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Politics and Justice: A Mediated Moderation Model

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This study examines the mediating influence of perceptions of organizational politics in the relationship between the interactive effects of work locus of control and leader-member exchange on distributive justice. We use the tests for mediation described by Baron and Kenny (1986) and amended for mediated moderation by Muller, Judd, and Yzerbyt (2005). We found that the perception of organizational politics partially mediates the relationships between work locus of control and leader-member exchange with distributive justice. We also found that the perception of organizational politics fully mediates the interaction of work locus of control and leader-member exchange in the prediction of distributive justice. Our results suggest that organizational politics acts as a generative mechanism through which the interaction of one's relationship with their supervisor and their perception of their own ability to influence events around them is transmitted to their perception of the fairness of organizational rewards.
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Politics and Justice: A Mediated Moderation Model
Brian K Miller; Kay McGlashan Nicols
Journal of Managerial Issues; Summer 2008; 20, 2; ABI/INFORM Global
pg. 214
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... Furthermore, this perceived fairness by an employee is reciprocated in the way of favorable workplace behavior and attitude [29]. Furthermore, it has also been manifested that the perceptions of organizational justice are not only affected by the quality of leader-member exchange [17] [30] [31] [32] but also by the degree of one's perceptions of organizational politics [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]. Therefore, it is important to know how and why the perceptions of employees vary in respect of organizational justice despite providing same working environment as these perceptions have both individual and organizational consequences. ...
... The relationship between the quality of leader-member exchange and employee's perception regarding organizational justice has been well established by different researchers in prior empirical work. Previous research suggested that employee's perceptions regarding organizational justice is affected by the process of leader-member exchange [30], such that in-group members perceptions regarding fairness will be more as compared to employees who are not part of in-group (out-group) members [17] [31] [32]. Furthermore, [59] found that employees who are part of high quality relationships (in-group members) receive higher ratings from their supervisors as compared to employees who are members of out-group members. ...
... So, another objective of the present study to examine the mechanism which affects the relationship between leader-member exchange and perceptions of organiza- [37]. Therefore, in the present study researcher examines the mediating role of perceptions of organizational politics on the relationship between leader-member exchange and perceptions of organizational justice as there are very few studies which examines the mediating role of perceptions of organizational politics [30] [42] [61]. In line with results of the study by Valle, M. & Perrewé, P. L. [42], the present study also try to find out what are the factors that affects the employee's perceptions of organizational politics and what are its consequences. ...
Article
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The present study examines the mediating role of perceptions of organizational politics on the relationship between leader-member exchange and perceptions of organizational justice. With the help of multi-stage random sampling technique, data was collected from 493 faculty members who were working in public sector universities of Punjab. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied to test the proposed hypothesized relationships. Results of the structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that employees who are part of in-group have higher levels of perceptions of organizational politics but lower levels of perceptions of organizational justice. Furthermore, employee who perceives high degree of organizational politics has shown lower levels of perceptions of organizational justice. Results of the study postulated that for more positive perceptions of organizational justice among the employees a leader should develop a high quality relationship with more employees by limiting the usage of more political behavior within the organization. This study is one of its type in Indian context as we find no empirical evidence which examines the effect of quality of leader-member exchange relationship on the perceptions of organizational justice which is being mediated through the perceptions of organizational politics of faculty members.
... However, Mahat et al. (2013) argued that those at the middle level of hierarchy perceived more politics as compared to those at the top and the bottom of the hierarchy. Although research regarding hierarchical level-POP relationship has produced mixed results, positive (Chang, 2008;Miller and Nichols, 2008) negative (Valle and Perrewe, 2000), Ferris et al. (2002) concluded that hierarchical level should remain in the model as an organizational influence upon politics perceptions. ...
... Moreover, research has generally reported a statistically significant relationship between locus of control and perceptions of politics (Andrews and Kacmar, 2001;Miller and Nichols, 2008;O'Connor and Morrison, 2001). ...
... Inconsistency noted in findings of Ferris et al.'s (2002) literature review (Kacmar and Baron, 1999;Adams et al, 2008;Miller and Nichols, 2008) and ...
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The goal of this study is to determine the relationship between organizational politics and human resource management practices in the hotel industry taking into consideration the moderating effect of impression management. This study is based on survey methodology. A cluster sample of 15 five star hotels allocated in Sharm El-Sheikh were chosen for investigation. Results of this study revealed that there is a significant difference between the levels of perception of either perception organizational politics (POP) or perception of human resource management practices (HRMPs) among managers, supervisors, and frontline workers. Moreover, supervisors’ perception of organizational politics (POP) has a considerable effect on their perception of human resource management practices where, POP explained 29.5% of the change in recruitment and selection, 21.5% of the change in training and development, 15.2% of the change in performance appraisal, and only 5.6% of the change in compensation and benefits.
... Prior scholars have measured the association between supervisors and subordinates using the leader-member exchange (LMX) construct (e.g., Kacamr et al., 1999), referring to the LMX theory. When the relationship between the leaders and subordinate employees is different, the employees who have a less intense or low-quality relationship with the leader, perceive that the leader practices favoritism towards closely related subordinates, while discriminating others and ignoring merit (Miller & Nichols, 2008), which is a negative political perception. However, in these kinds of scenarios, the subordinates closer to the leader may not perceive that their work environment and the leader are political and biased (Park, 2016). ...
... The matter would be opposite regarding the employees with an internal locus of control (Ferris et al., 1993). Accordingly, the results have shown a statistically significant relationship between locus of control and POPs (Miller & Nichols, 2008). Finally, it could be stated that the results have been mixed concerning the relationship between demographic variables and perceptions of organizational politics . ...
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Perceptions of organizational politics refer to how employees of an organization perceive their work environment as political. This paper is a literature review on the area of perceptions of organizational politics (POPs) covering Western and Sri Lankan studies, and looks into antecedents, consequences, and moderators of POPs. Studies by foreign authors, as well as the Sri Lankans, both jointly indicate that the presence of organizational politics is a problem for employees working in organizations, and most employees tend to develop negative perceptions towards such political events. Research to date has mainly identified that, employees develop negative perceptions of organizational politics. However, recently there is an emerging perception that employees could also develop positive perceptions about organizational politics. Antecedents of perceptions of organizational politics can be categorized as personal, job related, and organizational influences. Similarly, there are individual and organizational related consequences of perceptions of organizational politics. Further, studies have found many variables acting as moderators for the relationship between POPs and their consequences. This paper presents all these relationships in a nutshell.
... Organizational politics is a complex phenomenon, particularly because its existence is interpreted through individual members' perceptions. Each individual's perceptions of organizational politics (POP) are a function of his or her particular characteristics, the social relationships that they have developed within the organization, and specific outcomes and consequences such as reward allocations and job attitudes (Miller and Nicols, 2008). Ferris et al. (1989) developed a working definition and conceptual framework of organizational politics that identified antecedents, outcomes and moderators of organizational politics perceptions. ...
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Purpose The personality of an individual plays a vital role in the way an individual perceives organizational politics and justice in the workplace. However, there is meager research on how an individual's personality affects the perceptions of organizational politics and justice. This study endeavors to fill this gap by analyzing the mediating role of organizational politics perceptions on the relationship between Big Five personality dimensions and organizational justice by controlling various demographic variables. The study also proposes a benchmarking model that the policymakers can use to create positive organizational justice perceptions. Design/methodology/approach In this cross-sectional research, the data were collected through a multi-stage random sampling technique from 493 faculty members working in four public universities of Punjab, India. Out of 493 employees, 76.9% of the employees were assistant professors, 12.0% were associate professors and 11.2% were assistant professors. 51.5% of the employees were female, and 48.5% of the employees were male. To test the proposed hypothesized relationships, a structural equation modeling technique was used. Findings Results of the structural equation modeling showed that openness to experience, conscientiousness and extraversion have a negative relationship with perceptions of organizational politics. However, their relationship with perceptions of organizational justice is positive. Neuroticism has a positive relationship with perceptions of organizational politics, whereas it has a negative relationship with perceptions of organizational justice. Results also showed that high perceptions of organizational politics have a negative effect on employee's perceptions regarding organizational justice. The mediation analysis results showed that perceptions of organizational politics mediate the relationship between an individual's personality and perceptions of organizational justice. Originality/value There is a scant amount of research available that considers Big Five personality dimensions and organizational politics as the antecedents of organizational justice. Hence, the current study tries to fill this research gap by proposing a research model on antecedents and consequences of perceptions of organizational politics based on the cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS).
... Therefore, it is anticipated that perceived organisational politics results in negative consequences for both employees and organisations. Likewise, the findings of Iscan (2005) and Miller and Nicols (2008) indicate that organisational politics cause employees to perceive organisational injustice. The findings of Huang, Chuang and Lin (2003) and Karatepe, Babakus and Yavas (2012) indicate that perceptions of organisational politics cause employee burnout. ...
Article
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This research aimed to uncover whether ethical leadership had a role in preventing perceived organisational politics and its undesired consequences, such as work neglect through employees' loyalty to the organisation. Data were collected from 418 employees who report to 52 supervisors and work at four different five-star hotels in Antalya, Turkey, using self-report questionnaires in three distinct periods. Because employees were nested in their leaders, data were analysed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling technique. Findings indicated that ethical leadership resulted in loyalty and perceived organisational politics resulted in work neglect. However, there were negative relationships between ethical leadership and perceived organisational politics and ethical leadership and work neglect. Perceived organisational politics mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and work neglect. Moreover, loyalty mediated the relationships between ethical leadership and perceived organisational politics and between ethical leadership and work neglect.
... Two recent meta-analyses on POP and outcomes indicate its importance in organizational behavior research (Miller & Nichols, 2008;Chang et al., 2009). The former presented empirical review of previous research on POP and few attitudes and behaviors. ...
Article
Abstract The study proposed a parallel mediation model where the perceived organizational politics (POP) and perceived leader integrity (PLI) were underlying mechanisms through which leader–member exchange (LMX) quality translated into employee job outcomes. The proposed theoretical framework was based on relational attribution theory. We proposed that subordinates form their perceptions about organizational politics and the leader’s integrity based on their relationship quality with the leaders, which in turn leads to affective commitment, creativity, and job performance. We tested the hypothesized model using three-wave, time-lagged multisourced (self and peer-reported) data (N = 310) from employees of service sector organizations in Pakistan. After establishing the reliability and validity of measures, the parallel mediation model was tested. Results of regression analyses using Bootstrap confidence interval method indicated significant results showing that both POP and PLI mediate the relationship between LMX quality and all outcome variables with one exception. Limitations, implications and future research directions were discussed at the end.
... Given that fairness (a) signals that employees are valued and important to an organization (Colquitt et al., 2013) and (b) serves to reduce uncertainty and ambiguity around employment (Rosen, Harris, & Kacmar, 2011), individuals have a preference for fair treatment. In political environments, outcomes and processes tend to be perceived as unfair because merit tends to no longer serve as the basis for decisions (e.g., Andrews & Kacmar, 2001;Kepes et al., 2009;Miller & Nicols, 2008;Rosen, Chang, Johnson, & Levy, 2009). Therefore, organizations with political climates should be less desirable to potential applicants. ...
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Job seekers now have access to a number of internet resources (e.g., social media, chat rooms, and message boards) that provide information about potential employers. These resources provide potential job applicants with extensive amounts of third‐party information about organizations, including information about the extent to which a particular organization's climate can be characterized as being political. Unfortunately, owing to a dearth of research on this topic, it is unclear to what extent such information about an organization's political climate might affect the recruiting process. Therefore, drawing from the Attraction‐Selection‐Attrition model, we considered the extent to which potential job applicants are less (more) likely to pursue jobs in organizations that are perceived as more (less) political. We further identified Machiavellianism as a potential moderator of this relationship, given that this trait reflects the extent to which an individual would “fit” into a highly political work environment. Across three studies, our findings provide evidence that job applicants report being less likely to pursue jobs in organizations characterized by high levels of workplace politics. The results further indicated that Machiavellianism attenuates this negative effect. In light of our findings, we discuss implications for how information that is not controlled by the organization (e.g., information provided by social media or other internet‐based sources) affects job pursuit intentions and the organization's applicant pool.
... Araştırmacıların çoğu örgütsel politikaların gerçek politikalardan (politik davranışlar) çok çalışanların subjektif algılarınca temsil edildiğini ifade etmişlerdir (Indartono & Chen, 2011;Miller & Nicols, 2008;Ram & Prabhakar, 2010). Bu fikir, Lewin'in (1936) bireyler için gerçeklik, objektif gerçekliklerin yerine subjektif algılarına dayanır görüşüne dayanmaktadır. ...
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