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Contemporary Heterosexism on Campus and Psychological Distress Among LGBQ Students: The Mediating Role of Self-Acceptance

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Abstract

Contemporary heterosexism includes both overt and subtle discrimination. Minority stress theory posits that heterosexism puts sexual minorities at risk for psychological distress and other negative outcomes. Research, however, tends to focus only on one form at a time, with minimal attention being given to subtle heterosexism. Further, little is known about the connection between minority-stressors and underlying psychological mechanisms that might shape mental health outcomes. Among a convenience sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) college students (n = 299), we investigated the role of blatant victimization and LGBQ microaggressions, both together and separately, on psychological distress and the mediating role of self-acceptance. We conducted structural equation modeling to examine hypothesized relationships. Heterosexism was measured as blatant victimization, interpersonal microaggressions, and environmental microaggressions. Self-acceptance included self-esteem and internalized LGBTQ pride. Anxiety and perceived stress comprised the psychological distress factor. Our results suggest that students with greater atypical gender expression experience greater overall heterosexism and victimization, and younger students experience more overall heterosexism while undergraduates report more victimization. Microaggressions, particularly environmental microaggressions are more influential on overall heterosexism than blatant victimization. Overall heterosexism and microaggressions demonstrated main effects with self-acceptance and distress, whereas victimization did not. Self-acceptance mediated the path from discrimination to distress for both overall heterosexism and microaggressions. Our findings advance minority stress theory research by providing a nuanced understanding of the nature of contemporary discrimination and its consequences, as well as illuminating the important role self-acceptance plays as a mediator in the discrimination-psychological distress relationship.

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... Furthermore, experiencing different types of homophobic harassment on campus is associated with varied mental health outcomes (Woodford, Han, et al., 2014). Other research examines the impact of individual-level protective factors that support positive mental health among queer youth and young adults, such as identity development (Kosciw et al., 2015), self-esteem , self-acceptance (Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014), and physical exercise . While many of the individual-level outcome measures highlighted in these prior studies are known to matter for college academic outcomes (see, e.g., Hartley, 2011;Hope et al., 2013), this link has not been directly explored. ...
... 121-139), the quality of available data that includes information on LGBQ+ identities is limited in various ways. A number of studies use small sample sizes or snowball and convenience samples, which limit generalizable claims about LGBQ+ students (Herek, 1993;Kulick et al., 2016;Nadal et al., 2011;Van de Meerendonk & Probst, 2004;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014). Others are based on retrospective data, which are less accurate because participants must rely on their recollection of events from years, even decades, in the past. ...
... LGBQ+ college students' social relationships with others are thus likely dependent somewhat on whether, and to whom, they are out. LGBQ+ individuals can reap mental health benefits from coming out rather than remaining closeted (Ragins, 2004;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014), but it also entails some risk as they may open themselves up to homophobic stigma, discrimination, violence, and marginalization (Balsam & Mohr, 2007;Legate et al., 2012;Ryan et al., 2015;Woodford, Han, et al., 2014). Identifying with a group which faces discrimination and harassment-whether that identity is fluid or fixed-can impact a person's ability to meet their academic potential. ...
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In spite of recognition that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer+ (LGBQ+) young adults face challenges associated with their sexual identities, research on inequality in education has only recently begun examining their academic experiences and outcomes in college. Prior work has mainly focused on social and extracurricular experiences during college or academic outcomes among LGBQ+ students in K-12 settings. In this article, we review the growing body of social science literature on LGBQ+ college students' academic outcomes. A strength of our review is our integration of research on individual, interpersonal, and institutional characteristics and experiences that influence LGBQ+ student outcomes. In reviewing the literature, we identify a number of methodological and theoretical limitations, such as a lack of precision and consistency in defining and conceptualizing LGBQ+ identities and experiences and limited attention to intersections with race, class, and gender. We offer some solutions to these limitations and present a theoretical framework that promises to add clarity and further reliability to future research on LGBQ+ college student outcomes. We conclude by suggesting directions for future research.
... SOM may result in negative impacts on LGB individuals. Research has demonstrated that SOM is significantly associated with depression [3], anxiety [3,7], smoking cigarettes [8], negative feelings toward sexual identity [9], low self-esteem [7,9], and non-response to psychotherapy among LGB individuals [10]. Young adulthood is a phase of the life span from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood where the individuals become more independent and explore various life possibilities [11]. ...
... SOM may result in negative impacts on LGB individuals. Research has demonstrated that SOM is significantly associated with depression [3], anxiety [3,7], smoking cigarettes [8], negative feelings toward sexual identity [9], low self-esteem [7,9], and non-response to psychotherapy among LGB individuals [10]. Young adulthood is a phase of the life span from adolescence to full-fledged adulthood where the individuals become more independent and explore various life possibilities [11]. ...
... Overt and covert aggressions toward LGB individuals in Asian-Pacific regions are serious health issues [13]. Although significant associations between SOM and poor mental health have been found among LGB individuals in Western societies [3,7,8], further study is needed on the associations among LGB individuals in non-Western societies. Second, identifying the individual and environmental factors related to SOM in LGB individuals can provide empirical evidence for developing intervention programs. ...
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Experiences of sexual orientation microaggression (SOM) are prevalent in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. The aims of this quantitative cross-sectional survey study were to examine the factors, including demographics, sexual orientation characteristics, and perceived social support related to SOM, as well as the relationships of SOM with anxiety, depression, and suicidality among young adult LGB individuals in Taiwan. In total, 1000 self-identified young adult LGB individuals (500 men and 500 women) participated in this study. The experience of SOM was assessed using the Sexual Orientation Microaggression Inventory. We also collected demographic and sexual orientation characteristics; perceived general family support, using the Family APGAR Index; anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; depression on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; and suicidality on the suicidality module of the Kiddie-SADS. The factors related to SOM and the associations of SOM with anxiety, depression, and suicidality were examined using multivariate linear regression analysis. The results indicated that males experienced greater SOM than females, and that younger age of identification of sexual orientation and perceived lower general family support were significantly associated with greater SOM. Greater SOM was significantly associated with greater anxiety, depression, and suicidality. The experiences of SOM in LGB individuals with mental health problems warrant assessment and intervention that take the related factors into account.
... These considerations are burdensome, divert energy from other tasks, and contribute to adverse health outcomes (American Psychological Association, 2017;Brondolo, Brady, Libby, & Pencille, 2011;Huynh, 2012;Sue, Bucceri, Lin, Nadal, & Torino, 2007;Sue, Capodilupo, et al., 2007;Sue, Nadal, et al., 2008). Similarly, LGB microaggressions, whether witnessed or experienced, negatively relate to mental health (i.e., increased anxiety) for sexual minority college students (Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014). In fact, LGB college students who overhear the phrase "that's so gay" report feeling more isolated and experience more negative physical symptoms (i.e., headaches and eating problems) than those who do not experience this microaggression (Woodford, Howell, Silverschanz, & Yu, 2012). ...
... Extant research also suggests that racial/ ethnic microaggressions (Donovan, Galban, Grace, Bennett, & Felicie, 2013;Huynh, 2012;O'Keefe, Wingate, Cole, Hollingsworth, & Tucker, 2015;Torres & Taknint, 2015) and LGB microaggressions (Nadal, Wong, Sriken, Griffin, & Fujii-doe, 2015;Woodford, Han, et al., 2014) are associated with poorer mental health outcomes (e.g., more frequent anxiety symptoms). Further, numerous studies on college and community samples explore microaggressions and mental health correlates (Nadal et al., 2015;Nadal, Griffin, Wong, Hamit, & Rasmus, 2014;Wright & Wegner, 2012;Woodford, Han, et al., 2014;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014). ...
... First, only two studies have used a community sample to examine the correlation between racial/ ethnic microaggressions and mental health (Huynh, 2012;Nadal, Griffin, et al., 2014). Contrastingly, of 12 studies on sexual orientation microaggressions, only four studies used college LGB students (Woodford, Han, et al., 2014;Woodford, Howell, Kulick, & Silverschanz, 2013;Woodford et al., 2012;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014). The rest sampled LGB community members who were predominantly White American urban dwellers (DeBlaere, Brewster, Sarkees, & Moradi, 2010). ...
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Objectives: Discrimination, once unmistakable, has taken on subtler forms as exemplified by microaggressions-daily, seemingly harmless indignities that send negative messages to minority group members (Sue, Capodilupo, et al., 2007). Furthermore, unique microaggressions exist for individuals who possess more than one stigmatized identity. For example, racial/ethnic minorities who are also lesbian, gay, or bisexual face discrimination that is unlike racism or heterosexism alone or in combination. Thus, to meaningfully investigate how dually marginalized individuals experience various forms of contemporary, covert discrimination, scholars need access to paradigms that better capture their existential realities. Specifically, greater attention must be paid to how interlocking social categories shape experiences of subtle discrimination. To this end, we demonstrate how to conceptualize quantitative research that is mindful of intersectionality-or the interconnection of social identities in creating overlapping and interdependent systems of oppression. Method: We conducted a 2-phase study to examine whether an intersectional methodology better predicted adverse health outcomes for 801 lesbian, gay, and bisexual people of color as compared to an additive/multiplicative approach (i.e., combining scores from two different measures of experiences with racism and heterosexism). Results: Results indicated that intersectionality (vs. additive/multiplicative approach) better measured symptomology for racially diverse sexual minority group members who experienced microaggressions. Conclusions: These findings provide quantitative evidence in support of intersectionality, an achievable methodological approach that captures subtle encounters with discrimination for individuals with interlocking marginalized identities-encounters that would otherwise remain on the fringe of research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... SOMs indicate commonplace and brief daily behavioral, verbal, and environmental contempt reflecting hostile or derogatory slights and insults to LGB individuals for their sexual orientation [25,26]. SOMs increase the risk of mental health problems in LGB individuals [27,28]. Internalized sexual stigma means that LGB individuals perceive and internalize societally stigmatizing attitudes toward their sexual orientation as part of their self-image [29]. ...
... We used the 19-item traditional Chinese version [28] of the Sexual Orientation Microaggression Inventory (SOMI) [43] to assess participants' experiences of SOMs over the last 6 months, including anti-LGB attitudes and expressions (e.g., "You heard someone talk about 'the gay lifestyle'"), denial of homosexuality (e.g., "A family member expressed disappointment about you being gay, lesbian, or bisexual"), heterosexualism (e.g., "You were told that you were overreacting when you talked about a negative experience you had because of your sexual orientation"), and societal disapproval (e.g., "Someone said homosexuality is a sin or immoral"). Each item was rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale, with the score ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (almost every day). ...
... Moreover, perceived sexual stigma from family members [22,23], SOMs [27,28], and internalized sexual stigma [58,59] may all compromise LGB individuals' mental health. ...
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Smartphones are a necessity for many people; however, problematic smartphone use (PSU) may negatively influence people’s mental health. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, the study examined the associations of sexual minority stressors [namely perceived sexual stigma from family members, sexual orientation microaggressions (SOMs), and internalized sexual stigma] and gender nonconformity with PSU severity as well as the associations of PSU with depression and anxiety in young adult lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. This cross-sectional survey study recruited 1000 young adult LGB individuals (500 men and 500 women). PSU severity was assessed using the Smartphone Addiction Inventory. The experiences of perceived sexual stigma from family members, SOMs, and internalized sexual stigma and the levels of gender nonconformity, depression, and anxiety were assessed. The results indicated that perceived sexual stigma from family members, SOMs, internalized sexual stigma in the dimensions of social discomfort and identity and gender nonconformity were significantly associated with PSU severity in LGB individuals. Moreover, PSU was significantly associated with depression and anxiety in LGB individuals. The findings highlight the significance of developing strategies for the prevention and early detection of PSU and sexual minority stress in LGB individuals.
... This may negatively affect their health, academic careers, and development of a sense of belonging (di Bartolo, 2013;Garvey et al., 2015;Pitcher et al., 2016;Vaccaro, 2012). In particular, microaggressions, which are "brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities, whether intention or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial, gender, sexual-orientation, and religious slights and insults to the target person or group" (Sue, 2010, p. 5), can lead to increased negative physical and mental health and academic outcomes (Roffee & Waling, 2016;Seelman et al., 2017;Woodford et al., 2012;Woodford, Han, et al., 2014;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014;Woodford, Chonody, et al., 2015;Woodford, Weber, et al., 2018). ...
... Everyday language can be another example, such as assuming coworkers, peers, or friends have a significant other of a different gender (i.e., using "boyfriend," "girlfriend," "wife," or "husband" instead of gender neutral "partner" or "spouse") (Sue, 2010). While these may not seem harmful, the accumulation of many of these small interactions every day over weeks, months, or years can cause significant mental distress or poor physical health (Lange et al., 2019;Sue, 2010;Woodford et al., 2012;Woodford, Han, et al., 2014;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014;Woodford, Weber, et al., 2018), with negative experiences leading students to leave STEM programs (Hughes, 2018). ...
... In exploring microaggression literature after analyzing Ann's description of minimal or passive negative experiences and Zed's concerns about her ability to be authentic in future biochemistry workplaces, it became apparent that these students may lack the knowledge to identify their experiences as harmful or the language to describe their experiences in meaningful ways, which reflects the experiences of queer biology students asked to describe their experiences in another study (Cooper & Brownell, 2016). Another possibility is desensitization to these experiences, which may be built up over a lifetime of seeing heterosexism in daily interactions from both heterosexual and nonheterosexual individuals (Dessel et al., 2017;Woodford et al., 2012;Woodford, Han, et al., 2014;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014), which may apply to what Liv described above about gaining personal strength from the discrimination he experienced growing up. Microaggressions have become more commonly explored in queer research but remain underexplored for STEM queer students, and the language involved in understanding micro-aggressive experiences also seems to be under-explored. ...
... Heterosexist microaggressions are common on campuses [18,19] and appear to be even more prevalent than blatant hostility [20]. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that, in comparison to blatantly hostile remarks, these manifestations are often dismissed as nondiscriminatory, not necessarily related to anti-gay prejudice, and considered harmless by those who use them [16,21]. ...
... This experience was associated with a high frequency of headaches, poor eating or trouble with appetite, and feeling left out at the university. Other similar studies found that microaggressions targeting sexual minority students on campus were positively related to psychological distress in LGBQ+ college students [19,25], independent from experiences of direct victimization. ...
... This is consistent with previous studies that linked heterosexist microaggressions on campus with student academic outcomes [10,27]. As concerns sexual minority students, one plausible explanation for this result is the association of microaggressions with psychological distress [19], which in turn would relate to academic outcomes [39]. The hypothesis of psychological distress is well supported by the minority stress theory [23], according to which increased exposure to heterosexist microaggressions might lead LGBQ+ students to experience chronic stress. ...
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While overt instances of harassment and violence towards LGBQ+ individuals have decreased in recent years, subtler forms of heterosexism still shape the social and academic experience of students in higher education contexts. Such forms, defined as microaggressions, frequently include environmental slights that communicate hostile and derogatory messages about one’s sexual-minority status. However, there is some evidence suggesting that environmental microaggressions have deleterious effects on all students, regardless of their sexual orientation. The aim of the current study was to examine how heterosexist environmental microaggressions on campus contributed to heterosexual and non-heterosexual students’ negative perceptions of campus climate. We also analyzed whether the effect of microaggressions on campus climate was mediated by student social integration on campus. Data were collected in 2018 through an anonymous web-based survey that involved students from a large university of Southern Italy. The sample consisted of 471 students from 18 to 33 years old. Thirty-eight (8.1%) students self-identified as non-heterosexual. Measures included self-reported experiences of environmental microaggressions on campus, student degree of satisfaction with peer-group and student-faculty interactions, perceptions of faculty concern for student development, and of the overall campus climate. The structural equation model showed that heterosexist environmental microaggressions on campus were associated with negative perceptions of campus climate through lowered satisfaction with peer-group interactions and perceptions of faculty concern for student development, for both heterosexual and non-heterosexual students. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that heterosexist microaggressions within campus environments are negatively associated with students’ perceptions of campus climate, regardless of their sexual orientation. Both faculty and peers play an important role in creating an environment that supports the inclusivity of diversity and fosters a greater sense of belonging to the campus community.
... Research has shown that among LGB individuals, the experience of microaggression increases the risks of mental health problems such as depression [5], anxiety [5,8], and posttraumatic stress symptoms [9], as well as being associated with low self-acceptance and self-esteem [8,10], and negative feelings toward sexual identity [10]. The experience of microaggression has also been found to predict non-response to psychotherapy among LGB individuals [11]. ...
... Research has shown that among LGB individuals, the experience of microaggression increases the risks of mental health problems such as depression [5], anxiety [5,8], and posttraumatic stress symptoms [9], as well as being associated with low self-acceptance and self-esteem [8,10], and negative feelings toward sexual identity [10]. The experience of microaggression has also been found to predict non-response to psychotherapy among LGB individuals [11]. ...
... Given that sexual orientation microaggression has negative impacts on mental health among LGB individuals [5,[8][9][10], governments are urged to develop intervention programs for reducing microaggression induced by individuals' views on sexual orientation. However, compared with anti-LGB bullying prevention, anti-LGB microaggression prevention has only just started. ...
Article
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The present study examined the factor structure and concurrent validity of the traditional Chinese version of the Sexual Orientation Microaggression Inventory (SOMI) among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in Taiwan. In total, 1000 self-identified LGB individuals completed the SOMI, HIV and Homosexuality Related Stigma Scale (HHRSS), and Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ). Different factor structures (including one-factor, four-factor, bifactor, and higher-order factor structures) were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The bifactor structure significantly outperformed all others on the SOMI. The bifactor structure with one general factor and four trait factors was found to be measurement invariant across biological sex with satisfactory fit indices. The SOMI general factor was significantly associated with HHRSS-Homosexu-ality score and AAQ score. The findings indicate that the SOMI is a psychometrically sound instrument for Taiwan sexual minority groups. More specifically, SOMI can be used to accurately assess microaggression among LGB individuals. The measure on microaggression may also provide insights for healthcare providers about LGB individuals' sexuality-related stigma. Moreover, healthcare providers and relevant stakeholders can use the SOMI to understand how LGB individuals perceive and feel microaggression.
... There are three forms of microaggressions that transgender individuals may encounter: (1) microassaults (i.e., overt and deliberate statements or behaviors targeting one's gender identity; e.g., refusing to use a transgender person's correct pronouns); (2) microinsults (i.e., verbal or nonverbal slights or insults that unintentionally demean a person based on their gender identity; e.g., asking a transgender person about their genitalia); and (3) microinvalidations (i.e., messages that dismiss or erase the thoughts, feelings, or oppressive experiences of transgender individuals; e.g., denying that transnegativity exists; Nadal et al., 2016;Sue et al., 2007). Notably, these subtle forms of discrimination occur more frequently than do blatant forms of discrimination (McCabe et al., 2013;Yost & Gilmore, 2011) and are associated with numerous mental health decrements in their targets, such as increased levels of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, and suicidality (Lui & Quezada, 2019;Parr & Howe, 2019;Salim et al., 2019;Woodford et al., 2014). Given such findings, it is imperative that researchers have access to appropriate tools to examine this construct. ...
... To do so, two hypotheses were formulated and tested. As previously noted, much research has demonstrated that microaggressions are associated with decrements in psychological well-being (e.g., Parr & Howe, 2019;Salim et al., 2019;Timmins et al., 2017;Woodford et al., 2014); therefore, it was hypothesized that scores on the NBGM scale would correlate positively with anxiety (H1) and perceived stress (H2). ...
... To assess the convergent validity of NBGM scale, three hypotheses were tested. Based on past research indicating that microaggressions are associated with decrements in psychological well-being (e.g., Parr & Howe, 2019;Salim et al., 2019;Timmins et al., 2017;Woodford et al., 2014), it was hypothesized the scores on the NBGM scale would correlate positively with depression (H1) and negativity with self-esteem (H2). Extant research also has shown that individuals who are more "out" about their sexual orientation experience more prejudice and victimization (Coleman et al., 2017;D' Augelli & Grossman, 2001); therefore, it also was hypothesized that scores on the NBGM would correlate positively with gender identity disclosure (H3). ...
Article
Background: While research pertaining to nonbinary microaggressions has become increasingly comprehensive in recent years, a measure specifically assessing this construct does not yet exist.Aims: The purpose of the present research was to develop and validate the Nonbinary Gender Microaggressions (NBGM) scale, which will allow future researchers to quantitatively examine nonbinary individuals’ experiences of microaggressions. Methods and Results: In Study 1 (n = 5), interviews with nonbinary individuals were conducted to explore their microaggressive experiences. The results of this study, as well as findings from previous qualitative research, were used to generate an initial pool of 92 items. In Study 2 (n = 158), a principal component analysis, which was used for item reduction, resulted in the retention of 41 items. In Studies 3 (n = 151) and 4 (n = 266), an exploratory factor analysis yielded a 23-item 5-factor solution (i.e., Negation of Identity [6 items], Inauthenticity [6 items], Deadnaming [4 items], Trans Exclusion [3 items], and Misuse of Gendered Terminology [4 items]), and a confirmatory factor analysis found that this solution demonstrates adequate model fit. Evidence of the measure’s scale score reliability, convergent validity, and incremental validity also were provided. Discussion: These findings indicate that, overall, the NBGM scale is a psychometrically sound measure of nonbinary individuals’ experiences of microaggressions. As such, this measure can be utilized by future researchers and clinicians to better understand nonbinary individuals’ microaggressive experiences.
... Despite increased visibility on U.S. university and college campuses over the past 10 years, with greater access to campus resources, more inclusive campus policies, and improved campus climate (Rankin et al., 2019), SM students continue to face many difficulties across multiple aspects of campus life, including housing policies, classroom environments, and the presence of microaggressions, that is, subtle, unintentional, or indirect derogatory comments about the LGB community (e.g., the use of "that's so gay" to convey "stupidity") (Craig et al., 2017;Rankin et al., 2010Rankin et al., , 2019Sue, 2010;Watson et al., 2012;cf., Coley, 2018). These difficulties can create a problematic, and even hostile, campus climate for SM students even in the absence of overt victimization (Woodford et al., 2014). SM students, in fact, do report greater levels of psychological distress, including social anxiety, depression, and eating concerns, than heterosexual students [Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH), 2015; Meyer, 1995;Woodford et al., 2014]. ...
... These difficulties can create a problematic, and even hostile, campus climate for SM students even in the absence of overt victimization (Woodford et al., 2014). SM students, in fact, do report greater levels of psychological distress, including social anxiety, depression, and eating concerns, than heterosexual students [Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH), 2015; Meyer, 1995;Woodford et al., 2014]. When it comes to faith-based higher education, regular and frequent perceptions of one's poor fit within a religious community with heterosexual expectations (Meyer, 1995(Meyer, , 2003Meyer et al., 2011) may create an environment with the potential to negatively affect students' self-evaluations, impairing their constructions of relational and academic narratives key to identity exploration and psychological adjustment (Meyer, 2003;Nadal et al., 2011). ...
... Given that studies have found family support contributes to increased self-esteem and better mental health in SM youth (Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995;van Bergen & Spiegel, 2014), external acceptance by one's campus community (i.e., support groups, resources, antidiscrimination policies, etc.) is likely to promote self-acceptance, an important factor in resilience, and thereby lessen the impact of subtle heterosexism and microaggressions. Woodford et al. (2014) found SM students' self-acceptance, measured as self-esteem and LGBTQ+ pride, mitigated the effects of discrimination, reducing any ensuing psychological distress (see also, Díaz et al., 2001;Szymanski, 2009;Waldo et al., 1998). Exploration of the impact of self-acceptance on identity formation in religious or faith-based communities is relatively new even though the significance of self-acceptance for resilience among SMs has been increasingly noted in the research literature. ...
... Difficulties with self-acceptance of sexuality in LGBQ+ populations are associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms in quantitative studies (Leserman et al., 1994;McCarthy, Fisher, Irwin, Coleman, & Pelster, 2014;Su et al., 2016;Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014) and are also suggested to be a contributing factor to suicide attempts in a qualitative study (Wang, Ploderl, Hausermann, & Weiss, 2015). Furthermore, more negative views towards one's sexuality correlates with higher levels of problematic substance use (Berg, Munthe-Kaas, & Ross, 2016;Theodore et al., 2013). ...
... Aristegui, Radusky, Zalazar, Lucas, & Sued, 2018;Bakacak & Oktem, 2014;Mimiaga et al., 2015). Few studies have investigated this quantitatively, however Hershberger and D'Augelli (1995) and Woodford et al. (2014) found evidence consistent with this suggestion; self-acceptance of sexuality mediated the relationship between heterosexism/victimization and psychological distress using cross-sectional data. Moreover, aspects of self-acceptance of sexuality have also been found to be associated with higher levels of general protective processes, including: general self-acceptance, self-esteem, and self-compassion (Beard, Eames, & Withers, 2017;Franke & Leary, 1991;Rostosky, Cardom, Hammer, & Riggle, 2018;Woodford et al., 2014;Yanykin & Nasledov, 2017). ...
... Few studies have investigated this quantitatively, however Hershberger and D'Augelli (1995) and Woodford et al. (2014) found evidence consistent with this suggestion; self-acceptance of sexuality mediated the relationship between heterosexism/victimization and psychological distress using cross-sectional data. Moreover, aspects of self-acceptance of sexuality have also been found to be associated with higher levels of general protective processes, including: general self-acceptance, self-esteem, and self-compassion (Beard, Eames, & Withers, 2017;Franke & Leary, 1991;Rostosky, Cardom, Hammer, & Riggle, 2018;Woodford et al., 2014;Yanykin & Nasledov, 2017). ...
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Background and Aims: Due to exposure to societal stigma, self-acceptance of sexuality can be a challenging process for individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, or with other minority sexual identities (LGBQ+). Quantitative research in this area is limited and there is a lack of appropriately validated self-report questionnaires to assess self-acceptance of sexuality. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a measure of self-acceptance of sexuality. Method: Items for the new Self-Acceptance of Sexuality Inventory (SASI) were developed in consultation with psychologists and members of the general population identifying as LGBQ+. From a sample of participants experiencing non-heterosexual attractions (N = 1,619), dimensionality (via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses), measurement invariance, and reliability were assessed. Construct validity of the SASI was investigated in a subsample (n = 1,217) via hypothesized associations with alternative measures of self-acceptance, sexuality-specific processes, resilience factors, and mental health outcomes. Differences in SASI scores were also investigated between those who identified as LGBQ+ and those who were unsure/questioning. Results: The final version of the SASI included 10 items comprising two factors. The SASI had satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SASI had evidence of good construct validity. Our research provides evidence of different constructions of self-acceptance across people with different sexual orientations, gender identities, sex assigned at birth, and ages. Conclusion: The SASI is a promising new measure of self-acceptance of sexuality. Further investigations into different understandings of self-acceptance are required.
... The settings were mainly work-related (n=23) or on a daily basis (n=8). No triggers in GD studies were described, and there were only three studies where these could be identified [25][26][27]. ...
... They could be divided into either personal or professional. Among men and women, personal consequences were mostly related to health (consequences can be seen in detail in the S6 Regarding studies of other axes of discrimination (n=14), in approaches used, one study measured sexual identity discrimination [25] as two dimensions; environmental and interpersonal microaggressions. As in the study of GD, associated factors with reporting were younger age, gender female [56,57] and higher education [47], but these were not consistent in all of the studies. ...
... As in the study of GD, associated factors with reporting were younger age, gender female [56,57] and higher education [47], but these were not consistent in all of the studies. Meanwhile, all the studies reporting the possible consequences of GD (n=7) [25,26,35,[58][59][60][61] described higher psychological distress in those who perceived discrimination. ...
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Background Gender discrimination (GD) has been frequently linked to mental health. The heterogeneity of how GD is defined has led to variation around the analysis of GD. This might affect the study of the association between GD and health outcomes. The main goal of this systematic scoping review is to operationalize the definition of the GD construct. Methods Three search strategies were set in Pubmed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The first strategy obtained results mainly about women, while the second focused on men. The third strategy focused on the identification of GD questionnaires. The prevalence of GD, factors and consequences associated with GD perception, and forms of discrimination were the principal variables collected. Risk of bias was assessed (PROSPERO:CRD42019120719). Results Of the 925 studies obtained, 84 were finally included. 60 GD questionnaires were identified. GD prevalence varied between 3.4 and 67 %. Female gender and a younger age were the factors most frequently related to GD. Poorer mental health was the most frequent consequence. Two components of the GD construct were identified: undervaluation (different recognition, opportunities in access, evaluation standards and expectations) and different treatment (verbal abuse and behaviour). Conclusions Two-component GD definition can add order and precision to the measurement, increase response rates and reported GD.
... Despite increased visibility on U.S. university and college campuses over the past 10 years, with greater access to campus resources, more inclusive campus policies, and improved campus climate (Rankin et al., 2019), SM students continue to face many difficulties across multiple aspects of campus life, including housing policies, classroom environments, and the presence of microaggressions, that is, subtle, unintentional, or indirect derogatory comments about the LGB community (e.g., the use of "that's so gay" to convey "stupidity") (Craig et al., 2017;Rankin et al., 2010Rankin et al., , 2019Sue, 2010;Watson et al., 2012;cf., Coley, 2018). These difficulties can create a problematic, and even hostile, campus climate for SM students even in the absence of overt victimization (Woodford et al., 2014). SM students, in fact, do report greater levels of psychological distress, including social anxiety, depression, and eating concerns, than heterosexual students [Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH), 2015; Meyer, 1995;Woodford et al., 2014]. ...
... These difficulties can create a problematic, and even hostile, campus climate for SM students even in the absence of overt victimization (Woodford et al., 2014). SM students, in fact, do report greater levels of psychological distress, including social anxiety, depression, and eating concerns, than heterosexual students [Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH), 2015; Meyer, 1995;Woodford et al., 2014]. When it comes to faith-based higher education, regular and frequent perceptions of one's poor fit within a religious community with heterosexual expectations (Meyer, 1995(Meyer, , 2003Meyer et al., 2011) may create an environment with the potential to negatively affect students' self-evaluations, impairing their constructions of relational and academic narratives key to identity exploration and psychological adjustment (Meyer, 2003;Nadal et al., 2011). ...
... Given that studies have found family support contributes to increased self-esteem and better mental health in SM youth (Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995;van Bergen & Spiegel, 2014), external acceptance by one's campus community (i.e., support groups, resources, antidiscrimination policies, etc.) is likely to promote self-acceptance, an important factor in resilience, and thereby lessen the impact of subtle heterosexism and microaggressions. Woodford et al. (2014) found SM students' self-acceptance, measured as self-esteem and LGBTQ+ pride, mitigated the effects of discrimination, reducing any ensuing psychological distress (see also, Díaz et al., 2001;Szymanski, 2009;Waldo et al., 1998). Exploration of the impact of self-acceptance on identity formation in religious or faith-based communities is relatively new even though the significance of self-acceptance for resilience among SMs has been increasingly noted in the research literature. ...
Article
Drawing upon previous research with sexual minority Christian college students, we identify emergent themes important to ministry with sexual minorities integrating religious/spiritual and sexual identities: intrinsic religiosity, social relationships, self-acceptance, and complexity of identity integration. We propose a Trinitarian ministry model wherein the church serves as a holding environment—a discipling community intentionally designed to be relational, secure, and formational thereby creating a synergistic communal climate for identity development related to faith and sexuality.
... One distal stressor that LGBTQ+ individuals frequently experience is microaggressions [8,9]. Microaggressions are typically unconscious behaviors or statements directed at members of marginalized groups that reflect a hostile or discriminatory message [10][11][12]. ...
... Prior research suggests that microaggressions are important forms of discrimination with particularly negative impacts on LGBTQ+ young people. In a sample of LGBQ emerging adults, Woodford et al. [8] found that interpersonal and environmental microaggressions predicted psychological distress and low self-acceptance, whereas neither blatant discrimination nor victimization was significantly related to either outcome. Similarly, results from other studies have found links between experiences of racial and/or LGBTQ-related microaggressions and a host of detrimental outcomes, including higher rates of depressive, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress symptoms [17][18][19][20][21]; lower self-esteem and self-efficacy [21][22][23][24]; and negative perceptions of one's own LGBTQ+ identity [24]. ...
Article
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LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual/gender minority identities) individuals frequently report exposure to microaggressions, which are associated with deleterious mental health outcomes. Social support from humans has been found to be an important protective factor for LGBTQ+ emerging adults. However, an underexplored area of research is the protective role of interactions with companion animals for this population. We conducted simple and multiple moderation analyses to explore whether and to what extent emotional comfort from companion animals and human social support moderated the relationship between LGBTQ-related microaggressions and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Our sample included 134 LGBTQ+ emerging adults (mean age of 19.31). We found that social support moderated the relationship between microaggressions and depressive symptoms. The relationship between microaggressions and depressive symptoms was not significant at high levels of social support, indicating the protective nature of human social support. Comfort from companion animals also moderated the relationship between interpersonal microaggressions and depressive symptoms. For participants with high or medium levels of emotional comfort from companion animals, interpersonal microaggressions were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Our results highlight the need to further investigate the complex role of relationships with companion animals on mental health outcomes for LGBTQ+ emerging adults.
... caused by societal stigma and prejudice faced by LGBTQ people, can result in poor physical and mental health (Meyer, 2003), overall well-being (Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014), and, for students, lower academic success (Woodford et al., 2014). To that end, the purpose of this article is to provide a first-of-its-kind review of international data from an online survey of LGBTQ-identified social work undergraduate and graduate students, with a specific focus on negative experiences these social work students encountered during field placement and the negative emotional effects of such experiences. ...
... caused by societal stigma and prejudice faced by LGBTQ people, can result in poor physical and mental health (Meyer, 2003), overall well-being (Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014), and, for students, lower academic success (Woodford et al., 2014). To that end, the purpose of this article is to provide a first-of-its-kind review of international data from an online survey of LGBTQ-identified social work undergraduate and graduate students, with a specific focus on negative experiences these social work students encountered during field placement and the negative emotional effects of such experiences. ...
Article
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This study examines students’ negative experiences in field placement related to their sexual orientation, gender identity, and expression, examining areas of conflict and emotional responses to conflicts. Using a subset of data gathered as part of a larger survey of 1,018 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) undergraduate and graduate social work students in the United States and Canada, an analysis is conducted on qualitative responses (N=207) to a question about conflict in the field. The authors identified six LGBTQ-related conflict themes: managing disclosure, unsupportive agency atmosphere, handling others’ discomfort, dealing with discriminatory attitudes and behaviors, bad practice with LGBTQ clients, and challenges found within an LGBTQ-serving agency. Forty student responses discussed feelings of fear, sadness, discomfort, and shame. Implications for field education with LGBTQ social work students are discussed.
... Although research on single identity-based microaggressions has identified important themes that uniquely apply to sexual minorities, cisgender women, and gender minorities (Capodilupo et al., 2010;Nadal, Skolnik, & Wong, 2012;Woodford, Howell, Silverschanz, & Yu, 2012;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014), a deeper understanding of the impact of intersectional microaggressions is needed for social workers to promote the advancement of health and well-being among oppressed groups. This article aims to advance understanding of microaggressions by (a) examining microaggression themes related to sexual minorities, cisgender women, and gender minorities, including theoretical mechanisms explaining their impact on health and well-being, and (b) proposing future directions for social work to address existing research gaps and develop an integrated, theoretically informed, intersectional understanding of microaggressions. ...
... Research on sexual and gender minority discrimination suggests that staff members in elementary and high school systems tend to respond to overt discrimination but ignore microaggressive language (McCabe, Dragowski, & Rubinson, 2013). Finally, given that schools are often hostile spaces for other marginalized groups, such as students of color, it is particularly important that researchers explore the nature, prevalence, and impacts of microaggressions among these various groups (Woodford, Han, et al., 2014;Woodford, Kulick, et al., 2014;Woodford et al., 2015). ...
... Existing research has suggested that sexual minority people's self-acceptance mediates the degree to which a stigmatizing environment translates into individual adverse mental health (Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014). However, no prior research has examined this important path that links perceived social attitudes to self-acceptance, and, in turn, to mental health. ...
... A sexual minority individual is likely to internalize antigay societal attitudes when the environment is perceived as intolerant of sexual diversity (Pachankis et al., 2015). Viewing these studies together, the degree to which LGB people accept themselves is partly dependent on their perception of other people's acceptance, and is in turn associated with their mental health (Feinstein, Goldfried, & Davila, 2012;Woodford et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Research on structural stigma has associated the poor mental health status among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people with discriminatory institutions. Yet, less is known about the role of LGB adults’ perceptions of social attitudes toward LGB issues. Moreover, the psychological mediation framework posits LGB people’s self-acceptance as a mediator between a stigmatizing environment and individual mental health. This study investigated: (a) how perceived attitudes toward LGB issues from different social realms (society, heterosexual friends, and family members) were associated with LGB people’s mental health; and (b) whether self-acceptance mediated the effects of perceived attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, 1527 Taiwanese LGB adults (812 men; 715 women) aged between 20 and 62 years were recruited via Facebook to complete an online survey. The majority of respondents self-identified as homosexual (1129) and 399 as bisexual. The survey consisted of assessment of respondents’ mental health and questions to rate individual self-acceptance and perceptions of social attitudes. Path analysis showed that self-acceptance partially mediated the association between mental health and perceived societal acceptance of homosexuality and fully mediated the effect of perceptions of friends’ acceptance of homosexuality on mental health. Self-acceptance fully mediated the effects of perceived support for same-sex marriage from friends and families. This research yielded evidence about the interplay between perceived social stigma, self-acceptance, and mental health, particularly in the context of public debate about same-sex marriage. The effects of public discourse about sexual diversity and marriage equality on LGB adults’ mental health should be addressed by affirmative policies and practices.
... One of the proposed mechanisms for the relationship between heterosexist stigma experiences and adverse mental well-being is that the internalization of negative attitudes impairs LGBQ+ individuals' selfacceptance of their sexual orientation (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001;Meyer, 2003). Consistent with this suggestion, cross-sectional studies with LGBQ+ individuals have found that more experiences and internalization of minority stressors are associated with lower self-acceptance of sexuality, and that lower selfacceptance is associated with greater psychological distress (Pepping, Cronin, Halford, & Lyons, 2018;Shilo, Antebi, & Mor, 2015;Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014;Yanykin & Nasledov, 2017). Correspondingly, there is some evidence that self-acceptance of sexuality may mediate the relationship between heterosexist victimization and mental health using cross-sectional data (Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995;Woodford et al., 2014). ...
... Consistent with this suggestion, cross-sectional studies with LGBQ+ individuals have found that more experiences and internalization of minority stressors are associated with lower self-acceptance of sexuality, and that lower selfacceptance is associated with greater psychological distress (Pepping, Cronin, Halford, & Lyons, 2018;Shilo, Antebi, & Mor, 2015;Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014;Yanykin & Nasledov, 2017). Correspondingly, there is some evidence that self-acceptance of sexuality may mediate the relationship between heterosexist victimization and mental health using cross-sectional data (Hershberger & D'Augelli, 1995;Woodford et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Many individuals who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and with other non-heterosexual orientations (LGBQ+) experience stigma, prejudice, and/or discrimination because of their sexuality. According to minority stress and identity development theories, these experiences can contribute to difficulties with self-acceptance of sexuality. Lower self-acceptance is considered a risk factor for adverse mental health outcomes. The current review aims to investigate whether self-acceptance of sexuality is associated with minority stressors or difficulties with mental health in LGBQ+ individuals, as well as whether there are differences in self-acceptance between different sexual orientations. Five bibliographic databases were searched. Thirteen studies were identified which used quantitative methodology to investigate associations between self-acceptance, minority stressors, and/or mental health within LGBQ+ samples, or differences in self-acceptance between different sexual orientations. The results from these cross-sectional studies suggested that lower self-acceptance of sexuality was associated with higher levels of self-reported minority stressors, including a lack of acceptance from friends and family, a lack of disclosure to others, and internalized heterosexism. Lower self-acceptance of sexuality was associated with poorer mental health outcomes, including greater global distress, depression symptoms, and lower psychological well-being. There was no significant relationship with suicidality. Studies also found that LGBQ+ individuals had lower general self-acceptance compared to heterosexual participants, bisexual individuals had lower sexuality self-acceptance compared to lesbian/gay individuals, and lesbian women had lower sexuality self-acceptance compared to gay men. Given the potential importance of self-acceptance for LGBQ+ populations, further research is required with more robust methodology. Self-acceptance could be a potential target in clinical interventions for LGBQ+ individuals.
... Mikroaggresjoner har derfor blitt sammenlignet med myggstikk (Fusion Comedy, 2016). Mikroaggresjoner kan påvirke LHBT-personers velvaere og bidra til mye psykisk lidelse (Balsam et al., 2011;Nadal et al., 2011;Nadal et al., 2014;Robinson & Rubin, 2015;Woodford et al., 2014;Woodford et al., 2015;Wright & Wegner, 2012). ...
... Dette er i tråd med flere studier om hvordan heteronormativitet er til stede i terapirommet (Omdal, 2018). Opplevelsen og responsen fra klienten er også forståelig i lys av forskning som viser at mikroaggresjoner kan påvirke LHBTpersoners velvaere og bidra til psykisk lidelse (Balsam et al., 2011;Nadal et al., 2011;Nadal et al., 2014;Robinson & Rubin, 2015;Woodford et al., 2014;Woodford et al., 2015;Wright & Wegner, 2012). Allerede under første akvarium med klienter snakket flere om at terapeuten deres antok noe om dem og hvordan de hadde opplevd dette. ...
Article
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Denne artikkelen undersøker heteronormativitet i terapi og terapiutdanning. For dette formålet gjennomførte artikkelforfatteren, som også er lærer ved Norsk Gestaltinstitutt, et gestalteksperiment med studenter. Mange studenter uttrykte ingen heteronormative antagelser. Dette kan henge sammen med gestaltterapiens fenomenologiske tilnaerming. Det ble imidlertid også klart at flere hadde gjort antagelser. Det er viktig å normalisere fenomenet, klargjøre at heteronormativitet er et feltfenomen, at det ikke handler om at noen er dårlige mennesker. Samtidig kan vi prøve å øke bevisstheten vår og bli mer frigjort selv og støtte andre i deres frigjøring. En anbefaling er at eksperimentet tas inn som del av utdanningen.
... Research has shown that the experience of sexual orientation microaggression increases the risks of depression and anxiety among LGB individuals [7,[11][12][13][14]. Microaggression may result in feelings of being hurt, offended, or frustrated, and their mental health may be further compromised [10]. ...
... First, to examine the associations of sexual orientation microaggression with anxiety and depression as well as the mediating effect of self-identity disturbance on the association among young adult LGB individuals. Based on the results of previous studies [7,[11][12][13][14], it was hypothesized that sexual orientation microaggression will be significantly associated with depression and anxiety among young adult LGB individuals (Hypothesis 1a). Given that victimization and homophobic bullying has been found to increase the risk of self-identity disturbance among gay and bisexual men in emerging adulthood [27] and that self-identity disturbance has been associated with mood problems [28,29], it was hypothesized that self-identity disturbance would mediate the associations of sexual orientation microaggression with anxiety and depression among young adult LGB individuals (Hypothesis 1b). ...
Article
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The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the association between sexual orientation microaggression and anxiety and depression among young adult lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals in Taiwan, as well as to examine the mediating effect of self-identity disturbance and the moderating effect of gender. In total, 1000 self-identified LGB individuals participated in the study. The experience of sexual orientation microaggression was assessed using the Sexual Orientation Microaggression Inventory, self-identity disturbance was assessed using the Self-Concept and Identity Measure, anxiety was assessed using the State subscale on the Chinese version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine relationships between the variables. The SEM results demonstrated that sexual orientation microaggression was directly associated with increased anxiety and depression, as well as being indirectly associated with increased anxiety and depression via the mediation of self-identity disturbance among young adult LGB individuals. Gender did not moderate the relationships between any of the variables. Both sexual orientation microaggression and self-identity disturbance warrant program interventions for enhancing mental health among LGB individuals.
... Building on this work, Woodford et al. (2014a) conducted another study of 299 queer-spectrum identified students to examine the relationship between anti- ...
... These results are consistent with the literature, where varied studies reinforce the finding that college campuses are chilly for queer-spectrum students across multiple domains (e.g., classroom, peer interactions) (Blumenfeld, et al., 2016;Greathouse, et al., 2018;Rankin, et al., 2010). Further, multiple studies found that a negative campus climate exacerbates mental health issues (Johnson, et al., 2013;Kulick, et al., 2017;Woodford, et al., 2014a). This should alert mental health providers on campus, encouraging them to partner with campus administrators to reduce stigma/harassment/discrimination on campus. ...
Article
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The mental health of queer-spectrum college students, and the campus climate they traverse, exert significant influence on the academic engagement, disengagement, and success for this population. Two-thirds of queer-spectrum college students reported a mental health condition, and these students had a more unfavorable perception of the campus climate for diversity than their mentally healthy queer spectrum peers. Mental health—mediated through campus climate—had a negative relationship to collaborative learning, but students were no less academically involved in the classroom. Mental health—mediated through campus climate—also had a negative relationship to extracurricular engagement and grade point average, and a positive relationship with poor academic habits. This study includes directions for future research and recommendations for practice, including auditing institutions to assess equity in the living and learning environment, targeted queer-spectrum support services, risk reduction and psychoeducational programming, anti-bias/ally training, peer mentoring opportunities, access to—and quality of care—with physical and mental health service providers, off-campus support, and academic support.
... How individuals and groups experience membership in the campus community has been generally defined as "campus climate" [2]. A consistent body of research has highlighted that a chilly climate within academic contexts, as opposed to an inclusive and welcoming climate, significantly impacts students' psychological health and academic progress [14,20]. This finding is consistent with Bronfenbrenner's ecological model [21], according to which individuals' interactions with their multiple environments help them make sense of the world around them. ...
Article
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Students from sexual minorities generally describe Higher Education contexts as unwelcoming and chilly environments. Based on the Minority Stress theory, these disparities in climate perceptions may lead sexual minority students to negative health and academic outcomes. To date, research documenting the experience of sexual minority students within European Higher Education Institutions is limited. Framed within campus climate literature, the current study aimed to expand on previous knowledge by investigating the associations between sexual minority status, students’ perceptions of campus climate and psychological (i.e., anxiety–depression), and academic outcomes (i.e., intellectual and academic success and considering leaving the university) using a self-selected sample of 868 Italian university students (17.9% sexual minority students). The results showed that sexual minority status was associated with negative perceptions of campus climate, which, in turn, were associated with higher levels of anxiety–depression symptoms, lowered academic success, and a high probability of considering leaving university. Further research is needed to investigate the experience of sexual minority students within European Higher Education contexts and to explore possible actions that could contribute to fostering a greater sense of belonging to the campus community for all students, and particularly for students from sexual minority groups.
... Some studies found support for cognitive mechanisms that could link sexual minority stigma to poor mental health. Woodford et al. (2014) reported that decreased self-acceptance, ...
Thesis
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Background: Compared to heterosexual individuals, sexual minorities (e.g., those identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) are at higher risk of several mental health problems, including suicidality, substance abuse, depression, and anxiety. Research has attributed much of these elevated risks to unique and chronic stress experiences, so-called minority stress, relating to the stigma and prejudice that many sexual minorities face. Less is known about how sexual minority stigma may function as a multilevel socio-ecological system that includes stigma-related risk factors at various levels, such as the structural (e.g., negative population attitudes and discriminatory laws and policies), interpersonal (e.g., victimization and harassment), and individual level (e.g., internalization of negative societal attitudes and concealment of sexual identity), to drive poor mental health among sexual minorities. Such a socio-ecological system of sexual minority stigma may feature unique characteristics and components, including 1) a chronosystem in which stigma-related factors may vary and exert effects across time, space, and the life course, 2) cross-level effects in which stigma-related factors at one level may give rise to stigma at another level, and 3) mechanisms that explain how stigma-related factors may compromise sexual minorities’ mental health. Purpose and aims: The purpose of this Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) thesis was to contribute to the advancement of sexual minorities’ mental health equity by furthering the scientific knowledge on the mechanisms underlying sexual orientation-based disparities in mental health. The Ph.D. thesis aimed to do so by 1) advancing theoretical thinking through combing the existing frameworks of minority stress and psychological mediation with socio- ecological theory, 2) examining mental health disparities by sexual orientation, and 3) testing different elements of a proposed socio-ecology of sexual minority stigma framework. Methods: Cross-sectional individual-level data were used from surveys sent out to sexual minorities living in Sweden, across Europe, and/or with migration backgrounds. The first two of the presented studies used probability-based sampling techniques to identify representative population-based samples, while the other two studies used convenience samples of sexual minorities who lived in, or have moved from, various countries, diverse in structural climates. Data for the latter two studies were combined with objective indicators of structural forms of stigma present in these countries. In all studies, mediation and/or moderation analyses were employed to examine the explanatory or buffering, respectively, mechanisms underlying the associations between stigma-related factors and sexual minority mental health or wellbeing. Results: In the low-stigma context of Sweden, sexual minorities were at a 2.7-6.8 higher odds for suicidality, 1.3-2.3 higher odds for depression, and 1.4 higher odds for substance abuse, compared with heterosexual individuals. In Sweden, just about one third of sexual minorities reported being completely open about their sexual orientation. Regarding cross- level effects, exposure to structural forms of stigma throughout the life course were associated with reduced adulthood wellbeing among sexual minorities open about their sexual orientation at school, partially mediated through increased negative interpersonal experiences, such as school bullying and subsequent adulthood victimization. Further, exposure to high levels of structural stigma were associated with reduced mental health among sexual minority male migrants, mediated through higher risks of negative individual stigma-related coping patterns, such as rejection sensitivity and internalized homophobia, with the maladaptive patterns increasing with duration of exposure. Yet, upon exposure to lower structural stigma, these patterns were found to decrease with time. Sexual identity concealment was not found to mediate the association between structural stigma and mental health. Similarly, sexual orientation openness was only positively associated with depression when sexual minorities’ social support was lacking. Conclusions and recommendations: While several stigma-related factors have previously been identified as direct risk factors for poor mental health among sexual minorities, this Ph.D. thesis further explored, and found support for, sexual minority stigma as a socio- ecological system surrounding sexual minorities, which includes a chronosystem, cross-level effects, and mechanisms linking stigma-related factors to poor mental health. That is, sexual minorities’ mental health and wellbeing might be shaped by the structural climates they live in and have been exposed to, such that those contexts may promote harmful interpersonal stigma-related experiences throughout the life course and may gradually give rise to detrimental individual-level stigma-based coping mechanisms. To improve health equity between sexual minorities and heterosexual individuals, policymakers should focus on eliminating sexual minority stigma in its various forms – whether explicit or subtle, whether intentional or inadvertent, whether structural or interpersonal – from today’s societies. Meanwhile, clinicians may help empower sexual minorities finding purpose within and outside prominent social structures and help break sexual minorities’ harmful coping patterns instilled by stigma through affirmative therapy. Further research is needed to confirm these initial efforts to frame and examine sexual minority stigma as a socio-ecological system.
... The target is first presented with attributional ambiguity (e.g., questioning if the microaggression resulted from race, gender, both, or some other combination of one's identity groups). Despite the cognitive and emotional energy expended by targets in identifying microaggressions (Pitcan et al., 2018), studies suggest that marginalized individuals regularly experience and identify microaggressions; more than 90% of most study samples report having experienced microaggressions on a regular basis (Barber et al., 2020;Woodford et al., 2014). Therefore, if targets can overcome this ambiguity and identify the microaggression, they are left to either sit and ruminate on the matter or confront the person. ...
Article
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Secondary microaggressions refer to the ways in which people of historically dominant groups negate the realities of people of marginalized groups. Gaslighting describes the act of manipulating others to doubt themselves or question their own sanity; people confronted for committing microaggressions deny the existence of their biases, often convincing the targets of microaggressions to question their own perceptions. ‘Splaining (derived from mansplaining/Whitesplaining) is an act in which a person of a dominant group speaks for or provides rationale to people of marginalized groups about topics related to oppression or inequity. Victim blaming refers to assigning fault to people who experience violence or wrongdoing and is used as a tool to discredit people of marginalized groups who speak out against microaggressions or any injustices. Finally, abandonment and neglect refer to a bystander’s failure to address or acknowledge microaggressions. Although these terms are commonly known among marginalized communities (and frequently used in popular media), there is a dearth in academic literature that substantiates these phenomena and relates them to microaggressions. The purpose of this article is to review these concepts in the psychological literature and to demonstrate the psychological harm caused by these behaviors on interpersonal and systemic levels.
... Research has shown that students who identify as a non-normative gender often experience feelings of marginalization on campus (Beemyn, 2005;Dugan Kusel, & Simounet, 2012;Effrig, Bieschke, & Locke, 2011;Garvey, Taylor, & Rankin, 2015;Goodrich, 2012;Kane, 2013;Kumashiro, 2000;Marine & Nicolazzo, 2014;McKinney, 2005;Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011;Rankin, 2005;Singh, Meng, & Hansen, 2013;Tetreault, Fette, Meidlinger, & Hope, 2013;Vaccaro, 2012;Vaccaro, Russell, & Koob, 2015;Woodford & Kulick, 2015;Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014). In response to this pressing issue, researchers have suggested that campuses should both provide campus resources specifically designed for these students as well as support the visibility of non-normative gender identities on campus (Byron, Lowe, Billingsley, & Tuttle, 2017;Copp & Koehler, 2017;Pearson & Wilkinson, 2017;Taylor, 2015;Tetreault, et al., 2013). ...
Chapter
The objective of this chapter is to outline the theory of gender performativity and to discuss its implications for researchers and policymakers in higher education. This chapter will examine the manner in which the measurement tools and recruitment methods utilized by research in higher education may serve to reinforce particular ontological assumptions about gender. If institutions of higher education aspire to serve their diverse student populations as inclusively as possible, it may be valuable for researchers and policymakers to consider the notion that gender is a social construct that is continually open to experimental performance.
... These are often unintentional acts of discrimination that may come in the form of "everyday verbal, nonverbal, and environmental slights, snubs, or insults" (Sue, 2010, p.3) that inadvertently marginalise sexual minority groups. Overall, research has March 2022 Issue 1 | 5 evidenced how LGB-based microaggressions can lead to poorer mental health and psychiatric morbidity (Woodford et al., 2014;Woodford et al., 2015;Nadal et al., 2012). ...
Article
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An exploratory study on how the local news media reported on the type of challenges experienced by SSAs during the pandemic. Social Service Research Centre
... These findings are consistent with prior research indicating the effect of microaggressions on anxiety for LGBTQ+ individuals (i.e. Seelman, Woodford, and Nicolazzo 2017;Woodford et al. 2014). The lack of association between environmental microaggressions and depression is unexpected, but few studies have examined outcomes associated with a distinct type of microaggression (i.e. ...
Article
This study investigated thwarted belongingness as a moderator of the relationship between microaggressions and mental health among LGBTQ+ emerging adults. Using data collected from 186 LGBTQ+ emerging adults, we conducted separate moderation analyses to examine whether, and to what extent, the relation between microaggressions and mental health (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms) is moderated by thwarted belongingness. Interpersonal and environmental microaggressions were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results of the moderation models suggest that the effects of interpersonal and environmental microaggressions on anxiety symptoms were moderated by thwarted belongingness, and that relations between interpersonal and environmental microaggressions and anxiety symptoms were statistically significant and positive at moderate and high levels of thwarted belongingness. In contrast, at low levels of thwarted belongingness, the relationship between microaggressions and anxiety was not statistically significant. Thwarted belongingness also moderated the relationship between interpersonal microaggressions and depression, such that the relation between interpersonal microaggressions and depression was statistically significant and positive only at high and moderate levels.. These findings provide support for recognizing belongingness as a potential factor in determining the effects of microaggressions on mental health outcomes for LGBTQ+ emerging adults.
... Woodford et al. (2015) proposed and tested the LGBQ microaggressions on college campuses scale, identifying reliability and validity for subscales of interpersonal microaggressions (e.g., "I was told being LGBQ is just a phase") and environmental microaggressions (e.g., "I saw negative messages about LGBQ people on social media"). In a study of LGBQ college students, Woodford et al. (2014) found almost all experienced interpersonal and environmental microaggressions, while 37% experienced blatant discrimination and gender atypical students experienced greater victimization. ...
Article
While research on microaggressions has exploded, most scholarship explores singular dimensions of identity, including race, gender, or sexual orientation. To date, little work has considered the experiences of LGBTQ students with disabilities. We compared microaggressions reported by 25 LGBTQ students with disabilities to existing taxonomies, revealing 126 disability microaggressions and 53 LGBTQ microaggressions. Microaggressions not corresponding to taxonomies were grouped into eight categories. Participants noted identity management issues that influenced their experience of microaggressions.
... Participants felt that when they accepted their sexual orientation, they were able to dismiss the relevance and potential adverse impact of stigma or discrimination to their self-evaluation. Findings here provide more detail about the mechanisms underlying previous research demonstrating findings of an association between sexuality self-acceptance and self-esteem (Woodford et al., 2014;Rostosky et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Research on mental health inequalities between sexual minority and heterosexual young adults has historically focussed on the additional stress processes that might explain this disparity. However, more recently there has been a shift towards research focussed on resilience factors that might promote mental health in sexual minority young adults. Self-esteem is one such proposed resilience factor. This study aimed to explore the factors that promote or protect self-esteem itself in sexual minority young adults. A semi-structured interview study was conducted with 20 sexual minority young adults (aged 16-24) to explore their perspectives on the factors, responses and strategies that have helped to protect or promote their self-esteem. Six themes were identified from thematic analysis: helpful responses to minority stress; sexuality acceptance; positive LGBTQ + social connections and representations; positive social relationships and evaluation; successes and positive qualities and general coping strategies for low self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications.
... Internal SGM stressors are intraindividual factors-such as concealing SGM identity, internalizing stigma, and anticipating rejectionthat putatively protect mental and physical well-being in the short term but generate health risks in the long term. Both types of SGM stressors are associated with depression (130)(131)(132)(133)(134)(135)(136)(137). ...
Article
Depression is a disorder of dysregulated affective and social functioning, with attenuated responding to reward, heightened responding to threat (perhaps especially social threat), excessive focus on negative aspects of the self, ineffective engagement with other people, and difficulty modulating all of these responses. Known risk factors provide a starting point for a model of developmental pathways to resilience, and we propose that the interplay of social threat experiences and neural social-affective systems is critical to those pathways. We describe a model of risk and resilience, review supporting evidence, and apply the model to sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents, a population with high disparities in depression and unique social risk factors. This approach illustrates the fundamental role of a socially and developmentally informed clinical neuroscience model for understanding a population disproportionately affected by risk factors and psychopathology outcomes. We consider it a public health imperative to apply conceptual models to high-need populations to elucidate targets for effective interventions to promote healthy development and enhance resilience.
... In comparison to disability research, studies of campus climate for LGBTQ+ students and LGB students' identities and campus experiences are relatively more common (Rankin, Blumenfeld, Weber, & Frazer, 2010;Vaccaro, 2012), while studies specifically centering the experiences of transgender students (Nicolazzo, 2016;Pryor, 2015) and LGBTQ+ students of color (Duran, 2019;Johnson & Javier, 2017) are increasing. While discrimination, exclusion, and harassment have undoubtedly influenced the experiences of students who identify with one or both groups (e.g., Gonzales, Davidoff, Nadal, & Yanos, 2015;Henry, Fuerth, & Figliozzi, 2010;Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014), scholars run the risk of affirming a deficit viewpoint by focusing primarily or exclusively on oppression (Talburt, 2006) A variety of studies have considered the mental health needs and experiences of LGBTQ+ students (Oswalt & Wyatt, 2011;Westefeld, Maples, Buford, & Taylor, 2001), however, these studies have less often considered mental ability/disability as a social identity intersecting with gender and sexual orientation. The limited intersectional research about queer students with disabilities in higher education that has thus far emerged (Duke, 2011) includes an interview-based study with one gay male college student with a physical disability (Henry et al., 2010). ...
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A qualitative study using situational analysis (Clarke, 2005) explored the temporal experiences of 25 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer students with disabilities at a U.S. research university. Drawing upon queer and critical examinations of time, this manuscript details students' experiences navigating and transgressing normative temporalities in higher education. Students in the study described processes of (a) calculating time to graduation; (b) resisting and accommodating temporal expectations; and (c) lacking energy, lacking time. Failure to align with the campus tempo was dismissed as an individual failure of motivation and of time management, thus absolving the institution. Ultimately, however, a focus on students experiencing acute institutional pressures related to temporality might offer insight into broader trends embedded in dominant neoliberal discourses of higher education. This paper suggests interconnections among time, power, and identity that could inform new paradigms for higher education practitioners and researchers.
... Individuals in the resilient group excel at this stage because they are able to adapt to a variety of environmental needs (Asendorpf, 2006). Specifically, higher levels of resilience are associated with higher levels of self-acceptance and self-control (Baeva et al., 2016), both of which contribute to the development of psychosexual adjustment (Woodford et al., 2014;Magnusson et al., 2019). ...
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Although the factors influencing sexual health have been explored by researchers, the impact of leisure and personality on psychosexual adjustment and the interaction of these two factors remain unknown. This study investigated the relationship between leisure satisfaction and psychosexual adjustment based on the compensation theory and the social learning theory. The differences in psychosexual adjustment across different personality types were also explored. Finally, we examined the interaction between personality and leisure satisfaction based on the personal-environment fit models. The participants in this study were 1,161 college students. The results supported all the hypotheses proposed. There was a significant positive correlation between leisure satisfaction and psychosexual adjustment. Participants of four personality types (the overcontrolled, high-moderate, low-moderate, and resilient groups) had different performance in psychosexual adjustment. The resilient group had the highest scores, while the overcontrolled group had the lowest scores. The results suggest that there is an interaction between personality and leisure satisfaction. Our research could enrich the research contents of leisure and personality and provide a practical basis for the improvement of college students in psychosexual adjustment.
... Imperatively, theoretical and empirical works have yielded congruent findings that those who struggle with accepting their sexual identity are susceptible to a range of mental health issues (Newcomb & Mustanski, 2010). Whereas research indicates that internalized homonegativity can result from an array of sociocultural, environmental, and interpersonal forces and function as a potent mediator in translating stigma-induced stress into adverse mental health outcome (Pachankis et al., 2015;Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014), limited research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between subscription to filial piety and internalized stigma among LGB populations. ...
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A theme emerging from the current literature is that Chinese gay and bisexual men are likely to struggle to accept themselves because of the cultural emphasis on filial piety. However, our understanding of this culturally particular process remains partial because most research has operationalized filial piety as either a component of Chinese values or an aggregate construct itself. To pinpoint this mechanism, this study deconstructed filial piety into pragmatic obligations and compassionate reverence to test a mediation model in which internalized homonegativity served as a mediator between filial piety and depressive symptoms among Taiwanese gay and bisexual men. With the aid of Facebook advertisements, a total of 1,381 respondents (Mean age = 26.56, SD = 6) were recruited to complete a web-based survey comprising the Contemporary Filial Piety Scale, the Chinese Internalized Homophobia Scale, and the Patient Health Quesionanire-9. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the mediation paths. Results showed that pragmatic obligations are directly and negatively associated with depressive symptoms without yielding significant correlation with internalized homonegativity. A full mediation path was found in that compassionate reverence is positively correlated with internalized homonegativity and in turn associated with higher depressive symptoms. Whereas filial piety still assumes salience among Taiwanese gay and bisexual men, this study provides novel evidence for the intricate effect of the value of filial piety on Taiwanese gay and bisexual men's self-acceptance and mental health. The results highlight the importance of a relational and cultural focus to address mental health disparities among sexual minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Szymanski and Bissonette (2020) found an association between such a negative campus climate and reports of victimization, poor mental health outcomes, and poor academic outcomes. These findings are consistent with prior research (Hood et al., 2018;Kulick et al., 2017;Rankin et al., 2010;Szymanski & Bissonette, 2020;Woodford et al., 2014). In addition, LGBTQ+ college students report greater unmet needs from existing institutional mental health resources, despite greater utilization of these services, compared with their heterosexual counterparts (Dunbar et al., 2017;D. ...
Article
We examined whether the “friendliness” of college counseling center websites to students with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer, plus other identities (LGBTQ+) varied by state-level structural policies on hate crime, employment nondiscrimination, and religious exemption. Results from our analyses of variance showed that website friendliness was significantly higher in states that offered hate-crime and employment nondiscrimination protections to LGBTQ+ individuals. Our findings highlight the need to intervene at multiple ecological levels to build inclusive college communities.
... Individuals may grapple with the decision to reveal their gender or sexual orientation to their chiropractor. Because self-acceptance may also be an issue for some patients, 15 the chiropractor's ability to accept and support patients' gender and sexual orientation allows the patient to feel comfortable in discussing these issues. 16 The terminology used to describe gender and sexual orientation is changing and evolving, which can create challenges for chiropractors. ...
Article
Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe how health care providers can improve their practice environments to be more welcoming for patients on the spectrum of gender and sexual identity. Methods Literature searches were performed in WorldCat, PubMed, and nongovernmental organizations and Gallup polls. The years searched were from 2005 to 2018. Key words used included sexual orientation, transgender, and health care. The PubMed MeSH termed searched included gender identity and sexuality, both in combination with patient care. Results Terminology that patients use to identify their gender may vary. Understanding the terminology that patients use to self-identify is a first step to becoming more sensitive to the needs of gender and sexual minority patients. Minority patients on the spectrum of gender and sexual identity experience discrimination when accessing health care. Therefore, an accepting doctor–patient relationship especially benefits these patients. When communication competency and fluency is established, health care providers provide a more inclusive, accepting environment. Addressing patients based on their preferences and using inclusive forms and patient handouts are some recommendations that are made to create an open, patient-centered environment. Conclusion This article provides health care providers with terminology that facilitates communication and the healing environment for sexual and gender minority patients. Understanding and using this may create a more welcoming environment to all patients.
... Positive identity affirmation, defined as developing positive feelings, self-acceptance, and a sense of belonging to one's identity group, has been found to mediate the link between experiences of discrimination and psychological distress (Woodford et al., 2014b). Prior research indicates that clinical interventions specific to positive identity affirmation helped mitigate maladaptive outcomes for students (Craig and Austin, 2016;Walton and Cohen, 2011). ...
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Background: Little is known about how victimization and discrimination relate to suicide risk among sexual and gender minority (SGM) college students, or what is protective for these students. The current study will: 1.) determine the extent to which interpersonal victimization, discrimination, identity affirmation, and social connectedness are associated with suicide risk characteristics, and if race and/or ethnicity moderates this association; 2.) examine whether identity affirmation and social connectedness are protective against associations between victimization or discrimination and suicide risk characteristics. Method: Participants were 868 students (63.6% female) from four United States universities who completed an online screening survey and met the following study inclusion criteria: self-identification as gender and/or sexual minority, endorsement of at least one suicide risk characteristic and no current use of mental health services. Participants also completed measures that assessed demographics, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), victimization, discrimination, connectedness, and LGBTQ identity affirmation. Results: Victimization was positively associated with depression severity, suicidal ideation, alcohol misuse, suicide attempt history, and NSSI. Discrimination was positively associated with depression severity, suicide attempt history, and NSSI. Connectedness was inversely associated with depression severity, suicidal ideation severity, suicide attempt history, and NSSI, and moderated the association between victimization and suicide attempt history. LGBTQ identity affirmation moderated the link between victimization and depression. Conclusions: Results suggest efforts to decrease victimization and discrimination and increase connectedness may decrease depressive morbidity and risks for self-harm among SGM college students. Further, increasing LGBTQ identity affirmation may buffer the impact of victimization on depression.
... Microaggressions were found to associate with greater psychological distress (e.g. anxiety and perceived stress) among LGBQ college students (Woodford, Kulick, Sinco, & Hong, 2014). Nadal, Rivera, and Corpus (2010) found four major themes in sexual orientation and gender identity microaggressions: (1) assumptions of sexual pathology, (2) discomfort/disapproval of non-heterosexual and non-cisgender experiences, (3) assumptions of universal experience, and (4) exoticization. ...
Article
The purpose of social work is actualized through its commitment to diversity and differences in practice, as well as human rights, social, economic, and environmental justice. A review of literature on microaggressions and oppression against marginalized and vulnerable populations suggests important themes that social work instructors need to examine with students. It is unclear to what extent instructors use pedagogical tools to gain knowledge, skills, and critical consciousness to navigate social justice contents and manage difficult conversations with diverse student groups in class settings. Not much attention is paid in social work education on how well instructors are prepared to teach this content in depth and what challenges they face when facilitating highly sensitive and difficult discussions with students. This article described and evaluated five sets of reflective, experiential, and collaborative activities in a social justice course designed to help social work students examine the histories of various identity groups that have experienced discrimination and oppression and increase their self-awareness of both privilege and personal bias in one’s life. These activities include: (1) reflective reading notes; (2) critical reflection paper; (3) brief lecture and experiential class activities and discussion; (4) collaborative group presentations and role-plays; and (5) cultural competency plan. Thirty-two students completed the evaluation surveys to assess their overall feedback about course activities and 36 students completed anonymous online course evaluations to assess their level of attainment in all course competencies. Student feedback collected in course evaluations and surveys, students’ self-assessment of attainment of course competencies, and the instructor’s critical reflection and self-assessment, suggest that teaching social justice using a reflective, experiential, and collaborative pedagogical approach has a promising potential for advancing course objectives. Through these activities, students increased their knowledge on a range of topics such as racism, oppression, microaggression, social identities, intersectionality, privilege, and cultural humility, enhanced their understanding of various forms of prejudice and discrimination, and acquired critical skills and cultural competence that have direct application in social work field.
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This study examined the sexual identity management strategies employed by GLB emerging adults when interacting with their parents, siblings, and close peers. For each context, perceived acceptance of sexual orientation and relationship closeness were examined as predictors of being explicitly out. Being explicitly out was also examined as a predictor of psychological well-being. Data were collected from 98 self-identified GLB individuals, who ranged from 18 to 22 years old and were currently college students from the Philippines. Results showed significant differences in the use of sexual identity management strategies depending on who they are interacting with. There was a greater likelihood to be explicitly out to close friends rather than family members. Perceived acceptance was a consistent predictor of being explicitly out across contexts although relationship closeness was not. However, relationship closeness significantly moderated the relationship between perceived acceptance and being explicitly out to parents. As hypothesized, being explicitly out significantly predicted psychological well-being with parents and siblings. This study expands the scope of the Identity Management Theory by showing how sexual identity is managed differently across various contexts.
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people of colour (LGBTQ-POC) are confronted with daily, subtle racist and heterosexist microaggressions, which have been linked to stress and increased likelihood of mental health problems. The current study applied an intersectional framework to understand the role that intersectional microaggressions play in predicting psychological distress among LGBTQ-POC. Furthermore, rather than merely investigating risk, the current study integrated a resiliency perspective to understand how individual- and community-level promotive factors compensate for and protect against psychological distress in the face of intersectional microaggressions. A racially diverse sample of 200 LGBTQ emerging adults of colour (ages 18-29) participated in an online study that assessed psychological distress, three types of microaggressions (racial, heterosexist, and intersectional), social identity, and community connectedness. Results indicated that although heterosexist and racial microaggressions predicted psychological distress, when considered together, intersectional microaggressions accounted for the majority of the relationship and were a better predictor of psychological distress. Additionally, although social identity was not protective, connectedness with each of the three communities (LGBTQ, POC, LGBTQ-POC) had a direct compensatory effect on psychological distress. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Chapter
The objective of this chapter is to outline the theory of gender performativity and to discuss its implications for researchers and policymakers in higher education. This chapter will examine the manner in which the measurement tools and recruitment methods utilized by research in higher education may serve to reinforce particular ontological assumptions about gender. If institutions of higher education aspire to serve their diverse student populations as inclusively as possible, it may be valuable for researchers and policymakers to consider the notion that gender is a social construct that is continually open to experimental performance.
Article
Research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth and young adults are at greater risk for mental health issues, including low levels of self-acceptance, when compared to heterosexual and cis-gendered peers. Many LGBTQ+ youth and young adults experience stress related to being a sexual minority and have difficulty accepting their sexual identity given non-affirming familial and social lived experiences. One promising approach for working with this population is providing affirmative care within a systems of care framework. This study examines outcomes of LGBTQ+ and cisgender straight allied youth and young adults following participation in iTEAM - an affirming system of care program. Data from 170 iTEAM participants who had both a pre- (intake) and 6-month post follow-up assessment were included in the analyses. Outcomes of interest include self-acceptance, employment, housing stability, and mental health of participants A factor analysis of the Self-Acceptance Scale resulted in four subscales: Self-Confidence, Social Confidence, Interpersonal Confidence, and Locus of Control. Changes from pre- to post-assessment indicate significant increases in overall self-acceptance and the four subscales along with employment and housing stability. Mental health scores improved, but not significantly. For the most part, these positive changes were evidenced for both LGBTQ+ and cisgender straight allied youth. The findings support the value of providing an affirming system of care program for both LGBTQ+ and straight allied youth in the same program setting. Additionally, programs should consider adding a measure of self-acceptance to inform clinical practice.
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In Hong Kong, the hostility, stigma and discrimination against sexual minorities is prevalent. HEvolution are a community initiative founded in 2017, aiming to promote physical, mental, social and spiritual health among gay men in Hong Kong. This study investigated the roles of social demographics, mindfulness and self-kindness, and gay life-related variables in predicting their overall well-being. T-tests, chi-square tests, correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression were conducted to investigate the relationships between variables of interest. Results found that close relationships existed between mindfulness, self-compassion, gay life identity and well-being in gay men. It suggests that the promotion of holistic health and mindfulness among Hong Kong gay men can be beneficial to their psychological and overall well-being.
Article
To ascertain whether sexual and/or gender minority (SGM) students at a Hispanic-serving institution who experience violence are more likely to experience interference with their academic lives when compared to heterosexual, cisgender students, and how this relationship differs by race/ethnicity. Data came from 736 undergraduate students at a university in the Southwestern United States responding to a 2017 Campus Climate Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted on self-identified SGM students and reported interference with their academic lives. The model was also tested for effect modification by race/ethnicity. Two-thirds (67.65%) of SGM students reported four or more incidences of violence. Nearly one-fifth (18.83%) of SGM students reported being harassed, insulted, threatened, or intimidated, and 2.63% reported being physically hurt (including forced sex), because the perpetrator thought the individual might have been gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. SGM students had 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.61) increased odds of interference with academic life as a result of violence victimization compared with non-SGM students. When the model was evaluated for effect modification by race/ethnicity, large effect sizes were observed, although the results were not significant. SGM undergraduate students are at significantly increased risk of violence and interference with their academic lives. This research emphasizes the need for institutions of higher education to ensure that their policies and practices support equal access to education by SGM students. Additionally, this study contributes insights into a potential protective effect of Hispanic ethnicity that warrants further research.
Article
LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, plus) people, compared to their heterosexual and/or cisgender (non-transgender) counterparts, are more likely to be discriminated against based on their gender or sexual identities. Drawing on data from The OutLook Study in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada this paper examines discrimination and social support among high school and post-secondary students, and how they are related to self-esteem. We found that transgender students in high school reported significantly higher levels of direct transphobia and of victimization compared to transgender post-secondary students. We found indirect homophobia and indirect transphobia had a significant adverse relationship to self-esteem. Further, social support from friends was related to higher self-esteem for cisgender LGBQ students, but not for transgender students. These findings have the potential to inform school-based policies and mental health interventions in support of improved wellbeing for LGBTQ + students.
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Exposure to microaggressions can have detrimental impacts on the mental health of LGBTQ+ emerging adults. Positive social relationships are a well-documented protective factor that help to buffer the impact of adversity on mental health in this population. However, the role of social relationships with pets has received minimal attention in research on LGBTQ+ mental health, despite the high prevalence of pets in U.S. households. This cross-sectional study examined whether the association between interpersonal microaggressions and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ+ emerging adults varied as a function of attachment to pets across three domains: love, emotion regulation, and personal growth. We recruited 163 LGBTQ+ emerging adults (18-21 years) who lived with a cat and/or dog within the past year (98.8% sexual minority, 47.2% gender minority, 37.4% racial/ethnic minority). We found that love and emotion regulation significantly moderated the positive association between interpersonal microaggressions and depressive symptoms. Specifically, this association was only significant when love and emotion regulation were at moderate or high levels. These findings have important implications for practice with LGBTQ+ pet owners, as it suggests that high levels of pet attachment may amplify the relation between interpersonal microaggressions and depressive symptoms.
Thesis
College students, particularly graduate students, are reporting increasing psychological distress levels, and college administrators need to find ways to cope. However, it is challenging to provide proactive mental health services without knowing students’ skills and needs. Over the last decade, there is evidence that emotional intelligence (EI) is positively related to psychological well-being; however, studies did not extend to graduate students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine psychological well-being in graduate students and how demographics and background characteristics and EI influence psychological well-being. I surveyed on-campus graduate students at one higher education institution via Qualtrics using demographic and background characteristics questions, the assessing emotions scale, and Ryff’s scales of psychological well-being to determine the relationship between demographics and background characteristics and psychological well-being and EI and psychological well-being in graduate students. Results revealed a statistically significant relationship between psychological well-being and EI within the graduate student population, particularly the assessing emotions scale’s subscales of managing own emotions (ß= -0.42) and utilization of emotion (ß= 0.14). In addition, graduate student demographics and background characteristics were significantly related to psychological well-being, particularly race, age, credits completed, graduate assistantship status, employment, and COVID-19 effects. Higher education administrators and faculty and staff must provide a a proactive well-being approach, including social and emotional learning and trauma-centered practices, as part of a university-wide effort to provide the resources needed for graduate students to be holistically successful.
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Orientation: It is known that black queer employees are exposed to various forms of discrimination because of their sexual orientation being different from the norm. However, because of societal progression in terms of equality and inclusivity in Africa, it is hoped that the discriminatory challenge has lessened and that black queer employees are now in a position to experience well-being. When employees experience well-being, personal functioning and organisational performance are promoted. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate black queer employees’ experience of discrimination in the workplace, as well as their psychological well-being. Motivation for the study: Previous research studies investigating black queer individuals were mostly conducted in a developed world setting and approached from a pathological stance. As a result of progressive societal changes taking place in Africa, it seems necessary to also conduct research focussing on this minority social group from a positive psychological stance. Research approach/design and method: The study was qualitative in nature, and data were collected from nine black queer employees. The research strategy of phenomenology was used, because it reveals the lived experiences of black queer individuals around a specific phenomenon; for example, sexual orientation. Main findings: The findings of the study show that although black queer employees did not report experiencing discrimination, there are still a number of discriminatory challenges to which they are exposed. The overall impression was that black queer employees are experiencing psychological well-being, despite the discriminatory challenges that they are exposed to. Practical/managerial implications: Although much progress has been made in Africa to promote equality and inclusivity, more can be done to support black queer employees. Organisations should place more emphasis on wellness programmes, employee support programmes and health and safety initiatives, to promote a supportive working environment for black queer employees. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature on the work experience and well-being of black African queer employees.
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Background Educational interventions are required to train pharmacists to provide culturally safe care to sexually- and gender-diverse patients. Programming must promote inclusivity and should also focus on systemwide change. The aim of this review was to identify, summarize, and map scholarly activity with respect to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, plus (LGBTQ+) health in entry-to-practice pharmacy curricula. Methods An electronic search of Medline, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts was conducted to search for relevant literature up to May 2021. This search was supplemented with a keyword search of three pharmacy education journals. Articles were included in the review if they described an educational intervention for entry-to-practice pharmacy students related to health for sexually- or gender-diverse patients. Results Five articles met inclusion criteria. All articles reported interventions relating to gender-diverse patients. One reported interventions relating to sexually-diverse patients and another was deemed unclear. Four articles reported single teaching events or short modules, and one article reported a full course. Incorporating real patients into teaching events to share their experiences with the health system was consistently received positively by students. Implications Scholars involved in developing and implementing educational interventions related to health for sexually- and gender-diverse patients should be encouraged to contribute to the scholarly conversation by sharing successful experiences, as well as lessons learned. Future areas of expansion include integration of sexual and gender minority health across curricula and including content to prepare students for implementing and supporting systemwide change.
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[In press in Human-Animal Interaction Bulletin (HAIB)]. Human-animal interaction (HAI) is associated with positive psychological adjustment. Although these benefits are hypothesized to be most pronounced for individuals who experience adversity and compromised social relationships, such as LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual/gender minority identities) individuals, this hypothesis has not been tested. The current, cross-sectional study examined whether the strength of the relationship between emotional comfort from companion animals and self-esteem and personal hardiness varies as a function of exposure to LGBTQ+ interpersonal stressors (i.e., victimization, microaggressions). Our sample included 155 LGBTQ+ emerging adults who lived with a dog and/or cat in the past year (Mage = 19.34 years, SD = 1.12 years). To test the hypothesis, we conducted simple and multiple moderation analyses. We found evidence that the magnitude of the association between comfort from companion animals and personal hardiness was greater for those who experienced high levels of interpersonal microaggressions. Similarly, victimization moderated the relation between comfort from companion animals and self-esteem. Including victimization and interpersonal microaggressions in the same model resulted in only one significant interaction effect: the relation between comfort from companion animals and self-esteem was positive at high levels of victimization and negative at low levels of victimization. Our results suggest that among LGBTQ+ emerging adults, the benefits of HAI on self-esteem were only present when high levels of victimization were reported. Future research should continue to examine factors that may influence the benefits and risks associated with HAI to identify for whom and under what circumstances HAI is beneficial.
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LGBTQ college students have historically experienced hostile campus climates during their time in higher education. While there has been advancement in LGBTQ inclusion, many universities and colleges still do not provide adequate support and services for LGBTQ students. This paper used the results from 14 qualitative interviews that explored the lived experiences of LGBTQ college students’ experiences of campus support and resources at a public university. Despite the presence of a student organization and the university’s commitment to inclusion, I found students wanted more LGBTQ representation and community; experienced homophobia, transphobia, and discrimination; and had mixed feelings about the Safe Zone program. Based on these findings, the paper concludes with proposals for increasing LGBTQ representation, facilitating campus education, and creating inclusive policies.
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In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress— explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.
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In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the nature of, relevance of, and relationship between global self-esteem and specific self-esteem. We marshal evidence that the two types of self-esteem may have strikingly different consequences, global self-esteem being more relevant to psychological well-being, and specific self-esteem being more relevant to behavior. We use linear structural equation causal modeling to test this hypothesis for the case of global self-esteem (Rosenberg 1979) and specific (academic) self-esteem. Our findings show that, while global self-esteem is more strongly related to measures of psychological well-being, specific (academic) self-esteem is a much better predictor of school performance. Other findings indicate that the degree to which specific academic self-esteem affects global self-esteem, particularly the positive component of global self-esteem, is a function of how highly academic performance is personally valued.
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Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students' alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35-2.00). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48-2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24-1.90). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.01. The results provide further evidence for minority stress theory and suggest that clinical alcohol use interventions with sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal mistreatment, especially hostility. Campus climate interventions that address subtle discrimination as well as harassment and violence may help reduce problematic drinking.
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Emerging evidence suggests that, in addition to experiencing blatant forms of discrimination, sexual minority individuals are subjected to subtle homonegative behaviours. However, understanding the nature of subtle discriminatory behaviours, including the context in which they arise and their effects on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, is limited. In the current study, 19 Canadian LGB persons (11 men; 8 women) recruited from the community (i.e., non-students) participated in face-to-face interviews about their experiences of subtle discrimination. Results indicated that participants most commonly encountered subtle homonegative behaviours in their workplaces, health care settings, and family relationships. In addition, participants perceived that homonegativity was pervasive across all domains of life. Implications of the subtle discrimination experienced by the participants included: experiencing feelings of isolation and invisibility, hypervigilance, fragmentation of self, and a desire to conceal one's sexual orientation. The limitations associated with the study along with directions for future research on subtle forms of LGB discrimination are outlined.
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This article describes a new, inclusive model of lesbian identity formation. A rationale for the model is presented, which includes a review of relevant literature in lesbian/gay identity, racial/ethnic identity, and gender issues related to identity development. Three case studies are presented to elucidate the applications of the model to counseling, and the article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the model for research.
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Three studies were conducted to develop and assess the Homonegative Microaggressions Scale (HMS), a new measure applying Sue et al.'s (2007) taxonomy of microaggressions among racial minorities to sexual minorities. Study 1 assessed content validity through consultation with experts on lesbian, gay, bisexual discrimination and measures of discrimination and a small pilot study. As a result, items were added or reworded (for clarity and reading level), finalizing a measure of 45 items. Study 2 provided evidence of reliability as well as discriminant and convergent validity by comparing the HMS to similar and dissimilar measures. Finally, Study 3 examined criterion-related validity by assessing the relationship between homonegative microaggressions and self-esteem, negative feelings about one's gay identity, and difficulty in the process of developing gay identity.
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In recent years, there has been a growth of literature examining the mental health impacts of microaggressions, which are defined as subtle forms of discrimination toward oppressed groups. The current study utilized a qualitative focus group method and directed content analysis to categorize several types of sexual orientation microaggressions that exist. Eight themes were identified, including “Use of heterosexist terminology” and “Endorsement of heteronormative culture/behaviors.” Results suggest that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals experience both conscious and unconscious microaggressions from heterosexuals and support that microaggressions negatively impact LGB individual's mental health. Implications for youth development are discussed.
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Previous literature on microaggressions has suggested that oppressed groups including lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are affected by overt discrimination. However, there has been little research to explore how LGB individuals cope with microaggressions (subtle forms of discrimination), or how microaggressions affect their mental health. This article uses a qualitative focus group method and directed content analysis to categorize the types of processes that exist. With a sample of 26 LGB participants, results were categorized into five domains: (a) behavioral reactions, (b) cognitive reactions, (c) emotional reactions, (d) mental health, and (e) systems and groups who enact microaggressions. Themes were classified under each domain, with examples including passive coping, resiliency and empowerment, and anger/frustration toward sexual orientation microaggressions. Recommendations for culturally competent counseling with LGB populations in school and clinical mental health settings are discussed.
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This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions (heterosexism) and among individuals. The latter include enacted sexual stigma (overt negative actions against sexual minorities, such as hate crimes), felt sexual stigma (expectations about the circumstances in which sexual stigma will be enacted), and internalized sexual stigma (personal acceptance of sexual stigma as part of one's value system and self-concept). Drawing from previous research on internalized sexual stigma among heterosexuals (i.e., sexual prejudice), the article considers possible parallels in how sexual minorities experience internalized sexual stigma (i.e., self-stigma, or negative attitudes toward the self). Data are presented from a community sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (N = 2,259) to illustrate the model's utility for generating and testing hypotheses concerning self-stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined victimization during high school based on sexual orientation of 350 lesbian, gay, or bisexual (lgb) youths aged 21 and younger. Experiences of direct victimization as well as knowledge of other lgb youths' victimization were assessed. Over half reported verbal abuse in high school because of their sexual orientation, and 11% said they had been physically assaulted. Youths who were more open in high school about their sexual orientation and who had a history of more gender atypical behavior were victimized more often. Male youths were targeted significantly more often than females, Youths' current mental health symptoms, especially traumatic stress reactions, were associated with having experienced more verbal abuse in high school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths (aged 15–21 yrs) were studied to determine the impact of verbal abuse, threat of attacks, and assault on their mental health, including suicide. Family support and self-acceptance were hypothesized to act as mediators of the victimization and mental health-suicide relation. Structural equation modeling revealed that in addition to a direct effect of victimization on mental health, family support and self-acceptance in concert mediated the victimization and mental health relation. Victimization was not directly related to suicide. Victimization interacted with family support to influence mental health, but only for low levels of victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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"That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who are emerging adults (18-25 years). Multiple regression analysis suggested that saying the phrase is positively associated with hearing peers say it and with holding negative perceptions of feminine men, whereas having LGB acquaintances was negatively associated with use of this expression. We offer practice and policy recommendations for curbing its use, thereby enhancing campus climate.
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The investigators examined the health and well-being correlates of hearing the popular phrase "that's so gay" among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) emerging adults. Participants were 114 self-identified GLB students aged 18 to 25 years. An online survey was distributed to students at a large public university in the Midwest during winter 2009. Participants' social and physical well-being was negatively associated with hearing this phrase, specifically feeling isolated and experiencing physical health symptoms (ie, headaches, poor appetite, or eating problems). College professionals and student leaders must acknowledge that the phrase is a form of heterosexist harassment. As such, policies addressing diversity and harassment should address students' use of this phrase, aiming to reduce its use. Additionally, colleges and universities should develop practices that counteract poorer well-being associated with hearing the phrase.
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Previous research has suggested that overt hostility against sexual minorities is associated with decrements in their well-being. However, subtler forms of heterosexism and their potential effects have been overlooked, heterosexuals have not been asked how they fare in a heterosexist environment, and no research has examined whether women and men might respond differently to heterosexism. Data from 3,128 northwestern US university students (representing all sexual orientations) address these gaps. Approximately 40% reported experiences of heterosexist harassment (HH) in the past year, and those who encountered both ambient and personal HH reported worse psychological and academic well-being than those who encountered no HH. Similar patterns of findings held for sexual minorities and heterosexuals, and for women and men.
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Despite strong indications of elevated risk of suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, limited attention has been given to research, interventions or suicide prevention programs targeting these populations. This article is a culmination of a three-year effort by an expert panel to address the need for better understanding of suicidal behavior and suicide risk in sexual minority populations, and stimulate the development of needed prevention strategies, interventions and policy changes. This article summarizes existing research findings, and makes recommendations for addressing knowledge gaps and applying current knowledge to relevant areas of suicide prevention practice.
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The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and types of negative behaviors directed toward gay men on university campuses and to understand heterosexual men's and women's motivations for engaging in antigay discrimination. Using a mixed methods approach, results from a quantitative survey (N = 286) indicated that students primarily engaged in covert antigay behaviors, such as telling antigay jokes and spreading gossip about gay men. Follow-up qualitative interviews with 8 highly homonegative individuals (4 men, 4 women) were then conducted to better understand their self-perceived motivations for perpetrating antigay discrimination. Results indicated that antigay behaviors were conducted to reinforce traditional male gender roles, alleviate feelings of discomfort, and convey heterosexual identity. Participants also expressed concern about being perceived as prejudiced and were motivated to control their prejudicial reactions to some degree. Implications regarding the contemporary nature of antigay violence on university campuses are discussed.
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In the past decade, advocacy efforts to establish social policies that legally recognize same-sex relationships and protect lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people from employment discrimination have increased considerably throughout the country. To inform these advocacy campaigns, we investigate endorsement for LGBT civil rights among heterosexual college students (n = 1,714). Students, overall, were moderately supportive of LGBT rights. Twenty-one variables were found to be significant in the initial analyses; however, only seven retained significance in the final analysis which controlled for all variables. Results suggest that political ideology and specific LGBT attitudes are most influential. Religiosity and having LGBT extended family members are also important. Implications for LGBT advocacy efforts are discussed.
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Discrimination and violence targeting people perceived as gender nonconforming have been linked to a range of negative health outcomes, and large-scale representative data are needed to begin population surveillance of associated health disparities. A brief self-report measure of gender expression as perceived by others was tested using cognitive interviewing methods in a diverse sample of 82 young adults aged 18-30 years, recruited from the New England region in the U.S. Results identified themes related to item clarity, gender expression variation, undesirability of highest or lowest ends of item range, and tension between self and others' perceptions. The item performed as expected and is recommended for use on studies of health disparities, including statewide and national public health surveillance tools.
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Stigma and social inequality deprive disadvantaged social groups of a sense of social well-being. Stress researchers have focused on prejudice-related events and conditions but have not described more intangible stressors experienced by sexual minorities. We use narrative methods to examine how sexual minorities experience stigma and social inequality as we focus on the more intangible stressors that are both pervasive and difficult to measure. Three themes emerged in the narratives of our ethnically diverse sample of 57 adult sexual minority women and men: (a) stigma deprived them of access to critical possibilities and opportunities; (b) stigma deprives them of safety and acceptance; and (c) despite this, the experience of stigma is also related to the adoption of a positive and collective orientation towards their stigmatized identities. Recognizing these stressors and related resilience can direct policy makers toward interventions that go even beyond eliminating prejudice by including goals to strengthen minority communities.
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Harassment and discrimination based on sexual orientation was studied in a sample of 121 undergraduate students between 19 and 22 years of age. Over three fourths of the respondents reported verbal abuse and over one fourth had been threatened with violence. Other students were the most frequent victimizers. Few reported victimization to authorities. Fear for one's personal safety on campus was related to frequency of personal harassment. The implications of harassment and discrimination on the development of young lesbians and gay men are discussed.
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A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions-subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010 ). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N = 12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed.
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