ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

This article describes the theoretical and empirical evolution of the revised Cross nigrescence identity model (W. E. Cross, 1991) in the context of developing a new multidimensional measure, the Cross Racial Identity Scale (Vandiver et al., 2000). The research resulted in an expanded nigrescence model (W. E. Cross & B. J. Vandiver, 2001), and preliminary factor analytic strategies support the existence of 6 subscales. Este artículo describe la evolución teoretica y empirica de el modelo indentidad de nigrescence creado y revisado por W. E. Cross (1991) en el contexto de la creación de una nueva escala miltidimensional, la Escala de Identidad Racial Cross (B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000). La investigación resultó en un modelo de nigrescence extendido (W. E. Cross & B. J. Vandiver, 2001), y las estrategias factor analíticas preliminarias sustentan la existencia de 6 sub-escalas.
... There are several models of racial identity development that describe the process for White people and people of color, and these models are directly relevant to the trust and social distance that may be generated between dyads. One of the first racial identity models was Cross's nigressence model (Vandiver, Fhagen-Smith, Cokley, Cross, & Worrel, 2001), and this model was later expanded by others to include all people of color (e.g., Minority Identity Development Model; Atkinson, Morton & Sue, 1998; Racial and Cultural Identity Development Model; Sue & Sue, 2003). Minority development models may include stages referred to as Conformity, Dissonance, Resistance, Introspection, and Integrative Awareness. ...
Chapter
This chapter describes empirically informed best practices for the assessment and diagnostic process with clients of color, including the intake process and culturally informed diagnostic considerations. The multicultural counseling competencies comprise a widely used model for training that consists of three developmental areas: attitudes and beliefs (awareness of one's assumptions, values, and biases); knowledge (understanding the world views and values of diverse clients); and skills (developing relevant and appropriate assessment, diagnostic, prevention, and intervention strategies and techniques). The chapter focuses on these skills as they relate to assessment and diagnosis and how this can contribute to the development of effective therapeutic relationships and mental health treatment retention. Clinicians should introduce issues of marginalization early in the assessment process, and they should assess for the experience, frequency, and perceived impact of experiences of race-based discrimination and marginalization based on the clients' intersecting identities. Clinicians must also be aware of the role of stereotype threat in maintaining disparities in seeking and engaging in mental health treatment. Clinicians should determine the impact of mental health stigma for clients of color to aid in case conceptualization. Sources of this stigma are widespread, including media and societal messages as well as cultural and familial influence.
... These effects, alongside general greater acceptance of self and Blackness, are consistent with characteristics of a later internalization stage of Cross' (1971) Nigrescence model. There are several benefits associated with achieving and maintaining a positive Black racial identity, including positive coping and functioning, and buffering the effects of racism and race-based traumas (Berwise & Mena, 2020;Vandiver et al., 2001). Although it is outside the scope of the present study to determine if development along Cross' model occurred, such change would be consistent with previous research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Scholars (Choi et al., 2015; West-Olatunji et al., 2011) have demonstrated the benefits of an international immersion trip for counseling students, however, to date, there is limited literature on this experience for practicing clinicians. The current study focused on exploring the lived experiences of Black counselors (N = 6) engaging in an international immersion trip to Ghana. We identified six themes: (a) society without racism, (b) transgenerational trauma, (c) connection, (d) identity, (e) personal change, and (f) counseling practice. We discuss implications for counselor educators and clinicians and recommendations for future research.
... Six of the 10 filler items on the CRIS are focused on race. These items had been written and included in early versions of the CRIS as part of the scale development process (see Vandiver et al., 2001;Vandiver et al., 2002;) but were not included in the final six subscales that make up the CRIS, as other items better captured those six constructs. They were included with the CRIS items to provide increased separation of the items that are actually scored. ...
Article
In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of scores on an expanded version of the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) consisting of the original six subscales—Assimilation, Miseducation, Self-Hatred, Anti-White, Afrocentricity, and Multiculturalist Inclusive—and a seventh subscale called Race Salience. Participants consisted of two samples of African Americans. Sample 1 had 324 participants, most of whom were students at historically Black institutions, and Sample 2 had 340 students attending a predominantly White institution. CRIS subscale scores, including Race Salience were internally consistent in Sample 1, and an exploratory factor analysis supported the structural validity of the race salience score. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the seven-factor structure. Internal consistency and structural validity results were replicated in Sample 2. Future studies should examine other aspects of construct validity on this expanded version of the CRIS, such as convergent and discriminant validity, and the impact of seven subscales on the number and type of racial identity profiles that CRIS scores can yield.
... Even as epidemiologists increasingly consider the causal role of the social conditions in which individuals live and work [1,2,4,6], a lack of well-developed theoretical context to health disparities research frequently yields data, results, and interpretations that obfuscate the complex mechanisms underlying social group disparities in health [7]. Wide-spread assumptions of racial homogeneity [8,9], for example, echo biological essentialism, masking important within-race gender or socioeconomic differences in disease risk, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy, even in those studies which acknowledge social determinants of health. ...
... For example, established and current standard criteria for several fit indices including the RMSEA, CFI, and SRMR were emerging in the late 1990s (Hu & Bentler, 1999) and the IRRS-B was published during this time frame. Given these statistical advances, and acknowledging that scale development is indeed an iterative process that includes reflecting upon theory and modifying scales (DeVellis, 2012;Vandiver et al., 2001), it seems prudent to consider how to revise IRRS-B. ...
Article
The Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) is among the most widely used measures to assess race-related stress among Black Americans. Despite a long history of use in research and clinical settings, there has been limited scholarship examining the factor structure of the IRRS-B. In this study, we evaluated the item functioning and structural performance of the IRRS-B scores in a nationally recruited sample of Black Americans using item response and confirmatory factor analyses. Item-level analyses illustrated that items on the IRRS-B, in general, tended to be most informative at moderate levels of the latent construct. The proposed three-factor structure yielded a comparable fit to the data in a validation and a cross-validation subsample but did not meet recommended cutoff values for adequate model fit. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications for future use of the IRRS-B in research and clinical contexts.
Article
Introduction: Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy has grown in popularity over the last several decades, demonstrating promising utility, especially in the treatment of mood disorders. However, IFS researchers have yet to explore its relevance specifically for Black populations in the United States. Objective: The present study investigated relationships between self-leadership, racial identity attitudes, race related stress, and mental health outcomes. Specifically, this study examined self-leadership as a potential mediator in the relationship between Black racial identity attitudes and the experience of race-related stress and mental health outcomes Methods: Participants (N = 79) were Black-identifying undergraduate students who completed self-report inventories. Mediation analyses were conducted using SPSS. Results: Self-leadership significantly predicted less severe negative mental health outcomes. Additionally, self-leadership fully mediated the relationship between the pre-encounter attitude of self-hatred and mental health outcomes, and self-leadership partially mediated the relationship between multiculturalist inclusive attitudes and stress due to institutional racism. Conclusion: Findings point to the potential utility of a major component of IFS, self-leadership, for future Black clinical populations.
Chapter
This chapter provides a foundation in understanding of African American clients and their worldview by taking a closer look at how racial identity, culture, and the effects of slavery may contribute to help-seeking practices. Through the lens of the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics, Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies (MSJCC), and Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling (ASERVIC) Competencies, counselors and other helping professionals necessitate attention being given to the diversity of clients. The chapter reviews the historical trauma of African Americans and the psychological issues associated with systematic oppressions in the United States. The chapter centers on how family togetherness (presence, bonding, and support), emotional resilience (coping with hardships), and spiritual relationships (higher beings and connections) serve as mental health protective factors. The chapter concludes with a discussion on utilizing a trauma-informed approach and culturally appropriate techniques and interventions for engaging with African American clients.
Article
The education of Black male high school students is presently occurring in the context of the #MeToo movement. Recent reports of inappropriate sexual conduct by high profile men, including Black men, have generated heightened awareness, confusion, anxiety, and ambivalence among Black males regarding what behavior is acceptable toward girls and women and related consequences of such behavior. In high school, when identity and interpersonal relationship skills are still relatively early in development, this apparent ambiguity potentially interferes with learning processes, helping to undermine educational equity for Black males. With this mixed-methods documentary intervention research study, we assessed the impact of the short, educational documentary My Masculinity Helps (MMH) on Black male high school students in reducing rape myth acceptance and affirming active bystander attitudes and behaviors. MMH explores the role of Black men and boys in the prevention of sexual violence. Findings suggest that participants developed a more accurate understanding of consent and sexual assault, and more affirmative attitudes toward active bystander behavior, such as helping someone who has been sexually assaulted or wanting to engage in prevention strategies. We provide implications for school counselors using the American School Counselor Association National Model.
Thesis
There is a gap in our knowledge and understanding of perceptions of political activities, including the influence of education policies, by young adult Black males. There is a gap in our understanding of the formation of perceptions and attitudes. The purpose of this study is to gain a perspective of the perceptions of young adult Black male students regarding civic and political activism. By increasing our knowledge of Black students’ experiences and motivations, in relation to perception development, there could be lived experience-based pedagogy that encourages Black young adults to engage politically in a greater proportion. Additionally, such knowledge could provide insight toward being enabled to effectively react to perceived injustices and intolerant outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
The factor analysis literature includes a range of recommendations regarding the minimum sample size necessary to obtain factor solutions that are adequately stable and that correspond closely to population factors. A fundamental misconception about this issue is that the minimum sample size, or the minimum ratio of sample size to the number of variables, is invariant across studies. In fact, necessary sample size is dependent on several aspects of any given study, including the level of communality of the variables and the level of overdetermination of the factors. The authors present a theoretical and mathematical framework that provides a basis for understanding and predicting these effects. The hypothesized effects are verified by a sampling study using artificial data. Results demonstrate the lack of validity of common rules of thumb and provide a basis for establishing guidelines for sample size in factor analysis.
Article
Full-text available
Expectations for reporting factor analysis results as part of construct validation are explored in the context of emerging views of measurement validity. Desired practices are discussed regarding both exploratory factor analysis (e.g., principal components analysis) and confirmatory factor analysis (e.g., LISREL and EQS factor analyses). A short computer program for conducting parallel analysis is appended.
Article
Full-text available
The goals of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis are described and procedural guidelines for each approach are summarized, emphasizing the use of factor analysis in developing and refining clinical measures. For exploratory factor analysis, a rationale is presented for selecting between principal components analysis and common factor analysis depending on whether the research goal involves either identification of latent constructs or data reduction. Confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling is described for use in validating the dimensional structure of a measure. Additionally, the uses of confirmatory factor analysis for assessing the invariance of measures across samples and for evaluating multitrait-multimethod data are also briefly described. Suggestions are offered for handling common problems with item-level data, and examples illustrating potential difficulties with confirming dimensional structures from initial exploratory analyses are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It has been shown (25, 27, 28, 29, 82) that at each age level from three years through seven years, Negro children have a well developed knowledge of the concept of racial difference between “white” and “colored” as this is indicated by the characteristic of skin color-and that this knowledge develops more definitely from year to year to the point of absolute stability at the age of seven. It was further shown that the dynamics of self-identification in medium and dark-skinned children is somewhat different and more stable than in light-skinned children. There were no significant differences between Northern and Southern children in the awareness of racial differences.
Article
Adult Black identity change that took place within the context of the recent Black sociopolitical movement is the focus of a literature review. The review summarizes two models that depict the various stages that might be associated with the psychological metamorphosis of Black Americans and examines the empirical studies that have been conducted to test the models. Although the models seem to predict major changes in both the self- concept and reference group orientation of converts, the empirical evidence suggests that only the reference group orientation of converts was subject to permanent modification.
Article
The relationship of ego development and Black identity formation was explored in thirty Black male and thirty Black female college students. The subjects were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale. A significant inverse relationship was found between ego development and Black identity. This suggests that if an individual has strong ego, he or she defines self; if the individual's ego is weak, others define self. Social and cultural differences, the definition of self, and the perception of development, identity, and change are discussed as other possible explanations for this inverse relationship.
Article
This article is an attempt to expand the descriptive characteristics of the Cross model by discussing a theory of psychological Nigrescence that hypothesizes the changes in racial identity that a Black person can experience at various points in the life-cycle process. In this discussion, I will attempt to describe how various stages of racial identity are manifest at three periods of life: late adolescence/early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. I will conclude with a discussion of the implications for counseling Blacks who display varying degrees of racial identity attitudes.
Article
Cornel West place le debat academique actuel du pluri-culturalisme dans le cadre historique suivant: les realites socio-economiques de la societe americaine et la longue reorganisation de la vie intellectuelle apres la seconde guerre mondiale, etant donnee la fin de ce que West nomme «l'Age de l'Europe». Apres une introduction generale a la pensee de West, l'article donne un extrait d'une de ses conferences ainsi que d'un entretien sur les problemes culturels actuels, y compris sur le racisme