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This article examines the identity development of F/Pilipino Americans. Because of a distinct history and culture that differentiates them from other Asian groups, F/Pilipino Americans may experience a different ethnic identity development than other Asian Americans. A nonlinear 6-stage ethnic identity development model is proposed to promote proper therapeutic treatment. Este artículo examina el desarrollo de la identidad de los f/filipino-americanos. Debido a una historia y una cultura distinta que los hace diferenciar de otros grupos asiáticos, los f/filipino-americanos pueden experimentar un desarrollo de identidad étnica distinto al de otros grupos asiático-americanos. Se propone un modelo de desarrollo de identidad étnica no-lineal de seis etapas, para promover el tratamiento terapéutico apropiado.
... Additionally, family 1 Although both Pilipino and Filipino are generally accepted terms, we prefer to use Pilipino to refer to individuals from the Philippines or of Pilipino descent. In the original Tagalog alphabet, there is no equivalent letter for the "F" sounds (Nadal, 2004). Filipino is adopted from Spanish colonizers and formalized in 1987 as the Philippine alphabet was modified to incorporate other letters such as "F" and is therefore an Anglicized version of Pilipino (Nadal, 2004). ...
... In the original Tagalog alphabet, there is no equivalent letter for the "F" sounds (Nadal, 2004). Filipino is adopted from Spanish colonizers and formalized in 1987 as the Philippine alphabet was modified to incorporate other letters such as "F" and is therefore an Anglicized version of Pilipino (Nadal, 2004). Viewed in the context of colonization, this Anglicization reflects and perpetuates a colonized mindset (Carnaje, 2015). ...
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Asian American women occupy a paradoxical space within the context of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, simultaneously overrepresented as Asian Americans and underrepresented as women. For Asian American female doctoral students, the complex layering and weaving of these intersections involves the constant negotiation of science, racial, and gendered identities. This study explored how the intersections of science, race, and gender shaped their student experiences. We positioned these frameworks not only as mutually constitutive systems but also emphasize science as an epistemology, which informs conceptions of knowledge, the practice of inquiry, and who has epistemic authority. As a qualitative study, we utilized intersectionality theory to explore identity development in the context of STEM environments and grounded theory methods in our analysis. We interviewed 23 women who self‐identified as Asian Americans and were either currently in a doctoral program or were within 5 years of earning their degrees in STEM fields. Examining the intersections of science, race, and gender for Asian American female doctoral students in STEM allows a richer, more nuanced exploration of science as it is currently defined and understood and permits the conceptual critique of science to remake STEM environments into more inclusive spaces
... Scholars often agree each racial group (e.g., African American/Black, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Latino/a/x American, Native American) encompasses their own unique cultural heritage and worldview that distinguishes each from one another (Sue & Sue, 2008). For this reason, several racial and cultural identity development models can be found in literature that highlight the aforementioned racial groupings specifically (Casas & Pyluk, 1995;Cross, 1978;Horse, 2005;Nadal, 2004;Root, 1997). ...
... Therefore, the provided self-care strategies are also presented sequentially and should be infused within the core curriculum with intention to support the racial/cultural identity development of students. Further, similar to many racial/cultural identity models (Casas & Pyluk, 1995;Cross, 1978;Horse, 2005;Nadal, 2004;Root, 1997), not everyone will successfully complete and progress through every aspect of the anti-racist approaches outlined within this article. ...
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Attention has been given to multicultural counseling, social justice and advocacy work over the last several decades; with this in mind, it is essential Counselors educators work as anti-racist change agents to understand the role of self-care in advocacy and be armed with self-care strategies based upon racial identity standing. Working through the lens of racial identity development models, educators will learn ways to support students of the dominant culture in engaging in self-care without initiating oppressive behaviors, and conversely will learn strategies to assist Black, Indigenous, Persons of Color (BIPOC) in enacting self-care without assisting in their own oppression. Thus, the purpose of this conceptual manuscript is to (a) provide a rationale for self-care as an ethical imperative, (b) introduce self-care strategies to employ while supporting anti-racist andragogy through intentional wellness, and (c) call students to build self-care routines focused on multiculturalism and social justice.
... They notice differences among the discipline practices of their own parents and parents of peers [61]. This is relevant to Filipino immigrant families in the United States because of differences in child rearing practices between mainstream U.S. culture and Filipino culture [62,63]. For example, Filipino parents are more likely to show their love indirectly through actions, while there is more emphasis on verbal communication of love and praise in mainstream U.S. culture [64]. ...
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One out of five children in the United States has a mental, emotional, or behavioral health diagnosis. Behavioral health issues cost America $247 billion per year and those with mental health disorders have poorer health and shorter lives. Evidence-based parenting interventions provided in childhood have proven to be effective in helping parents to prevent disruptive, oppositional and defiant behaviors, anxiety and depressive symptoms, tobacco, alcohol, and drug misuse, aggression, delinquency, and violence. Yet, few parents participate in such programs, especially hard-to-reach, underserved minority and immigrant populations. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has identified a culture of health action framework that mobilizes individuals, communities, and organizations in order to examine ways to improve systems of prevention, invest in building the evidence base for such systems, and provide evidence-based information to decision makers. The overarching goal of this effort was to create a culture of mental health among Filipinos, a large, yet understudied immigrant community that is affected by alarming mental health disparities, including high rates of adolescent suicide ideation and attempts. Our impact project focused on increasing the reach of the Incredible Years® because maximizing the participation of high-risk, hard-to-engage populations may be one of the most important ways to increase the population-level impact of evidence-based parenting programs. If the approach succeeded with Filipinos, comparable strategies could be used to effectively reach other underserved populations in the U.S., many of whom are reluctant to seek behavioral health services. In this chapter we discuss 1) the state of the literature on the topic of Filipino adolescent mental health disparities; 2) our wicked problem and the impact project aimed at ameliorating this issue; 3) how our team formed and implemented our impact project; 4) outcomes and results of our efforts; 5) challenges we faced and how they were overcome; 6) the leadership and health equity skills that were most helpful in addressing our problem; and 7) a toolkit that could assist other communities addressing youth mental health and prevention of suicide and depression.
... The othering of Filipinos in Hawai'i is so pervasive that some scholars argued that a generation of Filipinos in Hawai'i grew up hating their Filipino identity, and consequently led to many children disavowing their own language and culture [42]. In fact, many children of Filipino immigrants have refused to embrace their own language, as in the case of many parents who do not want to teach their children the language of their heritage, fearing that the latter will have less opportunities to succeed in the U.S. [43,44]. Knowing this educational and social context, engaging students in critical dialogue on racism against Filipinos is therefore an opportunity for students to uncover hidden ideologies and everyday discourses that have become commonplace in Hawai'i. ...
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Engaging in critical dialogues in language classrooms that draw on critical pedagogical perspectives can be challenging for learners because of gaps in communicative resources in their L1 and L2. Since critically oriented classrooms involve discussing social issues, students are expected to deploy “literate talk” to engage in critiquing society and a wide range of texts. Although recent studies have explored teachers’ and students’ engagement with critical materials and critical dialogues, research that explores language development in critical language teaching remains a concern for language teachers. In this paper, I share my experience of fostering language development, specifically the overt teaching of critical vocabulary to students of (Tagalog-based) Filipino language at a university in Hawai’i. Through a discussion of racist stereotypes targeting Filipinos and the impacts of these discourses on students’ lived experiences, the notion of “critical vocabulary” emerges as an important tool for students to articulate the presence of and to dismantle oppressive structures of power, including everyday discourses supporting the status quo. This paper defines critical vocabulary and advances its theoretical and practical contribution to critical language teaching. It also includes students’ perspectives of their language development and ends with pedagogical implications for heritage/world language teachers around the world.
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There is a paucity of research on the educational experiences of Filipinx Americans, the second-largest Asian American group in the United States. Studies that do exist often lump Filipinxs with other Asian Americans or present them devoid of critical contexts that shape their experience, namely, colonialism and racialization. Using a desire-based framework and empire as an analytic, we conducted a semi-systematic review of 74 journal articles to better understand how Filipinx Americans are presented in the research. Our analysis suggests that researchers often position Filipinx Americans relative to whiteness or utilize critical educational framings to interrogate the complex ways they are racialized. We offer implications for research focused on Filipinx Americans and minoritized groups. We conclude by discussing the utility of interdisciplinary research as well as the necessity for desirability and empire as a lens for future education research.
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In this essay, I metaphorize ‘healing’ as a process of navigating the narrow passage of colonial mentality toward the wider expanse of ocean, land, and possibility promised in kapwa, or the Indigenous Philippine concept of “self-in-the-other” (Reyes, 2015, p. 149). This process involves my personal reckoning with a childhood psyche rooted in colonial mentality and efforts, as an adult, parent, and partner, to help construct a new barangay, or familial network. I frame unschooling, a philosophy of education and childrearing that centers informal learning, self-direction, and community-responsive pedagogy, as the balangay, or vessel, that has made this crossing possible.
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Identity development has been studied from a variety of perspectives within social and developmental psychology, with positive psychology most recently adding to this literature. Finding and moving forward with a unified sense of self has been the primary focus. This search embodies the different social contexts to which we belong—in other words, our group affiliations. Although religion is one factor that provides a sense of belonging and purpose to many people, the development of a religious identity has not been explored as much as other social identities. In this chapter, we begin by providing an overview of Islam and wellbeing, including a mapping of the VIA Classification of Strengths and Virtues to verses from the Quran that form the basis of a framework of Islamic virtues. We review frameworks of identity development, including stages of the development of faith. We also look at the link between religious identity and wellbeing and provide a proposed model of religious identity development for what we term, a “Positive Islamic Identity”.
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The present study examined the association between enculturation and mental health help-seeking attitudes and the mediation of self-stigma on this association among Filipino American college students in Guam. A total of 110 self-identified Filipino American students in a public university completed an online survey, including questionnaires to assess enculturation, mental health help-seeking attitudes, and self-stigma. As hypothesized, enculturation was negatively associated with mental health help-seeking attitudes, and this association was fully mediated by self-stigma, above and beyond the contributions of covariates, such as age, socioeconomic status, generational status, gender, English fluency, and mental health problems. In other words, higher levels of enculturation were associated with greater levels of self-stigma, which in turn led to lower levels of positive help-seeking attitudes. Clinical and counseling implications for mental health help-seeking among Filipino Americans in Guam or Pacific islands are discussed.
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The current report covers the reliability and validity data on an extensive study of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) involving a sample of 324 adults. Concurrent validity results showed that the SL-ASIA scores were significantly correlated with demographic information hypothesized to reflect levels of Asian-American identity. For example, high SL-ASIA scores were found associated with having attended school in the U.S. over a longer period of time, during which time the subject's Asian identity would have been reduced. Factorial validity was determined by comparing factors obtained for the SL-ASIA with factors reported for a similar scale measuring ethnic identity of Hispanics, the ARSMA. Of the four interpretable factors reported for the ARSMA, three were identified for the SL-ASIA.
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Conducted 2 studies in which Asian Americans rated a counselor's performance in a simulated counseling session with an Asian American student. Two tape recordings of a contrived counseling session were prepared in which the client responses were identical but the counselor responses differed, 1 depicting a "directive" counseling approach and 1 a "nondirective" approach. Each tape recording was paired with 2 different introductions, 1 in which the counselor was identified as Asian American and 1 in which the counselor was described as Caucasian American. In the 1st study, 52 Asian American university students were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 introduction–approach combinations. In the 2nd study, 48 Japanese Americans who were members of the Young Buddhist Association were randomly assigned to the 4 introduction–approach combinations. In both studies, the counselor was rated as more credible and approachable when employing the directive counseling approach than when using the nondirective counseling approach. Evidence was found that Asian American university students see Asian American counselors as more credible and approachable than Caucasian American counselors, while the association members viewed them as equally credible and approachable. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Development of PersonalityPersonality: A Conceptual SchemeLimitations and ImplicationsMental Health ProblemsThe Inadequacy of Mental Health Care
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Massachusetts, 1981. Includes bibliographical references (p. 197-202).
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Printout. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1991. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 113-130). Available on microfilm from University Microfilms.
Positive/group-appreciating. The F/Pilipino is very proud to be an Asian American. He or she will have friends of all Asian backgrounds and will feel a strong connection to all of them. He or she will advocate for the issues and needs of Asian Americans as a whole (e.g
  • Attitudes
Attitudes and beliefs toward Asian Americans: Positive/group-appreciating. The F/Pilipino is very proud to be an Asian American. He or she will have friends of all Asian backgrounds and will feel a strong connection to all of them. He or she will advocate for the issues and needs of Asian Americans as a whole (e.g., Asian American studies, Asian American representation in the media and political system).
Asian Americans and Paci$c Islanders (Is there such an elhnicgroup?) The process of Asian American identity development: A study of Japanese-American women's perceptions of their struggle to achieve personal identities as Americans of Asian ancestry. Disserlation Abstracts International
  • L F Ignacio
Ignacio, L. F. (1976). Asian Americans and Paci$c Islanders (Is there such an elhnicgroup?). San Jose, CA: Pilipino Development & Associates. Kim, J. (1981). The process of Asian American identity development: A study of Japanese-American women's perceptions of their struggle to achieve personal identities as Americans of Asian ancestry. Disserlation Abstracts International, 42, 15.51 A.