Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The case study data were collected to develop a deeper understanding of how green and lean upstream SCM practices are deployed in the automotive industry. The automotive industry was chosen because this industry has, over a period of decades, exhibited the most obvious manifestations of the difficulty of reconciling economic, social, and environmental goals [58]. ...
... This research design fits well with qualitative research as the researchers wanted to study in-depth the influence of green and lean upstream SCM practices on business performance and specifically their contribution to the sustainable development of businesses [62]. The automotive SC was chosen because it is a representative example of the manufacturing industry and automakers need to develop relationships with hundreds of suppliers to improve business sustainability [33], [58]. The case study selection was also based on "planned opportunism" [63]. ...
... This knowledge can be the leverage that companies need to overcome internal organizational barriers and start programs to make their upstream SC leaner and greener. Two contributions of the case study deserve to be highlighted: 1) it makes it possible to link two important SCM paradigms (green and lean) with the sustainable development of businesses; and 2) it focuses on the automotive industry, which is known to be an industry that has, over decades, exhibited some of the most obvious manifestations of the difficulty of reconciling environmental, social and economic goals [58]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Green and lean paradigms have been adopted by companies in order to manage their relationships with suppliers in a supply chain management context, but nearly always separately and with little understanding of their influence on company performance. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the analysis of the influence of green and lean upstream supply chain management practices on the sustainable development of businesses. To attend this objective, a set of performance measures covering economic (operational cost, environmental cost, and inventory cost), environmental (business wastage, green image, and CO2 emission), and social (corruption risk, supplier screening and local supplier) perspectives is proposed. An explanatory case study was conducted at a Portuguese automaker to test qualitatively the validity of the proposed theoretical framework. From the case study, a model is suggested, which encompasses the relationships between green and lean upstream supply chain practices and sustainable business development.
... As industrial systems through more than two centuries have been designed antagonistically to ecological systems -the Kalundborg park being one of few exceptions -the vision of industrial ecosystems can only be transformed into action through innovation processes in the building stones of the system: single companies. The basis for industrial ecology is the Factor X-hypothesis, asserting that within the next decades it will be necessary to improve the efficiency of energy and material throughput in the economy radically, by a four-to tenfold factor, to approach sustainability (Tukker and Cohen, 2004;Weizäcker et al., 1997). ...
... (Albert and Whetten, 1985;Argyris and Schön, 1996). The environmental gains of the innovations hardly live up to a measure of Factor 10 improvements (Tukker and Cohen, 2004;Weizäcker et al., 1997). ...
Full-text available
Article
Concepts that until recently have been antagonistic to common business language, such as industrial ecology, are now being used in the stories that companies use to express their identity. In this article the relationship between the new, bold business language and environmental innovation is discussed. The analysis is based on a longitudinal case study of HAG – Norway and Scandinavia's leading office-chair manufacturer. The study suggests that incorporating industrial ecology into the corporate saga stimulates the incremental environmental innovations implied by the concept by contributing to the coherence of the story. The radical environmental innovation implied by industrial ecology is, however, hindered by such integration. Radical innovation takes discontinuity and confrontation with the dominating story of what a company is, has been and will be.
... Few can doubt that the contemporary automotive industry is one of the most obvious manifestations of the difficulty of reconciling environmental, social, and economic goals (Graedel and Allenby 1998;Tukker and Cohen 2004). The sheer scale and complexity of the sector make for an emotive and highly political policy arena, and again in this article we cannot do full justice to the sector. ...
... Initial steps in this direction have already been taken, both for the industry as a whole (Keoleian et al. 1997a) and for individual components (Keoleian et al. 1997b)sufficient at least to challenge the sustainability of the contemporary automotive industry. This analysis also begins to suggest limits within the contemporary logic of the automotive industry (see also the comments by Tukker and Cohen 2004), limits that define the scope for ecoefficiency to render the industry more sustainable. One of those key limits, we will argue, is the primacy of least-cost manufacturing economies of scale. ...
Article
This article explores the potential of industrial ecology to inform the redesign of an existing industry: that which is concerned with the production, sale, and support of automobiles. In so doing, it brings together the concepts embedded in industrial ecology with issues of economic scale, product design or technology, process technology, and the way in which new combinations of these features can result in an alternative structure for the automotive industry that has the potential to enhance sustainability performance. In so doing, the article advances the general argument that the economic, technical, and spatial organization of production and consumption are co-determined in a manner that collectively shapes the industrial ecology of an industry. In contradistinction to the prevailing industry, the article then advances the concept of micro factory retailing as an alternative framework for the industry that would result in significantly different performance in terms of industrial ecology.
... End-of-life (EoL) management and recycling issues for cars, i.e. in the automotive sector, 82 have been extensively studied in the literature in the last two decades from different perspectives 83 (Tukker and Cohen, 2004 The EoL management of HDOR vehicles is nonetheless an important issue for research and 97 ...
Full-text available
Article
With 270 million light vehicles and 20 million heavy-duty and off-road (HDOR) vehicles in use in the European Union, automotive and HDOR industries are two major sectors in the European economy. Each year, 12 million light vehicles plus 1 million HDOR vehicles reach their end-of-life. In a context of circular economy, following questions are of growing concern. To what extent is the circular economy achieved and implemented in the automotive and HDOR sectors? What industrial practices and regulations are prevalent and commendable in the light of the circular economy? While the end-of-life management of light vehicles − subjected to the ELV Directive 2000/53/EC – is widely studied in literature, the end-of-life stage of HDOR vehicles has been neglected for a long time from a research perspective. To fill this gap, extensive literature survey and in-depth investigations on the industrial ground are conducted. Key factors – i.e. regulations, business models and markets evolution, new and emerging technologies integration – affecting the circular economy performance of automotive and HDOR sectors are analysed. Notably, not only lessons learned from best industrial practices but also remaining challenges for a more circular economy are highlighted. Both industries are compared through the four buildings blocks of the circular economy and the four possible feedback loops defined by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation. As a result, this research contribution could lead to practical applications, for instance, in supporting industrial practitioners or policy makers to realize the opportunities and challenges of closing the loops of HDOR vehicles from different perspectives.
... Therefore, considerable research addresses the strategies that promote public transit ridership. While some research suggests the system innovation and adaptation of new technologies including fuel cell vehicles [6], fuel-efficient three wheeled cars [7], and standardized vehicle designs [8], various other authors emphasize transportation planning and policy strategies. These strategies include Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and Smart Growth. ...
Article
Given the concerns about urban mobility, traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, extensive research has explored the relationship between the built environment and transit ridership. However, the nature of aggregation and the cross-sectional approach of the research rarely provide essential clues on the potential of a transit system as a sustainable mobility option. From the perspective of longitudinal sustainability, this paper develops regression models for rail transit stations in the Los Angeles Metro system. These models attempt to identify the socio-demographic characteristics and land use features influencing longitudinal transit ridership changes. Step-wise ordinary least square (OLS) regression models are used to identify factors that contribute to transit ridership changes. Those factors include the number of dwelling units, employment-oriented land uses such as office and commercial land uses, and land use balance. The models suggest a negative relationship between job and population balance with transit ridership change. They also raise a question regarding the 0.4 km radius commonly used in transit analysis. The models indicate that the 0.4 km radius is too small to capture the significant influence of the built environment on transit ridership.
... 5 Questions about the fate of the prevailing surface transport system are no longer quite so quixotic (see e.g. Sachs 1992;Safdie 1997;Nieuwenhuis and Wells 1998;Tukker and Cohen 2004;Cohen 2006;Moriarty and Honnery 2008;Urry 2008;Dennis and Urry 2009;Mees 2010;Furness 2010). While a transition is by no means impending, weak signals of instability are emergent after more than a century of expanding automotive entrenchment. ...
Full-text available
Article
Automobile society has been triumphant for a century. While this success is often ascribed to entrepreneurial tenacity and indefatigable demand, it is more correctly credited to auspicious political, economic and cultural trends. The macro-scale factors responsible for the entrenchment of automobility in developed countries are now moving in reverse direction. A socio-technical transitions perspective emphasises how declining industrial influence, stagnating wages, growing income inequality, increasing vehicle operating costs and changing sociodemographics are now undermining the foundations of automobile society. Three expressions of this process are considered: claims that transport planners are engaged in a ‘war’ against the automobile, emergent evidence that vehicle use is reaching saturation (the so-called ‘peak car’ phenomenon) and apparent disinclination of youth to embrace automobile-oriented lifestyles. Although these developments suggest some instability in the socio-technical system, the lock-in of key features and the paucity of practicable alternatives suggest that declarations of a pending transition are premature.
... The motorcar has also been the beneficiary of a long series of favorable public policies that have offset environmental gains and buttressed the dominant position that it enjoys today. As we begin to encroach upon the foreseeable limits of the contemporary surface transport system, it is difficult to envision how the prevailing approach will prevent the quality of service that exists in many urban and suburban areas from declining even further (Tukker & Cohen, 2004;Wright & Curtis, 2005). ...
Full-text available
Article
Over the past three decades, critical assessment of the automobile has evolved from a focus on the technical inadequacies of the internal combustion engine to a more comprehensive appraisal of the sociotechnical system for providing mobility. The following study charts the evolution of this discourse by focusing in particular on the way in which the Worldwatch Institute has interpreted the various problems of the motorcar during this timeframe. There are now indications that a more thoroughgoing systems view of automobile dependency is developing predicated upon three problem dimensions: fuel use, urban congestion and sedentary lifestyles. The analysis presents a social‐problems framework for beginning to conceptualize more sustainable modes of mobility in the post‐automobile era.
... However, it is clear that such positive developments will not happen on their own. For instance, American, European and Japanese automotive manufacturers are investing heavily in local production facilities in China and these activities are contributing to the development of a vehicular transport system that is virtually indistinguishable from the one that presently exists in these companies' native countries (Gan, 2003;Sit and Liu, 2000;Tukker and Cohen, 2004). The opportunities for business expansion in these fast developing markets are just too promising, and negative externalities may have not yet lead to (public or political) pressure on the regime. ...
Full-text available
Article
It has become almost a platitude that radical and sustainable improvement of need-fulfillment has to be reached in one generation to prevent the possibility that Nature will break down under the combined pressure of population growth and growth in wealth per capita. This requires 'radical' or 'system' innovations. In this respect, there is an important difference between consumer economies such as Europe, the EU and Japan, emerging economies such as China and Malaysia in Asia and bottom-of-the-pyramid economies where people survive on 1–2 dollars a day: • In consumer economies, the physical economic infrastructure is already fully developed, which often causes important 'lock-in' problems with regard to realising radical change. • In emerging economies (which might bring about the biggest leap in environmental pressure) this infrastructure, by and large, still has to be built up, so that, in theory, there is much more freedom to design sustainable systems from the onset. • In bottom of the pyramid economies, markets are so different that copying Western market systems is factually quite difficult, although examples and innovative solutions are required anyway. But is this 'leapfrogging', particularly by emerging economies, while theoretically possible and practically desirable, really going to happen? Current experiences are not encouraging: 'dinosaur' industries such as the car industry are invited to invest heavily in countries such as China leading to a transplantation of existing problematic transport infrastructures. This paper argues that, where Western countries need a system innovation and transition management approach to realise a change to sustainability, emerging economies would have to apply something very similar to ensure that the larger flexibility they have is indeed used to leapfrog to sustainable systems. This implies that functions such as visioning, indicative planning, foresight and reflexive governance have to be fostered to ensure that foreign and national investments are used to create sustainable systems.
... Over the period 2005e6 the leading vehicle manufacturers in North America, GM and Ford, along with their primary suppliers (Delphi and Visteon) all reported financial losses, with Delphi seeking Chapter 11 protection from bankruptcy and Visteon being re-absorbed into the Ford company in order to protect the vehicle manufacturer supply of components. The Ford case is illustrative [32]. ...
Full-text available
Article
This article introduces the fundamental rational that supports the ‘technological regime’ of the modern automobile, as well as its potential for inertia, transformation and decline. It presents the main concepts used in automobile design, material selection, and the economic fundamentals that orient today's car assembly and commercialisation. The practices currently adopted by automakers that aim at the rationalisation of systems of production, such as platform consolidation, ‘architectures’ and modular assembly are briefly discussed. The article inquires into the main reasons for the high pace of consolidation that characterised the automobile assembly and supplier sectors during the 1990s. Subsequently, the discussion about the choice of materials and its impact throughout the life-cycle of cars illustrates the complexities involved in reducing the overall environmental impact of the industry. Finally, by questioning the levels of efficiency of current automobiles and by identifying the core competences of automakers, the final part of the article explains why the automobile industry currently faces one of the most challenging moments of its history.
... In addition, the wider socio-technical context in which automobility is embedded has remained largely impervious to sustained criticism (Nader 1991(Nader [1965 ;Bradsher, 2002;Kunstler, 2005; see also Cohen, 2006;Hagman, 2006;Freund and Martin, 2007). Under these circumstances, "innovation" of the surface transportation system has been pursued on an extremely modest and piecemeal basis with most activity focused on updating standardized vehicle designs (Gartman, 1994;Maynard, 2003;Tukker and Cohen, 2004) and adapting existing roadways and other infrastructure to non-automobile uses (Little, 1995;Crawford, 2000;Wray, 2008;Mapes, 2009). ...
Article
A growing volume of scholarship and policy practice focuses on developing societal capacity to guide transitions of socio-technical systems toward more sustainable alternatives. Because several prominent modes of transportation are widely regarded as systemically problematic, the notion of sustainable mobility has received considerable attention from the standpoint of system innovation. Sustainability though constitutes only one of many contemporary political objectives and public commitment to goals consistent with such a future is highly equivocal. A related challenge arises from the ambivalence that sustainability champions often harbor on an individual level. It is probable that efforts to facilitate sustainable mobility will need to be reconciled with rival societal aspirations such as the pursuit of faster and more convenient forms of travel. Drawing on insights from the multi-level perspective, this article contrasts the relatively static automobility system with its more dynamic aeromobility counterpart and explores why evidence of an incipient transition is more apparent within the realm of aviation. In particular, the diffusion of "personal aeromobility" involving the use of small airplanes for on-demand, point-to-point air travel raises perplexing questions for the governance of sustainable mobility.
Article
Planning approaches towards the promotion of public transit are widely discussed among planners and policy-makers to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from automobiles and light-duty trucks. However, one of significant side effects created by these approaches is decreased mobility. Since mobility is the critical foundation for the economic development of cities, it is important to balance the level of regional mobility and GHG reduction achieved by a mode share scheme. Using the Cobb-Douglas functions, this paper attempts to identify the best mode share scheme for an urban passenger transportation system to achieve the maximum reduction of GHG emissions, while maintaining the current carrying capacity of the public transit system and regional mobility in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area (LAMA) and the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This paper identifies that both metropolitan areas can reduce CO2 emissions by the best public transit mode share. However, it suggests that the CO2 reductions achieved by the mode share adjustment of the areas are noticeably different, indicating that LAMA and SMA can reduce 3.5% and 20.6% of their current CO2 emissions through the adjustment of mode share, respectively. This paper concludes that a sprawled, automobile-oriented city like Los Angeles can achieve limited CO2 emission reductions by adjusting public transit mode share, compared to Seoul, which is a dense, compact city.
Article
The paper contributes to research on sustainability in dyadic buyer–supplier relationships of logistics services. It presents deeper knowledge on why and how suppliers choose to behave sustainably. The research analyzes how shippers stimulate their LSPs and how LSPs respond by conducting sustainability activities. Agency theory and the stimulus–organism–response model are applied as the theoretical foundations for an explorative case study analysis of three large and five small and medium-sized European logistics service providers (LSPs) active in road transport services. Significant differences are found between the sustainability efforts of SMEs and large LSPs and a tentative taxonomy of the sustainability response types of LSPs is derived. The taxonomy contributes to theory-guided research in sustainable supply chain management and procurement. Thereby, mismatches of stimuli and responses are identified and related agency problems in dyadic relationships in terms of sustainability are discussed. From a managerial point of view, the findings may serve as a starting point for purchasers of logistics services to develop adequate sustainability selection criteria and incentives.
Article
Abstract and Key Results This paper focuses on the overall themes of the issue to examine the interrelationships between innovation, competition and regulatory change in international business. It provides a synthesis by highlighting recent interlinked developments in two contrasting industries dominated by large multinationals — pharmaceuticals and automotives, with specific reference to cars. This industry based assessment highlights the technical, economic and regulatory forces that have together changed the business environment, innovation processes and nature of competition in the pharmaceutical and automotive industries.
Article
This paper summarises the contributions made to the special issue on The automobile Industry & Sustainability. Taking a life-cycle perspective, the contributions are allocated into the automotive life-cycle phases of design, manufacture (and supply chain management), use, and disposal or ‘end of life vehicle’ management. The contributions are also set into the broader context of research into the global automotive industry, and the economic, social and environmental pressures confronting the industry. In doing so, this introductory paper provides a brief assessment of the ways in which the papers in the special issue have furthered our understanding of the difficulty in achieving a sustainable automotive industry, and some of the measures that might be taken as progress towards that difficult goal.
Book
This book examines the two current major threat to the viability of the motor industry. These are defined as lack of profitability and environmental concern. The theme is focussed on the industry's concern with technology, which is regarded by the authors as a weakness, which makes it dependent on volume demand. This leads to a reassessment of the role of Henry Ford as the father of mass production and looks at the philosophy of E.G.Budd. The analysis is set within the context of the causes and implications of globalization and of changes in the relationship between car manufacturers and their supplies. The authors explore the solution for more sustainable mobility, using existing ideas about alternatives to the modern cart. Future scenarios are formulated in which technological as well as legislative and social change are discussed. The need to meet the demand for personal mobility is highlighted in its conclusion.
Book
Analyzes how successful firms fail when confronted with technological and market changes, prescribing a list of rules for firms to follow as a solution. Precisely because of their adherence to good management principles, innovative, well-managed firms fail at the emergence of disruptive technologies - that is, innovations that disrupt the existing dominant technologies in the market. Unfortunately, it usually does not make sense to invest in disruptive technologies until after they have taken over the market. Thus, instead of exercising what are typically good managerial decisions, at the introduction of technical or market change it is very often the case that managers must make counterintuitive decisions not to listen to customers, to invest in lower-performance products that produce lower margins, and to pursue small markets. From analysis of the disk drive industry, a set of rules is devised - the principles of disruptive innovation - for managers to measure when traditional good management principles should be followed or rejected. According to the principles of disruptive innovation, a manager should plan to fail early, often, and inexpensively, developing disruptive technologies in small organizations operating within a niche market and with a relevant customer base. A case study in the electric-powered vehicles market illustrates how a manager can overcome the challenges of disruptive technologies using these principles of disruptive innovation. The mechanical excavator industry in the mid-twentieth century is also described, as an example in which most companies failed because they were unwilling to forego cable excavator technology for hydraulics machines. While there is no "right answer" or formula to use when reacting to unpredictable technological change, managers will be able to adapt as long as they realize that "good" managerial practices are only situationally appropriate. Though disruptive technologies are inherently high-risk, the more a firm invests in them, the more it learns about the emerging market and the changing needs of consumers, so that incremental advances may lead to industry-changing leaps. (CJC)
Industrial ecology of the automobile
  • G Keoleian
Keoleian, G. 1997. Industrial ecology of the automobile. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.
Re-inventing the basis for competition
  • G Hamel
Hamel, G. 1998, Re-inventing the basis for competition. In Rethinking the future, edited by R. Gibson. London: Nicholas Brealey. pp. 76-92.
Industrial ecology of the automobile
  • T Graedel
  • B Allenby
Graedel, T. and B. Allenby. 1998. Industrial ecology of the automobile. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.