Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (Impact Factor: 4.11). 11/2006; 3(1). DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-42
Source: DOAJ


The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight.

Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education.

At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months.

The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

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Available from: Jennifer A Linde
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    • "Indeed, higher FFMI and to a greater degree FMI were associated with increased caloric intake due to relatively higher proportion of fat versus carbohydrate intake, indicating a preference of heavier subjects for high-fat foods compared with carbohydrate dense foods. This is consistent with a large study of 508 male and 1293 female obese subjects seeking weight loss treatment showing a positive relationship between baseline fat intake and BMI, although men seemed to prefer high-fat/high-protein foods while females tended to consume more high-fat/high-carbohydrate foods (19). Similar findings had been reported in a study of weight-discordant monozygotic twins, demonstrating a higher fat-preference for obese versus their lean siblings, indicating that the increased caloric intake which may have lead to and is needed to maintain the increased weight is primarily due to preference for high-fat foods (20). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans. Methods In 184 humans (73F/111M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m2), FM index (FMI kg*m2;), and 24-hour energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3d vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL), and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN). Results FFMI was positively associated with CAL (p<0.0001), PRO (p=0.0001), CHO (p=0.0075), and FAT (p<0.0001). This remained significant after adjusting for FMI. Total EE predicted CAL and macronutrient intake (all p<0.0001). FMI was positively associated with CAL (p=0.019), PRO (p=0.025) and FAT (p=0.0008). In models with both FFMI and FMI, FMI was negatively associated with CAL (p=0.019) and PRO (p=0.033). Both FFMI and FMI were negatively associated with %CHO and positively associated with %FAT (all p<0.001). EE and FFMI (adjusted for FMI) were positively (EE p=0.0085; FFMI p=0.0018) and FMI negatively (p=0.0018; adjusted for FFMI) associated with %WMEN. Conclusion Food and macronutrient intake is predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International journal of obesity (2005)
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    • "Literature relating fried food consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity is scarce. However, prospective studies published in the last years have reported a positive association between fried food intake and BMI [6], or weight gain among pregnant women [14] and crosssectional studies have also reported a positive association between fried food intake and waist circumference [15], overweight [16], or central and general obesity [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aimsThe consumption of fried foods is believed to be linked with obesity and higher weight gain, however, the evidence from long-term randomized trials or prospective epidemiological studies is scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the association between the consumption of fried foods and weight change and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort.Methods and resultsProspective cohort study of 9850 men and women with a mean age of 38.1 years (SD 11.4) were followed-up for a median of 6.1 years to assess average yearly change in body weight, and incidence of overweight/obesity. The consumption of fried foods was associated with higher weight gain, but the differences were of small magnitude and statistically non-significant. The incidence of overweight/obesity during follow-up was also assessed in the subset of 6821 participants with initial body mass index <25 kg/m2 (initially free of overweight/obesity), after adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio for developing overweight/obesity among participants who consumed fried foods >4 times/week was 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.73) in comparison with those who consumed fried foods <2 times/week (p for trend = 0.02).Conclusion In this Mediterranean prospective cohort, a more frequent consumption of fried foods at baseline was associated with a higher risk of subsequently developing overweight/obesity during follow-up.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
    • "In a study conducted by Linde et al.(17) correlates of body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity, they assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber and behaviors attempted to control weight. Subscribing to exercise magazines decreased fat intake and increased fruit/ vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI. "
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing body image self-perception has used BMI as an indicator of nutritional status. The visual analogue scale is a highly effective instrument for assessing people's level of dissatisfaction with their body weight while evaluating the perceptual component of body image. By knowing body mass index of female medical students, to find out their pattern of body image perception and any attempts done to change their weight. All the students residing in MBBS ladies hostel were included in this study and a questionnaire regarding body image perception, diet, physical activity and attempts to change weight was instituted. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. Among 147 study subjects, according to BMI, 25(17%) were undernourished while 111(75.5%) and 11(7.5%) were normally nourished and overweight respectively. 35(23.8%) of the subjects felt they were lean, 95(64.6%) felt they were normal and 17(11.6%) felt they were overweight. Regarding image satisfaction, 98(66.7%) of them were satisfied with their image and out of 49 who were not satisfied 30 (20.4 %) wanted to reduce weight. Skipping meals was practiced by 42 (28.6%) of subjects. About 75.5% of the study group were having normal BMI. Most of them perceived their image correctly regarding to their weight. Most of the underweight and all overweight females were not satisfied. Underweight females preferred to gain weight and overweight females preferred to lose weight.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Indian Journal of Community Medicine
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