Educación Compensatoria. Aprendizaje temprano, éxito posterior (II: Carolina Abecedarian Project) . [Compensatory education. Early learning, later success (II: Carolina Abecedarian Project)]
This is a review study which analyzes research that evaluates the long term effects of an early education program, the Abecedarian Project. The Abecedarian Project (ABC) is a preventive compensatory education program for children from 0 to 5 years of high risk mothers. The experimental group (E) received an intensive preschool treatment, while the control (C) group did not. At five years old, each group was divided into another two groups: Two of these new groups (EE and CE) received intensive schooling until the children reached 8 years old, while the other groups (EC and CC) received no special treatment. The total sample was measured until each child reached 21 years. The results were as follows: The young adults, treated in the preschool years, had on average significantly higher cognitive test scores, earned higher scores on reading and math tests; they completed more years of education, they were more likely to attend a 4-year college or university, and they were less likely to become teen parents. Furthermore, the mothers of these students were more likely to reach a higher level of instruction and employment. Finally, the article discusses the validity of the study and the factors associated to the benefits (the early beginning, intensity and continuity of the program). Este es un estudio de revisión en el que se analizan las investigaciones que evalúan los efectos a lo largo del tiempo del temprano Abecedarian Project (ABC). El ABC es un programa compensador preventivo de 0-5 años y entresacados de madres de alto riesgo. El grupo experimental (E) recibe tratamiento preescolar intensivo, no el control (C). Se prolongó escolarmente hasta los 8 años, subdividiéndose ambos grupos: Dos -EE y CE- recibieron tratamiento intensivo; otros (EC y CC) convencional. Fueron medidos hasta los 21. Resultados: Los jóvenes adultos, tratados preescolarmente, mejoraron en rendimiento mental, lector y matemático; alcanzaron mayores instrucción y presencia en universidades de cuatro años, así como más baja tasa de paternidad en edad teen (13 a 19 años). Sus madres alcanzaron mayor nivel educativo y de empleo. Se discute la validez y los factores asociados a los beneficios (el ser temprana, su intensidad y continuidad).
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