Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and 5-HT 3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists as Innovative Antipsychotic Augmentation Treatments for Schizophrenia

The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.5). 07/2014; 75(7):e707-e709. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.14f09292
Source: PubMed


Antipsychotic treatment is the mainstay in the management of schizophrenia. However, despite optimum use of antipsychotic drugs, many schizophrenia patients continue to exhibit residual positive, negative, cognitive, and other symptoms. Various antipsychotic augmentation strategies have been studied using non-antipsychotic augmenting agents; 2 innovative classes of drugs examined have been nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 5-HT₃ serotonin receptor antagonists. Meta-analysis of the NSAID studies in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], pooled N = 774) shows that NSAID augmentation is associated with a significant decrease in positive symptom ratings (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.19), with no significant change in negative or total symptom ratings. Meta-analysis of the 5-HT₃ antagonist studies in stable schizophrenia patients (6 RCTs, pooled N = 311) shows that 5-HT₃ antagonist augmentation is associated with significant reduction in negative symptom (SMD = 1.10), general psychopathology (SMD = 0.70), and total symptom (SMD = 1.03) ratings without reduction in positive symptom ratings. Neither NSAID nor 5-HT₃ antagonist augmentation increases the dropout rate. Whereas the benefits with NSAID augmentation are, perhaps, too small to be clinically meaningful, antipsychotic augmentation with 5-HT₃ antagonists may be a possible strategy to reduce persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Both fields of inquiry require further investigation.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antidepressant augmentation strategies are commonly employed to treat depressed patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in depression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found effective in animal models of depression both in monotherapy and when used to augment antidepressant drugs. However, results with NSAIDs have been mixed in human observational studies, with both better and worse depression outcomes reported. Four small (pooled N = 160) randomized controlled trials suggest that celecoxib (200-400 mg/d) augmentation of antidepressant medication improves 4-6 week outcomes in major depressive disorder. There are no data, however, to support the use of celecoxib or other NSAIDs in antidepressant-resistant depression. There are also concerns about adverse events associated with NSAID treatment, and about pharmacodynamic drug interactions between these drugs and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A reasonable conclusion for the present is that NSAID augmentation of antidepressants is, at best, a tentative approach in nonrefractory major depression.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are the mainstay in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients who do not respond adequately to SRIs commonly receive augmentation therapy with another agent, usually an atypical antipsychotic drug. Atypical antipsychotics, however, may not be appropriate for or acceptable to all patients. Ondansetron is an experimental alternative for such patients. There have been at least 6 trials that have examined a short-term (8-12 weeks) role for ondansetron in patients with OCD. These include 1 placebo-controlled crossover trial (N = 11); 1 uncontrolled monotherapy trial (N = 8); 2 low-dose (0.5-1.0 mg/d), uncontrolled augmentation trials in patients who did not respond adequately to ongoing or earlier treatments (pooled N = 35); and 2 moderate- to high-dose (4-8 mg/d) randomized, placebo-controlled augmentation trials in patients with undocumented past treatment history (pooled N = 88). Ondansetron was modestly effective in the uncontrolled trials and strikingly effective in the controlled trials. Ondansetron was also very well tolerated in all of the studies. These enthusiastic observations must be tempered by the limitations of the reviewed data, such as small sample sizes, short study durations, lack of data on the effects of blinded ondansetron discontinuation, lack of long-term data, and study-specific limitations. At best, ondansetron (1-8 mg/d) may be considered an experimental SRI augmentation agent in OCD patients for whom augmentation with an atypical antipsychotic drug is problematic. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of inflammation in psychopathology has received great attention over the past decades. Immune system dysfunction and altered cytokine levels have been reported in most psychiatric disorders in adults. Few data are available regarding children and adolescents (C&A), or regarding the relationship between cytokine levels and psychosocial stress. This study investigates the profile of the most described cytokines in a sample of C&A inpatients affected by an acute psychiatric condition requiring hospitalization, in comparison with healthy subjects, as well as possible associations between psychosocial stressors and psychopathology and/or cytokine concentrations. Patients with a diagnosis of Affective, Anxiety, Adjustment, Psychotic, Obsessive-Compulsive, Tic or Tourette Disorders were consecutively recruited from our clinic between June 2010 and February 2012. Controls were recruited from the same geographic area. All subjects were between 8 and 17 years old. Twelve cytokines are compared: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL_10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Psychosocial stress was measured through the Stressful Life Events Scale, Child and Parents versions (SLES-C and SLES-P) and the evaluation of the family integrity. One hundred and eleven subjects (77C&A inpatients and 34 healthy controls), of which 54 were males (49%), with a median (interquartile range) age of 16 (13.7-17.3) years, were included in this study. IL-1β, IL6, IL8, IP-10, MCP-1 and monocytes were found to be significantly higher in the patient group (p<0.05). Differences were confirmed when adjusting by BMI, age, gender and drug intake at admission for all cytokines except MCP-1. IL-8 and IL-1β were also higher throughout the different diagnostic categories, than in control group (p<0.05). Stress measures were higher in patients. A significant correlation was found between stress measured by the SLES and some inflammatory markers: SLES_C with IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1, and SLES_P with IL-1β and monocytes absolute and relative counts (Spearman's r between 0.219 and 0.297, p<0.05). Logistic regression identified the following variables as independent predictors of the patient condition, (odds ratio per quartile, p-value): IL8 (1, 0.9, 12.1, 32.0, p=0.044), IP10 (1, 14.1, 2.5, 3.7, p=0.044), monocyte absolute count (1, 1.1, 6.0, 19.4, p=0.030). Results show elevated inflammation markers from the innate immune system across C&A acute psychiatric diagnosis, and suggest a link between psychopathology, inflammation and stress. Inflammatory markers resulted predictors of patient status. These exploratory results are coherent with current psychoneuroimmunology and neurodevelopmental investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Psychoneuroendocrinology
Show more