespit edildi. Bu çalışma Pakistan'ın Sargodha bölgesinde epidemiyolojik faktörlerin yaban sığırı ve keçilerde kene enfestasyonunun prevalansına önemli etkileri olduğunu göstermiştir. Bu taramanın sonuçları kenelerin Ocak ayı hariç tüm yıl boyunca özellikle de Hazirandan Ağustas ayına kadar oldukça aktif olduklarını ortaya koymuştur. Pakistan'ın diğer endemik bölgelerinde kenelerin eradikasyon ve kontrolüne yönelik planlamalar yapılmasının yaralı olacığa görüşündeyiz. Makale Kodu (Article Code): KVFD-2014-10676  İletişim (Correspondence)  +93 45 5162128  haroonahmad12@yahoo.com
Summary
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of tick infestation in bualo and goats of Punjab Province (District Sargodha), Pakistan. There
were a total of twelve hundred bualo and goats examined from October 2012 to September 2013 to determine the prevalence of ticks infestation. The results showed
that the prevalence of tick infestation in bualo was 84.33% (1012/1200). The ticks were collected and identified. In bualo, the higher prevalence rate was Hyalomma
aegyptium (37.91%) followed by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (22.59%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.15%), Hyalomma marginatum (9.45%), Hyalomma
anatolicum (9.03%) and Rhipicephalus sanquineus (3.84%) respectively. The breed wise prevalence was in Chenab breed (84.59%), Ravi breed (79.10%) and Hybrid breed
(91.66%) respectively. The sex wise prevalence was in male (87.71%) and in female (83.53%). The prevalence based on age showed that the rate of infestation in bualo
having age group (1-4 year) was 85.48%, (4-8 year) was 86.02% and (>8 year) was 66.66%, respectively. The prevalence based on grazing pattern showed that rate of
infestation in intensive grazing 85.28%, extensive grazing 86.41% and both (intensive and extensive) was 81.94%.While in case of goats the tick infestation was 86.50%
(1038/1200). In goats, the higher prevalence was Hyalomma anatolicum (31.56%), Rhipicephalus spp. (25.95%), Haemophysalis spp. (21.07%), Ixodes spp. (15.46%), and
Ambylomma spp. (5.93%) respectively. The breed wise prevalence was in Desi breed (91.12%), Taidi breed (90.97%), Lail Poori breed (91.78%) and Hybrid breed (66.66%)
respectively. The sex wise prevalence was in male (79.16%) and in female (88.81%). The prevalence based on age showed that the rate of infestation in goats having age
group (1-4 year) was 86.17%, (4-8 year) was 91.66%, respectively. The prevalence based on grazing pattern showed that rate of infestation in intensive grazing 86.71%,
extensive grazing 85.97% and both (intensive grazing and extensive grazing) was 87.12%.The present study showed that these epidemiological factors have a significant
eect on the prevalence of tick infestation in bualo and goats of Sargodha district, Pakistan. The results of this survey showed that the ticks are active throughout the
year except January but highly active from June to August. It would be very helpful in devising the future strategies towards the eradication and control of ticks in other
endemic areas of Pakistan.
Keywords: Ticks, Intensive grazing, Extensive grazing, Prevalence, Epidemiological factors, Pakistan
Pakistanın Sargodha Bölgesi Pencab Eyaletinde Keçi ve Yaban
Sığırlarında Kene Enfestasyonunun Mevsimsel Aktivitesi
Özet
Bu çalışmanın amacı Pakistan’ın Sargodha Bölgesi Punjab Eyaletinde keçi ve yaban sığırlarında kene enfestasyonunun prevalansını belirlemektir. Kene prevalansını
tespit etmek amacıyla toplam Her birinden 1200’er yaban sığırı ve keçi Ekim 2012 ile Eylül 2013 yılları arasında incelendi. Yaban sığırlarında kene enfestasyonu %84.33
(1012/1200). Keneler toplandı ve tanımlandı. Yaban sığırlarında en yüksek prevalans Hyalomma aegyptium (%37.91) iken bunu sırasıyla Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus (%22.59), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (%17,15), Hyalomma marginatum (%9.45), Hyalomma anatolicum (%9.03) ve Rhipicephalus sanquineus (%3.84)
takip etti. Türlere göre prevalans Chenab (%84.59), Ravi (%79.10) ve Hibrit (%91.66) olarak tespit edildi. Cinsiyete göre prevalans erkeklerde %87.71, dişilerde %83.53
olarak saptandı. Yaş gruplarına göre yaban sığrlarında enfestasyon oranları 1-4 yaş arası %85.48, 4-8 yaş arası %86.02 ve 8 yaş üzeri olanlarda %66.66 olarak bulundu.
Otlama şekillerine göre prevalans yoğun otlatılanlarda %85.28, seyrek otlatılanlarda %86.41 ve her iki şekilde birden olanlarda %81.94 olarak tespit edildi. Keçilerde
kene enfestasyonu %86.50 (1038/1200) olarak belirlendi. Kene prevalansları türlere göre sırasıyla %31.56 Hyalomma anatolicum, %25.95 Rhipicephalus spp., %21.07,
Haemophysalis spp., %15.46 Ixodes spp. ve %5.93 Ambylomma spp. olarak tespit edildi. Keçi türlerine göre %91.12 Desi, %90.97 Taidi, %91.78 Lail Poori ve %66,66 Hibrit
olarak belirlendi. Cinsiyete göre prevalans erkeklerde %79.16 dişilerde %88.81 olarak saptandı. Yaş gruplarına göre keçilerde enfestasyon oranları 1-4 yaş arası %86.17,
4-8 yaş arası %91.66 olarak bulundu. Otlama şekillerine göre prevalans yoğun otlatılan keçilerde %86.71, seyrek otlatılanlarda %85.97 ve her iki şekilde birden olanlarda
%87.12 olarak tespit edildi. Bu çalışma Pakistan’ın Sargodha bölgesinde epidemiyolojik faktörlerin yaban sığırı ve keçilerde kene enfestasyonunun prevalansına önemli
etkileri olduğunu göstermiştir. Bu taramanın sonuçları kenelerin Ocak ayı hariç tüm yıl boyunca özellikle de Hazirandan Ağustas ayına kadar oldukça aktif olduklarını
ortaya koymuştur. Pakistan’ın diğer endemik bölgelerinde kenelerin eradikasyon ve kontrolüne yönelik planlamalar yapılmasının yaralı olacığa görüşündeyiz.
Anahtar sözcükler: Kene, Yoğun otlatma, Seyrek otlatma, Prevalans, Epidemiyolojik faktörler, Pakistan
Seasonal Activity of Tick Infestation in Goats and Bualo of
Punjab Province (District Sargodha), Pakistan
Irfan MUSTAFA
1
Rana Muhammad Kamran SHABBIR
1
Marghoob SUBHANI
1
Iftikhar AHMAD
1
Aleem RAZA
1
Sadaf JAMIL
1
Hira MUQADDAS
1
Rana Ghulam SHABBIR
1
Abdul GHANI
1
Tahir MAHMOOD
3
Muhammad ASLAM
4
Mobushir Riaz KHAN
5a,b
Saira ASIF
6
Inayat Ullah MALIK
7
Abu Bakar Muhammad RAZA
8
Muhammad Anjum AQEEL
8
Mazhar QAYYUM
9
Ayesha WAQAS
10
Haroon AHMED
2
1
Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Sargodha, Sargodha, PAKISTAN;
2
Dept. of Biosciences, COMSATS Inst. of Information Tech., Park
Road, 46300 Islamabad, PAKISTAN;
3
Dept. of Statistics, Univ. of Sargodha, Sargodha, PAKISTAN;
4
Dept. of Pest Warning and Quality
Control of Pesticides, Government of Punjab, PAKISTAN;
5a
Dept. of Geo-informatics, Fac. of Agri engerining, PMAS -Arid Agriculture Univ.,
Rawalpindi, 46300, PAKISTAN;
5b
Inst. of Space Tech. (IST), Near Rawat Toll Plaza, Islamabad Express Way, Islamabad, PAKISTAN;
6
Dept. of
Botany, PMAS - Arid Agriculture Univ., Rawalpindi, 46300, PAKISTAN;
7
Dept. of Zoology, Wildlife & Fisheries, GC Univ., Faislabad, PAKISTAN;
8
Univ. College of Agriculture, Univ. of Sargodha, Sargodha, PAKISTAN;
9
Dept. of Zoology, PMAS Arid Agriculture Univ., Rawalpindi, 46300,
PAKISTAN; Quaid e Azam University, Islamabad, PAKISTAN
Makale Kodu (Article Code): KVFD-2014-10676
İleşim (Correspondence)
+93 45 5162128
haroonahmad12@yahoo.com
Journal Home-Page: http://vetdergi.kafkas.edu.tr
online SubmiSSion: http://vetdergikafkas.org
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg
20 (5): 655-662, 2014
DOI: 10.9775/kvfd.2014.10676
656
Seasonal Activity of Tick ...
INTRODUCTION
Ticks are very important and most common ecto-
parasites of mammals, birds and reptiles worldwide
[1,2]
.
They are dioecious having separate sex
[3]
. Based on the
number of hosts required to complete their as one-host,
two-host and three-host ticks
[4]
.
Ticks also have adverse eect on livestock in several
ways and parasitize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and
transmit a wide variety of pathogenic agents than any
other group of arthropods
[5]
. They transmit protozoa,
bacterial, rickettsial and viral diseases
[6]
. They down
grade hide and skins quality and reduce milk and wool
production, reduce productivity and increase susceptibility
to the other diseases
[7]
. Due to economic and veterinary
importance of ticks, their control and the transmission
of tick borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle
industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world
and it is a priority for many countries in tropical and
subtropical regions
[8]
.
Tick infestation has adverse eects throughout the
world particularly in the livestock. The 80% of cattle
population is suering with tick infestation in the world.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) around the world have been
associated with US$ 13.9 to US$ 18.7 billion annually loss
in productivity
[7,9-11]
. More than US$1.0 billion and US$1.0
million annually losses by a single tick Boophilus microplus
are reported in South America and Australia respectively
[12]
.
Acricidal activities against diseases in order to control
prevailing conditions enhance the production cost for
the owner
[13]
.
Pakistan owns a large number of animals. These animals
are playing important role to meet the ever increasing
demand of animal protein and milk for mankind. Ticks
are cosmopolitan in distribution, but occur principally
in tropical and subtropical regions
[1]
. Pakistan being a
tropical country provides optimal climatic conditions for
growth and multiplication of ticks. Tick fauna of Pakistan
is rich in number of genera and species
[14]
. The impact of
ticks and tick borne diseases on the individual and national
economics warrants application of appropriate tick control
strategies on priority basis
[15]
. Most of the investigations
on prevalence of tick species in Pakistan are more than
a decade old
[16-19]
, whereas periodical monitoring of tick
infestation is an essential component for formulating
eective control recommendations.
Due to high prevalence of this disease around the world
and Pakistan keeping in mind the importance of livestock,
above described facts and figures the present study was
designed With following Objectives.
The objectives of the present study were to
determine the;
- Seasonal fluctuation in population of ticks with
respect to epidemiological factors like breed, herd size
and sex etc.
- Correlation of tick population with intensive and
extensive grazing pattern.
MATERIAL and METHODS
Location
Punjab is the Pakistans second largest province at
205.344 km
2
(79.284 sq
2
miles) after Balochistan and is
located at the northwestern edge of the geologic Indian
plate in South Asia. The geographical location of the
Sargodha is 32° 5’ 1” North, 72° 40’ 16” in Punjab Province,
Pakistan.
Topography
The Punjab province is bordered by Kashmir (Azad
Kashmir, Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir, India) to the
north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to
the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the south, the
province of Baluchistan to the southwest, the province
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and the Islamabad
Capital Territory to the north. Undivided Punjab is hometo
six rivers, of which five ows through Pakistani Punjab.
From west to east, these are: the Indus, Jhelum, Beas,
Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej. Nearly 60% of Pakistan’s population
lives in the Punjab. It is the nations only province that
touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal
enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad. This
geographical position and a large multi-ethnic population
strongly inuence Punjab’s outlook on National aairs
and induces in Punjab a keen awareness of the problems
of the Pakistan’s other important provinces and territories.
The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on
earth and canals can be found throughout the province.
Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren
south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the
Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well.
Study Area
The present study was conducted in the district
Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collected from
five tehsils of Sargodha, Sahiwal, Silanwali, Kotmomin
and Shahpur. The area is located 550 to 650 feet above
the sea level. The area has a climate of extreme heat and
cold. The maximum temperature reaches 50°C (122°F) in
the summer while the minimum temperature recorded
is low as freezing point in the winter
[20]
.
Data Collection
The study was conducted from October 2012 to
September 2013. Data was collected on monthly basis
657
from Sargodha and Silanwali, Shahpur and Sahiwal and
Kotmomin.
Tick specimens were collected using forceps without
damaging their mouthparts and preserved in 70% ethyl
alcohol. Complete record was maintained for each tick
specimen for their origin regarding species of the host.
Permanent mounts of the tick specimens were prepared.
Morphological characterization of ticks was carried
out using a stereoscopic microscope according to the
instructions given by
[1]
.
Statistical analysis
The Statistical analysis (Chi-square) was done by using the
statistical package SPSS version 20.0 for Windows 2007.
RESULTS
Bualo
The present study was conducted in five tehsils of
Sargodha district to determine the prevalence of tick
infestation in the bualo from October 2012 to September
2013. The results of present study revealed that the rate
of infestation in bualo was 84.33% (1012/1200). The ticks
were observed mostly on the udder parts on the body
dorsal side and ventral side of the infested bualo. The
ticks started to appear by the start of February and highly
active from end of May to August (Fig.1). The species
collected from infested bualo were identified as Hyalomma
aegyptium 37.91% followed by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)
microplus 22.59%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus
17.15%, Hyalomma marginatum 9.45%, Hyalomma
anatolicum 9.03% and Rhipicephalus sanquineus (3.84%).
The buffalo of three breeds (Chenab breed, Ravi
breed, Hybrid breed) were examined on monthly basis. The
prevalence in Chenab breed was 84.59% (851/1006),
Ravi breed 79.10% (106/134) and Hybrid breed 91.66%
(55/60) respectively (Fig. 2).
The tehsil wise prevalence was determined in the
present study. It was in tehsil Kotmomin 86.20% (300/348),
Shahpur 81.66% (147/180), Sargodha 79.41% (162/204),
Silanwali 86.84% (198/228) and Sahiwal 85.41% (205/240)
were respectively (Fig. 3). The statistical analysis has
showed no significant dierences (P<0.13) in the prevalence
of tick infestation in dierent tehsils of district Sargodha
Punjab Province, Pakistan.
The results showed that female 83.53% and male
87.71% buffalo were infested (Fig. 4). The prevalence
in buffalo having age group (1-4 year)was 85.48%
(636/744), in age group (4-8 year) was 86.02% (320/372)
and the age group (>8 years) was 66.66% (56/84) were
infested (Fig. 5). The results showed that younger
bualo were more infested as compared to older bualo.
Fig 1. Showing the uctuation of tick density on the goats
and bualo examined during study. Tick density was highest
in August followed by September and was least in January
Şekil 1. Çalışma boyunca incelenen yaban sığırı ve keçilerde
kene yoğunluğunun aylara göre dağılımı. Kene yoğunluğu
en yüksek Ağustos ayında gözlendi, bunu Eylül ayı izledi. En
düşük Ocak ayında tespit edildi
Fig 2. Showing breed wise prevalence of tick infestation in
goats and bualo
Şekil 2. Yaban sığırı ve keçi türlerine göre kene enfestas-
yonunun prevalansı
MUSTAFA, SHABBIR, SUBHANI, AHMAD, RAZA, JAMIL, MUQADDAS, SHABBIR, GHANI
MAHMOOD, ASLAM, KHAN, ASIF, MALIK, RAZA, AQEEL, QAYYUM, WAQAS, AHMED
658
Seasonal Activity of Tick ...
The statistical analysis showed that there is no significant
difference between infested and non-infested buffalo
in all age groups (Table 1). The prevalence rate in animals
reared under intensive grazing system was 85.28%
(429/503), extensive grazing 86.41% (229/265) and both
(intensive and extensive) grazing was 81.94% (354/432)
respectively (Fig. 6).
Goats
The results of present study revealed that the rate
of infestation in goats was 86.50% (1038/1200). The
ticks started to appear by the start of February and
highly active from end of May to August (Fig. 1). The
species collected from infested goats were identied as
Hyalomma anatolicum 31.56%, Rhipicephalus spp. 25.95%,
Haemophysalis spp. 21.07%, Ixodes spp. 15.46%, and
Ambylomma spp. 5.93%.
The goats of four breeds (Taidi breed, Desi breed,
Lailpoori and hybrid breed) were examined in the present
study on monthly basis. The statistical analysis shows
Fig 3. Showing the tick infestatıon of goats and bualo in
dierent tehsils
Şekil 3. Değişik bölgelere göre keçi ve yaban sığırlarındaki
kene enfestasyonu
Fig 4. Showing sex wise prevalence in goats and bualo
Şekil 4. Cinsiyete göre keçi ve yaban sığırlarındaki kene
prevalansı
Fig 5. Showing age wise prevalence of tick infestatıon in
goats and bualo
Şekil 5. Keçi ve yaban sığırlarındaki yaşa göre kene
enfestasyonu prevalansı
659
that prevalence in Desi breed was 91.12% (688/755) Taidi
breed 90.97% (131/144) Lail poori 91.78% (67/73) and
Hybrid breed 152/228 (66.66%), respectively. Among all
four breeds the highest infestation was observed in Lailpoori
breed 91.78% (Fig. 2).
The tehsil wise prevalence was determined from the
Sargodha district. The prevalence in Sargodha district
according to tehsil Kotmomin 87.50% (210/240), Shahpur
81.94% 177/216), Sargodha 87.50% (252/288), Silanwali
85.14% (235/276) and Sahiwal 91.11% (164/180) were
respectively (Fig. 3). The statistical analysis has showed
the no significant dierences (P<0.091) in the prevalence
of tick infestation in dierent tehsils of district Sargodha
Punjab Province, Pakistan.
The results showed that the infestation rate was
88.81% (810/912) female and 79.16% (228/288) in male
goats (Fig. 4). The prevalence in goats having age group (1-4
year) was 86.17% (972/1128) and in age group (4-8 year)
was 91.66% (66/72) (Fig. 5). The results showed that older
goats were more infested as compared to younger goats.
The statistical analysis showed that there is no significant
dierence between infested and non-infested animals in all
age groups (Table 2). The results showed that prevalence in
the intensive grazing 86.71% (385/444), extensive grazing
85.97% (423/492) and both (intensive and extensive)
grazing was 87.12% (230/264) respectively (Fig. 6).
Table 1. Showing the statistical analysis of dierent epidemiological factors on the prevalence of tick infestation in bualo Sargodha district of Punjab
Province, Pakistan
Tablo 1. Pakistan’ın Sargodha Bölgesi Pencab Eyaletinde yaban sığırlarında kene enfestasyonu prevalansı üzerine değişik epidemiyolojik faktörlerin
istatistiksel analizi
S. No Factors Groups
Prevalence in Bualo
Statistical Analysis
(Chi-square)
Infested Non Infested
1 Age
1-4 Years 636 (85.48%) 108 (14.51%)
χ²=21.39
d f=2
P=0.000
5-8 Years 320 (86.02%) 52 (13.97%)
9-12 Years 56 (66.66%) 28 (33.33%)
2 Breed
Chenab 851(84.59%) 155 (15.40%)
χ²=5.266
df=2
P=0.072
Rav 106 (79.10%) 28 (20.89%)
Hybrd 55 (91.66%) 5 (8.33%)
3 Gender
Male 200 (87.71%) 28 (12.28%)
χ²=2.443
df=1 p=0.069
Female 812 (83.53%) 160 (16.46%)
4 Tehsls
Kotmomn 300 (86.20%) 48 (13.79%)
χ²=6.933
df=4
P=0.139
Shahpur 147 (81.66%) 33 (18.33%)
Sargodha 162 (79.41%) 42 (20.58%)
Slanwal 198 (86.84%) 30 (13.15%)
Sahwal 205 (85.41%) 35 (14.58%)
5
Grazng
Patterns
Intensve Grazng 429 (85.28%) 74 (14.71%)
χ²=3.082
df=2
P=0.214
Extensve Grazng 229 (86.41%) 36 (13.58%)
Both (ntensve and extensve grazng) 354 (81.94%) 78 (18.05%)
Fig 6. Showing grazing pattern based prevalence of tick
infestatıoin in bualo and goats
Şekil 6. Keçi ve yaban sığırlarındaki otlama şekillerine göre
kene enfestasyonu prevalansı
MUSTAFA, SHABBIR, SUBHANI, AHMAD, RAZA, JAMIL, MUQADDAS, SHABBIR, GHANI
MAHMOOD, ASLAM, KHAN, ASIF, MALIK, RAZA, AQEEL, QAYYUM, WAQAS, AHMED
660
Seasonal Activity of Tick ...
DISCUSSION
The results showed that the prevalence of tck
nfestaton n bualo and goats of Sargodha dstrct was
84.75% and 86.50% respectvely. Our results correlates as
85.6% cattle were nfested
[21]
. The spp. wse prevalence was
Rhpcephalus mcroplus (22.59%), Rhpcephalus annulatus
(17.15%), Hyalomma margnatum (9.45%), Hyalomma
anatolcum (9.03%) and Rhpcephalus sanquneus (3.84%)
respectvely. Smlar observatons of tck spp. were reported
on derent genera of tcks on Fresan cattle n dstrct
Kasur, Punjab, Pakstan
[22]
.
The results showed that the peak of populaton of tcks
from June to August whch s due to the hgh temperature
and humdty
[22]
; the mnmum populaton observed
n January s due to low temperature and less humdty
and short day length n bualo and goats, respectvely.
The Fg. 6 descrbe grazng pattern n buffalo and
goats. Accordng to ths n buffalo, prevalence rate
of tck nfestaton s hgher n ntensve grazng than
extensve and the buffalo whch possess the both
types of grazng have hgh prevalence. Whle n case of
goats prevalence rate s hgher n extensve than ntensve
grazng and the goats whch posses the both types of
grazng have low prevalence. Smlar observatons were
reported n case of parastc dsease lke WFI, where the
prevalence of dsease was hgher n intensive-extensive
management grazing
[23]
.
In case of extensve grazng the anmals have to walk for
food n the felds here there s lttle chance of attachment
of tcks on the anmal body due to more lght exposure.
When organsm walks the more lght falls on the dorsal
sde of body whch ncreases the temperature and specfy
the under stes for attachment of tcks
[24]
that aect the
reproductve actvty of tcks and hence the prevalence
of tck nfestaton decreases.
Most of the tcks were found on the udder, under tal
and a small number on the chest and neck areas of the
bualo, whle n case of goats mostly tcks were found on
the ears and udder parts of the body
[25]
. It mght be that
the parts of the anmals where tcks are found posses the
soft tssues. Ths s the advantage for tcks that they can
easly attach wth the soft tssues and make a contact wth
the blood capllares of the anmal. Here female tcks can
easly feed on the blood and get ready for the reproducton
by leavng the host body part for layng the eggs. The
other advantage for the tcks by attachng wth the soft
tssue s that they get protecton from the predators such
as brds. If they are exposed on the anmal’s body predators
can easly get to them, wll consume them and n ths
way the populaton of the tcks could be decrease.
The clmatc determnants lke temperature of the
study area are very mportant n the prevalence of tcks n
domestc rumnants
[26]
. The poor husbandry practces of
small holder dary farmers may be a determnant makng
the anmals more prone to tck nfestaton. Moreover, a
Table 2. Showing the statistical analysis of dierent epidemiological factors on the prevalence of tick infestation in goats Sargodha district of Punjab
Province, Pakistan
Tablo 2. Pakistan’ın Sargodha Bölgesi Pencab Eyaletinde keçilerde kene enfestasyonu prevalansı üzerine değişik epidemiyolojik faktörlerin istatistiksel analizi
S. No Factors Groups
Prevalence in Goats
Statistical Analysis
(Chi-square)
Infested Non Infested
1 Age
1-4 Years 972 (86.17%) 156 (13.82%)
χ²=1.751
df=1
P=0.186
5-8 Years 66 (91.66%) 6 (8.33%)
2 Breed
Des 688 (91.12%) 67 (8.87%)
χ²=94.847
df=3
P=0.000
Lal Poor 67 (91.78%) 6 (8.21%)
Taidi 131 (90.97%) 13 (9.02%)
Hybrd 152 (66.66%) 76 (33.33%)
3 Gender
Male 228 (79.16%) 60 (20.83%)
χ²=17.451
df=1
P=0.000
Female 810 (88.81%) 102 (11.18%)
4 Tehsls
Kotmomn 210 (87.50%) 30 (12.50%)
χ²=8.002
df=4
P=0.091
Shahpur 177 (81.94%) 33 (18.05%)
Sargodha 252 (87.50%) 36 (12.50%)
Slanwal 235 (85.14%) 41 (14.85%)
Sahwal 164 (91.11%) 16 (8.88%)
5
Grazng
Patterns
Intensve Grazng 385 (86.71%) 59 (13.28%)
χ²=0.220
df=2
P=0.896
Extensve Grazng 423 (85.97%) 69 (14.02%)
Both (ntensve and extensve grazng) 230 (87.12%) 34 (12.87%)
661
stress should be gven to practce a routne preventve
therapy aganst tcks rather than treatng the anmals at
the cost of lowered mlk producton
[27]
. Our study result
shows that the prevalence of rumnant tck nfestaton s
much hgher n the developng countres of Asa
[16,19,28-31]
and Afrca
[32-35]
, followed by Australa
[36]
, Europe
[37-40]
, and
the Amercas
[41-42]
.
After correlating temperature with that of population
of ticks in multi angels it is concluded that density of the
ticks uctuates throughout the study period on goats
and bualo in district Sargodha Punjab province Pakistan.
Climatic determinants of the study area greatly aect the
prevalence of tick infestation. The population uctuation
depends on number of factors e.g. temperature, humidity,
rain fall, gender and breed etc. The poor husbandry
practices of small holder dairy farmers may be a
determinant making the animals more prone to tick
infestation. Keeping in view the results of this study,
the farmers of the study area should be educated about
the significance of the disease through local extension
programs. Moreover, a stress should be given to practice
a routine preventive therapy against ticks rather than
treating the animals at the cost of lowered meat and
milk production.
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... The population of tick species is increasing day by day in province KPK Pakistan as well as all over the world due to applications of acaricides which developed resistance (Ali et al. 2013;Mustafa et al. 2014), geographic and climatic conditions. Many other factors such as lack of control measures, cross breed as well as local breed, sex and age of animals can help in the multiplication and spreading of tick populations Jouda et al. 2004). ...
... In the current study overall 67% tick prevalence or infestation was recorded which is in contradict with Batool et al. (2019) who had reported overall 37.52% tick infestation on buffaloes while Mustafa et al. (2014) and Rehman et al. (2017) had reported 84.3 and 81.44%, respectively. In another study which conducted by Iqbal et al. (2013) 31% tick prevalence was recorded. ...
... microplus, B. decolratus) on buffaloes and recorded highest infestation of Hy. anatolicum which is line with our study findings. The early researchers had reported the similar findings about abundance of Hy. anatolicum in different zones of Pakistan (Perveen et al. 2011;Mustafa et al. 2014;Iqbal et al. 2014 andKarim et al. 2017;Ramzan et al. 2020). ...
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... be Haemaphysalis bispinosa (100%), along with Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (7.29%), Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (3.13%) and H. anatolicum anatolicum (2.08%). The abundance of ticks in these countries is higher than in Europe (Hostis and Seegers, 2002) and Australia (Mustafa et al., 2014). Extensive research on tick prevalence and the related risk factors was carried out in different districts of Pakistan (Sultana et al., 2015;Sajid et al., 2017;2020). ...
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... Ticks usually prefer warm, moist and hidden sites with good vascular supply and thin skin [41]. Using soft tissues for the establishment has few advantages [42]. First, ticks can easily attach with the soft tissues and make contact with the blood capillaries of the host. ...
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Ticks are very harmful blood sucking protozoans and rickettsial diseases in livestock and cause an adverse economy of the world, including tropical regions like Nepal. Thus, the current study was conducted to determine the distribution, prevalence, and the effects of ticks in the goat of the Rapti Municipality, Chitwan, Nepal. Ticks were picked from different body parts of goats (n=473) and identified to species level by using morphological identification keys under a microscope. The study revealed that 161 (34%) of goats were infested and females had highest prevalence of ticks compared to males (41% vs 28%). A total of 14 species of ticks of genera Haemaphysalis, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes and Dermacentor were identified. All tick-positive goats were suffered from inflamed wounds with various skin manifestations. In conclusion, this study suggested that appropriate control measures for ticks need to be employed in the study area for economic goat production.
... These may result in skin damage, weight loss, abortion, and mortality, leading to substantial economic losses [9][10][11]. In Pakistan, cattle, and buffalo are mostly infested with Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma ticks [7,[12][13][14][15][16][17] which transmit pathogens, such as Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria annulate [18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. Ovine and caprine theileriosis are caused by Theileria ovis and Theileria lestoquardi in sheep and goats, and these pathogens are transmitted by Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma ticks [25][26][27][28][29]. Ticks may also transmit pathogens to humans, especially those working closely with animals. ...
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Background: Ticks are ectoparasites that transmit a variety of pathogens that cause many diseases in livestock which can result in skin damage, weight loss, anemia, reduced production of meat and milk, and mortality. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify tick species and the distribution on livestock hosts (sheep, goat, dairy cattle, and buffalo) of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and Islamabad from October 2019 to November 2020. Materials and Methods: Surveillance was performed to calculate the prevalence of ticks on livestock. Tick prevalence data (area, host, breed, gender, age, and seasonal infestation rate) was recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 2080 animals were examined from selected farms, and, of these, 1129 animals were tick-infested. A total of 1010 male tick samples were identified to species using published keys. Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus decoloratus Rhipicephalus microplus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from goats, sheep, buffalo, and cattle. The overall rates of tick infestation on livestock were 34.83% (buffalo), 57.11% (cattle), 51.97% (sheep) and 46.94% (goats). Within each species, different breeds demonstrated different proportions of infestation. For cattle breeds, infestation proportions were as follows: Dhanni (98.73%), Jersey (70.84%) and the Australian breed of cattle (81.81%). The Neeli Ravi breed (40%) of buffalo and the Beetal breed (57.35%) of goats were the most highly infested for these species. Seasonally, the highest prevalence of infestation (76.78%) was observed in summer followed by 70.76% in spring, 45.29% in autumn, and 20% in winter. The prevalence of tick infestation in animals also varied by animal age. In goats, animals aged 4–6 years showed the highest prevalence (90%), but in cattle, the prevalence of ticks was highest (68.75%) in 6 months–1-year-old animals. 1–3 years old buffalo (41.07%) and 6 months–1 year sheep (65.78%) had the highest prevalence rate. Females had significantly higher infestation rates (61.12%, 55.56% and 49.26%, respectively) in cattle, sheep, and goats. In buffalo, males showed a higher prevalence (38.46%) rate. Conclusions: This study showed tick diversity, infestation rate, and numerous factors (season, age, and gender of host) influencing tick infestation rate in different breeds of cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalo in Punjab Province, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, and Islamabad, Pakistan. Higher tick burdens and rates of tick-borne disease reduce production and productivity in animals. Understanding tick species’ prevalence and distribution will help to develop informed control measures.
... The highest prevalence of A. marginale in goats was observed in blood samples collected during the summer season followed by the autumn, spring, and winter respectively (Table 1). These results are in agreement with the fact that in Pakistan, the tick infestation reaches to its peak in the summer as during this season temperature and humidity levels reach to their peak and these conditions are ideal for tick growth, development, and reproduction (Iqbal et al. 2014;Mustafa et al. 2014). Ticks are also commonly observed infesting host animals during the autumn following their excessive production during the summer season ). ...
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Purpose In Pakistan, a major constrain to goat farming is the tick and tick-borne diseases that results in financial losses to livestock farmers. This study was conducted to report the molecular prevalence of Anaplasma (A.) marginale in goat blood samples collected during four seasons from Khanewal district in Punjab (Pakistan). Methods and results The mps1 gene of A. marginale was targeted in 900 blood samples that were collected on seasonal basis (n = 225 per season) and 6.6% (61/900) goats were found positive with A. marginale. Anaplasma marginale positive PCR products were sequenced and submitted to the GenBank. Prevalence of A. marginale varied with sampling season (P = 0.002) and it was highest in the summer (11.5%) followed by the autumn (7.6%), spring (5.3%), and winter seasons (2.7%) respectively. Anaplasma marginale prevalence varied significantly between goat breeds during the autumn (p = 0.01) and summer seasons (p = 0.02). Goats more than 2 years old and livestock farms where only goats were kept and dogs were associated with herds were risk factors for ovine anaplasmosis during different seasons. White and red blood cell counts and parameters associated with their counts were affected in A. marginale infected goats while studied serum parameters remained unaffected. Conclusion PCR is a reliable tool for the detection of A. marginale in goat blood samples. A relatively low prevalence of A. marginale in goats of Khanewal district was observed and the parasite prevalence in goats was higher in the summer (May until September) and autumn (October and November) seasons. Control measures are required to prevent tick-borne diseases in ruminants from Pakistan.
... The recorded prevalence in Attock was 43.37% in sheep and 41.53% in goats (43). In 2010, a prevalence of 23.13% was recorded in the goats of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (44), 33.58% of the goats of the district of Toba Tek Singh (11), and 86.50% of the goats in Sargodha (51). In Hajira, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, 54.66% of the sheep and 48.0% of the goats were infested (52), while the respective rates in Peshawar were 66.66% and 73.68% (2). ...
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Ectoparasites, including lice, ticks, and mites, inhabit the host skin and depend on their host for sustenance, maturation, and multiplication. Among these, ticks are more prevalent in various regions of Pakistan because of favorable climatic conditions, lack of awareness of regarding ectoparasite infestation rate, insufficient veterinary services, and inadequate control measures. Ectoparasitic infestation is a primary threat to cost-effective livestock production by damaging skin and transmitting multiple diseases between animals. This review aimed to determine the infestation rate of various ectoparasites in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and camels to ascertain the prevalence and epidemiology of ectoparasites in different regions of Pakistan. Additionally, this analysis may aid in the development of preventative and control measures and to identify risk factors linked with ectoparasites to increase livestock productivity. It outlines how veterinary schools, researchers, and organizations may eradicate these parasites in adjacent countries.
... Ticks were reported to occur predominantly on the tail and soft body parts such as the udder, external genitalia and/or around the perineum region Iqbal et al., 2020;Ramzan et al., 2020;Shoaib et al., 2021b). Most recent studies reported higher tick prevalence rates during the hot months of summer and the monsoon periods (from April to October) (Ahmad and Hashmi, 2007;Ahmed et al., 2012;Atif et al., 2012a;Batool et al., 2019;Kakar et al., 2017;Manan et al., 2007;Mustafa et al., 2014;Sajid et al., 2009b;Sayyad et al., 2016), whereas a small number of studies (n ¼ 3) conducted in the early 1990s reported a higher tick prevalence during late summer and winter seasons Kumar, 1990, 1991;Kumar and Hussain, 1992), proposed to be due to climatic differences among study areas. Few studies (n ¼ 4) also reported the absence of backyard poultry, lack of acaricidal use, traditional rural housing, earthen floors in animal barns and grazing as major risk factors for tick infestation (Farooqi et al., 2017c;Iqbal et al., 2013;Rehman et al., 2017b;Zeb et al., 2020a). ...
Article
Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) substantially affect the health and production of ruminants, particularly in resource-poor, small-scale farming systems worldwide. However, to date, there has been no critical appraisal of the current state of knowledge of TTBDs in such farming systems. In this article, we systematically reviewed the situation in Pakistan—as an example of a country that is highly reliant on agriculture to sustain its economy, particularly smallholder livestock farms, which are continually faced with challenges associated with TTBDs. The main aims of this review were to gain improved insights into the current status of TTBDs in small-scale farming systems, and to identify knowledge gaps, through the systematic evaluation of published literature on this topic from Pakistan, and to recommend future research directions. We searched publicly available literature from three databases (i.e. Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PubMed) on bovine TTBDs in Pakistan. Of 11,224 published studies identified, 185 were eligible for inclusion; these studies were published between August 1947 and June 2021. A critical analysis of these 185 studies revealed that the diagnosis of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in Pakistan has been based largely on the use of traditional methods (i.e. ‘morpho-taxonomy’). At least 54 species of tick have been recorded, most of which belong to the genera Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. The prevalence of ticks was higher, particularly in young, exotic and crossbred female cattle, during the summer season. Major TBPs include species of Anaplasma, Babesia and Theileria, with prevalences being higher in cattle than buffaloes. Additionally, pathogens of zoonotic potential, including species of Anaplasma, Borrelia, the Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Coxiella, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia, have been recorded in both tick and bovine populations. Information on risk factors, spatial-temporal distribution, genetic diversity, and control of ticks and TBPs is limited, the vector potential of ticks and the distribution patterns of ticks and TBPs in relation to climate remains largely unexplored. Future research should focus on addressing these knowledge gaps and the key challenges of poverty, food security and disease outbreaks in a small-scale livestock farming context in order to provide sustainable, environment-friendly control measures for TTBDs.
... Tick infestation varied throughout the year and the highest was recorded during June, July, and August. Similar results were reported by [18,45] from Punjab, where the infestation rate was higher in June and July. It was observed that infestation was higher in the summer season because in summer the weather becomes warm, humid, and makes the environment suitable for tick growth and multiplication. ...
Article
The domestic ruminants such as buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep, and camels all around the globe represent a significant part of the global economy. Although domestic ruminant group infestations by hard ticks are commonly reported worldwide. Because these localized reports have shown variable and unprocessed results. A comprehensive global meta-analysis of tick infestations that dealt with the global annually trend in the world countries, continents, hemispheres and tropical regions; animal age categories and sexes, attachment sites; tick life stages; and seasonal and monthly tick infestations in the world hemispheres and tropical regions in domestic ruminant groups, would be of particular importance and therefore performed. From 658 papers identified, 382 papers were selected to become parts of meta-analysis source, detailed results (329 papers) and systematic review (102 papers). The results indicate that the global tick infestations in the world countries, continents, hemispheres and tropical regions exhibited different values and ranges for domestic ruminant groups that are globally considerable amount of tick infestations to cause significant economical and medical damages. The global resultant trend of tick infestations in domestic ruminant groups exhibited predominantly an increasing trend in the world hemispheres, tropical regions, and globally in the world during the past decades. These valuable results suggest that the control measures to prohibit tick infestations in domestic ruminant groups have not been successful. Towards an effective and sustainable tick control, the control measures must be continued with more strength and intensity. The global tick infestations in domestic ruminant age categories and attachment sites of body parts exhibited different values. In other words, the levels of interest of ticks for blood feeding on domestic ruminant groups change with their age categories and attachment sites of body parts. These valuable results suggest that the all age categories of domestic ruminant groups are threatened by ticks. Ticks are predominantly tend to attach the females of domestic ruminant group as approximately twice as males. The females and males of ticks attack more domestic ruminant groups than nymphalid and larval life stages. The outcome of statistical analysis showed that there is difference between seasonal domestic ruminant tick infestation patterns in tropical regions and in the northern and southern hemispheres. Different significant degrees of tick infestations in domestic ruminant groups by analysis between tick and tick life stage infestations in relation to animal age categories, attachment sites of body parts, sexes, and seasonal and monthly tick infestations among years, countries, continents, hemispheres and tropical regions, show the temporal, spatial and epidemiological tick infestation values in different climatic, geographical and environmental conditions among countries, continents, hemispheres and tropical regions of the world.
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Ticks are considered the second most important pathogens’ vectors after mosquitoes. Ticks are responsible for transmitting many diseases not only in animals but humans as well. In Pakistan, ticks are a source of many livestock diseases such as babesiosis, theileriosis, Crimean‑Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and many more, creating huge economic losses and zoonotic risks for the human population. Keeping in mind the important role of ticks, we compiled tick species data - of Pakistan, based on a review of the tick-related literature published between 1947 and early 2021. We focused only on those studies which included ticks identified from cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats. A total of -seven tick genera, including 30 tick species, were identified from cattle and buffaloes from 42 districts of Pakistan. Regarding ticks infesting sheep and goats, seven tick genera, including 40 tick species, from 45 districts of Pakistan were reported. Our study revealed how tick fauna has been updated with the identification of a variety of tick species from the different districts and territories of Pakistan according to time. The tick fauna list compiled here provides a complete picture of tick species recorded in Pakistan to date and will help to predict future economic risks and potential animal health losses associated with these pests, which could be mitigated through proper implementation of tick control and prevention strategies.
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In the present study an epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the influence of epidemiological factors on prevalence and infestation rate of Hypoderma spp. in cattle of Potowar Region, Pakistan. A total of 1000 animals were examined on monthly basis by palpation method from the study area. The effect of age, sex, breed, management, previous exposure on hypodermosis was investigated. The mean number of nodules in the infested animals ranged from 1-35 (12.1±10.23). Higher prevalence was detected in young and female animals. The animals of local breeds, extensive grazing system and primoinfested showed higher infestation rate. Warbles were detected from September to January with a peak in December. The CHAID algorithm showed that grazing pattern as the most influencing factor for warble fly prevalence, followed by the district locality. Only previous exposure to the parasite had a significant influence on the intensity of parasitation. The management system is another contributing factor influencing the prevalence of hypodermosis. Despite the prevalence found in this study is moderate, the intensity of infestation is noticeable taking into consideration that Pakistan is a major exporter of skin, leather and their products warbles thus results in serious economic losses of the country.
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Nineteen sites throughout Ghana were selected as representative of the three major zones of natural vegetation. At these sites, samples of ticks were collected from groups of approximately five each of cattle, sheep and goats. Ticks were identified by light microscopy. In order of abundance, tick species found on livestock were: Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), Boophilus decoloratus (Koch), Rhipicephalus senegalensis Koch, Boophilus annulatus (Say), Hyalomma marginatum rufipesKoch, a Rhipicephalus species in the sanguineus group of uncertain identity close to both R. turanicus Pomerantsev and R. sulcatus Neumann, Boophilus geigyi Aeschlimann & Morel, Hyalomma truncatum Koch, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi Neumann and Rhipicephalus lunulatus Neumann. Amblyomma variegatum was found on every sample of the sheep, goats and cattle examined and was equally abundant in all vegetation zones. Boophilus species were found mainly on cattle, with some on sheep and were widely distributed by vegetation zone. Hyalomma species were found predominantly on cattle and widely distributed by vegetation zone. Rhipicephalus e. evertsi and R. senegalensis were found on sheep and cattle in all vegetation zones. The tick fauna of Ghana is similar to those of other West African countries and this shows that control strategies developed in neighbouring countries can be applied to Ghana. The significance of this tick fauna is discussed in relation to potential for pathogen transmission.
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A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ngorongoro areas of Tanzania to evaluate farmer perception of farm constraints, diseases and to investigate tick management practices during the period of March 2004. Major farm constraints were listed as diseases, lack of veterinary personnel, limited market and drug supplies and inadequate pastures. Of the diseases, tick borne diseases (TBDs) i.e. East Coast fever (ECF) was ranked first, followed by Anaplasmosis and Cowdriosis. Most farmers reported applying acaricide at interval of 2 to 4 weeks; most used acaricides that require on farm dilution and most farmers incorrectly diluted the acaricide. Tick infestation rate was estimated to be 85.6% and overall mean tick density was 20.7 ± 2.2 tick/cattle. Rhipicephalus appendiculutus and Rhipicephalusevertsi evertsi ticks were those mostly frequently encountered on the cattle and degree of tick infestation varied significantly between sub counties. Mature animals had higher odds of carrying ticks (of either spp) ([Odd ratio] ORs =12.3, P = 0.018) than young stock. None of the other farm- and animal-level factors investigated were associated with tick counts. The study established gross misuse of acaricides, which has complicated effective tick control. Extension work by veterinary personnel and acaricide manufacturers needs emphasis to save our cattle and environment.
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: Anaplasmosis is widespread in South Africa with more than 99% of the total cattle population at risk. Five tick species have been experimentally shown to be capable of transmitting Anaplasma in South Africa. Mechanical transmission through blood contaminated instruments and biting flies also occurs. Vaccination against Anaplasma marginale by administration of an Anaplasma centrale live-blood vaccine has been practiced in this country since 1912. Although generally a mild pathogen, Anaplasma centrale can cause severe clinical reactions following vaccination and also does not afford complete protection against all A. marginale isolates. Anaplasmosis vaccine is routinely available in a deep-frozen form and approximately 220,000 doses of vaccine are sold per annum. Microscopic examination of stained thin blood smears is still the most reliable and cost effective method of confirming a clinical diagnosis of anaplasmosis. Several diagnostic tests, such as the complement fixation tests, card agglutination test, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been developed to identify carrier cattle. A competitive inhibition ELISA test, based on antibody binding to a recombinant MSP-5 protein conserved among Anaplasma species, is routinely used at this laboratory.
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Ticks comprise the suborder Ixodida, with 3 families (Argasidae, Nuttalliellidae, Ixodidae) contained within the superfamily Ixodoidea. Development strategies are examind, paying particular attention to feeding periodicity and diapause. Host specificity and habitat requirements are outlined, and reproductive strategies are described (autogeny, parthenogenesis, sperm production, mating and chromosome number variations between different species). Phylogenetic relationships are also discussed. -S.J.Yates
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A survey of infestation ofBoophilus species on cattle, sheep and goats was undertaken in Nigeria between January and December 1973. Three species were encountered on cattle and of these,B. decoloratus (Koch, 1844) was predominant. The others wereB. geigyi [(Aeschlimann and Morel, 1965)] andB. annulatus [(Say, 1821)=B. congolensis (Minning, 1934)].B. decoloratus andB. annulatus were found in varying numbers in all vegetational zones of Nigeria andB. geigyi was absent in the arid Sudan zone but was the predominant species in the forest zone. While theB. annulatus was almost equally represented during the dry and rainy seasons, theB. decoloratus andB. geigyi were most numerous during the dry season. Very few boophilids were found on sheep and goats. All wereB. decoloratus.