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Effects of drugs and alcohol on behavior, job performance, and workplace safety

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Abstract

A study of records for 1 large U.S. company revealed that employees with positive drug screens were fired, whereas workers who self-disclosed drug/alcohol problems remained employed. Both groups were offered substance abuse intervention, and some previously fired workers were rehired after they received treatment. Accident results showed that drug-test positive employees, as compared with self-referred workers, had a significantly higher accident rate in all categories. Treatment data revealed that drug-test positive workers had significantly higher accident rates before and after treatment than self-referred employees. Posttreatment results showed that drug-test positive employees had a significant decrease in accidents after services, whereas the self-referred group showed no change.

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... A substantive body of research indicates use of alcohol and drugs significantly influences a variety of life outcomes, including academic achievement, job performance, and marital status (Akanbi et al., 2015;Amin-Esmaeili et al., 2016;Elliott and Shelley, 2006;Rees, 2019). It also increases motor vehicle crash risk (Ahlnera et al., 2013;Abridge et al., 2012;Carfora et al., 2018;Chihuri and Li, 2019;Li et al., 2013). ...
... Despite this, the control group had higher education levels, marriage rates, and job stability than the groups of drug users. These differences reflect the populations of interest: it is welldocumented that individuals suffering from substance abuse disorders have lower educational achievement, are less likely to be married, and have poorer job stability (Elliott and Shelley, 2006;Rees, 2019;Akanbi et al., 2015;Amin-Esmaeili, et al., 2016). The conceptual basis for our research would indicate that the differences we detected are a result of impaired cognition from substance abuse disorders, but it may be that lower levels of educational achievement, job stability, and marriage rates also played a role in the results. ...
Article
Background and Aims Pharmacological differences among different drug classes influence human cognition, visual, and motor behavior in different ways. These differences impact driving safety, and therefore individuals who use stimulant and opioid drugs might experience different patterns in driving safety and impairment in driving performance. This study examined the effect of long-term use of stimulant drugs and of opiate drugs on driving performance, hazard perception, visual search skills and psychomotor skills related to driving. Methods A total of 75 individuals, including 28 predominantly stimulant users, 22 predominantly opiate users and 25 healthy non-drug users, participated. Driving performance and psychomotor skills were assessed via a 15-minute drive in a simulator; hazard perception was assessed via a computerized task; and visual search skill was assessed by eye tracking. Results ANOVA analyses indicate both stimulant and opiate users drove at higher speeds and experienced more crashes than the healthy non-drug users. Stimulant but not opiate users violated red light regulations more often than the healthy non-drug users. In the hazard perception task, stimulant drug users performed more poorly than both opioid drug users and healthy non-drug users. Specifically, they had lower saccade movement scores and higher average fixation times. Conclusions Results confirm that both stimulant drug users and opiate drug users show impaired driving performance compared to healthy non-drug users. Stimulant drug users possessed poorer hazard perception skills compared to the opiate users and the control group, perhaps as a result of cognitive deficits created by the drug use.
... The risky use of alcohol by employed persons has generated considerable global discussion [1] since it holds negative implications for the health of employees and ultimately impacts on productivity through poor work performance [2], high absenteeism rates, presenteeism, accidents and injuries [3][4][5]. Alcohol specifically has been identified as a leading risk factor for death and disability globally. ...
... Over the last three decades, prevention efforts to reduce the adverse effects of risky alcohol use or drug use in workplace settings has become a priority for many organisations, government agencies and other constituencies [1,[18][19][20][21][22][23]. Coupled to this has been the increased global focus on the importance of implementing and disseminating evidence-based interventions (EBIs) targeting alcohol or drug use [24,25]. ...
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To test the effectiveness of a programme aimed at reducing the risky use of alcohol and alcohol-related HIV risk and increase help-seeking behaviour among a sample of municipal employees in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A clustered randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2011-2012 among 325 employees. The eight hour intervention, Team Awareness (TA), addressing behavioural risk among employees was administered to 168 employees in the intervention arm and the 157 employees in the control arm who received a one-hour wellness talk. The results show that TA had the greatest impact on risky drinking practices and hangover effects. There was a significant group X time interaction (F (1, 117) = 25.16, p < 0.0001) with participants in the intervention condition reducing number of days on which they engaged in binge drinking. There was also a significant time effect with participants in the intervention condition reducing the likelihood of going to work with a hangover (F (1,117) = 4.10, p = 0.045). No reduction in HIV-related risk behaviours were found. This intervention study was able to demonstrate a modest but significant reduction in risky drinking practices and hangover effects. This provides encouraging evidence for the effectiveness of interventions that address risky use of alcohol among employed persons, further providing a launch pad for strengthening and replicating future RCT studies on workplace prevention, especially in developing country settings. Pan-African Control Trial Registry (201301000458308).
... Researchers have also examined how SUD manifests in the workplace. Elliot and Shelley (2006) examined the accident rates of individuals who screened positive for substances in routine workplace drug tests. They found that those who tested positive for substances had higher accident rates, vehicle accidents, and injury/illness than those who did not test positive. ...
Article
Substance use disorder (SUD) has become significant concern both globally and nationally. Specifically, SUD may impact career development in areas such as educational attainment, employment, and income. Literature was reviewed outlining career development and SUD, with findings impacting the life span, the workplace, finances, and special populations. Career development interventions were also reviewed including general treatment and specific programs. Recommendations for career practitioners working with individuals with SUDs are included, as well as cautions and recommendations for future research. Key words: substance use disorder (SUD), career development, addiction, employment
... Further high-quality research is needed to examine Introduction Most people who use alcohol and other drugs, both legal and illegal, are employed (1) and 60% of people with substance use disorders (SUDs) have been found to be currently employed (2). Although the relationship is complex, employee substance use has long been associated with a range of negative work-related outcomes including absenteeism (3,4), loss of productivity (5), high turnover (6), and workplace accidents (7). The nature of a person's work and their workplace may also impact on substance use through factors such as job-related stressors, availability of substances in the workplace environment, and workplace substance use norms (3,(8)(9)(10)(11). ...
Article
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Employee alcohol and other drug use can negatively impact the workplace, resulting in absenteeism, reduced productivity, high turnover, and worksite safety issues. As the workplace can influence employee substance use through environmental and cultural factors, it also presents a key opportunity to deliver interventions, particularly to employees who may not otherwise seek help. This is a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of problematic substance use. Five databases were searched for efficacy, effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness studies and reviews published since 2010 that measured use of psychoactive substances (i.e., alcohol, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, and stimulants) as a primary or secondary outcome, in employees aged over 18. Thirty-nine articles were identified, 28 describing primary research and 11 reviews, most of which focused solely on alcohol use. Heterogeneity between studies with respect to intervention and evaluation design limited the degree to which findings could be synthesized, however, there is some promising evidence for workplace-based universal health promotion interventions, targeted brief interventions, and universal substance use screening. The few studies that examined implementation in the workplace revealed specific barriers including lack of engagement with e-health interventions, heavy use and reluctance to seek help amongst male employees, and confidentiality concerns. Tailoring interventions to each workplace, and ease of implementation and employee engagement emerged as facilitators. Further high-quality research is needed to examine the effectiveness of workplace substance use testing, Employee Assistance Programs, and strategies targeting the use of substances other than alcohol in the workplace.Systematic review registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=227598, PROSPERO [CRD42021227598].
... Generally, alcohol use among employees has been reported to be prevalent and have some behavioural consequences such as health problems, poor role or work performance, absenteeism, loss of job, workplace accidents, among others (Normand, Lempert & O'Brien, 1994;Elliot & Shelley, 2006;Rehm, Taylor & Room, 2006;Bouchery, Hardwoond, Sacks, Simon & Brewer, 2011;Frone, 2013). Alcohol use among University staff is also a recurrent subject of research that could have contribution to their subjective happiness. ...
Article
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Employee subjective happiness at various organisations has continued to receive research attention in recent times. Perhaps, this might be linked to the idea of enhancing the overall employee efficiency and organisational effectiveness. In view of this, we examined the independent and joint predictive values of length of service, role burden and alcohol use on subjective happiness among staff in a Nigerian University. This study adopted a cross sectional design and conveniently sampled 255 (134 males; 121 females) teaching and non-teaching staff of ages between 20 and 57 years (M = 36.45, SD = 7.02) in Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti state, Nigeria. The participants responded to a questionnaire comprising demographic characteristics and reliable scales measuring role overload (burden), alcohol use and subjective happiness. Results of a three-model hierarchical multiple regression showed that independently, University staff with longer length of service reported higher levels of subjective happiness and those with less role burden reported higher level of subjective happiness. However, no direct associations were observed between alcohol use and gender on level of subjective happiness. Length of service, role burden and alcohol use jointly predicted subjective happiness with a remarkable 43% (R2 =.43) variation of subjective happiness; and role burden recorded highest and substantial contribution. In conclusion, University staff with longer service and those with less job-related roles are more delightful at work. We recommend stress management training coupled with discouragement on the use of alcohol as a coping method for all University staff irrespective of their gender.
... Natomiast w roku 2018 zanotowano 71 203 osób kierujących w stanie nietrzeźwym i 14 502 po spożyciu alkoholu. Wzrost poziomu spożycia przekłada się na statystyki dotyczące nietrzeźwych kierowców poruszających się po drogach, a to ma istotne odzwierciedlenie w osobach pracujących, również na placu budowy.Spożywanie alkoholu w miejscu pracy może prowadzić do pogorszenia stanu zdrowia pracownika, co przejawia się w obniżonej wydajności i efektywności, a także może doprowadzić do nieobecności w pracy, a w najgorszym scenariuszu do powstania wypadku przy pracy[7].ALKOHOL KONTRA BEZPIECZEŃSTWO NA RUSZTOWANIACH ...
Article
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Troska o pracownika jest istotna z punktu widzenia bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy. Oznacza to zmniejszenie wypadków oraz wzrost zainteresowania zdrowiem publicznym. Oczywiste jest, że spożywanie alkoholu jest uznawane za poważne zagrożenie dla życia, zdrowia, a także bezpieczeństwa pracowników. Celem badań była identyfikacja głównych problemów, jakie wiążą się z nadużywaniem i spożywaniem alkoholu w pracy wśród pracowników branży budowlanej, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem stanowisk pracy, na których wykonywane są prace na rusztowaniach budowlanych. Dane do analizy uzyskano z dwóch różnych źródeł. Pierwszą z nich była dokumentacja powypadkowa dotycząca wypadków przy pracy (analiza grupy 219 osób poszkodowanych w wypadkach przy pracy na rusztowaniach budowlanych w latach 2008–2017). Drugą były ankiety zebrane podczas projektu badawczego. Niniejszy projekt opiera się na modelu oceny ryzyka wystąpienia katastrof budowlanych, wypadków oraz niebezpiecznych zdarzeń na stanowiskach pracy z wykorzystaniem rusztowań (analiza 573 badań ankietowych osób pracujących na budowach obejmujących 120 rusztowań) zdrowie i bezpieczeństwo, stanowisko pracy, wypadki przy pracy.
... Spożywanie alkoholu w miejscu pracy w początkowym etapie prowadzi do pogorszenia wydajności pracownika, która może doprowadzić do absencji pracownika w pracy, powstania wypadku przy pracy lub innych istotnych problemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem pracowników na stanowiskach pracy, a także do problemów interpersonalnych między pracownikami (Elliott i Shelley, 2006). ...
Article
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Spożywanie alkoholu w miejscu pracy jest surowo zabronione. Niestety zakaz ten jest często łamany. Nietrzeźwość pracownika może doprowadzić do stworzenia zagrożenia, a w najgorszym wypadku może również doprowadzić do trwałego kalectwa, a nawet śmierci. Celem prowadzonych badań było zidentyfikowanie głównych problemów związanych z nadużywaniem i spożywaniem alkoholu w pracy wśród pracowników budowlanych. Dane do analizy pozyskano z dokumentacji powypadkowej (analizie poddano 219 osób poszkodowanych w wypadkach przy pracy z udziałem rusztowań budowlanych) oraz ankiet zebranych podczas realizowanego projektu naukowo-badawczego „Model oceny ryzyka wystąpienia katastrof budowlanych, wypadków i zdarzeń niebezpiecznych na stanowiskach pracy z wykorzystaniem rusztowań budowlanych” (573 badań ankietowych osób pracujących na terenie budów badanych rusztowań). / The consumption of alcohol in the workplace is strictly prohibited. Unfortunately, this interdict is often broken. Alcohol intoxication of an employee could lead to a threat, and in the worst case could also lead to permanent disability or even death. The aim of the research was to identify the main problems associated with heavy drinking of alcohol and consumption at work among construction workers. Data for the analysis were obtained from post-accident protocols (analyzed 219 people injured in accidents at work involving scaffolding) and surveys collected during the research project “Model of the assessment of risk of the occurrence of building catastrophes, accidents and dangerous events at workplaces with the use of scaffolding” (573 surveys of people working in the construction scaffolding of respondents).
... The most numerous group was employees aged 40-49 (34.2% of all people with alcohol in their blood) and 30-39 (31.58%). It was in these age ranges (30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49) that the highest levels of ethyl alcohol were found in the blood. The average age of victims was 40 ± 8 years. ...
Article
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The value, care, and customs of workers are essential in terms of occupational health and safety. The abuse of alcohol is widely regarded as a serious threat to the lives, health, and safety of employees. The aim of the research was to identify the main problems that are associated with alcohol abuse and consumption at work among employees in the construction industry, with particular emphasis on workstations where work is carried out on construction scaffoldings. Data for the analysis were obtained from two different sources. The first one was post-accident documentation on occupational accidents. The second one was surveys collected during the research project. This study confirmed that excessive and disproportionate alcohol consumption can be the cause of an accident, and consequently death at workplaces with scaffolding. Of 219 accident reports, 17.4% indicated alcohol as a contributing factor. Analysis of accident documentations shows that in cases where alcohol was indicated as a contributing factor in an accident, the alcohol was consumed during the workday. The results obtained on the basis of the conducted research were able to constitute a justification for the directions of preventive actions carried out in order to reduce the number of occupational accidents in the construction industry caused by alcohol.
... Researchers have also examined how SUD manifests in the workplace. Elliot and Shelley (2006) examined the accident rates of individuals who screened positive for substances in routine workplace drug tests. They found that those who tested positive for substances had higher accident rates, vehicle accidents, and injury/illness than those who did not test positive. ...
Article
Full-text available
Community ex-offenders seeking employment commonly present a host of unique challenges including a low self-efficacy, and a history of failing at school, work, and in relationships (SAMHSA, 2000; Varghese, Fitzgerald, Chronister, Cummings & Forrest, 2013). Postmodern approaches (e.g., constructivist, solution-focused) have demonstrated effectiveness for addressing the career needs of the general population (Burwell & Chen, 2006) and specifically for ex-offenders (Veysey, Christian, & Martinez, 2013). This article details a career support workshop series designed to address the career development needs of community ex-offenders.
... Substance use such as alcohol can have significant consequences for the individuals, their co-workers, employers, and organizations as a whole. Alcohol use has been associated with absenteeism (Ames, Grube, & Moore, 1997;Blum, Roman, & Martin, 1993), poor work performance (Lehman & Simpson, 1992;Mangione, Howland, Amick, Cote, Lee, & Bell, 1999), workplace accidents (Elliot & Shelley, 2006), and impaired teamwork (Bennett & Lehman, 1999). There is abundant evidence that alcohol intake in particular excessive alcohol use during work affect the quality of human capital accumulation which may disorientate the employee to treat their jobs with levity (Ames, Grube & Moore, 1997;Frone, 2006;Pringle, 1995) When workers do not show up to work, co-workers often have to go beyond their limits to make up the difference. ...
Article
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The objective of the study was to identify the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated delinquents in Nigeria and its determinants. The total inmate population of 401 individuals were interviewed over a period of four weeks using an interviewer administered questionnaire that assessed for socio demographic, forensic, and drug use history among other variables. All the respondents were males, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 3.1 years, ranging from 12 to 39 years and had spent an average of 16.1 ± 9.9 months. The average age of first use was 12.6 ± 5.9 years. The prevalence of lifetime and current use of any substance was 88.0% and 64.3% respectively. Prior arrest, being sexually active and family drug use significantly (p<0.05) predicted lifetime use of any substance while being raised in a monogamous family was protective. Prior arrest, family drug use, and being sexually active significantly (p<0.05) increased lifetime use of illicit substances while being raised from a monogamous home significantly (p<0.05) reduced same. Prior arrest and substance use before incarceration significantly (p<0.05) predicted current use of any substance. Being sexually active and substance use before incarceration significantly (P<0.05) predicted current use of illicit substances while high self esteem and being the first born was protective. Since substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse screening and treatment as part of their programmeme is advocated.
... Substance use such as alcohol can have significant consequences for the individuals, their co-workers, employers, and organizations as a whole. Alcohol use has been associated with absenteeism (Ames, Grube, & Moore, 1997;Blum, Roman, & Martin, 1993), poor work performance (Lehman & Simpson, 1992;Mangione, Howland, Amick, Cote, Lee, & Bell, 1999), workplace accidents (Elliot & Shelley, 2006), and impaired teamwork (Bennett & Lehman, 1999). There is abundant evidence that alcohol intake in particular excessive alcohol use during work affect the quality of human capital accumulation which may disorientate the employee to treat their jobs with levity (Ames, Grube & Moore, 1997;Frone, 2006;Pringle, 1995) When workers do not show up to work, co-workers often have to go beyond their limits to make up the difference. ...
Article
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ABStrAct This study examined the relationship among stress, workplace alcohol use and work engagement among 228 University of Nigeria, Nsukka, workers. The results of the regression analyses showed that job stress significantly predicted workplace alcohol use (β = .17, p < .01). Workplace alcohol use also significantly predicted employee work engagement (β =-.35, p < .001). The results also showed that gender is a significant predictor of workplace alcohol use (β =-.20, p < .01). Marital status also significantly predicted workplace alcohol use (β =-.16, p < .05). The implications of these findings to work productivity and workplace counseling were discussed.
... The proportion of injuries which are directly attributable to the effects of alcohol and other drugs (AODs) is unknown. There are nonetheless documented links between AOD consumption and subsequent declines in cognitive and behavioural performance (Elliot & Shelley, 2006). AOD use is associated with impaired coordination, judgement and the ability to perceive and respond to hazards (Gee et al., 2005;Miller, Zaloshnja, & Spicer, 2007;Seijts, Skarlicki, & Gilliland, 2002;Wickizer, Kopjar, Franklin, & Joesch, 2004). ...
Article
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The current research aims to scientifically evaluate the use of AODs within the Australian construction industry in order to reduce the potential resulting safety and performance impacts and engender a cultural change in the workforce—to render it unacceptable to arrive at a construction workplace with impaired judgement from AODs. A nationally consistent and collaborative approach across the construction workforce—involving government representatives; employers and employees; unions; and other key industry stakeholders and experts has been adopted. An evaluation of the extent and nature of the problem, through an AOD consumption and behaviour audit, and a series of structured interviews with key industry stakeholders, will inform the development of an appropriate industry policy and cultural change management program. The current study builds on the credibility and networks developed through the CRC for Construction Innovation's land mark achievements in safety including the Construction Safety Competency Framework (Biggs & Biggs, 2012; Dingsdag, Biggs, Sheahan, & Cipolla, 2006); Guide to Best Practice for Safer Construction (Fleming, Lingard, & Wakefield, 2007); A Practical Guide to Safety Leadership (Biggs, Dingsdag, & Roos, 2008); and the Safety Effectiveness Indicators (Biggs, Dingsdag, & Kirk, 2009; Biggs, Dingsdag, Kirk, & Cipolla, 2010; Cipolla, Biggs, Dingsdag, & Kirk, 2009).
... While it is estimated that 640,700 Australian persons suffered a work-related injury or illness in 2009-2010 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010), and 337 persons lost their lives in the same year (Safe Work Australia 2012), very little is known about what proportion of such accidents are directly attributable to the effects of AODs. This is despite AOD consumption being relatively prevalent within the Australian community (Holland, Pyman and Teicher 2005) and the clear link between such consumption and subsequent declines in cognitive and behavioral performance (Elliot and Shelley 2006). Improving workplace health and safety is especially important for this arena given the current size, economic value and expanding nature of the Australian construction industry. ...
Conference Paper
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There is increasing concern about the impact of employees' Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) consumption on workplace safety, particularly within the construction industry. No known study has scientifically evaluated the relationship between the use of drugs and alcohol and safety impacts in construction, and there has been only limited adoption of nationally coordinated strategies, supported by employers and employees to render it socially unacceptable to arrive at a construction workplace with impaired judgment from AODs. This research aims to scientifically evaluate the use of AODs within the Australian construction industry in order to reduce the potential resulting safety and performance impacts and engender a cultural change in the workforce. Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the study will adopt both quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate the extent of general AOD use in the industry. Results indicate that a proportion of the construction sector may be at risk of hazardous alcohol consumption. A total of 286 respondents (58%) scored above the cut-off score for risky alcohol use with 43 respondents (15%) scoring in the significantly 'at risk' category. Other drug use was also identified as a major issue that must be addressed. Results support the need for evidence-based, preventative educational initiatives that are tailored specifically to the construction industry.
... The generally agreed upon effects of employee substance abuse include high absenteeism, high employee turnover, crime and violence, on-the-job accidents, poor productivity, higher medical costs, breakage, theft, low employee morale, and poor decision making, all of which result in a large cost for businesses in the industry (Crant & Bateman, 1989;Elliot & Shelley, 2006;Strazewski, 2001). Many employers have responded to this by requiring a pre-employment drug-test. ...
Article
Background: Drug- and alcohol-related impairment in the workplace has been linked to an increased risk of injury for workers. Randomly testing populations of workers for these substances has become a practice in many jurisdictions, with the intention of reducing the risk of workplace incidents and accidents. Despite the proliferation of random drug and alcohol testing (RDAT), there is currently a lack of consensus about whether it is effective at preventing workplace injury, or improving other non-injury accident outcomes in the work place. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of workplace RDAT to prevent injuries and improve non-injury accident outcomes (unplanned events that result in damage or loss of property) in workers compared with no workplace RDAT. Search methods: We conducted a systematic literature search to identify eligible published and unpublished studies. The date of the last search was 1 November 2020. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, two other databases, Google Scholar, and three trials registers. We also screened the reference lists of relevant publications known to us. Selection criteria: Study designs that were eligible for inclusion in our review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials (CRTs), interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and controlled before-after (CBA) studies. Studies needed to evaluate the effectiveness of RDAT in preventing workplace injury or improving other non-injury workplace outcomes. We also considered unpublished data from clinical trial registries. We included employees working in all safety-sensitive occupations, except for commercial drivers, who are the subject of another Cochrane Review. Data collection and analysis: Independently, two review authors used a data collection form to extract relevant characteristics from the included study. They then analysed a line graph included in the study of the prevalence rate of alcohol violations per year. Independently, the review authors completed a GRADE assessment, as a means of rating the quality of the evidence. Main results: Although our searching originally identified 4198 unique hits, only one study was eligible for inclusion in this review. This was an ITS study that measured the effect of random alcohol testing (RAT) on the test positivity rate of employees of major airlines in the USA from 1995 to 2002. The study included data from 511,745 random alcohol tests, and reported no information about testing for other substances. The rate of positive results was the only outcome of interest reported by the study. The average rate of positive results found by RAT increased from 0.07% to 0.11% when the minimum percentage of workers who underwent RAT annually was reduced from 25% to 10%. Our analyses found this change to be a statistically significant increase (estimated change in level, where the level reflects the average percentage points of positive tests = 0.040, 95% confidence interval 0.005 to 0.075; P = 0.031). Our GRADE assessment, for the observed effect of lower minimum testing percentages associating with a higher rate of positive test results, found the quality of the evidence to be 'very low' across the five GRADE domains. The one included study did not address the following outcomes of interest: fatal injuries; non-fatal injuries; non-injury accidents; absenteeism; and adverse effects associated with RDAT. Authors' conclusions: In the aviation industry in the USA, the only setting for which the eligible study reported data, there was a statistically significant increase in the rate of positive RAT results following a reduction in the percentage of workers tested, which we deem to be clinically relevant. This result suggests an inverse relationship between the proportion of positive test results and the rate of testing, which is consistent with a deterrent effect for testing. No data were reported on adverse effects related to RDAT. We could not draw definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of RDAT for employees in safety-sensitive occupations (not including commercial driving), or with safety-sensitive job functions. We identified only one eligible study that reflected one industry in one country, was of non-randomised design, and tested only for alcohol, not for drugs or other substances. Our GRADE assessment resulted in a 'very low' rating for the quality of the evidence on the only outcome reported. The paucity of eligible research was a major limitation in our review, and additional studies evaluating the effect of RDAT on safety outcomes are needed.
Article
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Introdução Periculosidade e insalubridade são características do processo de trabalho em um estaleiro. Objetivo Conhecer a percepção que trabalhadores de um estaleiro tinham sobre riscos a que estavam expostos, especialmente os relacionados a metais, e quais estratégias desenvolviam para lidar com os riscos percebidos. Método Pesquisa qualitativa com realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas, com 14 trabalhadores que atuavam diretamente expostos a metais em um estaleiro no Rio de Janeiro. O roteiro abordou questões relacionadas ao processo trabalho/saúde, riscos, acidentes de trabalho e estratégias defensivas. Realizou-se uma análise temática interpretada à luz da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Resultados Percepções sobre: organização do trabalho, riscos de acidentes, problemas de saúde relacionados ao trabalho e riscos dos metais. Estratégias defensivas identificadas: religiosidade, menosprezo dos perigos, submissão e passividade, controle, negação, cooperação/confiança, racionalização e uso de drogas no trabalho. Constatou-se que os trabalhadores detinham poucas informações técnicas sobre os perigos da exposição aos metais e somente trabalhadores mais antigos reconheciam os metais presentes nos processos de trabalho. Conclusão A percepção dos trabalhadores sobre os riscos está baseada na prática, deduções e conversas com os colegas. Quanto aos metais, a maioria afirma não receber informações a respeito, assim como não conseguem identificar a que metais estão expostos.
Article
Objective This study explores the associations between psychological distress in junior doctors and their work environment and how they cope with work stressors. Methods A cross-sectional survey designed by Health Education and Training Institute was delivered in 2014 to over 1900 junior doctors across 15 hospital networks through Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales. Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 (K10). Numerous variables were assessed for associations with psychological distress to identify the strongest relationships and the coping strategies used. Potential associations between work demands, coping strategies and psychological distress were explored. Results 540 responses were analysed. 414 (81%) thought their workload was reasonable, 376 (75%) were enjoying their current job and 446 (82.6%) were content with their work life. However, 85 (15.7%) reported that they would not study medicine if given their time again, and 146 (27%) reported workplace bullying. The mean K10 score was 17.2 (σ=6.3) and the prevalence of elevated psychological distress was between 63% and 80% higher than the general community. Variables most strongly associated with distress were: being discontented with workload, lack of enjoyment from current job, taking time off work and having experienced workplace bullying. There was a preference to use social activities as a method of coping but at higher levels of psychological distress there is a greater proportion who took time off work. Conclusions Psychologically distressed junior doctors need recognition, support and treatment. Future interventions should focus on improving work environment, job satisfaction, provision of supports, use of healthy coping strategies and improving work-related relationships. This could potentially reduce levels of psychological distress in junior doctors, optimise delivery of healthcare to patients and maximise workforce potential.
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The purpose of the systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of workplace substance abuse prevention programmes that also address substance-related HIV risks. A search of major electronic databases was conducted. Two authors independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed study quality, and extracted data using a standardised data extraction form. Due to the heterogeneity of study results, a qualitative approach was applied in assessing the effectiveness of the programmes. The search yielded 14 studies. All studies presented mixed results, with the majority reporting improvements in elfreported substance abuse measures. The review highlighted paucity in the availability of good quality workplace prevention programmes and none that addressed substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours in such settings.
Article
There is increasing concern about the impact of employees' alcohol and other drug (AOD) consumption on workplace safety and performance, particularly within the construction industry. While most Australian jurisdictions have identified this as a critical safety issue, information is limited regarding the prevalence of AODs in the workplace and there is limited evidential guidance regarding how to effectively and efficiently address such an issue. The current research aims to scientifically evaluate the use of AODs within the Australian construction industry in order to reduce the potential resulting safety and performance impacts and engender a cultural change in the workforce - to render it unacceptable to arrive at a construction workplace with impaired judgement from AODs. The study will adopt qualitative and quantitative methods to firstly evaluate the extent of general AOD use in the industry. Secondly, the development of an appropriate industry policy will adopt a non-punitive and rehabilitative approach developed in consultation with employers and employees across the infrastructure and building sectors, with the aim it be adopted nationally for adoption at the construction workplace. Finally, an industry-specific cultural change management program and implementation plan will be developed through a nationally collaborative approach. Final results indicate that a proportion of those sampled in the construction sector may be at risk of hazardous alcohol consumption. A total of 286 respondents (58%) scored above the cut-off cumulative score for risky or hazardous alcohol. Other drug use was also identified as a major issue. Results support the need for evidence-based, preventative educational initiatives that are tailored to the industry. This paper will discuss the final survey and interview results.
Article
It may be surprising to learn that the majority of alcohol and drug-using individuals are gainfully employed full- or part-time. This equates to millions in the workforce whose substance use may create work-related problems and consequences. Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of substance use on worker productivity, safety, and functioning that result in substantial economic and societal costs. Strategies to address substance use among employees include workplace education and awareness campaigns, drug testing, Employee Assistance Programs, and other intervention efforts. Despite the popularity of such services, there is a relative lack of experimental study of their impact. Nonetheless, recent studies have begun to document the benefit of workplace programs on worker productivity and safety. Future study is needed to experimentally test workplace interventions, document cost-benefit ratios, and replicate findings across work sites. Additional work is necessary to address barriers faced by human resource professionals when identifying and addressing substance use problems among the workforce. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this research is to assess the effect of pre-employment drug-testing policies on aspects of employee work performance in the full-service restaurant industry. Specifically, this study attempts to compare aspects of employee work performance in full-service restaurants with pre-employment drug-testing policies against the aforementioned aspects of work performance in full-service restaurants without pre-employment drug-testing polices. For the purpose of this study, work performance factors include absenteeism, turnover (voluntary and termination), and documented work-related injury/accidents. Results indicated no difference between employee absenteeism, turnover, or accidents among establishments with and without pre-employment drug-testing policies.
Article
Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are designed to offer private and confidential counseling to employees, particularly for drug and alcohol abuse. Textile companies such as the Precision Fabric Group and culp have found that such programs can help improve productivity, reduce staff turnover and save money. The author sets out the issues to be considered when selecting an EAP provider, and how to publicize an EAP to employees.
Article
Deaths resulting from work-related injuries during a one-year period in Maryland were identified and reviewed. Of 148 workers killed, all but two were male. Transportation vehicles were involved in 41% of the deaths, with road vehicles accounting for 25% of the total. Other major groups involved nonroad land vehicles (16%) and firearms, primarily handguns (11%). Two thirds of the workers died at the scene or were dead on arrival at the hospital. Head injuries were the most common cause of death. Eleven percent of the workers tested had blood alcohol concentrations of 0.08% by weight or greater. The majority of the deaths involved either hazards that are not addressed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or workers in categories that are excluded by law from regulation under this act. (JAMA 1982;248:692-697)
Article
Seven sources of social power derived from social psychological and organizational development research are discussed as bases for EAPs to effectively influence the organizational constituencies which affect both EAP survival and success. The types of social power include: reward; referent; legitimate; expert; persistence; negotiation; sanction. The constituencies include, in addition to the primary group of referred employees: coworkers, supervisors, management, unions, treatment providers and facilities, families, community groups and leaders, political and governmental systems, and the media. Guidelines are suggested for EAPs in developing and utilizing each type of social power.
Article
Investigated the relationships between employee use of illicit drugs, perceptions of and reactions to the work environment, and employee absenteeism and tardiness above and beyond that accounted for by demographic and work reaction variables. 162 employees in a large work organization completed demographic and background information and assessments of work perceptions and reactions and absenteeism and tardiness. Drug use was assessed with a questionnaire and urine testing. Employee drug use accounted for additional statistically significant variance in overall absenteeism and in absenteeism due to injuries and suspensions, as well as days tardy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed the role of drugs and alcohol in causing workplace injuries in a household survey of 882 Ontario employees. Alcohol problems, licit drug use, and illicit drug use ranked 7, 11, and 12, respectively, among a group of 12 significant variables. When examined across categories of other variables, the relationship between drug use and injuries remained strong for the youngest age group but disappeared for the oldest age group. Logistic regression analysis confirmed the plausibility of noncausal explanations of job injuries for illicit drug use but not for alcohol problems or licit drug use. Overall, the results indicated that illicit drug use does not appear to be a major cause of job injuries. Implications for drug-testing programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The chapter describes the author's private-practice employee-family assistance program. The author provides recommendations for developing this type of practice activity, including referrals, core services, and training recommendations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The results of alcohol studies in workers of a Zambian copper mine showed that 30% of accident cases had measurable blood alcohol levels. A selected group of employees subject to random breath tests before starting work showed that one third had measurable blood alcohol and that this was over 17.6 mmol/l. in 9% of cases. These two groups were not comparable. The results were considered significant enough to justify further study. Two thirds of a group of workers referred to hospital for alcohol tests on suspicion of being under the influence of alcohol had alcohol levels exceeding 35.2 mmol/l. It is concluded that there is a range of significant blood alcohol levels where employees are at increased risk of accidents but have a limited chance of detection by their supervisor and that this circumstance justifies the use of random testing particularly of employees responsible for the safety of others.
Article
Deaths resulting from work-related injuries during a one-year period in Maryland were identified and reviewed. Of 148 workers killed, all but two were male. Transportation vehicles were involved in 41% of the deaths, with road vehicles accounting for 25% of the total. Other major groups involved nonroad land vehicles (16%) and firearms, primarily handguns (11%). Two thirds of the workers died at the scene or were dead on arrival at the hospital. Head injuries were the most common cause of death. Eleven percent of the workers tested had blood alcohol concentrations of 0.08% by weight or greater. The majority of the deaths involved either hazards that are not addressed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 or workers in categories that are excluded by law from regulation under this act.
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