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Abstract

Purpose. To reply to the comments made by Debbonaire and Todd (2012) in relation to our critique of Respect's Position Statement. Method. We examined their reply in relation to our original article and to the wider research literature. Results. We show that Debbonaire and Todd's reply is largely a series of assertions, for which little or no supporting evidence is offered. Their argument is first that we are misplaced in criticizing their Position Statement, and second that the main points of the statement are defendable. We indicate why our criticisms of the statement still stand. Conclusions. We argue that Respect have not countered our overall criticism of their position that intimate partner violence (IPV) can only be addressed as a gendered issue, that is as a consequence of patriarchal values enacted at the individual level. Instead we advocate a gender-inclusive approach applying a knowledge base derived from robust empirical research on IPV and more widely from research on human aggression.

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... In fact, their paper included few references to the literature, with those that were present being feminist in nature. Interestingly, this is a criticism by Archer, Dixon, and Graham-Kevan (2012) in their rejoinder. ...
Article
The 'what works' approach to evidence‐based practice has emphasized the need for systematic reviews and meta‐analyses to explore the effectiveness of correctional interventions. This chapter explores current approaches to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrator programmes and contrasts these with the empirical evidence in terms of treatment need and treatment efficacy. Recently, there have been a number of reviews commissioned to explore current domestic violence perpetrator provision in several areas of the world. There was little evidence of the need to recognize and accommodate the heterogeneity of perpetrators and their relationship dynamics, despite this responsivity being a key part of the Risk‐Needs‐Responsivity (RNR) principles. Due to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) programmes generally being the treatment of choice for non‐IPV programmes, psychologists attempted to improve the efficacy of Duluth‐based group outcomes with the addition of CBT.
... En el marco teórico de violencia familiar, o de perspectiva inclusiva de género se considera un modelo bidireccional de la violencia y aplica instrumentos a hombres y mujeres por igual dando como resultado las agresiones cometidas y sufridas para ambos sexos 27 . Los hallazgos investigativos de la violencia en el noviazgo en adolescentes muestran similitud en las tasas de agresión y victimización entre los sexos 28 . ...
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La violencia en las relaciones de pareja en adultos es un tema que ha sido profundamente investigado de forma centralizada o lineal desde el punto de vista de la relación víctima-victimario, agresor-agredido y posturas de género. En la actualidad, existen investigaciones sobre la violencia en las relaciones de noviazgo entre adolescentes, cuyos resultados estadísticos no presentan diferencias entre el género. Sin embargo, se evidencia como un factor predominante, la presencia de violencia mutua o bidireccional y relacional. En este sentido, es de vital importancia ampliar la comprensión de la violencia en la etapa del noviazgo durante la adolescencia con la finalidad de generar nuevas contribuciones epistemológicas enfocadas en el abordaje investigativo del fenómeno social, que direccionadas a la prevención de manifestaciones violentas en la edad adulta. El objetivo del presente artículo pretende mostrar los principales hallazgos de la revisión teórica sobre la violencia en el noviazgo en adolescentes desde una perspectiva bidireccional. Abstract Violence in adult relationships is a subject that has been deeply investigated in a centralized or linear way from the point of view of the relationship victim-victimizer, aggressor-aggressed and gender positions. Nowadays, there are researches on violence in dating relationships among adolescents , whose statistical results do not show differences between genders. However, the presence of mutual or bidirectional and relational violence is evidenced as a predominant factor. In this sense, it is vital to broaden the understanding of violence in the dating phase between adolescents in order to generate new epistemological contributions focused on the investigative approach of the social phenomenon aimed at the prevention of violent manifestations in adulthood. The objective of this article aims to show the main findings of the theoretical review on adolescent dating violence from a bidirectional perspective.
... In fact, their paper included few references to the literature, with those that were present being feminist in nature. Interestingly, this is a criticism by Archer, Dixon, and Graham-Kevan (2012) in their rejoinder. ...
Article
The aim of the current study was to conduct a review of current intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrator provision within the UK. The objective of the review was to explore the characteristics of intervention programs currently within the UK. Using a questionnaire based design we explored characteristics of current programs including program structure, program logistics, facilitator characteristics and facilitator insights around the programs. A number of organisations completed the questionnaire (N = 21) and a review of existing literature was performed to explore the general characteristics of programs being delivered within the UK. Within the sample we found the feminist approach was still influential but that facilitators also reported a need to ensure programs are more inclusive in their service provision to represent the diversity of perpetrators found. An unexpected finding from this study was the resistance of many organisations to engage with the research through an apparent suspicion of the agenda and motivation of the research team.
Conference Paper
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The aim of the study was to test two competing views on the study of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), namely the feminist and general violence perspectives. The feminist perspective views IPV as having an individual etiology and should not be considered within the context of other types of aggression (e.g. Dobash & Dobash, 1979). The first part of the project tested a number of hypotheses derived from the feminist theory of IPV – including Johnson’s (1995) typology. Results provided contradictory evidence for this theory including, but not limited to, women’s preponderance to perpetrate IPV and controlling behaviors at a greater frequency than men, the lack of significant differences in classification for Johnson’s typology and the finding that same-sex aggression perpetration was associated with controlling behaviors towards a partner. The second part of the project then went onto to explore studying IPV within a violence perspective. This involved examining associations between aggression and other personality and psychopathology variables to determine their predictive power. The series of studies involved examining both stable and dynamic risk factors that have been found in the previous literature to be associated with IPV and same-sex aggression namely: (1) paired variables of cost-benefit assessment and instrumental-expressive beliefs; (2) self-control, empathy, anxiety and (3) psychopathic traits. Results will be discussed with reference to the findings for the theoretical literature and implications for treatment and interventions.
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Purpose. The ideologically based view of intimate partner violence has traditionally influenced policy and practice in modern western nations and dominated cross-national research and practice. This review considers the validity of the position statement of a British organization responsible for accrediting many male perpetrator programmes in the statutory, voluntary, and private sector as an example of this ideological influence. Method. The position statement, informed by the patriarchal view of partner violence, is evaluated using empirical evidence from various branches of the social sciences, including psychology, that have not been guided by the patriarchal view. Results. Overwhelming empirical evidence is presented, which refutes ideologically driven assumptions that have been put forward to guide current practice and evaluation of it. Conclusions. This review highlights the need to investigate intimate partner violence from a scientific and gender-inclusive perspective. The implications for psychological practice are discussed.
Article
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Theoretical and empirical research investigating victimization and offending has largely been either ‘victim-focused’ or ‘offender-focused.’ This approach ignores the potential theoretical and empirical overlap that may exist among victims and offenders, otherwise referred to as ‘victim–offenders.’ This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research that has examined the relationship between victimization and offending. The review identified 37 studies, spanning over five decades (1958–2011), that have assessed the victim–offender overlap. The empirical evidence gleaned from these studies with regard to the victim–offender overlap is robust as 31 studies found considerable support for the overlap and six additional studies found mixed/limited support. The evidence is also remarkably consistent across a diversity of analytical and statistical techniques and across historical, contemporary, cross-cultural, and international assessments of the victim–offender overlap. In addition, this overlap is identifiable among dating/intimate partners and mental health populations. Conclusions and directions for future research are also discussed.
Article
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Research showing that women commit high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against men has been controversial because IPV is typically framed as caused by the patriarchal construction of society and men's domination over women. Johnson's (1995) typology of common couple violence (CCV) and intimate terrorism (IT) attempted to resolve this controversy, but he maintained that IT was caused by patriarchy and committed almost exclusively by men. This study investigates Johnson's theory as it applies to a sample of 302 men who sustained IPV from their female partners and sought help, and a comparison sample of community men. Results showed that the male helpseekers sample was comprised of victims of IT and that violence by the male victims was part of a pattern of what Johnson labels violent resistance. Men in the community sample who were involved in IPV conformed to Johnson's description of CCV. Results are discussed in terms of research, policy, and practice implications of acknowledging women's use of severe IPV and controlling behavior against their male partners.
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This study investigated sex-specific predictors of violent and nonviolent mate guarding used by men (n=399) and women (n=951) in heterosexual relationships, using both self-reports and reports on partners. We found, contrary to some previous evolutionary assumptions, that men and women showed similar degrees of controlling behavior, and that this predicted physical aggression to partners in both sexes. We also predicted from evolutionarily based studies that men's and women's control and aggression would vary as a function of female fecundity and mate value (relative to peer group and to partner). Fecundity was associated with men's and women's controlling behavior, but not their physical aggression: relationships where the woman was fecund showed higher rates of control. According to partners' reports, men and women who had lower mate values showed more controlling behavior and (to a lesser extent) more physical aggression. There was no support for the prediction that higher mate-value partners would be guarded more than lower mate-value ones. The following limitations are discussed: the sample and method of data collection, and the lack of information on the women's hormonal status.
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Using data obtained from women’s shelter residents, male and female students, and male prisoners, this study investigated the association between non-violent controlling behaviors, physical aggression, and violence towards a spouse (N = 264). It was predicted that only men and women involved in intimate terrorism (Johnson, Violence Against Women, 11(12):1003–1018, 2006) would use controlling aggression, and that physical aggression used by those involved in situational couple violence would be unrelated to controlling behavior. Contrary to predictions derived from Johnson’s theory, regression analysis showed that control accounted significant proportions of the variance in the use of physical aggression for all three relationship categories. Some support was provided, however, as it was found that the pattern of both interrelationships of the five types of controlling behaviors, and control and physical aggression, supported Johnson’s distinction.
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Five studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory failure is an important predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Study 1 participants were far more likely to experience a violent impulse during conflictual interaction with their romantic partner than they were to enact a violent behavior, suggesting that self-regulatory processes help individuals refrain from perpetrating IPV when they experience a violent impulse. Study 2 participants high in dispositional self-control were less likely to perpetrate IPV, in both cross-sectional and residualized-lagged analyses, than were participants low in dispositional self-control. Study 3 participants verbalized more IPV-related cognitions if they responded immediately to partner provocations than if they responded after a 10-s delay. Study 4 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally depleted were more violent in response to partner provocation (but not when unprovoked) than were nondepleted participants. Finally, Study 5 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally bolstered via a 2-week training regimen exhibited less violent inclinations than did participants whose self-regulatory resources had not been bolstered. These findings hint at the power of incorporating self-regulation dynamics into predictive models of IPV perpetration.
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Community-based research on violence against women typically focuses on marital arguments rather than on resulting injuries. This study investigated patterns of victimization, violence perpetration, and injury in marital arguments. Data from the National Survey on Families and Households and binomial and multinomial logit models were used to analyze characteristics of those who experienced physical violence, as well as to determine who was the perpetrator and who was the victim. Men and women reported similar behaviors during verbal arguments. Young persons, urban dwellers, the less educated, those with low incomes, and Blacks were more likely to report that there had been physical violence in their marriages in the past year. Ethnicity, income, education, and number and age of children at home were not associated consistently with injury of the wife, the husband, or both. Persons who report physical violence in their marriage are very similar to those who are at increased risk of interpersonal violence in general. The co-occurrence of street and other nonfamily violence with spousal violence may be a fruitful area for future research.
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This study investigated the proposition by Johnson (1995) that there are distinct patterns of physical aggression within relationships, characterized as common couple violence and patriarchal terrorism. The present samples comprised students (N = 113), women from a domestic violence refuge (N = 44), and male prisoners (N = 108). Participants completed measures of physical aggression, controlling behavior, fear of injuries, and injuries. Reports of these measures were entered into a Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA). With the exception of self-reported use of controlling behavior, the variables showed univariately significant differences between the groups. The DFA produced two significant functions which together correctly classified 75% of cases. These results support the view that there are distinct patterns of aggressive relationships corresponding to those identified by Johnson (1995).
Article
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Do high levels of neuroticism predict intimate partner violence (IPV)? Although neuroticism may predispose partners to increased risks of IPV perpetration, the extent to which it predicts such perpetration is likely to depend on the broader context of the relationship. Consistent with this prediction, the current longitudinal study of 169 community couples revealed that the effects of neuroticism on IPV perpetration over the first 4 years of marriage were moderated by observations of problem-solving behavior and objective ratings of chronic stress. Specifically, although husbands and wives who scored higher on a measure of neuroticism at the outset of marriage engaged in more IPV throughout the marriage on average, those who possessed more effective problem-solving skills or experienced lower levels of stress were significantly less likely to engage in IPV. Results highlight the importance of considering the broader relationship context when examining predictors of specific interpersonal processes.
Book
List of Tables and Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Classicist Criminology: Liberal Explanations of Violence Positivism: Scientific Explanations of Violence Violence and the Three Feminisms Feminist Realism: A Synthesis Researching Violence Revealing the Hidden Figure What Do the Men Say? Male Attitudes to Domestic Violence Violence, Space and Gender: Testing the Theories Tackling Domestic Violence: From Theory to Policy References Index
Article
Purpose. This article is a commentary on Dixon, Archer, & Graham-Kevan's (2012) critique of the Respect position statement on gender, which concluded by calling for abandoning either Respect or the Respect accreditation system. Methods. The article starts by providing some factual information about Respect and about the accreditation system mentioned in Dixon et al. It then picks up on five specific aspects of the discussion: research notions, prevalence, homicide, the relevance of gender to work on intimate partner violence, and our work to support male victims. Results. Dixon et al. critique one document in order to call for the abandonment of a system of accreditation which is not connected to that document. Dixon et al. ignored other relevant research (such as that on partner homicide) and practice evidence that contradicts their assertions. This includes ignoring the existence of Respect's work with male victims, including running the male victims helpline. Conclusions. Respect work is informed by knowledge and experience from research and practice. There is substantial evidence from research to support the position statement on gender. The accreditation standard and system of accreditation was established before the position statement was written and is not included. Respect provides valuable services for male victims and for male and female perpetrators.
Article
List of figures List of tables Preface Acknowledgements 1. Introduction 2. The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study 3. Sex differences in the amount of antisocial behaviour: dimensional measures 4. Sex differences in the prevalence of antisocial behaviour: categorical diagnostic measures 5. Sex differences in physical violence and sex similarities in partner abuse 6. Sex and the developmental stability of antisocial behaviour 7. Sex and the age of onset of delinquency and conduct disorder 8. Sex effects in risk predictors for antisocial behaviour: are males more vulnerable than females to risk factors for antisocial behaviour? 9. Sex effects in risk predictors for antisocial behaviour: are males exposed to more risk factors for antisocial behaviour? 10. Can sex differences in personality traits help to explain sex differences in antisocial behaviour? 11. Sex and comorbidity: are there sex differences in the co-occurrence of conduct disorder and other disorders? 12. Do girls who develop antisocial behaviour surmount a higher threshold of risk than their male counterparts? 13. Sex differences in the effects of antisocial behaviour on young adult outcomes 14. Sex, antisocial behaviour and mating: mate selection and early childbearing 15. Evaluating the recommendation to relax the criteria for diagnosing conduct disorder in girls 16. Life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour among males and females 17. Priorities for a research agenda References Index.
Article
On average, men have 61% more muscle mass than women (d=3), a sex difference which is developmentally related to their much higher levels of testosterone. Potential benefits of greater male muscle mass include increased mating opportunities, while potential costs include increased dietary requirements and decreased immune function. Using data on males aged 18–59 years from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and including other relevant variables, fat-free mass (FFM) and/or limb muscle volume (LMV) are significant predictors of the numbers of total and past-year self-reported sex partners, as well as age at first intercourse. On the cost side, FFM and LMV are strong positive predictors of daily energy intake and strong negative predictors of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count, measures of native immunity.
Chapter
This article describes the feminist framework, which set the stage for the conceptual and empirical analyses of issues on wife abuse, husband abuse, or mutual combat. To help aid in the analysis, this article reviews existing literature on the "battered husband syndrome", and examines conceptual problems with the notions of self-defense and retaliation. Included also are the summary of findings of an exploratory study on battered women's motives for using violence against their partners. When a feminist perspective is employed to examine whether husband and wives use violence with equal frequency and are equally victimized by the abuse, the author learned that some new research strategies are needed. Instead of simply counting the number of times husbands and wives use violence, it is important to ask them about their motives for the violence and about the physical consequences of the violence. The study reported in this article suggests that although women resort to violence as frequently as men do, they usually employ it in self-defense.
Article
Challenges one of Western culture's most deeply held assumptions: that violence against women is different from violence against men. The author argues that this type of violence is rarely the result of sexism or hatred against women. He cites research suggesting that the motives for violence against women are similar to the motives for violence against men: to gain control or retribution and to promote or defend self-image. The motives play a role in almost all violence, regardless of gender. Using a comparative method to determine how violence against women differs from violence against men, the author illustrates not only that violence against women is less frequent than violence against men but also that our culture and legal system treat it more harshly. Contrary to the claims that the courts "blame the vistim" in cases of violence against women, the author shows that the tradition of protection of women sometimes produces the opposite affect and that it is due process and not sexism that makes, for instance, rape cases seem biased against women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A 12-item scale, derived from the Conflict Tactics Scale, was administered to a representative sample of 1,978 heterosexual men and women in Great Britain in mid November 1994. Men and women were asked to identify conflict tactics sustained or inflicted in all past and present relationships and those sustained in current relationships. This paper reports results for physical victimization and also reports on two further questions asked to discern context and meaning ascribed to such sustained or inflicted victimization. Both sexes reported having experienced physical victimization with a higher percentage of men sustaining victimization, mainly as a result of minor acts of assault. Almost equal percentages of men and women reported inflicting victimization against partners. Additionally, incidence of physical victimization is presented according to relationship status, age, socioeconomic category, and by regional distribution. Both sexes reported a range of reasons or contexts ascribed to their sustained or inflicted victimization. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated by (a) parents to unrelated children, (b) parents to genetic offspring, and (c) offspring to parents and between (d) siblings and (e) sexual partners. Precise figures for risks have been calculated where possible. The major conclusions are that most of the evidence is consistent with evolutionary predictions derived from kin selection and reproductive value: There were (a) higher rates of violence to stepchildren, (b) a decline in violence with the age of offspring, and (c) an increase in violence with parental age, while (d) violence between siblings was generally at a low level and concerned resource disputes. The issue of distinguishing evolutionary from alternative explanations is addressed throughout and is problematic for predictions derived from reproductive value. The main evolutionary explanation for male partner violence, mate guarding as a result of paternity uncertainty, cannot explain Western studies where sex differences in control and violence between partners were absent, although other aspects of male partner violence are consistent with it, and it may explain sex differences in traditional cultures. Recurrent problems in evaluating the evidence were to control for possible confounds and thus to distinguish evolutionary from alternative explanations. Suggestions are outlined to address this and other issues arising from the review. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This paper addresses the contradiction between the conceptualization of partner violence as almost exclusively perpetrated by men and over 200 studies with data on both men and women which found "gender symmetry," i.e., that about the same percentage of women as men physically assault a partner. Both Straus (1990) and Johnson (1995) suggested that the contradiction can be resolved by taking a "dual population" approach. Straus argued that "ordinary" violence, such as slapping, shoving, and throwing things at a partner, is prevalent in the general population and is symmetrical; whereas "severe" violence such as choking, punching, and attacks with objects are rare in the general population but common in clinical populations and are male-predominant. Similarly, Johnson (1995) argued that "situational violence" is prevalent in the general population and symmetrical, whereas "intimate terrorism" is rare and is perpetrated almost exclusively by men. However, a review of 91 empirical comparisons found that symmetry and mutual violence perpetration is typical of relationships involving severe and injurious assaults and agency intervention, and of "intimate terrorists" as measured by Johnson's criteria. The discussion of these results suggests that much of the controversy arises because those who assert gender symmetry do so on the basis of perpetration rates, whereas those who deny gender symmetry do so on the basis of the effects of victimization, i.e. the greater harm experienced by women. Thus, the "different population" explanations of the controversy need to be replaced by a "perpetration versus effects" explanation. When prevention of perpetration is the focus, the predominance of symmetry and mutuality suggests that prevention could be enhanced by addressing programs to girls and women as well as boys and men. When offender treatment is the focus, the results suggest that effectiveness could be enhanced by changing treatment programs to address assaults by both partners when applicable.
Article
Using data from the 1985 U.S. National Family Violence Resurvey and the 1986 Canadian National Family Life Survey, this paper compares incidence of intimate violence or common couple violence (Johnson, 1995) in both countries. As expected, gender symmetry characterizes common couple violence, which is a product of the privatized setting of many American and Canadian households. Although the United States exhibits significantly higher rates of societal violent crime than Canada, Canadian women and men were more likely than their American counterparts to use severe intimate violence and to inflict it, as well as minor violence, more often, which is contrary to the culture of violence theory that guided the study. Similarly, the higher rates of wife-to-husband severe violence across the life course in both countries are inconsistent with the theory. Several ad hoc explanations are presented to account for these unexpected findings.
Article
Many women are victimized by their boyfriends. Furthermore, male social networks may encourag e members to abuse their girlfriends. A review of relevant literature shows that social support theory may be useful for understanding this problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe this social psychological theory''s potential contribution to the study of woman abuse in dating relationships.
Article
Meta-analyses are reported of sex differences in acts of physical aggression to heterosexual partners, derived from the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) [J Marriage Fam 8 (1979) 75], using methods based on standardized mean differences, and on odds ratios. Women were more likely than men to throw something at the other, slap, kick, bite, or punch, and hit with an object. Men were more likely than women to beat up, and to choke or strangle. Differences ranged from very small to medium. Samples selected for marital problems showed large effects in the male direction, and student samples showed effects more in the female direction than community samples. Effect sizes derived from partners' reports were more in the male direction than those derived from self-reports, but the overall pattern of results was similar. A similar pattern of findings resulted from the use of odds ratios to derive effect sizes, although the magnitude of effects was greater. Limitations of the current CTS measures and the database are discussed.
Article
Men's greater use of direct aggression is not evident in studies of intimate partner aggression. In previous research, the effects of target sex and relationship intimacy have frequently been confounded. This study sought to examine these effects separately. One hundred and seventy-four participants (59 male and 115 female) read vignette scenarios in which they were provoked by a same-sex best friend, an opposite-sex best friend, and a partner. For each target, participants estimated their likely use of direct physical and verbal aggression as well as noninjurious forms of anger expression. Results showed that men lower their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and that this is an effect of the target's sex. In contrast, women raise their aggression in the context of an intimate partnership and this is an effect of intimacy with the target. The use of noninjurious angry behavior did not vary between targets for either sex of the participant, which suggests that the effects of target are confined to behaviors which carry an intention to harm. Possible effects of social norms and oxytocin-mediated emotional disinhibition on intimate partner aggression are discussed.
Article
The main aim of this research was to assess the relative association between physical aggression and (1) self-control and (2) cost-benefit assessment, these variables representing the operation of impulsive and reflective processes. Study 1 involved direct and indirect aggression among young Indian men, and Study 2 physical aggression to dating partners among Spanish adolescents. In Study 1, perceived benefits and costs but not self-control were associated with direct aggression at other men, and the association remained when their close association with indirect aggression was controlled. In Study 2, benefits and self-control showed significant and independent associations (positive for benefits, negative for self-control) with physical aggression at other-sex partners. Although being victimized was also correlated in the same direction with self-control and benefits, perpetration and being victimized were highly correlated, and there was no association between being victimized and these variables when perpetration was controlled. These results support the theory that reflective (cost-benefit analyses) processes and impulsive (self-control) processes operate in parallel in affecting aggression. The finding that male adolescents perceived more costs and fewer benefits from physical aggression to a partner than female adolescents did is consistent with findings indicating greater social disapproval of men hitting women than vice versa, rather than with the view that male violence to women is facilitated by internalized patriarchal values.
Article
Different notions among researchers about the nature of intimate partner violence have long been the subjects of popular and academic debate. Research findings are contradictory and point in two directions, with some revealing that women are as likely as men to perpetrate violence against an intimate partner (symmetry) and others showing that it is overwhelmingly men who perpetrate violence against women partners (asymmetry). The puzzle about who perpetrates intimate partner violence not only concerns researchers but also policy makers and community advocates who, in differing ways, have a stake in the answer to this question, since it shapes the focus of public concern, legislation, public policy and interventions for victims and offenders. The question of who are the most usual victims and perpetrators rests, to a large extent, on ‘what counts’ as violence. It is here that we begin to try to unravel the puzzle, by focusing on concept formation, definitions, forms of measurement, context, consequences and approaches to claim-making, in order better to understand how researchers have arrived at such apparently contradictory findings and claims. The question also turns on having more detailed knowledge about the nature, extent and consequences of women's violence, in order to consider the veracity of these contradictory findings. To date, there has been very little in-depth research about women's violence to male partners and it is difficult, if not impossible, to consider this debate without such knowledge. We present quantitative and qualitative findings from 190 interviews with 95 couples in which men and women reported separately upon their own violence and upon that of their partner. Men's and women's violence are compared. The findings suggest that intimate partner violence is primarily an asymmetrical problem of men's violence to women, and women's violence does not equate to men's in terms of frequency, severity, consequences and the victim's sense of safety and well-being. But why bother about the apparent contradictions in findings of research? For those making and implementing policies and expending public and private resources, the apparent contradiction about the very nature of this problem has real consequences for what might be done for those who are its victims and those who are its perpetrators. Worldwide, legislators, policy makers and advocates have developed responses that conceive of the problem as primarily one of men's violence to women, and these findings provide support for such efforts and suggest that the current general irection of public policy and expenditure is appropriate.
Article
I argue that the magnitude and nature of sex differences in aggression, their development, causation, and variability, can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated by greater male impulsiveness, and greater female fear of physical danger. Male variability in physical aggression is consistent with an alternative life history perspective, and context-dependent variability with responses to reproductive competition, although some variability follows the internal and external influences of social roles. Other sex differences, in variance in reproductive output, threat displays, size and strength, maturation rates, and mortality and conception rates, all indicate that male aggression is part of a sexually selected adaptive complex. Physical aggression between partners can be explained using different evolutionary principles, arising from the conflicts of interest between males and females entering a reproductive alliance, combined with variability following differences in societal gender roles. In this case, social roles are particularly important since they enable both the relatively equality in physical aggression between partners from Western nations, and the considerable cross-national variability, to be explained.
Article
Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression to heterosexual partners and in its physical consequences are reported. Women were slightly more likely (d = -.05) than men to use one or more act of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. Men were more likely (d = .15) to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured by a partner were women. The findings partially support previous claims that different methods of measurement produce conflicting results, but there was also evidence that the sample was an important moderator of effect size. Continuous models showed that younger aged dating samples and a lower proportion of physically aggressive males predicted effect sizes in the female direction. Analyses were limited by the available database, which is biased toward young dating samples in the United States. Wider variations are discussed in terms of two conflicting norms about physical aggression to partners that operate to different degrees in different cultures.
Article
This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to explore differences in the relationship between attachment and violence using continuous and dichotomous violence measures. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated the "mispairing" of an avoidant male partner with an anxious female partner was associated with both male and female violence. When controlling for partner violence, the relationship between attachment and violence was significant for males only. In addition, analyses using a dichotomized violence variable produced different results from analyses using a continuous violence measure. Clinical implications include focusing on the discrepancy between partners' needs for intimacy and distance within the couple as a strategy for treating intimate partner violence.
Respect response toPerpetrator programmes for partner violence: Are they based on ideology or evidence?' Legal and Criminological Psychology Woman abuse in dating relationships
  • T Debbonaire
  • J Todd
  • Dixon
Debbonaire, T., & Todd, J. (2012). Respect response to Dixon et al. (2012) 'Perpetrator programmes for partner violence: Are they based on ideology or evidence?' Legal and Criminological Psychology, 17, 216–224. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8333.2012.02051.x DeKeseredy, W. S. (1988). Woman abuse in dating relationships. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
Self-regulatory failure and intimate partner violence perpetration Wife battering: A systems theory approach Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relation-ships: The effects of sampling
  • E Finkel
  • C N Dewall
  • E B Slotter
  • M Oaten
  • V A Foshee
  • J Giles-Sims
Finkel, E., DeWall, C. N., Slotter, E. B., Oaten, M., & Foshee, V. A. (2009). Self-regulatory failure and intimate partner violence perpetration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 483–499. doi: 10.1037/a0015433 Giles-Sims, J. (1983). Wife battering: A systems theory approach. New York: The Guilford Press. Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer J. (2003). Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relation-ships: The effects of sampling. Violence and Victims, 18, 181–198. doi: 10.1891/vivi.2003.18.
Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression? Can evolutionary principles explain patterns of family violence? Psychological Bulletin Advance online publication. doi: 10 Does cost-benefit analysis or self-control predict involvement in two forms of aggression
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Does gender matter? Paper presented at Annual Conference Gender symmetry in intimate aggression: An effect of intimacy or target sex?
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Position Statement: Gender and Domestic Violence
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November 8) Respect Accreditation Standard Retrieved from http
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Perpetrator programmes for partner violence: Are they based on ideology or evidence
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Respect response to Dixon et al. (2012) ‘Perpetrator programmes for partner violence: Are they based on ideology or evidence?’
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