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The effects of dinoflagellate blooms on the oyster Crassostrea virginica in Chesapeake Bay

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  • Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary
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... In addition to scallops and clams, oysters may be affected by P. minimum blooms. Mortality and poor growth in wild populations of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica ingesting Chesapeake Bay P. minimum blooms have also been noted (Luckenbach et al., 1993;Sellner et al., 1995). Empirical observations of shellfish mortalities during P. minimum blooms are also recorded in the literature (Yongjia et al., 1995) and monitoring reports (shellfish rearing records, NMFS Milford Laboratory), but a number of system parameters could produce mortality, including changes in water chemistry associated with the bloom (e.g., low dissolved oxygen) or other factors coincident with the bloom. ...
... There is little doubt that bivalves ingest P. minimum. Various life-history stages of several bivalve species are able to filter and ingest cultured P. minimum cells at environmentally-realistic concentrations: larval mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, (Jeong et al., 2004); adult Glauconome chinensis (Lee and Chung, 2001;Lee et al., 2003); adult sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus (Brilliant and MacDonald, 2002); and juvenile eastern oysters, C. virginica (Sellner et al., 1995). ...
... P. minimum blooms are common in oyster habitats, occasionally seasonally coincident with oyster spawning. Earlier work with C. virginica included laboratory studies of the dinoflagellate's trophic interactions with several life history stages of the eastern oyster, including spat and juveniles (Luckenbach et al., 1993;Sellner et al., 1995), with dramatic impacts, including pseudofeces production in short term exposures and high mortalities after several weeks. Some of these studies subsequently were repeated and applied to younger oysters using the strain of P. minimum (EXUV) used in previous clam and scallop exposures (Wikfors and Smolowitz, 1993). ...
Article
There has been no consensus on whether Prorocentrum minimum is “toxic,” despite sporadic reports suggesting possible shellfish toxicity and laboratory studies showing harmful effects of this dinoflagellate on molluscan shellfish. Shellfish toxicity outbreaks associated with natural blooms of P. minimum have been confounded by co-occurrence of other toxic phytoplankton. Laboratory studies have demonstrated unequivocally that some P. minimum isolates can produce toxins that kill mice on injection, but the bioactive compound or compounds remain unidentified, and accumulation of toxin in grazing mollusks has not been demonstrated. Laboratory experiments testing the responses of grazing mollusks to P. minimum cultures have yielded variable results, ranging from mortality in scallops and oysters to normal growth of oysters. Effects observed in the laboratory include rejection as pseudofeces by clams, poor larval development in oysters, tissue pathologies (sometimes transient) in oysters and scallops, and systemic immune responses in oysters and scallops. Several recent studies have provided evidence that variation in toxicity of P. minimum is dependent on environmental conditions and their effects on the physiology of this dinoflagellate. Accordingly, seemingly conflicting observations from field and laboratory studies may be explained by transient toxin expression in P. minimum.
... There is therefore a growing concern about the effects of HABs upon shellfish resources, both in terms of seafood safety and the sustainability of shellfish industries (Tan and Ransangan 2015). HABs species mainly Prorocentrum minimum (Sellner et al. 1995), Heterocapsa circularisquama (Matsuyama et al. 1996) and Aureococcus anophagefferens (Bricelj and MacQuarrie 2007) have been associated with climate change and mass mortality episodes in bivalves. ...
... Moreover, the P. minimum blooms also caused 100% mortality of juvenile oysters within 14 days and at 33% bloom density caused 43% mortality over 22 days (Luckenbach et al. 1993). The gill damage hypothesis had not been confirmed, and no follow-up studies of scallops in natural P. minimum blooms were conducted until the occurrence of mass mortality of wild eastern oyster, C. virginica, populations in Chesapeake Bay (Sellner et al. 1995). The P. minimum induces thrombosis throughout the vascular systems of bay scallops which indicate enterotoxin may be involved (Wikfors and Smolowitz 1993;Landsberg 2002). ...
Chapter
One of the fastest-growing global food sectors is the bivalve aquaculture industry. Bivalves particularly oysters, mussels and clams are important sources of animal protein (Tan and Ransangan 2016a, b). Bivalve aquaculture represents 14–16% of the average per capita animal protein for 1.5 billion people and supports over 200,000 livelihoods, mostly in developing countries (FAO 2018). Most of the bivalves produced around the world (89%) are from aquaculture (FAO 2016). To date, mollusc aquaculture have accounted for 21.42% (17.14 million tonnes) of the total aquaculture production, with Asia being the largest contributor (92.27%) (FAO 2018).
... Furthermore, C. polykrikoides is known to secrets cyto-toxic agents and mucus substance that can kill various marine animals by clogging their gills (Garate-Lizarraga et al., 2004;Kim et al., 2008;Matsuoka et al. 2010). Sellner et al. (1995) stated that juvenile Crassostrea virginica fed on dinoflagellates Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae (= P. minimum) and Gyrodinium uncatenum (= Gymnodinium uncatenum) and transfer surface bloom production to the sediments as feces and pseudofeces which increase benthic oxygen demand and convey dominant oxygen demand from the pelagic to the benthic environment in Chesapeake Bay. Some pelagic and epi-benthic marine organisms feed on C. polykrikoides and increase oxygen demand by producing feces in the benthic environment where specimens of S. dactylus is living. ...
... Chemical identities of toxic agents in P. minimum remain poorly known, although effects upon bacteria have been attributed to a diketone believed to be a product of carotenoid degradation (Trick et al. 1981 ). Other studies have shown no bioactive effects of P. minimum cultures (Sellner et al. 1995 ), leading to speculation that strains may differ in toxicity, or expression of toxicity is dependent upon physiological status of the population (Grzebyk et al. 1997, Wikfors 2005. In HAB species whose specifi c toxins can be quantifi ed, dependence of toxin content upon growth status of the species is observed often, e.g., in the diatom Pseudonitzschia seriata (Fehling et al. 2004 ), and the dinofl agellates Karlodinium venefi cum (Adolf et al. 2009 ), Dinophysis acuminata (Tong et al. 2011 ), and Prorocentrum lima (Varkitzi et al. 2010 ). ...
Article
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The harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum reportedly has variable toxicity to grazing animals. We used the bay scallop Argopecten irradians irradians as a bioassay organism to compare expression of harmful effects of P. minimum cultures in growth or senescent phases. The non-toxic alga Rhodomonas sp. was used as a control. Exposure to both types of P. minimum cultures decreased the degree of shell opening, amount of biodeposits produced, motility and byssal-thread attachment. As P. minimum cultures approached senescence, effects became more severe, and mortality increased to 15 % in scallops exposed to senescent P. minimum. Pathological effects of P. minimum on scallops included derangements of scallop digestive tubules and the adductor muscles, and abnormal hemocyte distributions, which were more severe in scallops exposed to senescent cultures. These findings help to explain the variable toxicity of P. minimum to scallops and other bivalves reported in the literature. Further, these findings demonstrate that the definition of a " harmful algal bloom " should probably be expanded to include physiological status along with identity and abundance of a phytoplankton species.
... Furthermore, C. polykrikoides is known to secrets cyto-toxic agents and mucus substance that can kill various marine animals by clogging their gills (Garate-Lizarraga et al., 2004;Kim et al., 2008;Matsuoka et al. 2010). Sellner et al. (1995) stated that juvenile Crassostrea virginica fed on dinoflagellates Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae (= P. minimum) and Gyrodinium uncatenum (= Gymnodinium uncatenum) and transfer surface bloom production to the sediments as feces and pseudofeces which increase benthic oxygen demand and convey dominant oxygen demand from the pelagic to the benthic environment in Chesapeake Bay. Some pelagic and epi-benthic marine organisms feed on C. polykrikoides and increase oxygen demand by producing feces in the benthic environment where specimens of S. dactylus is living. ...
Article
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A Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tide occurred in northern coastal waters of the Persian Gulf which killed million tons of fish and benthic animals. This study reports high mortality rate of Solen dactylus (razor clam) populations on the Golshahr coast of Bandar Abbas to show that management and monitoring plans are necessary to prevent future mass mortalities. Specimens of S. dactylus were collected during the red tide for three months in November 2008, February and April 2009. In April 2009, no clams were found in this area because all clams had died before the investigation. Abundance of razor clams showed no significant relationship with sea-surface physical and chemical factors such as sea-surface temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH (p•0.05). Total weight of razor clams was not significantly different between November 2008 and February 2008 (p•0.05), however, the gonad weight of razor clams in February 2009 was significantly lower than that in February 2008 (p”0.05).
... Chemical identities of toxic agents in P. minimum remain poorly known, although effects upon bacteria have been attributed to a diketone believed to be a product of carotenoid degradation (Trick et al. 1981 ). Other studies have shown no bioactive effects of P. minimum cultures (Sellner et al. 1995 ), leading to speculation that strains may differ in toxicity, or expression of toxicity is dependent upon physiological status of the population (Grzebyk et al. 1997 , Wikfors 2005 ). In HAB species whose specifi c toxins can be quantifi ed, dependence of toxin content upon growth status of the species is observed often, e.g., in the diatom Pseudonitzschia seriata (Fehling et al. 2004 ), and the dinofl agellates Karlodinium venefi cum (Adolf et al. 2009 ), Dinophysis acuminata (Tong et al. 2011 ), and Prorocentrum lima (Varkitzi et al. 2010 ). ...
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An overview is presented on flow cytometry as a tool for counting, analysis and identification of phytoplankton species and groups. The paper covers basics on the analysis technique and instrumentation such as the measuring principle, the type of instrument, limitations and pitfalls with phytoplankton samples and sample handling and preprocessing. Possibilities of the measured entities are discussed, roughly divided in light scatter and related parameters, the endogenous fluorescence and exogenous fluorescence, followed by a discussion on the actual applications such as phytoplankton abundance analysis, ecology and physio logy research and monitoring of particle size and biomass. In addition to a limited literature review, we tried to assess how flow cytometry is used in routine laboratory practice and monitoring operations. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent out via email to 47 scientists at 43 institutes known to us as involved in flow cytometric analysis of phytoplankton. In total, 19 scientists responded. Specific survey results are included in italic print whereas some more general answers were integrated in the overview.
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The dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama Horiguchi is known to cause massive marine shellfish deaths in coastal waters of Japan. During the last two decades, proliferation of H. circularisquama across western portions of Japan hampered the production of shellfish cultivation, resulting in economic consequences. In this chapter, the ecophysiology and toxicology of H. circularisquama and subsequent damage to aquaculture are discussed, with special emphasis on the effects of H. circularisquama on the physiology of shellfish.
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The cosmopolitan dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum is a recurrent bloom forming species in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, generally observed at its highest levels in late spring and summer. Laboratory studies were conducted to assess potential bloom impacts on diel oxygen concentrations in shallow littoral zones as well as settlement success and post-set growth of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Using light–dark and dark cultures and periodic diel sub-sampling, bloom levels of P. minimum produced supersaturated oxygen levels at the end of each day while darkened cultures were typified by rapid decreases in dissolved oxygen (DO) (1.1–1.3mgL−1h−1) to hypoxic and anoxic levels within 4 days. These data suggest shallow, poorly flushed systems and the biota in them will experience rapid and large diel variations in oxygen, implying recurrent P. minimum blooms need be considered as short-term oxygen stressors for Bay oyster spat and other living resources. Direct effects of P. minimum impacts on oysters were not as expected or previously reported. In one experiment, pre-bloom isolates of P. minimum were grown and then exposed to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) settlement plates to see whether dinoflagellate preconditioning of the hard substrate might affect oyster sets. No differences were noted between set on the PVC with P. minimum exposure to set recorded with filtered seawater, Instant Ocean®, or Isochrysis. In the second oyster experiment, spat on PVC plates were exposed to field collected P. minimum blooms and a commercial mixture of several other food types including Isochrysis. Oyster growth was significantly higher in P. minimum exposures than noted in the commercial mix. These results, compared to results with other isolates from the same region, indicate substantial positive impact from some of the P. minimum blooms of the area while others separated in space, time, or nutrient status could severely curtail oyster success through toxin production induced by nutrient limitation.
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• What is this ? This manual contains instructions for the routine use of the FACScalibur for counting bacterial and picoalgal concentrations in natural samples. Part of the instructions (like turning on and off or cleaning the machine) will be useful to users of the machine for other applications. However, any user that intends to develop new methods or approximations or that will work with unusual samples will have to manage her/himself on his/her own. I recommend that in such a case, the cytometer manual, and a good cytometry book (like Shapiro's "Practical Flow Cytometry") are read and understood before starting to play around. I also recommend that enough time is allotted to development of procedures before actual samples are run. Needless to say, I offer this information with the assumption that you will report back to me any errors or missunderstandings and you will also report any improvements you make. It took me some months to setup the procedures that are explained below, and some details are still not completely understood. I will appreciate if new information or procedures are reported to me so that I can add them to the document.
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