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Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

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Introduction: Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim: To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods: Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan(®) VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results: Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions: The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects.
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Postępy Dermatologii i Alergologii 2, April / 2014 71
Original paper
Address for correspondence: Atif Ali PhD, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Lahore, Pakistan, phone: +923346081922, e-mail: ajmaline2000@gmail.com
Received: 31.07.2013, accepted: 3.11.2013.
Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization
by moringa leaf extract cream
Atif Ali
1,2
, Naveed Akhtar
2
, Farzana Chowdhary
1
1
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
Head of Institute: Dr. Farzana Chowdhary
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Head of Department: Prof. Dr. Naveed Akhtar
Postep Derm Alergol 2014; XXXI, 2: 71–76
DOI: 10.5114/pdia.2014.40945
Abstract
Introduction: Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of
skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance.
Aim: To evaluate the skin facial revitalization eect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract
on humans.
Material and methods: Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by
entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface,
volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after appli-
cation of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan
®
VC 98 for a period of 3 months.
Results: Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Eects produced for the base
and active cream were signicant and insignicant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base,
the active cream showed signicant eects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and
SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters.
Conclusions: The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization eect and supports anti-aging
skin eects.
Key words: Moringa oleifera, cream, facial revitalization.
antioxidants like vitamin C, B and A [10]. Leaves are used as
purgative, applied as the poultice to sores, rubbed on the
temples for headaches, used for piles, fevers, sore throat,
bronchitis, eye and ear infections, anti-inammatory, scurvy
and catarrh. It protects the human skin from environmental
inuences and combats premature skin aging [11].
Aim
The aim of the study was to evaluate the skin facial
revitalization eect of a cream formulation containing
the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans.
Material and methods
Plant material
Moringa oleifera leaves were gathered in July 2010
in Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and air dried at room tem-
perature for a period of 4 weeks.
Introduction
In the recent years the development of methods of
skin revitalization, i.e. of its restoration after damage of
any nature (including aging) has increased [1]. Solar ul-
traviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by
initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [2, 3]. These
can interfere with proteins; fatty acids and saccharides
resulted in oxidative damage [4] leading to skin colla-
gen imperfection and eventually skin roughness [5]. Ag-
ing is associated with morphological changes [1] and is
characterized by loss of elasticity, increased wrinkling,
irregular pigmentation, dryness and roughness [6, 7].
Recently, topical formulations have gained considerable
attention and interest as a vehicle for the drug delivery
to the human skin [8]. One approach in skin protection
against reducing skin aging is the use of plant phenolics
and antioxidants topically [5].
Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a pan-tropical species
[9]. Moringa leaves are reported to be rich in phenolics and
Postępy Dermatologii i Alergologii 2, April / 201472
Atif Ali, Naveed Akhtar, Farzana Chowdhary
Identication of the plant
Identication of the plant (M. oleifera) was made at
the Cholistan Institute of Desert Studies (CIDS), the Isla-
mia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The specimen
(voucher Number: MO-LE-09-10-31) was deposited in the
Herbarium of the Islamia University Bahawalpur.
Materials
Abil EM 90 was procured from Franken Chemicals,
Germany, paran oil from Merck, Germany, methanol
and phosphoric acid from BDH, England. Deionized water
was obtained in the Pharmaceutical Labs of Department
of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Ba-
hawalpur-Pakistan.
Preparation of the formulation
An active cream was prepared by an anionic hydro-
philic colloid (14% of Paran oil), 2% of Abil EM 90, 3%
of M. oleifera leaf extract, 0.2% of phosphoric acid, 1%
of fragrance and rest of deionized water. Heated oily
phase and aqueous phase were mixed using homog-
enizer (Euro-Star, IKAD 230, Germany) 5000 rpm for
15 min, 1000 rpm for 10 min and 500 rpm, by addition
of phosphoric acid, extract and fragrance till cooled. The
same method was adopted to prepare the base without
the extract.
Subjects
Eleven subjects were selected aged between 20 and
35 years [12]. All subjects were healthy males with no
known dermatological diseases or allergy to substance
in formulations. The Declaration of Helsinki was followed
in this single blind and controlled trial. Informed consent
was signed before the start of this study by all volun-
teers. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence
of any dermatitis and/or other skin or allergic diseases,
smokers and previous treatment of cheeks’ skin with
cosmetic formulations such as sunscreens, moisturizers
or anti-aging cosmetics. The volunteers were asked not
to apply any topical products on cheeks 24 h. before the
beginning and throughout the test period. Additionally,
solar exposure and use of occlusive clothes on the test
area were forbidden.
Instrumental assessment
Visioscan
®
VC 98 is a special UVA-light video cam-
era with high resolution to study the skin parameters
directly. The images show the structure of the skin and
the level of dryness very impressively. The camera can
be connected to the computer by the digitalization unit
Video Digitizer VD 300 via FireWire port. All measure-
ments were made in a draught-free room, with con-
trolled temperature (18.0–20.6°C) and relative humidity
(50–65%).
Study protocol
In vivo investigations have been carried out during
the winter months (October 2011 to January 2012). All
instrumental measurements were done by the author
according to manufacturer’s instructions. Two weeks
before the study beginning and during the treatment pe-
riod, the volunteers were permitted only to use normal
cleansing products. Each volunteer was then handed two
creams, the active cream containing the plant extract
and the base without the extract. The volunteers were
well informed about the correct use of the creams. Mea-
surements of skin parameters, which include surface, vol-
ume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of living
skin (SELS), were done every month up to the end of the
study period of 3 months. Approximately, 500 mg of both
active cream and base were to be applied to the cheeks
twice daily (mornings, 7:00–9:00; evenings, 19:00–21:00)
over a 12-week period at home by the volunteers. The
area around the eyes was omitted. Before all measure-
ments, volunteers remained in the experimental room
for at least 15 min in order to tolerate skin adjustment to
room temperature.
Ethical standards
The approval of this study (Ref. No. 3715/Acad) was
obtained from the Advanced Study and Research Board
(ASARB), the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawal-
pur and the Institutional Ethical Committee, Faculty of
Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, the Islamia Univer-
sity of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-Pakistan.
Mathematical and statistical analysis
The skin parameter values (surface, volume, texture
parameters and surface evaluation of living skin) of the
right and left cheek of the volunteers were calculated at
0 h, 1
st
, 2
nd
and 3
rd
month (Figure 1). SPSS 17.0 was used
for data analysis on the computer by using the two-way
ANOVA for variation at dierent time intervals and the
paired sample t-test for the variation between the two
formulations. The level of signicance was set at p < 0.05.
Results and discussion
The values for the surface, volume, texture param-
eters and SELS were taken by Visioscan
®
VC 98 before
application of the creams (0 h readings), then after 1
st
, 2
nd
and 3
rd
month of the study period.
Surface and volume
Surface values (smoothness of the skin) is direct-
ly associated with the micro-furrows and furrows. Less
micro-furrows and furrows are indicative of smoothness
of skin and ultimately reduction in wrinkles [13]. In our
results, surface values are constantly decreased, which
is produced by the active cream and are increased by the
Postępy Dermatologii i Alergologii 2, April / 2014
Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream
73
base after application when assessed by Visioscan
®
VC 98
(Figure 2). The base produced statistically signicant ef-
fects at all reading intervals on the surface parameters,
and active cream produced insignificant effects when
two-way ANOVA was applied. When paired t-test was
applied, it was observed that the active cream produced
significant results in volunteers except the 2
nd
month.
A positive surface reduction is associated with reduction
in depth of micro-wrinkles and reduction in skin rough-
ness [14]. However, in our results reduction was achieved
but not signicant surface changes by moringa cream.
Volume measures the virtual amount of liquid (mm
3
)
required to ll the depths in image. In young and smooth
surface of the skin less virtual liquid is required to fill
the depths. The active cream produced signicant eects
when two-way ANOVA was performed. Descending val-
ues were observed for the active cream. The active cream
also showed signicant eects when paired sample t-test
was applied for variation between the two creams. This
supports our ndings of decreased volume values by the
active cream until the 12
th
week when applied resulting
in skin smoothness and less rough skin as less amount of
virtual liquid is required as shown in Figure 3.
Texture parameters
The parameters (energy, contrast and variance) an-
alyze dierences in colors of neighboring pixels [13]. Ef-
fects of texture parameters produced by the active cream
and base on volunteers are shown in Figure 4. Energy is
increased with an increased hydration level of the skin
and more homogeneity of an image [15]. In this study, an
Figure 1. The right cheek of a human volunteer (A) before and (B) after application of active cream for 3 months
A B
0
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
–12
–14
–16
–18
–20
Percentage change
Figure 2. Change (%) in the surface values of volunteers
after the application of the base and active cream
1M – application of the base and active cream after 1 month, 2M – application
of the base and active cream after 2 months, 3M – application of the base
and active cream after 3 months
1M 2M 3M
Time [month]
Base
Active cream
0
–2
–4
–6
–8
–10
–12
–14
–16
1M 2M 3M
Time [month]
Percentage change
Base
Active cream
Figure 3. Change (%) in the volume values of volunteers
after the application of the base and active cream
1M – application of the base and active cream after 1 month, 2M – application
of the base and active cream after 2 months, 3M – application of the base
and active cream after 3 months
Postępy Dermatologii i Alergologii 2, April / 201474
Atif Ali, Naveed Akhtar, Farzana Chowdhary
1B 1F 2B 2F 3B 3F
Time [month]
80
60
40
20
0
–20
–40
Percentage change
Figure 4. Change (%) in skin texture parameter (energy, contrast and variance) of volunteers with time after following
application of base and active cream
1B – application of the base after 1 month, 1F – application of the active cream after 1 month, 2B – application of the base after 2 months, 2F – application of
the active cream after 2 months, 3B – application of the base after 3 months, 3F – application of the active cream after 3 months
Energy
Contrast
Variance
increase in the energy values for the active cream was
statistically signicant at all reading intervals, but the
base produced insignicant eects. The active cream also
showed signicant eects when paired sample t-test was
applied for variation between the two creams except the
3
rd
month. Moisturizing and anti-aging treatment pro-
vides energy when applied so this study needs to assess
moisturization eects of the active cream evaluated by
a corneometer to support that either active cream may
provide hydration to the Stratum corneum. Our ndings
of an increase in energy parameters indicated a general
overview over the state of skin as moisturizer. A signif-
icant result of energy obtained by moringa cream was
indicative of more elastic and hydrated skin in human
volunteers.
Variance is the average of a local variance over
a number of pixels. The actual value of the pixel is com-
pared to the average. High variance indicates high rough-
ness of skin surface [16]. In this study, a decrease in the
variance values for the active cream was statistically sig-
nicant at all reading intervals but the base produced
insignicant eects. The active cream also showed sig-
nicant eects when paired sample t-test was applied
for variation between the two creams. Our findings
disclosed a reduction in variance, which supports less
roughness of the skin surface.
Contrast indicates the dierence between gray levels
of the two neighboring pixels. The higher the contrast,
the higher the dierent values of two neighbors. A good
skin condition will show low contrast values [16]. In this
study, a decrease in the contrast values for the active
cream was statistically signicant at all reading intervals
but the base produced insignicant eects. The active
cream showed signicant eects when paired sample
t-test was applied for variation between the two creams
except the 1
st
and 2
nd
month. Reduction in contrast show-
ed a better condition and smoothness of the skin result-
ing in the reduction in roughness.
Retaining a proper water gradient in the skin is es-
sential for maintenance of mechanical properties of col-
lagen as well as elastic bers. Collagen and elastin retain
their three-dimensional structure in the hydrated form
only – water deciency leads to altered physical qualities
of the proteins [16]. Enhanced elasticity of the skin on the
cheeks after the use of the moringa leaf extract-enriched
cream may result from proper skin hydration and at the
same time from normal activity of broblasts responsi-
ble for collagen synthesis. The presence of the moringa
leaf extract contributed to an enhanced division of fi-
broblasts, increased metabolism, including turnover of
collagen and elastin. Mechanical properties of the skin
(elasticity) depend on the structure and density of colla-
gen and elastic bers. Normally functioning skin does not
lose the ability to contract and does not get slack, while
these factors contribute to the development of wrinkles.
Surface evaluation of living skin
The percentage changes of dierent SELS parameters
SEr, SEsc, SEsm and SEw measured by Visioscan
®
VC 98
before application of creams and at the 1
st
, 2
nd
and 3
rd
month of the study period are given in Figure 5. SEr is the
roughness parameter, which calculates the proportion of
dark pixels. SEsm is the index of smoothness and is cal-
Postępy Dermatologii i Alergologii 2, April / 2014
Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream
75
culated from the mean width and depth of wrinkles. SEsc
is the index of scaliness of skin, which shows the level
of skin dryness. SEw identies aging including wrinkles
and is calculated from the proportion of horizontal and
vertical wrinkles [17]. In this study, it was found that the
base produced statistically insignicant eects on the
roughness parameter of the skin, and the active cream
produced signicant eects at all reading intervals when
ANOVA two way analysis was performed. When paired
sample t-test was applied for SEr, SEsc, SEsm and Sew,
signicant eects were observed for the active cream ex-
cept the 1
st
and 2
nd
month in the case of Ser, 3
rd
month in
the case of SEsc, 1
st
and 3
rd
month in the case SEsm and
1
st
and 3
rd
month in the case of SEw. A gradual decrease
in the values of roughness, scaliness, smoothness and
wrinkles were observed for the active cream, which in-
dicated that the active cream had anti-aging properties.
The smaller SEsc value corresponds to higher skin mois-
ture as treatment with anti-aging formulations resulted
in lower values for SEsc. Lower values for the SEw param-
eter indicated that there were fewer wrinkles present on
the skin, which indicates that the active cream reduced
the ne wrinkles. This was directly related to the gain of
collagen.
It is assumed that the improvement in skin surface pa-
rameters can be attributed to the moringa phenolics which
include kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, gallic, chlorogenic, el-
lagic and ferulic acid and antioxidants, which include vita-
min A, C and B. Phenolics oer the best protection against
enzymes that cause the breakdown of collagen and elastin
in skin, ultimately skin rejuvenation [10, 11]. β-Carotene has
been revealed to have topical photo-protective outcomes
in an increase in protein and collagen as well as DNA con-
tent and increased epidermal thickening [18]. Vitamin B
functions as a humectant and increases the water content.
Humectants can attract water into the Stratum corneum to
soften the skin; this is eective as a moisturizer [18]. All of
these investigations collectively support our ndings that
the active cream supports anti-aging properties.
Conclusions
The results achieved in this investigation suggest that
topical formulation of moringa extract is capable of revi-
talizing the skin and reducing signs of skin aging. Future
studies are required to unravel the anti-aging activity and
mechanism of plant constituents in the form of topical
formulation.
Acknowledgments
The authors wish to thank the Higher Education Com-
mission of Pakistan for providing nancial support to the
study. The authors also acknowledge moral support given
by the Chairman and Dean of the Faculty of Pharmacy
and Alternative Medicine, the Islamia University of Ba-
hawalpur, Pakistan.
Conict of interest
All authors declare no conict of interest.
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Time [month]
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Percentage change
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... Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, diterpenoids, and cardiac glycosides are all found in MO pod husks. MO pod husks extract has antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, as well as Gram negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium (Ali et al., 2014). ...
... Some vectors, such as malaria mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi, might be prevented with the seed extract. The phytochemicals produced from MO seed extracts are efficient mosquito vector control agents, and the plant extracts might be utilized in future IPM programmes (Ali et al., 2014;Al-Malki and Rabey, 2015;Ali et al., 2019). ...
... Antioxidants, particularly polyphenols, are the major plant chemicals capable of reducing oxidative damage in tissues by indirect cell promotion or free radical scavenging (Ali et al., 2014;Al-Malki and Rabey, 2015). Because of its high polyphenol content, the leaves of the Moringa oleifera tree have been shown to exhibit antioxidant action (Yisehak et al., 2011;Verma et al., 2009). ...
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... For instance, M. oleifera leaf extracts displayed anti-aging activity by improving oxidative stress resistance and nutrient-sensing pathways (10), extending the life span, and improving stress tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans (11). Moreover, it was also found that the M. oleifera leaf extracts observably decreased agerelated neurodegeneration in the old treated rat model (12), and its cream restored skin vitality and reduced skin aging (13). However, the specific bioactive ingredients in M. oleifera leaf extracts that contributed most to its conspicuous antiaging activity remain unexplored until now. ...
... Recently, plenty of studies has indicated that M. oleifera possesses anti-aging activity and can delay skin aging (11,13,31). For example, a previous study found that M. oleifera leaf extracts possess the most powerful life span extending property of C. elegans (11). ...
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The wide popularity, acceptability and demand of herbal cosmetics has been increased in recent years due to awareness of harmful side effects and adverse reactions caused by synthetic cosmetics ingredients. Herbs, plant materials and plant products were used as cosmetics since ancient times. Various essential oils, juices, fixed oil, plant exudates, extracts, isolated compound obtained from natural sources have been used for their skin care potential in various herbal cosmetics. Herbal cosmetics getting more popularity and belief among the people due to safety, higher bio-compatibility, cost effectiveness, easy availability, lower side effects, environmental friendly nature and traditional experience of uses. Such reliability on herbal cosmetics encourage to screen more herbs, plant materials and natural ingredients for their cosmetic potential. Scientific review of available data and new researches on medicinal plants can provide basis to use more plants for their skin care potential. This review attempts to emphasize the use of some common medicinal plants for their skin care potential in herbal cosmetics.
... It has been also reported to reduce the negative effects of nephrotoxicity induced by drugs. It has a considerable impact on developing clinical strategies to treat renal failure patient or as adjunct therapy to improve the therapeutic index of nephrotoxic drugs (Ali et al. 2014). Finally, Moringa oleifera leaves' extracts contain compounds with wide spectrum antibacterial properties that can prevent the progress of bacteria (Manzoor et al. 2007). ...
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Moringa oleifera is a small- to medium-sized multipurpose tree, which grows in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Moringa oleifera is drought-resistant, preferring regions with dry/wet climate and hence is cultivated in a wide range of habitats on a variety of soils across the world. It contains a significant value including as food, fodder, medicine, fuelwood, and fertilizer from all parts of the plant. Leaves are rich in minerals, vitamins, and other essential phytochemicals. These phytochemicals are used as conventional drugs for antioxidants, antitumor, antidiabetes, antihyperlipidemia, and as antimicrobial agents. The leaves extract is also involved in the treatment of malnutrition, augmenting breast milk in lactating mothers. The production of seeds from elongated capsule fruits is most useful in water purification. The scientific evidence provides insights on the utilization of Moringa oleifera to cure diabetes, cancer. The large-scale commercial cultivation of this species accelerates the medicinal, nutritional, and prominent pharmaceutical values.
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Antioxidant activity (AA) of methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves, as function of seasons and agroclimatic locations, was investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ascorbic acid (AAcid) content , reducing power, AA in linoleic acid system and scavenging power of superoxide anion radical were taken as parameters for evaluation of AA. Significant differences were observed in the AA of the extracts from different locations and seasons. Generally, samples from Mardaan exhibited highest AA followed by Balakot, Chakwal, Jamshoro, and Nawabshah. Overall antioxidant efficacy was greater in December or March depending upon location, and least in June. Antioxidant potential of M. oleifera leaves from Pakistan was quite comparable or higher than literature values for M. oleifera from other countries and some other potent antioxidants. This work shows that season and agroclimatic locations have profound effect on the AA of M. oleifera leaves.
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Vehicles designed to enhance drug delivery through the skin must incorporate specific elements that improve the ability of the delivery system to overcome the barrier posed by the stratum corneum. This review discusses several chemical penetration enhancers that have been investigated as potential tools to increase drug flux. In addition, lipid-based delivery systems offer an attractive alternative to traditional drug vehicles. The relationship between liposome composition and drug permeation is discussed, in addition to the possible mechanism of action of lipid vesicle-mediated drug delivery.