Article

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of black and green kombucha teas

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Kombucha is widely consumed as black tea fermented for 7–14 days. The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial activities of two kombucha beverages originating from green and black teas fermented for 21 days and to characterize the antimicrobial compounds (heat resistance and pH stability). Green and black tea infusions were fermented with a traditional kombucha culture. The resulting kombucha antibacterial/antifungal activities against some pathogenic microorganisms, including human pathogenic bacteria and clinical Candida species, were investigated using the agar diffusion method. The results showed interesting antimicrobial potentials of both experimented kombucha teas against the tested microorganisms, except Candida krusei. The green fermented tea exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential. Indeed, it showed large inhibition zones against Staphylococcus epidermidis (22 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (22 mm) and Micrococcus luteus (21.5 mm). Furthermore, interesting anti-Candida potential was revealed by the reaction of green tea kombucha against Candida parapsilosis.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... It has acquired significant popularity as a traditional fermented beverage due to its various claimed and a few established pharmacological effects [13,16,18,25]. It is believed that most of these beneficial properties may be attributed to the polyphenols [25,26], organic acids specifically acetic acid [16] and a host of other ingredients that are inherent to the raw materials or are produced as a result of the microbial fermentation [4,26]. The health-promoting effects of this ferment include hepatoprotective [5], anti-diabetic [6], antioxidant [6,7], as well as reduction of arthritis, atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders, inflammatory problems [18] and even cancer [17,18]. ...
... The health-promoting effects of this ferment include hepatoprotective [5], anti-diabetic [6], antioxidant [6,7], as well as reduction of arthritis, atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders, inflammatory problems [18] and even cancer [17,18]. The antimicrobial property of Kombucha has been reported in a number of previous research works [4,16,18,25]. However, as these studies have mainly dealt with the overall properties of the beverage, reports on the quantitative analysis have largely been missing from the scientific discourse. ...
... Kombucha has been known for its potent antimicrobial properties against a number of pathogenic organisms. Many components such as organic acids (acetic acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid etc.), bacteriocins, proteins, enzymes, tea polyphenols and their derivatives which are produced during Kombucha fermentation have been said to contribute to its antimicrobial activity as well as other pharmacological effects [4,16,18,25]. However, very little evidence is there in the literature about the effect of Kombucha on enteric pathogens. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant enteric pathogens has prompted the scientist community to explore the therapeutic potentials of traditional foods and beverages. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of Kombucha, a fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhimurium followed by the identification of the antibacterial components present in Kombucha. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the inhibition zone diameter, minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Kombucha fermented for 14 days showed maximum activity against the bacterial strains. Its ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective upon sequential solvent extraction of the 14-day Kombucha. This potent ethyl acetate extract was then subjected to thin layer chromatography for further purification of antibacterial ingredients which led to the isolation of an active polyphenolic fraction. Catechin and isorhamnetin were detected as the major antibacterial compounds present in this polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Catechin, one of the primary antibacterial polyphenols in tea was also found to be present in Kombucha. But isorhamnetin is not reported to be present in tea, which may thereby suggest the role of fermentation process of black tea for its production in Kombucha. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of isorhamnetin in Kombucha. The overall study suggests that Kombucha can be used as a potent antibacterial agent against entero-pathogenic bacterial infections, which mainly is attributed to its polyphenolic content.
... It has also been demonstrated that the broth may contain antibiotic substances which give the antimicrobial property [24,26]. Some studies have demonstrated that Kombucha tea shows not only antibacterial activity but also antifungal activity [27]. The antifungal activity is attributed to the production and In vivo studies on rats [46] Cytogenetic activity In vitro studies on human peripheral blood lymphocytes [72] Healing activity against indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulceration ...
... In vitro studies on human peripheral lymphocytes [76] presence of acetic acid in this beverage. In recent times, the immergence of resistant strains of pathogens associated with human diseases has been widely seen, and the use of Kombucha tea as an antimicrobial product can be used to overcome this problem [27]. In this aspect, it has been demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of Kombucha tea prepared form green tea shows a higher activity than Kombucha tea prepared traditionally from black tea [27]. ...
... In recent times, the immergence of resistant strains of pathogens associated with human diseases has been widely seen, and the use of Kombucha tea as an antimicrobial product can be used to overcome this problem [27]. In this aspect, it has been demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of Kombucha tea prepared form green tea shows a higher activity than Kombucha tea prepared traditionally from black tea [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Functional foods have been identified as whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced products which have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. As consumer awareness on functional food escalates, the interest towards conducting scientific studies in this field has also proportionately increased. Many of the traditional food products are known to possess bioactive components, thus qualifying as functional food. Kombucha tea is produced by fermenting sugared black tea with a mixed culture of yeast and bacteria. Kombucha tea has gained immense popularity in recent times due to many associated health benefits. The therapeutic effects of this beverage are thought to be derived from the chemical composition of this beverage, mainly the polyphenols and secondary metabolites which are produced during fermentation. However, the safety aspects of the beverage also need to be taken into account when qualifying the beverage as a functional food. Nevertheless, Kombucha tea could be easily recognized as a beverage which is able to replace the consumption of carbonated beverages due to its possession of health benefits and therapeutic properties.
... The methods that were most commonly used to examine the antibacterial properties of kombucha were disc diffusion test (Ansari et al., 2017(Ansari et al., , 2019Greenwalt et al., 1998;Ivanišová, Meňhartová, Terentjeva, Harangozo, et al., 2019;Pure & Pure, 2016b;Steinkraus et al., 1996;Talawat et al., 2006;Vohra et al., 2019), agar-well diffusion method (Al-Kalifawi, 2014;Ansari et al., 2017Ansari et al., , 2019Battikh et al., 2012Battikh et al., , 2013Bhattacharya et al., 2016;Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Kaewkod et al., 2019;Sreeramulu et al., 2000Sreeramulu et al., , 2001Velićanski et al., 2007Velićanski et al., , 2014, and broth dilution method (Bhattacharya et al., , 2020Borkani et al., 2016;Cardoso et al., 2020;Deghrigue et al., 2013;Shahbazi et al., 2018;Vitas et al., 2018). The disc diffusion test and agar-well diffusion method are efficient ways to screen the antibacterial activities of kombucha, whereas broth dilution method could be used to determine the concentration that has the highest bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. ...
... The nonpathogenic, commensal E. coli plays multiple roles in maintaining the health of its human host, such as preventing the colonization of pathogenic E. coli (Leatham et al., 2009;Richter et al., 2018), facilitating iron uptake (Sewell et al., 2018), and the synthesis of vitamin K (Bentley & Meganathan, 1982). Nonpathogenic strains of E. coli are highly sensitive toward kombucha (Al-Kalifawi, 2014;Battikh et al., 2012Battikh et al., , 2013Bhattacharya et al., 2016;Cardoso et al., 2020;Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Deghrigue et al., 2013;Greenwalt et al., 2000;Ivanišová, Meňhartová, Terentjeva, Harangozo, et al., 2019;Kaewkod et al., 2019;Shahbazi et al., 2018;Sreeramulu et al., 2000Sreeramulu et al., , 2001Steinkraus et al., 1996 and there have been evidence of kombucha's bactericidal effects toward nonpathogenic E. coli as well Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Velićanski et al., 2007Velićanski et al., , 2014. These findings, although preliminary, suggest that continuous consumption of kombucha may disrupt the balance of commensal E. coli population in the human gastro-intestinal tract, potentially having a negative impact on human health. ...
... It is undeniable that kombucha, especially the conventional black and green tea kombucha, exhibits antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microorganisms (Table 1). Thus far, most research only involved screening of antimicrobial properties using disc diffusion test (Ansari et al., 2017(Ansari et al., , 2019Greenwalt et al., 1998;Ivanišová, Meňhartová, Terentjeva, Harangozo, et al., 2019;Pure & Pure, 2016b;Steinkraus et al., 1996;Talawat et al., 2006;Vohra et al., 2019), agar-well diffusion method (Al-Kalifawi, 2014;Ansari et al., 2017Ansari et al., , 2019Battikh et al., 2012Battikh et al., , 2013Bhattacharya et al., 2016;Četojević-Simin et al., 2008Četojević-Simin et al., , 2012Kaewkod et al., 2019;Sreeramulu et al., 2000Sreeramulu et al., , 2001Velićanski et al., 2007Velićanski et al., , 2014, and broth dilution method (Bhattacharya et al., , 2020Borkani et al., 2016;Cardoso et al., 2020;Deghrigue et al., 2013;Shahbazi et al., 2018;Vitas et al., 2018). These methods, although sufficient to examine whether or not a substance exhibits antimicrobial activity, could produce results that are misleading at times. ...
Article
Kombucha is a traditional beverage of Manchurian origin, typically made by fermenting sugared black or green tea with the symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The beverage has gained increasing popularity in recent years, mainly due to its heralded health benefits. The fermentation process of kombucha also results in the production of various bioactive compounds with antimicrobial potential, making it a promising candidate in the exploration of alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, and may be helpful in combating the rising threat of antibiotic resistance. Literature survey performed on Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed revealed the extensive research that has firmly established the antimicrobial activity of kombucha against a broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. This activity could be attributed to the synergistic activities of the microbial species in the kombucha microbiota that led to the synthesis of compounds with antimicrobial properties such as acetic acid and various polyphenols. However, research thus far only involved screening for the antimicrobial activity of kombucha. Therefore, there is still a research gap about the molecular mechanism of the kombucha reaction against specific pathogens and its influence on human health upon consumption. Future research may focus on investigating this aspect. Further characterization of the biological activity of the microbial community in kombucha may also facilitate the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds, such as bacteriocins produced by the microorganisms.
... Although the exact composition of kombucha tea is still under investigation, the reported principle components are organic acids (acetic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, malonic, oxalic, succinic, pyruvic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glucuronic, and usnic acids), amino acids (lysine, methionine, arginine), sucrose, glucose, fructose, ethanol, vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , C, E), minerals (K, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, and F), phenolics, probiotics, biogenic amines, purines, pigments, CO 2 , glycerol, enzymes, etc. (Greenwalt et al., 1998;Dufresne and Farnworth, 2000;Teoh et al., 2004;Kumar et al., 2008;Nguyen et al., 2015;Neffe-Skocińska et al., 2017;Leal et al., 2018). Kombucha has gained popularity for its prophylactic and therapeutic features that have been generally reported based on observations, survey-based reports, and testimonials (Battikh et al., 2012a;Vīnaet al., 2014). Although some have been demonstrated by scientific studies, evidence based on human models is still absent (Chakravorty et al., 2019). ...
... It has a high antioxidant potential that has been related with prevention of cancer, immune system support, and improvement of joint rheumatism (Deghrigue et al., 2013;Srihari et al., 2013a;Jayabalan et al., 2014;Shenoy et al., 2019). Antihypertensive (Elkhtab et al., 2017), antidiabetic (Srihari et al., 2013b), hepatoprotective (Yarbrough, 2017;Bhattacharya et al., 2011), antiinflammatory (Vázquez-Cabral et al., 2017), antimicrobial (Sreeramulu et al., 2000;Battikh et al., 2012aBattikh et al., , 2012bBhattacharya et al., 2016), antihyperlipidemic (Yang et al., 2009;Dias and Shenoy, 2016) cytoprotective, genoprotective (Cavusoglu and Guler, 2010;Yapar et al., 2010), and renoprotective (Bellassouedet al., 2015) effects of kombucha have also been reported. Various substrates other than black and green tea could be used in kombucha fermentation, such as fruits (i.e. ...
... raspberry, goji berry, red grape, cactus pear, blackthorn, snake fruit, date, coconut, melon, watermelon, and sour cherry) (Yavari et al., 2011;Kubilay, 2014;Ayed and Hamdi, 2015;Watawana et al., 2016b;Ayed et al., 2017;Zubaidah et al., 2018;Abuduaibifu and Tamer, 2019;Khosravi et al., 2019;Ulusoy and Tamer, 2019), herbs (i.e. lemon balm, rooibos, yarrow, wheatgrass, guava leaves, cinnamon, cardamom, Shirazi thyme, African mustard leaves, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Litsea glaucescens, Thymus vulgaris L., Lippia citriodora, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Mentha piperita) (Battikh et al., 2012a;Velicanski et al., 2014;Vīna et al., 2014;Sun et al., 2015;Gamboa-Gómez et al., 2016;Moreno-Jiménez et al., 2018;Shahbaziet al., 2018;Vitas et al., 2018;Gaggìa et al., 2019;Rahmani et al., 2019), and others (i.e. milk, coffee, whey, wine, vinegar, Jerusalem artichoke, black carrot juice concentrate, and oak) (Malbasa, 2004;Malbasa et al., 2009;Watawana et al., 2015;Vázquez-Cabral et al., 2017;Tu et al., 2019;Ulusoy and Tamer, 2019). ...
Article
In this study, sweetened black and green tea were utilized as substrate for kombucha fermentation. Linden, lemon balm, sage, echinacea, mint, and cinnamon infusions were added to kombucha to design a novel beverage with improved functional and organoleptic characteristics. After fermentation, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the kombucha increased by 13.96% 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH), 48.90% ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 55.54% cupric reducing AC (CUPRAC). On days 0 and 9 of storage, the bioaccessibility of the total phenolics and AC (FRAP and CUPRAC) in all of the samples showed a significant increase after gastric and intestinal digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05). The AC (DPPH) after in vitro digestion at the beginning and end of storage in all of the beverages also increased after gastric digestion when compared to pregastric digestion (P < 0.05); however, it decreased after intestinal digestion (P < 0.05). By conducting in vitro and in vivo studies, the effects of kombucha on health and nutrition need to be further investigated.
... Kombucha has been popularly consumed worldwide because of its various claimed beneficial effects to human health, some of which are yet to be scientifically established. The health-promoting properties of this ferment include antioxidant [14,15], hepatoprotective [16], anti-diabetic [14], antimicrobial [12,13,[17][18][19][20], metabolic disorders, inflammatory problems, arthritis, atherosclerosis and even cancer [20]. ...
... Kombucha has gained much popularity as a functional food due to its various claimed health-promoting effects [18], which have been mainly contributed by tea polyphenols and their derivatives, organic acids (acetic acid, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid etc.), enzymes, bacteriocins, and proteins that are either existent as the raw materials or formed during the period of microbial fermentation [12,13,20]. Kombucha is well-known for its potent antimicrobial activities [12,13,[17][18][19][20]. However, there is no evidence in the literature of its activity against the transcription of bacterial virulence genes without affecting bacterial growth. ...
... Berdasarkan penelitian, teh kombucha yang mengandung 33 g/L total asam (7 g/L asam asetat) memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, dan Escherichia coli (Greenwalt et al. 1998). Battikh et al. (2011), menyatakan bahwa aktivitas antibakteri fermentasi kombucha yang di uji pada bakteri gram-pisitif dan gram-negatif diameter zona hambat teh hijau adalah antara 12 hingga 22 mm dan teh hitam adalah 10,5 hingga 19 mm. (Sreeramulu, 2000). ...
... Medium yang dibuat pada penelitian ini adalah medium Nutrien Agar (NA) dan Menurut Battikh et al. (2011), aktivitas antibakteri fermentasi kombucha yang di uji pada bakteri gram-pisitif dan gram-negatif diameter zona hambat teh hijau adalah antara 12 hingga 22 mm dan teh hitam adalah 10,5 hingga 19 mm.Menurut Davis dan Stout (1971), kriteria kekuatan daya antibakteri sebagai berikut: diameter zona hambat 5 mm atau kurang dikategorikan lemah, zona hambat 5-10 mm dikategorikan sedang, zona hambat 10-20 mm dikategorikan kuat dan zona hambat 20 mm atau lebih dikategorikan sangat kuat. Berdasarkan kriteria tersebut maka daya hambat kombucha perlakuan teh putih, teh hijau, teh oolong dan teh hitam terhadap E.coli termasuk kategori kuat. ...
... Uzyskane wyniki mogą być związane z występowaniem bakteriocyn stabilnych w środowisku neutralnym (np. bakteriocyna SL610 produkowana przez L. plantarum) w testowanych napojach [3,12]. Podobnie Greenwalt i wsp. ...
... [7] stwierdzili, że żaden z testowanych napojów nie hamował wzrostu drożdży. Przeciwgrzybicze właściwości napoju kombucha są kwestią sporną, a uzyskiwane wyniki są skrajne [3,9]. Można stwierdzić, że czynnikiem warunkującym przeciwdrobnoustrojowe właściwości kombuchy jest jej niskie pH związane z występowaniem kwasów organicznych, mające znaczący wpływ na stabilność bakteriocyn. ...
Article
The objective of the research study was to determine the level of some selected microorganisms in kombucha drinks available in retail trade and to compare the contents of polyphenols and anthocyanins in those drinks and their antioxidant potentials with a drink produced experimentally with the use of a tradi-tional method. The research included 12 commercial drinks and one drink produced experimentally on the basis of green tea with 10 % of sucrose added. In the products studied, the following was determined: number of Acetobacter sp. bacteria, Gluconobacter sp., LAB and yeast, pH, total content of anthocyanins, total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity. A diffusion method with small columns was applied to assess the antimicrobial activity of kombucha drinks in comparison to the reference strains: E. coliATCC 35218, Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a (KMSiFŻC), Yersinia entercolitica (PCM 1919)Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 130764), Bacillus cereus (PCM 2019), Enterococcus faecalis (ATTC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC 25923), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LOCK 14) and Candida albi-cans (KMSiFŻC). It was found that the beverages declared to be pasteurized (K7 - K12) were free of the microorganisms from the groups under analysis. In other commercial products the predominant microor-ganism was Acetobacter sp. bacteria and its number ranged 6 × 106 ÷ 1.1 × 107 cfu/ml. In the experimen-tally produced drink the reported count of yeast cells was 6.5 × 105 cfu/g. The pH value of the products was specific and did not exceed 4.3. The content of anthocyanins in all the commercial drinks ranged 0.2 ÷ 0.3 mg/dl, while in the experimental sample this value was more than twice as high. The content of poly-phenols in and the antioxidant capacity of the samples varied and no correlation was found between them and the origin of the product. The presence of organic acids is the main factor to determine the capability of kombucha beverages to inhibit bacteria potentially pathogenic to humans. None of the tested beverages showed antagonism against the tested yeast.
... Dur ing kom bucha fer men ta tion, many sub stances re leased from tea leaves that have the abil ity to scav enge free rad i cals. Polyphe nols such as cat e chins are the most im por tant groups of these sub stances ( Malbasa et al., 2011 ;Battikh et al., 2013 ). Polyphe nols are taken into con sid er a tion due to their high an tiox i dant prop er ties and the abil ity to re move free rad i cals and re ac tive oxy gen species ( Srihari and Satyanarayana, 2012 ). ...
... Bac te ria and yeasts in the mi cro bial con sor tium of kom bucha have the abil ity to re lease en zymes to de com pose polyphe nol com pounds such as cat echins and re lease phe nol. There fore, the to tal phe nol con tent in creases when the fer men ta tion oc curs ( Srihari and Satyanarayana, 2012 ;Markov et al., 2001 ;Chu and Chen, 2006 ;Jayabalan et al., 2010 ;Kallel et al., 2013 ;Chakravorty et al., 2016 ;Battikh et al., 2013 ). In ad di tion, the re lease of ctechins from acid -sensitive cells dur ing kombucha fer men ta tion on black tea and green tea in creases polyphe nols and con se quently in duces phe nol pro duc tion dur ing fer men ta tion. ...
Article
The beneficial effects of antioxidant production activity during kombucha tea fermentation elevate the nutritional values of this product. The present study aimed to enhance antioxidant properties and invertase activity in kombucha tea and investigate the synergistic effects of both properties. Following preparation of kombucha solution, the Plackett–Burman design was used for determination of factors affecting the antioxidant and invertase activities in the product. Samples were collected from the fermenting solution on days 0, 7, 10 and 14. The total phenol content of samples was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau method. In addition, antioxidant activity was measured using cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl) radical inhibition method. Invertase activity was determined in the samples using sigma protocol. After screening design, the dried starter containing the kombucha tea microbial consortium optimally produced using the vacuum freeze drying method. The results showed that pH of kombucha reduced as the fermentation time passed. Antioxidant activity increased in most samples over time, so that the average antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.99–224.86 nm of trolox equivalents/ml during fermentation. Invertase activity also increased in the most samples during fermentation and showed the range of 50.85–115.5 u/ml. By increasing the activity of invertase, the antioxidant activity of kombucha solution increased. The results of present study proposed that by induction of invertase activity in kombucha drink its effectiveness that resulted by antioxidant properties would be promoted and the drink will be more useful for diabetic patients.
... According to the results of the present study, the pH values of all samples decreased. In the studies conducted with kombucha samples, it was stated that the pH value decreased with time and this decrease was caused by the organic acids formed as a result of fermentation (Battikh et al., 2013;Chakravorty et al., 2016;Lončar et al., 2006). After fermentation, pH values decreased by 1.6%, 1%, 2% and 0.6% after 30 days of storage in samples A, B, C and D respectively. ...
... The results for kombucha are parallel to the 75% mixture. It was determined that the amount of TPC produced by using different extracts linearly increased during fermentation and reached the highest value in the last stage of fermentation (Battikh et al., 2013;Chakravorty et al., 2016;Chu and Chen, 2006;Jayabalan et al., 2010;Kallel et al., 2012). As a result of fermentation, enzymes in yeasts and bacteria were found to contain more phenolic substances than kombucha samples, as a result of the breakdown of complex polyphenols (Bhattacharya et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a beverage prepared from fermented traditionally-flavored black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). In this study, the changes in the physicochemical, bioactive components, microbial quality and sensory properties of black tea kombucha and different proportions of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) kombucha after fermentation were evaluated. While the pH values decreased during storage, the total acidity value increased. Purple basil had higher total phenolic content at all storage times than the other samples. At the end of the study, it was concluded that the total amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in purple basil was highly conserved compared to the other samples. Antioxidant values on the 30th day determined highest DPPH (radical scavenging activity) (64.19%) and CUPCAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) (41.48%) in the purple basil kombucha beverage. When the color values were examined, it was found that there were statistically significant differences in the overall storage process in all samples. There was no significant change inconsistency, smell, taste and general acceptance with the storage process. As a result, 30-day storage period was found to be more successful and favorable for 100% purple basil kombucha tea.
... Kombucha consumption has become quite popular worldwide due to its several claimed and a few established pharmacological effects which include antidiabetic (Bhattacharya et al. 2013), hepatoprotective (Bhattacharya et al. 2011a), antioxidant (Bhattacharya et al. 2011b(Bhattacharya et al. , 2013, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, inflammatory problems, arthritis and even cancer (Jayabalan et al. 2014). Kombucha is well-known for its antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic organisms (Greenwalt et al. 1998;Sreeramulu et al. 2000;Battikh et al. 2013;Jayabalan et al. 2014). But these studies mainly illustrated the overall properties of Kombucha and evidence on its active components and the basic mechanism responsible for its antibacterial activity is very scarce in the literature. ...
... Preparation of antibacteriologically active polyphenolic fraction from Kombucha Kombucha has been considered as a popular functional beverage enhancing human health due to its various positive effects on the bioregulatory functions. Its various pharmacological properties have been contributed by organic acids (acetic acid, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid etc.), tea polyphenols and their derivatives, bacteriocins, enzymes, proteins that are either present as the raw materials or formed during microbial fermentation (Greenwalt et al. 1998;Sreeramulu et al. 2000;Battikh et al. 2013;Srihari et al. 2013;Jayabalan et al. 2014). ...
Article
The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of a polyphenolic fraction, composed of mainly catechin and isorhamnetin, previously isolated from Kombucha, a 14-day fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against the enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae N16961. Bacterial growth was found to be seriously impaired by the polyphenolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated morphological alterations in bacterial cells when exposed to the polyphenolic fraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Permeabilization assays confirmed that the fraction disrupted bacterial membrane integrity in both time- and dose-dependent manners, which were proportional to the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, each of the polyphenols catechin and isorhamnetin showed the ability to permeate bacterial cell membranes by generating oxidative stress, thereby suggesting their role in the antibacterial potential of Kombucha. Thus, the basic mechanism of antibacterial activity of the Kombucha polyphenolic fraction against V. cholerae involved bacterial membrane permeabilization and morphological changes, which might be due to the generation of intracellular ROS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the investigation of antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. Significance and impact of the study: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae strains has hindered an efficient anti-Vibrio therapy. This study has demonstrated the membrane damage-mediated antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, a popular fermented beverage of sugared tea, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. This study also implies the exploitation of Kombucha as a potential new source of bioactive polyphenols against V. cholerae.
... Çalışmada yapılan fizikokimyasal, kimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik analizler üç kez tekrarlanmış ve sonuçlar bu üç değerin ortalaması olarak verilmiştir. [10,12,51,55,56] tüm çay örneklerine aynı oranda ilave edilen sakaroz; fermentasyonda kullanılarak farklı organik asitlere dönüşmekte ve bunun doğal sonucu olarak da pH değerinde azalma gözlenmektedir. Fermentasyonun 3. gününden sonra gözlenen pH değerindeki azalmada ve pH düşüşünün tüm denemelerde yavaş seyretmesinde, Malbaša ve ark. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a symbiotic system including synergistic effects of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, produced by the fermentation of tea leaves and the incorporation of kombucha cultures under aerobic conditions. In this study, kombucha samples were produced using different tea leaves (white, green, oolong, black and pu-erh), and the number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total yeast (TM), total acetic acid (TAA) and total gluconobacter (TGB) were determined in these samples during the fermentation of 21 days (30°C, dark conditions). Moreover, the survival rates of the present microbiota were investigated by using the in vitro artificial gastrointestinal model depending on the various fermentation periods. On the 12th day of fermentation, the highest vitality rates were obtained for acetic acid bacteria (91.16-99.61%) and gluconobacteria (90.84-99.37%) in artificial gastrointestinal model. At the end of the fermentation period, TAA and TGB counts were 7.77-10.66 and 7.68-9.68 log cfu/mL, respectively. LAB counts increased first, followed by a reduction of 60% due to high acidity (11.17 g/L, as acetic acid) and a decrease in pH (2.82). In terms of antibacterial activity; E. coli was the most sensitive microorganism and Lactobacillus acidophilus was the most resistant microorganism to the elevated acidity. The Kombucha tea produced by Pu-erh tea leaves had the highest antibacterial effect on the microorganisms investigated (p<0.05). In terms of the industrial production of Kombucha tea and the viability of the probiotics, it was concluded that the ideal fermentation period should be 2 weeks, and the fermentation conditions should be standardized in order to maintain its functional properties.
... It contains organic acids, active enzymes, vitamins, amino acids, and polyphenols produced during the fermentation process [10]. The antimicrobial effects of kombucha as a natural compound and powerful antioxidant agent has been proved [11][12][13][14][15][16]. However, the mechanism of kombucha in dealing with A. fumigatus strains is not clear yet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and purpose: Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common opportunistic fungus, which causes infection in immunocompromised and neutropenic patients. The current guidelines recommend voriconazole as the initial therapeutic and prophylactic agent for almost all cases, especially in patients with organ transplants, which leads to increased medication resistance in A. fumigatus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity and effect of kombucha as a natural compound on A. fumigatus growth, as well as on the expression of cgrA and cyp51A genes. Materials and methods: A panel of 15 A. fumigatus strains with two quality controls of CM237 and CM2627 as susceptible and resistant strains were obtained from Tehran Medical Mycology Laboratory, Tehran,Iran(TMML).Antifungal susceptibility testing assay was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 document. Moreover, the mycelial dry weight of the fungus was calculated before and after being treated with kombucha. In addition, the quantitative changes in the expression of cgrA and cyp51A genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) technique. Results: In the present study, the minimum inhibitory concentration ranges of kombucha were measured at 6,170 and 12,300 μg/mL for ten A. fumigatus azole-susceptible strains and 24,700 μg/mL for five A. fumigatus resistant strains. Moreover, changes in mycelial dry weight under kombucha treatment conditions underwent a significant reduction (P≤0.05). A coordinate down-regulation of expression in cgrA and cyp51A genes was observed in all azole-susceptible and -resistant A. fumigatus strains, after treating the fungus with different concentrations of kombucha (P≤0.05). Conclusion: According to the obtained results, kombucha as a natural antioxidant , can exert inhibitory effects against the growth and expression of some genes in A. fumigatusstrains.
... The plates were further incubated at 37 °C for 18-24 h. The zones of bacterial growth inhibition were then determined [17,18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage that is produced from the fermentation of tea leaves. In this study, kombucha tea was prepared using 1% green tea, oolong tea, and black tea, and 10% sucrose with acetic acid bacteria and yeast. The pH values of the kombucha tea were found to be in a range of 2.70–2.94 at 15 days of fermentation. The lowest pH value of 2.70 was recorded in the kombucha prepared from black tea. The total acidity of kombucha prepared from black tea was the highest by 16.75 g/L and it was still maintained after heat treatment by boiling and after autoclaved. Six organic acids: glucuronic, gluconic, D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone, ascorbic, acetic, and succinic acid in kombucha tea were detected by HPLC with the optimization for organic acids detection using isocratic elution buffer with C18 conventional column. The highest level of organic acid was gluconic acid. Kombucha prepared from green tea revealed the highest phenolic content and antioxidation against DPPH radicals by 1.248 and 2.642 mg gallic acid/mL kombucha, respectively. Moreover, pathogenic enteric bacteria: Escherichia coli. E. coli O157:H7. Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholera were inhibited by kombucha and heat-denatured kombucha with diameter of the inhibition zones ranged from 15.0 ± 0.0–25.0 ± 0.0 mm. In addition, kombucha prepared from green tea and black tea demonstrated toxicity on Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, kombucha tea could be considered as a potential source of the antioxidation, inhibition of pathogenic enteric bacteria, and toxicity on colorectal cancer cells.
... Tietze (1995) reported the presence of usnic acid (an antibacterial compound) in kombucha cultures. Battikh et al. (2013) determined that black and green tea kombucha had antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens, and the kombucha made by green tea had the maximum antimicrobial potential. Kombucha has antifungal activity against a wide range of pathogenic Candida. ...
... It is known that kombucha tea is a detoxyfi ng and energizing drink, exhibiting hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, and antioxidative activity (Bhattacharya et al. 2013;Shenoy, 2000;Yang et al. 2009). Kombucha is a source of antimicrobials, and can prevent hepatotoxicity and cancer (Afsharmanesh and Sadaghi, 2014;Battikh et al., 2012;Jayabalan et al., 2011). Kombucha contains tea leaves brewing, which health eff ect and antioxidants composition is greatly acknowledged (Gramza-Michałowska, 2014;Gramza-Michałowska et al., 2007;Kujawska et al., 2016a;2016b;Mika et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer contain- ing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are poly- phenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. Material and methods. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. Results. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Conclusions. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components’ biological activity.
... Maximum inhibition zones were created by GTS followed by GTY; other samples were not as promising. Green tea is already known to have better antibacterial properties than other types of tea [22] ; Battikh et al. [24] have reported on the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea kombucha and this was reflected clearly in the results of this research. (Fig. 8). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research work was designed for a detailed comparative in vitro biochemical characterization of different fermented tea infusions. Green tea, crush-tear-curl (CTC) black tea and orthodox black tea, along with brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and traditional starter SCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast), were co-cultured for fermentation to produce different tea wines and kombuchas respectively. Primary investigations for qualitative characters on these fermented broths revealed the presence of total phenol, flavonoid, coumarin, tannin, protein, cardiac glycoside, glycerol, terpenoid, steroids and alkaloid. All the broths except kombuchas contained caffeine. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also quantified, with fermented green tea samples showing a noticeable result. While all the fermented tea samples showed high free-radical scavenging activity, the best results were found in the green tea samples (before and after fermentation). However, fermented CTC samples had the highest fermentation-led increasing antioxidant properties. Physi-cochemical properties like acidity (pH), Brix, specific gravity and alcohol percentage (ABV) were considered as qualitative parameters to study the fermentation process and judge the acceptability of broths as edible beverages. Interestingly, when correlated with antioxidant property results, fermented CTC tea samples exhibited comparatively higher alterations in physicochemical properties due to fermentation. Comparatively, more glucose uptake capacity (in vitro antidiabetic activity) was found in fermented CTC broths, while inhibition of lipid peroxidation was substantive with yeast-fermented tea samples only. Unlike the yeast-fermented samples, the antibacterial properties exhibited by kombucha samples were promising. The presence of alcohol, biologically active groups of components, antioxidant and antibacterial activity etc. have added value to these fermented tea broths and established their acceptability as edible beverages. The production and in vitro biological characterization of different fermented tea broths have allowed a comparative analysis that is much needed for future research on and development of fermented tea-based drinks.
... According to Greenwalt et al. (1998), the antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was contributed by acetic acid, a major antimicrobial compound of KT. But Sreeramulu et al. (2000) and Battikh et al. (2012a) have suggested that besides acetic acid or other organic acids, other bioactive components such as polyphenols, bacteriocins, proteins, enzymes, etc. may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of KT. Moreover, a recent study by Bhattacharya et al. (2016) reported a polyphenolic fraction of ethyl acetate extract of 14-day-old KT that showed significant antimicrobial activity. ...
Chapter
Kombucha tea is a refreshing beverage, obtained by fermenting sugared black tea, made from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze leaves, with a consortium of yeast and predominantly acetic acid bacteria. In recent times, Kombucha tea has seen considerable increase in interest worldwide and can easily be said to be an emerging popular beverage. The fact that today Kombucha tea is available in multiple forms and flavors is a living testament of the massive amounts of transformation this beverage has undergone through the ages. One of the most important reasons behind the rise of the beverage is its claimed health benefits many of which have been established by scientific research. Of the various health benefits of Kombucha tea, its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer benefits are most attractive and appealing to ever increasing cohort of scientific investigators and entrepreneurs. The last decade saw noteworthy progress toward understanding the beneficial properties of this fermented tea. Scientific reports claim that drinking Kombucha tea can prevent several types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, invigorate liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Moreover, studies show that Kombucha tea is usually more effective than the original unfermented tea with respect to their biological activities. Therefore, Kombucha tea can now be regarded as a health drink and a functional beverage with potential beneficial properties.
... Therefore, depending on where the interest in health lies, it may be more beneficial to choose a green or black tea blend. Also, seeing as neutral samples also displayed antifungal and antimicrobial properties, it is evident again that other ingredients different that acetic acid responsible for these properties [74]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Beverage Guidance System has established dietary recommendations for daily intake of commonly consumed beverages including water, tea, coffee, milk, non-calorically sweetened beverages, and calorically sweetened beverages. As obesity in America continues to be a growing problem, this guidance becomes of increasing importance due to many beverages’ potential links to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), Cardiovascular disease (CVD), and numerous other harmful health effects. However, the growing popularity of “better for you” beverages is causing a shift in the market, with consumers pushing for healthier beverage alternatives. Beverages simultaneously present advantages while posing concerns that need to be evaluated and considered. In this review, health effects of nonalcoholic beverages are discussed including various aspects of consumption and current trends of the beverage market such as the novel Soft Seltzer category as an alternative to Hard Seltzer and various mashups. A variety of advisory boards and agencies responsible for dietary guidelines in various countries suggest drinking water as the preferred practice for hydration.
... MIC values lower than those obtained in this research were reported by other authors ( Bhattacharya et al., 2016;Deghrigue et al., 2013;Shahbazi, Hashemi Gahruie, Golmakani, Eskandari, & Movahedi, 2018). This difference in the antibacterial activity of kombucha between the studies is explained by the use of different methodologies to estimate the MIC and by different parameters adopted in kombucha production, such as sugar concentration, SCOBY origin, fermentation time, and temperature, which can lead to variations in the concentrations of the main antibacterial compounds present in kombucha: acetic acid and phenolic compounds ( Battikh et al., 2013;Bhattacharya et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
UPLC-QTOF-MS E phenolic profile of kombuchas produced from the fermentation of green tea or black tea at 25 °C for 10 days was investigated along with the determination of their antioxidant capacities, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Overall, 127 phenolic compounds (70.2% flavonoids, 18.3% phenolic acids, 8.4% other polyphenols, 2.3% lignans and 0.8% stilbenes) were identified, with 103 phenolic compounds reported for the first time in kombuchas. A greater diversity and abundance of phenolic compounds was detected in black tea kombucha, which resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity. However, the green tea kombucha was the only one that presented antibacterial activity against all the bacteria tested and an increased antiproliferative activity against the cancer cell lines, which was attributed to the presence of catechins among the most abundant phenolic compounds and verbascoside as an exclusive compound. Thus, the type of tea used in the kombucha production interferes in its bioactive composition and properties.
... Quanto aos efeitos antimicrobianos observados na revisão, seis artigos apresentaram resultados positivos para os efeitos antimicrobianos. Battikh et al. (2013) Embora as pesquisas sobre atividade antimicrobiana de kombuchas tenham mostrado efeito sobre uma ampla variedade de micro-organismos pato-gênicos, estas também apresentam limitações. Entre essas destaca-se a variabilidade dos resultados no que se diz respeito ao tipo de micro-organismo patogênico que sofrerá esse efeito antimicrobiano. ...
Article
Full-text available
A kombucha é uma bebida produzida a partir da fermentação de chás por culturas simbióticas de bactérias e leveduras. Esta bebida ganhou popularidade devido aos seus benefícios a saúde e por suas propriedades antioxidantes que podem ser maiores que o das infusões não fermentadas. A kombucha também apresenta atividade antibacteriana contra bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas patogênicas, sendo o principal componente antibacteriano, o ácido acético. Assim, objetivo desta revisão integrativa é analisar a produção cientifica sobre as propriedades antioxidantes e os efeitos antimicrobianos de kombuchas. A revisão integrativa foi baseada em etapas sistemáticas, nas bases de dados Scopus e ScienceDirect. As buscas seguiram os critérios de inclusão: estudos que abordaram as propriedades antioxidantes e antimicrobiana da kombucha, disponíveis na integra nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol, sem período de publicação delimitado. Excluídos: teses, dissertações, revisões (sistemática, narrativa e integrativa), artigos de opinião e editoriais. Foram incluídos 18 artigos, 7 artigos analisaram a atividade antibacteriana e observaram que as kombuchas apresentam efeitos maiores que as infusões não fermentadas. A maioria dos artigos determinaram a atividade antioxidante de kombuchas de diferentes substratos, principalmente do chá verde e do chá preto. Todos os artigos mostraram aumento da atividade antioxidante das kombuchas ao longo da fermentação. Assim, a kombucha pode ser uma alternativa saudável para a manutenção dos níveis de radicais livres e no combate de micro-organismos patogênicos para quem a consome.
... The ABA of black tea kombucha was tested using only the agar diffusion method. Battikh et al. 51 tested the antimicrobial activity of fermented kombucha produced from 6 different medicinal herbal extracts. Black tea was the most efficient against P. aeruginosa (19-mm inhibition zone), whereas the weakest effect was established for E. coli (11-mm inhibition zone). ...
Article
Kombucha is a nonalcoholic beverage traditionally made by fermenting black tea using a combination of yeast and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) cultures. Ganoderma lucidum hot water extract (HWE) was used-to our knowledge for the first time-to prepare a novel, health-promoting kombucha product. During the 11-day fermentation, pH, total acidity, and the numbers of yeasts and AAB were monitored. It was found that sweetened G. lucidum HWE was a good medium for yeast and AAB growth. The desired acidity for the beverage was reached on the second day (3 g/L) of the fermentation process; the maximum established acidity was 22.8 ± 0.42 g/L. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that the vacuum-dried beverage is a mixture of various compounds such as polysaccharides, phenols, proteins, and lipids. Total phenolic content of the liquid sample was 4.91 ± 0.2338 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, whereas the vacuum-dried sample had a smaller amount of phenolics (2.107 ± 0.228 mg gallic acid equivalents/g). Established half-maximal effective concentrations for DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power were 22.8 ± 0.17 and 10.61 ± 0.34 mg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial testing revealed that activity does not originate solely from synthesized acetic acid. The liquid G. lucidum beverage was the most effective against the tested bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.04 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Rhodococcus equi, and a minimum bactericidal concentration (0.16 mg/mL) against Bacillus spizizenii, B. cereus, and R. equi. The vacuum-dried sample was less effective, with the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration against the Gram-positive bacteria R. equi (1.875 mg/mL) and against the Gram-negative bacteria Proteus hauseri (30 mg/mL).
... SCOBY also had a significant effect on lowering the pH of the effluent matrix which is most likely due to the production of acetic acid by Komagataeibacter strains and/or lactic acid from Lactobacillus, Lactococcus spp. that were present in the cellulose matrix. The antimicrobial properties of Kombucha have been reported by other authors 10,20 and have also been attributed to the production of acetic acid 21 and microbial metabolites during the fermentation. 13 In this experiment we have shown that the fermentation process driven by Kombucha SCOBY, is achievable in an effluent matrix where the expected risk of contamination by foreign micro-organisms is high. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background‐ Fecal contamination from dairy farm effluent is a major risk to water quality in New Zealand. In this experiment we have tested the efficacy of Kombucha SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast), to reduce the concentration of Escherichia coli in dairy shed effluent (DSE). Results‐ Kombucha SCOBY was highly effective in lowering the number of E. coli colony forming units (CFUs) to levels that were undetectable. The decrease in CFUs occurred rapidly within 48 hours of Kombucha SCOBY being inoculated to the effluent matrix and was accompanied by a corresponding decline in pH. Conclusion‐ We conclude that Kombucha SCOBY was effective in reducing the abundance of E. coli in DSE due to its effect on solution pH. Further work is required to assess the practicality of treating DSE with Kombucha SCOBY within a farm environment where effluent management and climatic complexities are important. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Due to its ease of use, sour flavor, and especially its beneficial health-promoting properties, kombucha has become an attractive drink. Some benefits attributed to kombucha have already been proven in in vitro studies and with animals, such as oxidative stress control (Srihari, Karthikesan, et al., 2013), antimicrobial activity (Battikh et al., 2011), diabetes treatment and prevention (Aloulou et al., 2012), cancer spread reduction (Srihari, Arunkumar, et al., 2013), and liver function improvement (hepatoprotective) (Wang et al., 2013). Kombucha is a beverage rich in substances with bioactive properties, especially phenolic compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha has been gaining prominence around the world and becoming popular due to its good health benefits. This beverage is historically obtained by the tea fermentation of Camellia sinensis and by a biofilm of cellulose containing the symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The other substrates added to the C. sinensis tea have also been reported to help kombucha production. The type as well as the amount of sugar substrate, which is the origin of SCOBY, in addition to time and temperature of fermentation influence the content of organic acids, vitamins, total phenolics, and alcoholic content of kombucha. The route involved in the metabolite biotransformation identified in kombucha so far and the microorganisms involved in the process need to be further studied. Some nutritional properties and benefits related to the beverage have already been reported. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and antidiabetic and anticarcinogenic effects are some of the beneficial effects attributed to kombucha. Nevertheless, scientific literature needs clinical studies to evaluate these benefits in human beings. The toxic effects associated with the consumption of kombucha are still unclear, but due to the possibility of adverse reactions occurring, its consumption is contraindicated in infants and pregnant women, children under 4-years-old, patients with kidney failure, and patients with HIV. The regulations in place for kombucha address a number of criteria, mainly for the pH and alcohol content, in order to guarantee the quality and safety of the beverage as well as to ensure transparency of information for consumers.
... In the study by Battikh et al. [24], it was reported that the behavior of the same strain was different about the antimicrobial effect when using green tea and black tea. Jayabalan et al. [7] reviewed other sources of substrates for fermentation such as lemon balm tea, blackberry tea, jasmine tea, oolong tea, sage, thyme, mint teas, among others. ...
... Regarding the herbs used, although C. sinensis is traditional, other species can be used as a base for beverage production. Thus, reports of Kombucha prepared with thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha x piperita), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) or even coffee and coconut water have been presented in the literature (Battikh et al. 2012;Battikh et al. 2013;Četojević-Simin 2012;Watawana et al. 2015b;Watawana et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage traditionally produced from a sugared tea that presents a sour and refreshing taste This work aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the sensory acceptance of Kombucha beverages made from oolong, a traditionally tea used for Kombucha production, or yerba mate tea, which is very popular and easily found herb in Brazil. The characterization was related total soluble solids (TSS), sugars, pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids (OA), alcohol content (AC), phenolics (PHE), flavonoids (FL), antioxidant activity (AA), besides, the sensory acceptance by potential consumers. Total soluble solids decreased 8.3% in formulation with oolong and 7.0% in formulation with yerba mate tea. The pH ranged from 4.3 and 4.5 to 2.8 and 3.1 after 14 days, respectively. Titratable acidity reached 8.97 g.L-1 in oolong tea and 6.75 g.L-1 in yerba mate tea. Acetic acid was the highest organic acid identified and quantified at the end of fermentation time. Flavonoids decreased during fermentation in both samples, while reducing capacity did not differ throughout fermentation time. Regarding the antioxidant capacity, in the formulations with oolong and yerba mate, it presented higher inhibitory capacity of the ABTS radical of 90.22 and 68.75%, while the DPPH radical inibitory capacity was 89.74% in oolong and 86.72% in yerba mate. Kombucha formulated with yerba mate tea resulted in a sour and refreshing beverage, with higher global acceptance compared to oolong tea, both drinks exhibiting antioxidant potential in vitro.
... The health beneficial impacts of kombucha has reported for treatment of several diseases including diabetes, the risk of heart disease (by reducing cholesterol and blood pressure), liver detoxification (by binding glucuronic acid to toxins), losing weight, relieving arthritis and stimulating the immune system, as well as preventing cancer (Dufresne & Farnworth, 2000;Srihari & Satyanarayana, 2012;Malbasa et al., 2014;Gamboa-Gómez et al., 2016, Jayabalan et al., 2007. Also acetic acid content of kombucha resulted in antimicrobial inhibitory impact (against Bacillus cereus, Helicobacter pylori, Shigella sonei, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella interatidicus) and antifungal properties of kombucha (Battikh et al., 2013;Reiss, 1994). Fermentation of kombucha leads to release of polyphenols, e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Kombucha can be produced by coculture of a consortium of bacteria and fungi in a sweetened black tea. Determining the type of microbial population as well as their survival is important because they lead to beneficial and sensory properties of the product. In this study, microorganisms were isolated from kombucha and identified using culture and molecular methods and vacuum dried. Also total phenol content, and antioxidant properties of beverage were characterized. Microorganism viability and sensory evaluation was conducted by flow cytometery and a 5-point hedonic test before and after drying. 8-isolated species were recorded in NCBI. Lactobacillus and Kumagataeibacter and Weissella spp. were the bacterial species, while Starmella bacillaris and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the 2-yeast species identified in kombucha beverage. Microbial count increased from 3.59% on the start day to 96.6% on day 14. The results of sensory evaluation show that, in general, the produced kombucha drink was accepted by the evaluators. The highest score for overall acceptance on day 14 was equal to 4.6. Starmella bacillaris and Hanseniaspora uvarum were first isolated from kombucha with enhanced antioxidant properties. These strains, together with yeast are recommended for use in beverage fermentation processes to production of bioactive compounds.
... The green tea kombucha exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (22 mm), L. monocytogenes (22 mm), and M. luteus (21.5 mm). The anticandidal activity of green tea kombucha was revealed by the reaction against Candida parapsilosis (Battikh et al., 2013). Aqueous green tea leaf extract was effective against S. epidermidis, P. fluorescens, M. luteus, Brevibacterium linens, and B. subtilis by disc diffusion assay (zone of inhibition ≥7 mm). ...
Chapter
Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. These compounds from herbs, spices, and plant extracts have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties against a wide range of harmful microorganisms. Thus, there has been increased interest in the antimicrobial properties of plant-derived products for their potential uses as alternatives to synthetic preservatives. Plant antimicrobials have proven to be relatively safe and could be used to extend the shelf life of foods in order to overcome food safety issues. This chapter discusses the antimicrobial activities of different plant extracts, herbs, and spices, chemical composition, and the application of antimicrobial activities in food systems.
... The ability of kombucha microorganisms (SCOBY) to synthesize antimicrobial substances that are natural preservatives is established and analyzed in detail in the context of food quality and safety. Battikh et al. (2013) demonstrated the killing properties of fermented kombucha against various Candida species. The bactericidal properties of kombucha tea against numerous groups of bacteria were confirmed by Al-Kalifawi (2014) and Ebrahimi Pure and Ebrahimi Pure (2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Effects were assessed for the post-culture liquid medium originating from the cultivation of microorganisms that are present in the ecosystem called symbiotic consortium bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). The effectiveness of protecting Scotch pine wood samples against decomposition caused by the fungus Coniophora puteana was evaluated. The obtained results confirmed that impregnation of wood with post-culture medium reduces the possibility of decomposition of this wood by the test fungus. The potential biocidal effect of the post-culture medium from SCOBY was attributed to the presence the substances of a potential fungicidal nature, which were synthesized in the culture medium during metabolic processes occurring in the culture. The obtained results encourage further studies on the potential use of metabolites obtained from SCOBY breeding to protect wood against biodegradation.
... The green tea kombucha exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (22 mm), L. monocytogenes (22 mm), and M. luteus (21.5 mm). The anticandidal activity of green tea kombucha was revealed by the reaction against Candida parapsilosis (Battikh et al., 2013). Aqueous green tea leaf extract was effective against S. epidermidis, P. fluorescens, M. luteus, Brevibacterium linens, and B. subtilis by disc diffusion assay (zone of inhibition ≥7 mm). ...
... pH dropped from approximately 3.7 to 2.75 for both samples, as a result of acid formation. Although no inhibition compounds were determined in this study, the difference in the final amount of acetic acid of the GTK and BTK samples could be due to the occurrence of more antibacterial compounds in GTK [31]. Ethanol was nearly 0 at the beginning of the cultivation time and reached 0.28% (v/v) and 0.30% (v/v) at the final time, for samples GTK and BTK, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is receiving a great deal of attention due to its unique properties such as high purity, water retention capacity, high mechanical strength, and biocompatibility. However, the production of BC has been limited because of the associated high costs and low productivity. In light of this, the isolation of new BC producing bacteria and the selection of highly productive strains has become a prominent issue. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage in which the bacteria fraction of the microbial community is composed mostly of strains belonging to the genus Komagataeibacter. In this study, Kombucha tea production trials were performed starting from a previous batch, and bacterial isolation was conducted along cultivation time. From the whole microbial pool, 46 isolates were tested for their ability to produce BC. The obtained BC yield ranged from 0.59 g/L, for the isolate K2G36, to 23 g/L for K2G30—which used as the reference strain. The genetic intraspecific diversity of the 46 isolates was investigated using two repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing methods: the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) elements and the (GTG)5 sequences, respectively. The results obtained using the two different approaches revealed the suitability of the fingerprint techniques, showing a discrimination power, calculated as the D index, of 0.94 for (GTG)5 rep-PCR and 0.95 for ERIC rep-PCR. In order to improve the sensitivity of the applied method, a combined model for the two genotyping experiments was performed, allowing for the ability to discriminate among strains.
... These types of food have gained popularity today. Kombucha is a slightly sweetish, carbonated and acidic beverage resulting from the fermentation of sugars in tea, yeast, and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Battikh, Chaieb, Bakhrouf, & Ammar, 2013;Jayabalan, Malbaša, Lončar, Vitas, & Sathishkumar, 2014). It is useful for the prevention of several diseases, particularly digestive disorders, and has antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer (Jayabalan et al., 2011), and antidiabetic (Aloulou et al., 2012) properties. ...
Article
Kombucha is a beverage obtained by fermenting tea containing sugar as a result of the symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria. In this study, milk and various herbal teas (sage, blackberry, and green tea) were mixed in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v) and fermented with kombucha culture. 2.2-Diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total reducing sugar content, and the microbiological and sensory properties of the fermented dairy beverage were examined. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed on the 1st day of storage of the blackberry tea-blended fermented beverage (98.48%), and the highest total phenolic content was observed on the 30th day of the green tea-blended fermented beverage (81.51 mg/mL). The maximum amount of glucuronic acid (0.42 g/100 mL) was observed on the 20th day of storage in the sage-blended fermented dairy beverage. The most favorite product was the blackberry blend, whereas the least favorite was the dairy beverage (control sample) fermented with kombucha based on sensory scores. This study demonstrates that milk and herbal teas could be successfully fermented with kombucha culture , thereby improving its functional properties.
... pH dropped from approximately 3.7 until 2.75 for both samples, as a result of acid formation. Although no inhibition compounds were determined in this study, the difference in the final amount of acetic acid of GTK and BTK samples can be due to the occurrence of more antibacterial compounds in GTK [26]. Ethanol was nearly 0 at the beginning of the cultivation time and reached 0.28 % (v/v) and 0.30 % (v/v) at the final time, for samples GTK and BTK, respectively. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is receiving great attention due to its unique properties such as high purity, water retention capacity, high mechanical strength, and biocompatibility. However, the production of BC has been limited because of high cost and low productivity. In this light, the isolation of new BC producing bacteria and selection of high productive strains became a promising issue. Kombucha tea is a fermented beverage in which the bacteria fraction of the microbial community is composed mostly by strains belonging to the genus Komagataeibacter. In this study Kombucha tea production trials were performed starting from a previous batch, and bacterial isolation was conducted along cultivation time. From the whole microbial pool, 46 isolates were tested for their ability in producing BC. The obtained BC yield ranged from 0.59 g/L, for the isolate K2G36, to 23 g/L for K2G30 used as the reference strain. The genetic intraspecific diversity of the 46 isolates was investigated using two repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing methods, which are the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) elements and the (GTG)5 sequences, respectively. The results obtained using two different approaches revealed the suitability of the fingerprints techniques, showing a discrimination power, calculated as D index, of 0.94 for (GTG)5 rep-PCR and 0.95 for ERIC rep-PCR. In order to improve the sensitivity of the applied method, a combined model from the two genotyping experiments was performed, allowing to discriminate among strains.
... The author's preferred source of glucaric acid is kombucha. The additional advantage lies within the fact that this fermented tea drink also provides a rich source of hepatoprotective enzymes [216] along with a myriad of antibacterial and antifungal polyphenolic molecules [217,218] that can provide great support for an individual suffering from dysbiosis and in need of gut-restorative, functional foods. ...
Article
Full-text available
An extensive body of evidence documents the importance of the gut microbiome both in health and in a variety of human diseases. Cell and animal studies describing this relationship abound, whilst clinical studies exploring the associations between changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding metabolites with neurodegeneration in the human brain have only begun to emerge more recently. Further, the findings of such studies are often difficult to translate into simple clinical applications that result in measurable health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to appraise the literature on a select set of faecal biomarkers from a clinician’s perspective. This practical review aims to examine key physiological processes that influence both gastrointestinal, as well as brain health, and to discuss how tools such as the characterisation of commensal bacteria, the identification of potential opportunistic, pathogenic and parasitic organisms and the quantification of gut microbiome biomarkers and metabolites can help inform clinical decisions of nutrition and lifestyle medicine practitioners.
Article
This study aims at producing bacterial cellulose (BC) to develop a new type of eco-friendly and sustainable fabric. The main factors, nitrogen and carbon sources, in the medium were controlled to produce a fabric that had both thickness to maintain the shape and smooth surface. We evaluated the effects of four different tea and carbon sources of four different sugars on the production and characterization of BC fabrics, such as the production yield, fabric thickness, appearance, and cellulose structures. The highest production yield was obtained when green tea and sucrose were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. The thickness and the roughness of the BC fabric were observed by atomic force microscopy to be 0.213 ± 0.01 mm and 155.56 nm, respectively. By XRD and SEM morphology of the BC fabric, the highest crystallinity (74.26 ± 5.24%) was observed in the defined cellulose fibril network that was formed. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of BC fabrics showed the characteristics of cellulose. It was found that the BC fabric had a tensile strength that was two times stronger than top-grain leather although both had similar appearance and thickness.
Article
The population of the developed world is aging. With this aging population, strategies for prevention rather than treatment of chronic disease, such as osteoporosis, are essential for preserving quality of life and reducing health care costs. Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world and is a rich source of flavonoids that may benefit bone health. There is strong evidence from human studies that habitual tea consumption is positively associated with higher BMD at multiple skeletal sites, while the association with fracture risk is less clear. Fracture studies demonstrate a reduction or no difference in fragility fracture with tea consumption. There are key questions that need to be answered in future studies to clarify if higher consumption of tea not only supports a healthy BMD, but also reduces the risk of fragility fracture. And if the latter relationship is shown to exist, studies to elucidate mechanisms can be designed and executed. This review discusses findings from epidemiological studies as well as potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in tea may mediate an effect, and identifies key knowledge gaps in this research area.
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. Kombucha consumption has been associated with some health effects such as: the reduction of cholesterol levels and blood pressure, reduction of cancer propagation, the improvement of liver, the immune system, and gastrointestinal functions. The beneficial effects of kombucha are attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that act synergistically. Bacteria contained in kombucha beverage belongs to the genus Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and the yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces along with glucuronic acid, contribute to health protection. This review focuses on recent findings regarding beneficial effects of kombucha and discusses its chemical compounds, as well as the metabolites resulted by the fermentation process. Besides, some contraindications of kombucha consumption are also reviewed.
Article
Kombucha, related to a microbial method for treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is usually fermented via symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) with black tea. In this study, Lycium barbarum was used as the substrate combined with Kombucha SCOBY to enhance its antioxidant activities and flavor composition. The result indicated that the antioxidant activities of Lycium barbarum fermentation broth (LBF) was increased and 16.51% higher compared to the infusion. Besides, inhibition zone of LBF on the 10th day against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus reached the maximum of 18.80 mm and 21.85 mm. Three typical Lycium barbarum polysaccharrides including LBP1, LBP2 and LBP3, were extracted and their compositions were identified. Among them, the DPPH scavenging rate and reducing power of LBP2 were 67.36% and 0.612 which were both higher than others. Furthermore, SOD enzyme and cellulase activity of LBF on 10th day were improved by 92.41% and 2.27 times, respectively. Thirty‐one aroma compounds were determined in Lycium barbarum Kombucha ferment via GC‐MS. The strongest flavor of the LBF was sourness while the weakest flavor was saltiness which was analyzed through the electronic tongue. Our research provides a theoretical basis for the development of functional Lycium barbarum Kombucha product and explores the application of Kombucha SCOBY in processing TCM.
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha fermented solutions (KFSs) were produced from tea (KTFS), rice (KRFS) and barely (KBFS) after 8 and 10 days. These solutions tested as antimicrobial activity against microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Shigelladysenteriae, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans) by agar well diffusion assay. KTFS was higher inhibitory activity than KRFS or KBFS, which gave the largest clear halo-zone diameter against S. enteritidis. Minimum lethal concentration: minimum inhibition concentration ratio wascalculated to known the KFSs action. All tested KFSs were micobicidal effect against S. aureus and C. albicans (≤2) and microbiostatic effect against other pathogenic bacteria (≥4). Objective: The study extends to examine the growth inhibitory effects and Apoptotic abilities of KFSS, on human colon (HCT-116) and liver (HEpG-2) cancer cells. Material and method: using Neutral Red Uptake Assay and the AO/EB dual Staining assays to detect anti proliferative and apoptosis properties. Results: indicated that KTFS had more antitumor activity against different tumor cells than KRFS and KBFS. Although all tested KFSs were found to reduce the cell viability in a concentration manner, but the magnitude of reduction was high in case of KTFS with lower IC50 values, and induces a higher percentage of apoptotic cells after 24 h of exposure of HEpG-2 cell line. These results suggest that the KFSs possess interesting antiproliferative properties and induce apoptosis on the HCT-116 and HEpG-2 cancer cells associated with significant antimicrobial activity. These findings provide additional support for the traditional use of KFSs in the treatment of metabolic diseases and various types of cancer.
Preprint
Full-text available
Kombucha is a sweetened tea fermented by bacteria and yeast into a carbonated, acidic drink, producing a surface biofilm pellicle (colloquially called a SCOBY) during the process. Typically, liquid and a biofilm pellicle from a previously fermented culture is used as a starter for new cultures; however, there is no standard protocol for growing kombucha in the laboratory. In order to establish a standard protocol with low variability between replicates, we tested whether we could begin a kombucha culture with only well-mixed liquid stock. We found that viable kombucha cultures can be grown from low percentages of initial inoculum stock liquid, that new pellicles can form from liquid alone (with no ‘starter’ pellicle), and that the variation in the pellicle characteristics is lower when only a liquid starter is used (p = 0.0004). We also found that blending the pellicle before including it significantly reduces the variation among replicates, though the final pellicle was abnormal. We conclude that growing kombucha from only liquid stock is viable and provides a greater degree of experimental control and reproducibility compared to alternatives. Standardizing methodologies for studying kombucha in the lab can facilitate the use of this system for exploring questions about the evolutionary, ecological and cooperative/competitive dynamics within this multi-species system including resource transfers, functional dependence, genetic divergence, collective defense, and ecological succession. A better understanding of kombucha and other fermented foods may eventually allow us to leverage their pathogen inhibitory properties to develop novel antibiotics and bacteriocins.
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition (organic acids—acetic, tartaric, citric; sugars—sucrose, glucose, fructose; total acidity, alcohol content, pH—with FTIR instrument; content of selected mineral compounds—AAS instrument), antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity and sensory profiles of prepared kombucha tea beverage. Black tea with white sugar as a substrate for kombucha beverage was used as a control sample. The dominant organic acid in kombucha tea beverage was acetic acid (1.55 g/L), followed by tartaric and citric acids. The sucrose (17.81 g/L) was the dominant sugar from detected sugars. Antioxidant activity of beverage tested by reducing power method (1318.56 mg TEAC/L) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in comparison with black tea (345.59 mg TEAC/L). The same tendency was observed for total polyphenol content which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in kombucha beverage (412.25 mg GAE/L) than in black tea (180.17 mg GAE/L). Among mineral compounds, the amount of manganese (1.57 mg/L) and zinc (0.53 mg/L) was the highest in kombucha tea beverage. Results of antimicrobial activity of kombucha tea beverage showed strong inhibition of Candida krusei CCM 8271 (15.81 mm), C. glabrata CCM 8270 (16 mm), C. albicans CCM 8186 (12 mm), C. tropicalis CCM 8223 (14 mm), Haemophilus influenzae CCM 4454 (10 mm) and Escherichia coli CCM 3954 (4 mm). Sensory properties of prepared beverage were evaluated overall as good with the best score in a taste (pleasant fruity-sour taste). The consumption of kombucha tea beverage as a part of drinking mode of consumers due to health benefits is recommended.
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effect of sugar concentration and fermentation time on the antibacterial activity of kombucha beverages prepared with four herbal teas. Four types of herbal teas including, black and green tea, lemon verbena, and peppermint were prepared then sweetened with 2, 5, and 8% sugar. The herbal teas inoculated with actively kombucha culture and after 7, 14, and 21 days, the antibacterial activity of the supernatant of beverages was evaluated against four bacteria based on agar well diffusion method. RSM was used to investigate the effect of fermentation time, sugar concentration, and tea type on the antibacterial activity of beverages. Sugar concentration and fermentation time showed a significant effect on the antibacterial activity of beverages-against all tested bacteria and type of herbal tea affected the antibacterial activity of beverages-against E. coli and S. aureus. Kombucha prepared with black tea at sugar 8% and fermentation time of 21 days showed the most antibacterial activity against B. cereus. The most antibacterial activity against S. aureus was observed in kombucha beverages prepared with green tea and peppermint for fermentation time of 21 days, at 2% and 8% sugar, respectively. Prepared beverages with peppermint and lemon verbena at 8% sugar and 21 days of fermentation showed the most antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. dysenteriae respectively. Generally, to achieve the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria recommended preparation of kombucha beverages at the sugar of 8% and fermentation time of 21 days.
Article
[Background] The growing consumption of kombucha beverages in the last decade has motivated an increase in the number of scientific studies investigating their biological activities. Their specific microbiological and chemical composition led to the generation of interesting bioactive fractions. [Scope and approach] Although many in vitro analyses have been described regarding bioactivities of kombucha and kombucha ingredients, a significantly lower amount of in vivo tests have been published and, moreover, clinical trials are particularly missing. In this revision, several biological activities were reviewed through the scientific literature (antioxidant, immune-modulatory, antiproliferative, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial), describing the utilized experimental model, the reported results and their potential implications on human health. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses of the current evidences around kombucha bioactivities were pointed out. [Key findings and conclusions] It can be concluded that, despite of the interesting results obtained in vitro, further research is required including more in vivo tests, bioaccessibility and bioavailability assessment and clinical trials, as well as the isolation of bioactive compounds allowing the study of single molecules and their functionality.
Article
Kombucha is a functional tea brewed through a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). It is applicable to various industrial sectors due to its several noteworthy features. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the following technological aspects of kombucha/SCOBY: (a) the effect of its production parameters on different scales, (b) microbiota features and factors that affect biofilm formation and fermentation so as to demonstrate its potential applications in different industrial sectors, and (d) how its consumption affects human health according to evidence collected in literature. Its production seldom occurs on an industrial scale and studies assessing its large-scale fermentation process are scarce. Various industrial sectors have benefited from SCOBY, such as the food industry, biotechnological processes and biomedicine. However, industrial applications require optimization of some parameters, such as specific equipment for product standardization aimed at cost reduction and process profitability.
Article
Kombucha is a beverage based on a sugared medium fermented by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast. The aim of this study was to produce unfermented and kombucha beverages with Malvaviscus arboreus and Camellia sinensis as substrates, and assess their physico-chemical characteristics, in vivo toxicities, antioxidant activities and antimicrobial properties. The beverages were prepared from infusions (0.5 %, w/v), with sucrose (5.0 %, w/v), kombucha culture (2.5 %, w/v), and 1.0 % (v/v) of the previously fermented beverage, and incubated at 24 ± 2 °C for 14 days. The results showed that both produced kombuchas are within the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters recommended by the Food and Drug Administration. None of the tested samples showed toxicity from the in vivo model of Galleria mellonella larvae. A significant increase of 145 % w/v was observed on the total phenolic content of the Malvaviscus arboreus kombucha when compared to its infusion. Green tea and green tea kombucha showed antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Green tea was also the only beverage to present antimicrobial activity against all fungi cultures evaluated and against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Thus, it is possible that the type of substrate used in the kombucha production interferes with its bioactive properties. This report shows the potential use of non-conventional edible plant, such as Malvaviscus arboreus, as substrate for kombucha fermentation and for the first time the use of Galleria mellonella larvae as in vivo model of toxicity in the analysis of kombucha.
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a drink produced by fermentation of sweetened tea due to symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria species. In this study; pH value, total acidity, alcohol, total phenolic compounds quantities, caffein and some individual compounds contents of kombucha drinks produced using white, black and green tea were determined. At the end of the fermantation, pH and total acidity (% acetic acid) values of kombuchas including white, black and green tea were found 3,11; 3.22; 3.16 and 8,9; 9,2; 9,0, respectively. Total phenolic compund content of kombuchas produced with white tea (736,1 mg GAE/L) was higher than others. The highest amount of compounds analyzed in the kombucha samples were identified as caffeine. Gallic acid (4,76±1,06 mg/L), caffeine (63,47±4,64 mg/L) and epicatechin (1,59±0,06 mg/L) quantities of kombuchas produced with using white tea were found higher than kombuchas produced with using black and green tea.
Article
Kombucha is a drink produced by fermentation of sweetened tea due to symbiotic relationship between yeast and acetic acid bacteria species. In this study; pH value, total acidity, alcohol, total phenolic compounds quantities, caffein and some individual compounds contents of kombucha drinks produced using white, black and green tea were determined. At the end of the fermantation, pH and total acidity (% acetic acid) values of kombuchas including white, black and green tea were found 3,11; 3.22; 3.16 and 8,9; 9,2; 9,0, respectively. Total phenolic compund content of kombuchas produced with white tea (736,1 mg GAE/L) was higher than others. The highest amount of compounds analyzed in the kombucha samples were identified as caffeine. Gallic acid (4,76±1,06 mg/L), caffeine (63,47±4,64 mg/L) and epicatechin (1,59±0,06 mg/L) quantities of kombuchas produced with using white tea were found higher than kombuchas produced with using black and green tea.
Article
Fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeast (tea fungus) yields kombucha tea which is consumed worldwide for its refreshing and beneficial properties on human health. Important progress has been made in the past decade concerning research findings on kombucha tea and reports claiming that drinking kombucha can prevent various types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, promote liver functions, and stimulate the immune system. Considering the widespread reports on kombucha, we recognized the need to review and update the research conducted in relation to kombucha tea, its products and tea fungus. Existing reports have suggested that the protective effects of kombucha tea are as good as those of black tea, however, more studies on kombucha tea and its composition are needed before final conclusions can be made.
Article
Full-text available
The tea fungus (commonly designed as ''kombucha'') is a symbiotic culture of at least three microorganisms : the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter xylinum and two yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida sp. in sugared tea (Hesseltine, 1965; Anonymous, 1983). These microorganisms were cultured in their traditional medium and several metabolites were identified and quantified : ethanol, lactic, acetic, gluconic and glucuronic acids. The antibacterial product known as usnic acid was also searched.
Article
There are six types of teas: Green, yellow, dark, white, oolong, and black. This classification is based on processing methods, degree of fermentation, and the oxidation of the polyphenols present in tea leaves. The polyphenols in green tea are hardly oxidized, but they are nonenzymatically oxidized in yellow and dark teas. White, oolong, and black teas are fermented, with white having the least and black having the most fermentation. Some variations in processing of these different teas are discussed.
Article
Fermentation of 1.5g/L of Indian black tea, sweetened either with 70g/L of sucrose or an adequate quantity of three kinds of molasses, was conducted by domestic Kombucha (Acetobacter strains in symbiosis with Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bisporus, Torulopsis sp. and Zygosaccharomyces sp.). Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from the previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2L of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. Significance of the differences of the results obtained in the fermentations on different substrates was analyzed by applying Duncan’s multiple range test. The molasses that yielded the beverage richest in l-lactic acid was suggested for Kombucha fermentation.
Article
Kombucha is a refreshing beverage obtained by the fermentation of sugared tea with a symbiotic culture of acetic bacteria and fungi, consumed for its beneficial effects on human health. Research conducted in Russia at the beginning of the century and testimony indicate that Kombucha can improve resistance against cancer, prevent cardiovascular diseases, promote digestive functions, stimulate the immune system, reduce inflammatory problems, and can have many other benefits. In this paper, we report on studies that shed more light on the properties of some constituents of Kombucha. The intensive research about the effects of tea on health provide a good starting point and are summarized to get a better understanding of the complex mechanisms that could be implicated in the physiological activity of both beverages.
Article
Fermented tea drink, Kombucha, can inhibit the growth of Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Several metabolites were analyzed every two days during a 14-day Kombucha fermentation. Levels of acetic acid and gluconic acid were found to increase with fermentation time. No lactic acid or ethanol was detected. Systematic investigation of the antimicrobial activity in Kombucha revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than organic acids or proteins (enzymes) produced during fermentation or the tannins originally present in the tea broth.
Article
Tea fungus/kombucha, an acetic acid flavoured fermented tea beverage, is widely consumed in various parts of the world and has more recently become a fad in the United States. This is due in part to the fact that it can be produced in the home, and it is reported to be medicinal, effective against arthritis, psoriasis, chronic fatigue, constipation, indigestion and metabolic diseases. Among 264 references from 1852 to 1961, there are reports of antibiotic activity against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and medicinal value against a variety of diseases. The medicinal value appears to be related to that attributed to vinegar, one of our most ancient foods. We decided to test tea fungus/kombucha for its antibiotic activity against Helicobacter pylori, a primary cause of gastritis related to peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus (Micrococcus) aureus and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Tea containing 4.36 g of dry tea per litre and 10% of sucrose and fermented with the tea fungus showed no antibiotic activity in the beverage beyond that caused by acetic acid, a primary product of the fermentation.
Article
The medicinal effects of tea (Camellia sinensis) have a long, rich history. The first references to tea date back nearly 5,000 years and are justifiably obscure. Tea has been consumed literally for thousands of years, and it is this long safety record of tea consumption that makes these compounds an attractive target for drug discovery. Much attention has been focused on the role of tea flavanoids in the promotion of health in recent years. However, future studies will need to clarify further the mechanisms of action of these and related compounds, as well as their absorption, metabolism, and potential toxicity. We review here some of the currently available information pertaining to the chemistry, synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of these compounds, which will hopefully serve as a starting point for the continued investigation of these compounds in the clinical setting. Drug Dev. Res. 61:45–65, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Samples of Haipao from three cities of Taiwan were analyzed for their microbial population. Two species of acetic acid bacteria and three species of yeast were isolated from tea fungus Haipao using appropriate isolation media. The isolated bacteria were identified asAcetobacter acetiandAcetobacter pasteurianus, based on their biochemical properties, and compared with those of the type strains of the genusAcetobacter. The yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, andBrettanomyces bruxellensisaccording to conventional phenotypic characterization combined with the Yeast Identification Program. The brew broth analyzed by high−performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was shown to contain glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol. The symbiosis phenomenon between the yeast andAcetobacterwas studied. It was found that the autoclaved yeast cells and ethanol produced by yeasts were helpful forAcetobacterto grow or produce acetic acid. The acetic acid produced byAcetobactercould stimulate the yeast to produce ethanol. The ethanol and acetic acid produced by yeasts andAcetobactermight prevent the competition from other micro-organisms.
Article
BACKGROUND: Traditional kombucha tea (TKT) is produced by mixed tea fungus. We previously proposed Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 as the key functional strain in kombucha culture, because it had strong ability to produce D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL, a crucial functional component in KT). This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of TKT and modified KT (MKT, tea broth fermented by single Gluconacetobacter sp. A4). RESULTS:In vitro, TKT and MKT, but not DSL equally increased the radical scavenging effects and inhibited low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In vivo, the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects were not different between MKT and TKT. Compared with TKT, MKT showed a significantly elevated effect on the increase of antioxidantive enzymes activities (total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase) and the decrease of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile DSL demonstrated an enhanced activity in lipid profile and antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: KT had the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects. These effects were largely attributed to DSL. MKT was similar to or even more powerful than TKT in antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects. Thus, Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 was further established as the main functional microorganism in kombucha culture. Moreover, KT may be useful in treating obesity. Copyright
Article
The tea fungus is a symbiosis of osmophilic yeasts (mainly Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Pichia spec.) and acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter xylinum, A. xylinoides, Bacterium gluconicum) used to produce teakwass with sugared black tea as substrate. The influence of the following sugars on the production of ethanol and lactic acid was studied using enzymatic tests: sucrose, lactose, glucose and fructose. Maximal yields of ethanol were recorded with 150 g fructose/l (8.11 g ethanol/l and 50 g sucrose/l (6.3 g ethanol/l). Lactose and glucose yielded only minor amounts of ethanol. Lactic acid was produced in relatively high concentrations with 50 sucrose/l (0.9 g acid/l); the other sugars in all tested concentrations stimulated the synthesis of this acid only to a moderate degree. The pH values of the teakwass preparations generally dropped during incubation as a result of acid formation. Test persons estimated the teakwass products as refreshing with a fruitlike taste within 6 to 10 days of incubation; prolongation of fermentation yielded a distinctly sour flavour like vinegar.
Article
Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Tea polyphenols which includes (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and theaflavin (TF) have been reported to possess various biological activities. The present study focused on changes in content of organic acid and tea polyphenols in kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea manufacture waste (TWK) during fermentation. Concentration of acetic acid has reached maximum up to 9.5 g/l in GTK on 15th day and glucuronic acid concentration was reached maximum upto 2.3 g/l in BTK on 12th day of fermentation. Very less concentration of lactic acid was observed during the fermentation period and citric acid was detected only on 3rd day of fermentation in GTK and BTK but not in TWK. When compared to BTK and TWK very less degradation of EGCG (18%) and ECG (23%) was observed in GTK. TF and thearubigen (TR) were relatively stable when compared to epicatechin isomers. The biodegradation of tea catechins, TF and TR during kombucha fermentation might be due to some unknown enzymes excreted by yeasts and bacteria in kombucha culture.
Article
Early reports onKombucha, a traditional fermented tea beverage, suggested that it has antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of organisms, and that concentrates of unfermented tea components also have anti microbial properties. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine and characterizeKombucha'santimicrobial activity using an absorbent disc method. Antimicrobial activity was observed in the fermented samples containing 33 g/L total acid (7 g/L acetic acid) against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella choleraesuisserotypetyphimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, andEscherichia coli.Candida albicanswas not inhibited byKombucha. The contribution of tea itself to the antimicrobial activity ofKombuchaproved to be significant in the tested organisms, even at the highest levels tested, 70 g/L dry tea. As a result, the antimicrobial activity ofKombuchawas attributed to its acetic acid content.
Article
The tea fungus ‘Kombucha’ is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharemyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/ occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. Zusammenfassung. Der Teepilz ‘Kombucha’ ist eine symbiotische Lebensgemeinschaft von Essigsäurebakterien, darunter Acetobacter xylinum als charakteristische Species, und verschiedenen Hefen. Eine charakteristische Hefespecies oder gattung wurde bisher nicht identifiziert. Die Kombucha wird überwiegend in gezuckertem schwarzem Tee zur Herstellung eines leicht säuerlichen, moussierenden Getränkes kultivert, dem verschiedene Heilwirkungen zugeschrieben werden. Das Getränk enthält neben Zucker geringe Mengen an Alkohol sowie verschiedene Säuren, darunter Essig-, Glukon- und Milchsäure, und antibiotisch wirksame Substanzen. Zur Charakterisierung des Hefespektrums unter besonderer Berücksichtigung fakultativ pathogener Hefen wurden zwei im Handel erhältliche sowie 32 Proben aus privaten Haushalten in Deutschland mit Hilfe mikromior-phologischer und biochemischer Methoden analysiert. Hefen der Gattungen Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces und Saccharomyces wurden in 56%, 29% bzw. 26% der Proben identifiziert, nur in Einzelfällen wurden die Species Saccharomycodes ludwigii bzw. Candida kefyr nachgewiesen. Darüber hinaus fanden sich im Probenmaterial die Kahmhefen Candida krusei bzw. Issatchenkia occidentals/orientalis und Species der zu den Apiculatushefen
Article
Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha.
Article
Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.
Article
Changes in major components and microbes in tea fungus broth (or kombucha; teakwass) prepared from nine different sources during a prolonged fermentation of up to 60 days were investigated. Cell concentrations of both yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in broth were generally higher than those in the cellulosic pellicles. The residual sucrose concentration decreased linearly with time, although the rate fell after the first month. Metabolic fates of glucose and fructose produced as a result of the hydrolysis of sucrose were different. Glucose was not produced in parallel with fructose (0.085 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)) but was produced with a lower initial rate (0.041 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)). Both titratable acidity and gluconic acid increased steadily with time for all samples, although gluconic acid was not generated for 6 days until the fermentation had begun. Acetic acid increased slowly to a maximum value of 1.1 g 100 ml(-1) after 30 days; thereafter, it decreased gradually. Gluconic acid contributed to the titratable acidity and thus, the taste of tea fungus broth, during the final stage of fermentation. It is concluded that the desired quality or composition of kombucha can be obtained through the proper control of fermentation time.
Article
Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.
Kombucha: Healthy Beverage and Natural Remedy from the Far East, Wilhelm Ennsthaler Determination and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of the fermented tea kombucha
  • G W Frank
  • Austria
  • C J Greenwalt
  • R A Ledford
  • K H Steinkraus
FRANK, G.W. 1995. Kombucha: Healthy Beverage and Natural Remedy from the Far East, Wilhelm Ennsthaler, Steyr, Austria. GREENWALT, C.J., LEDFORD, R.A. and STEINKRAUS, K.H. 1998. Determination and characterization of the antimicrobial activity of the fermented tea kombucha. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 31, 291–296.
Kombucha: The Miracle Fungus, 6th Ed., Phree Books, Bermgui, Australia The medicinal chemistry of tea
  • H W Tietze
  • D S Wheeler
  • W J Wheeler
TIETZE, H.W. 1995. Kombucha: The Miracle Fungus, 6th Ed., Phree Books, Bermgui, Australia. 72 p. WHEELER, D.S. and WHEELER, W.J. 2004. The medicinal chemistry of tea. Drug Dev. Res. 61, 45–65.
Biochemistry of processing black tea
  • HARA