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Consumer's doppelganger: A role model perspective on intentional consumer mimicry


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This paper focuses on the consumer's doppelganger effect, the inclination of consumers to intentionally mimic other individuals' consumption behaviors. Taking a role model perspective, we look at the inclination of Israeli teenage girls to resonate with role models with whom they have unidirectional (study 1; N = 152) and bidirectional (study 2; N = 343) relationships. The findings demonstrate that consumers' doppelgangers have a strong inclination to intentionally emulate other individuals' consumption behavior when they perceive them as consumer role models, an assessment that is rooted in their view of these individuals as relevant. The contributions of this research relate to the study of mimicry, role modeling, and family consumption. Copyright
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Consumers doppelganger: A role model perspective on intentional
consumer mimicry
Fox School of Business, Temple University, 1801 Liacouras Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19122-6083, USA
The Faculty of Business Administration, Ono Academic College, Israel
Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel
This paper focuses on the consumers doppelganger effect, the inclination of consumers to intentionally mimic other individualsconsump-
tion behaviors. Taking a role model perspective, we look at the inclination of Israeli teenage girls to resonate with role models with whom
they have unidirectional (study 1; N= 152) and bidirectional (study 2; N= 343) relationships. The ndings demonstrate that consumers
doppelgangers have a strong inclination to intentionally emulate other individualsconsumption behavior when they perceive them as
consumer role models, an assessment that is rooted in their view of these individuals as relevant. The contributions of this research relate
to the study of mimicry, role modeling, and family consumption.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The consumer literature established long ago that individuals
monitor other peoples consumption behavior and copy it. In
fact, many well-documented consumption phenomena are
implicitly based on the assumption that consumers mimic
other consumersbehaviors. For example, opinion seekers
copy the consumption behavior of opinion leaders (Flynn
et al., 1996; Bertrandias and Goldsmith, 2006; Stokburger-
Sauer and Hoyer, 2009), and teenagers mirror their role
modelschoice preferences (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997).
However, despite this rich literature, the issue of consumers
intentional mimicry remains unaddressed. Thus, this paper
focuses on peoples tendency to intentionally mimic other
consumersbehavior and regard this behavior as the consumers
doppelganger effect (CDE).
The studies on consumer mimicry highlight its important
role in consumersbehavior by affecting individualscon-
sumption and product preferences (Johnston, 2002; Tanner
et al., 2008). Nevertheless, these studies have focused on
unconscious mimicry and perceived mimicry as an automatic,
unaware response to other peoples behavior. The examples
cited earlier suggest that when it comes to consumption behav-
ior, individuals may intentionally choose to resonate with
other people. Furthermore, they intentionally choose those
individuals with whom they want to resonate. We term this
intentional inclination of theindividual to mimic other peoples
consumption behavior the CDE. Using a role model perspec-
tive, we propose that in order for an individual to emulate the
consumption behavior of another individual, he or she must
perceive these individuals as consumption role models. As
such, our study complements previous studies on mimicry as
well as extends our knowledge about consumer role models
by integrating these two bodies of literature in an attempt to
explain the phenomenon of the consumers doppelganger.
Both the research on automatic mimicry (Chartrand and
Bargh, 1999) and the study of role models (Bandura, 1986;
Lockwood and Kunda, 1997) suggest that there are two
possible types of mimicry: unidirectional and bidirectional.
The former refers to situations where the mimicker has no
direct relationship with his or her role model, such as in
the case of mimicking a celebrity. In the latter situation, the
mimicker has a direct, interactive relationship with his or
her role model, such as in the case of a family member.
Accordingly, the rst study looks at the unidirectional CDE
among teenage girls who want their consumption behaviors
to resonate with those of a celebrity, a person with whom
they do not have any interaction (Lockwood and Kunda,
1997). The second study explores the bidirectional CDE
within the dyadic relationships of adolescent girls and their
mothers. This study explores a situation in which the consu-
mers do interact directly with one another, focusing on the
tendency of the daughter to mimic her mother as well as
the tendency of the mother to mimic her daughter. Next,
we provide an overview of the concepts of the consumers
doppelganger and consumer role models.
The consumers doppelganger effect
Research has established the human tendency to mimic
various aspects of the behavior of others with whom one
interacts (Chartrand and Bargh, 1999; Tanner et al., 2008).
Neuroscientic studies attribute mimicry to the activation of
mirror neurons that take part in perceptional and behavioral
processes (Iacoboni et al., 1999), which leads to mimicry of
postures (Chartrand and Bargh, 1999), emotions (Hateld,
et al., 1994), and even consumption behavior (Tanner et al.,
2008). Nevertheless, these studies view mimicry as an auto-
matic behavior that occurs outside the individuals awareness.
However, when it comes to mimicking consumption beha-
viors, mimicry is often an intentional behavior, one of which
*Correspondence to: Ayalla Ruvio, Fox School of Business, Temple
University, 1801 Liacouras Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19122-6083, USA.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Consumer Behaviour,J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
Published online in Wiley Online Library ( DOI: 10.1002/cb.1415
the individual is fully aware. It is motivated by the desire to
look like or behave like other consumers and involves a series
of actions and decisions designed to achieve this goal. In the
case of the CDE, the mimicking consumer needs to determine
who to mimic, what product or consumption behavior to copy,
the extent to which the mimicking should take place, and for
how long. Thus, this is not a spontaneous reaction to stimula-
tion as in automatic mimicking, but rather a planned behavior
designed to achieve the consumersgoals.
The consumer behavior literature offers us ample examples
of intentional consumer mimicry. Models of the diffusion of
innovations demonstrated the transition of new products from
innovators to imitators (Rogers, 2003). Opinion leader/opinion
seeker studies showed that opinion seekers will search for
guidance on specic products or product categories from
individuals whom they consider experts. Opinion leaders
guidance often causes opinion seekers to imitate the consump-
tion behavior they admire or to which they aspire (Bertrandias
and Goldsmith, 2006). Further evidence regarding the CDE
arises from studies on subculture consumption (Schouten and
McAlexander, 1995). These subcultures encourage members
and future members to rene their self-presentation via
conformity and imitation of high-status members of the
relevant subculture. Specically, they need to resonate with
other members of the subculture to be accepted as a member.
Although these studies do not address the issue of
mimicry directly, they imply that the mimicked individual
has some desirable trait or attribute that the mimicking
consumer is lacking. In an attempt to obtain this missing
attribute, consumers will constantly monitor their environ-
ment in order to target other consumers who possess it.
One might argue that these targeted consumers serve as role
models, as will be discussed in the next section.
Role models
Mimicry is a basic form of learning. According to social
learning theory (Bandura, 1977), individuals mimic or model
other peoples behaviors, attitudes, values, and skills while
modifying their own behaviors accordingly. This process of
learning involves recurring learning experiences in different
social contexts as the individual internalizes socially accept-
able behaviors (Bandura, 1977). Through those learning
experiences, the individual encounters a variety of actors in
his or her social environment (King and Multon, 1996), all
of whom have the potential to inuence the individuals
behavior. Individuals will choose to rely on cues from some
of these actors and to model their behavior as they decide
how to behave, thereby transforming them into role models.
A role model can be anyone with whom the individual comes
into contact, either directly or indirectly, who potentially can
affect his or her decisions or behaviors (Bandura, 1986).
Previous studies have demonstrated that people imitate the
behaviors of direct role models (Figure 2), such as family
members, friends, and colleagues (Keillor et al., 1996), as
well as indirect role models (Figure 1), such as television and
movie stars, athletes, and other celebrities (Lockwood and
Kunda, 1997; Clark et al.,2001)withwhomtheyhaveavicar-
ious relationship. However, these studies suggest that the effect
of the former is stronger than that of the latter (King and
Multon, 1996; Martin and Bush, 2000).
Consumer behavior research has used social learning
theory to ascertain the importance of modeling behavior in
the consumption environment (Martin and Bush, 2000; Clark
et al., 2001). Undoubtedly, the dominant stream of studies in
this area has been the study of consumerssocialization and,
more recently, the study of intergenerational inuence
(Moore et al., 2002), which focuses mainly on the socializa-
tion process of children and adolescents. Although socializa-
tion is a lifetime process (Moore and Moschis, 1981;
Ekstrom, 2007, 2010), much of the learning and modeling
behaviors occur during this period (Moschis, 1985). The
study of consumer modeling behaviors among adolescents
shows that they affect many key consumer behaviors includ-
ing marketplace perception (Moore et al., 2002), brand prefer-
ences (Keillor et al., 1996), and purchasing intentions (Bush
et al., 2004). However, these studies did not address the issue
of modeling behavior directly and only assumed that teenagers
learn from their signicant others (e.g., parents, siblings, tea-
chers, celebrities) by observing and emulating their behaviors.
Only a handful of studies have explored the effect role
models (direct and vicarious) have on individualsconsumer
behaviors. Like the research on consumer socialization, most
of these studies were conducted on adolescents. Martin and
Bush (2000) reported that both parents (direct role models)
and celebrities (vicarious role models) have inuenced
teenagers to switch or alter their brand choices. In addition,
Clark et al. (2001) found that teachers and athlete role
models affected adolescentsmarket knowledge, whereas
athletes and fathers helped shape perceptions about material-
ism among adolescents. In another study, Bush et al. (2004)
focused on the effect of sports celebrities on adolescents
consumption behavior, determining that the former have a
positive inuence on teenagersfavorable word-of-mouth
recommendations and brand loyalty. Finally, in her model
of consumerspurchasing decisions, Chan (2008) explicitly
indicated that imitation mediates the effect of role models
(direct and indirect) on the purchasing decisions of teenagers.
On the basis of this literature, we hypothesize the following:
H1: Perceiving someone as a consumer role model will be
positively associated with consumers doppelganger.
**p < .01
.24** .70**
expertise of
role model
Perception of
being a role
cognitive age
Figure 1. Structural model of study 1indirect role model.
Consumers doppelganger 61
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
The literature on role models suggests that individuals
will model other peoples behavior providing that they
perceive them as relevant (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997).
Relevancy is determined by the integration of several factors
including resemblance, domain of interest, and the role
models level of expertise. However, to the best of our
knowledge, research on consumer role models has never
addressed the issue of relevancy explicitly.
Individuals tend to model and imitate others who resemble
them in age, race, gender, or personality (Tesser, 1986). This
perceived similarity creates psychological closeness (Tesser,
1986), which emerges from similarities in physical proximity,
characteristics, family relationships, place of origin, and so on
(Lockwood and Kunda, 1997). This notion might be the
underlying explanation for some of the ndings on the sources
of role models for adolescents. Prior research has demonstrated
that girls will be more likely to choose their mothers over their
fathers as role models (Clark et al., 2001). Bidirectional role
models who share characteristics such as physical proximity
and family ties have a stronger inuence on adolescents
consumption than unidirectional, vicarious role models
(Martin and Bush, 2000).
However, recent research on the effect of individualsage
on their consumption behavior suggests that it is the consu-
mers cognitive perception of age that is relevant to his or her
behavior (Chan, 2008). Cognitive age refers to how old or
young individuals perceive themselves to be (Barak and
Schiffman, 1981), and studies have shown that it plays an
important role in predicting consumer behaviors (Chan, 2008;
Stephens, 1991). According to Mathur and Moschis (2005),
youthfulness(feeling younger than ones actual age) among
women is positively associated with an interest in fashion and
with entertainment and cultural activities. More relevant to
our purpose are the ndings of Chang (2008) who reports
that ads have a stronger effect on teenagers if they see a strong
congruency between the models perceived age and their
cognitive age. Thus, cognitive age may be a proxy for similar-
ity. Our hypothesis posits the following:
H2: Similarity between ones cognitive age and the role
models age will be positively associated with perceiving
the latter individual as a consumer role model.
Domain of interest
Individuals seek information and guidance in areas that
interest them (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997). In the case of
the CDE, the domain of interest is consumption, which
means that individuals who are interested in fashion, name
brands, or any other consumption related issues are more
likely to ask for guidance from other people who share the
same domain of interest. In this regard, research has shown
that ads are more effective in inuencing the individuals
attitudes and purchasing intentions if that individual is
interested in the advertised domain (Lafferty and Goldsmith,
1999). In addition, studies on opinion leaders stress that their
inuence on other consumersbehaviors is domain specic
(Stokburger-Sauer and Hoyer, 2009).
Research also shows that teens have a strong interest in
brands and fashion (Chaplin and John, 2005). During this
period of their lives, they are struggling to build their own,
independent identity (Erikson, 1980). This is also the time
when adolescents develop a greater understanding of the
self-dening role of brands and fashion for the outside world
(Chaplin and John, 2005). They become highly conscious of
fashion trends and their impact on their appearance, which
pushes them to seek out role models who will guide their
new identity formation via different consumption behaviors
(Ward, 1974). Research has shown that as teenagers develop
their consumer skills, consumer role models serve as sources
of information about fashion (Clark et al., 2001). Therefore,
we explore the relationship between fashion consciousness
as a domain of interest and the perception of a celebrity as
consumer role models, positing the following:
H3: Fashion consciousness will be positively related to
perceiving a celebrity as a consumer role model.
Finally, research shows that people will model outstand-
ing others who excel in ones domain of interest (Lockwood
and Kunda, 1997). Previous ndings highlight the importance
of celebrities such as athletes and movie stars in affecting
adolescentsand adultsconsumption. Their inuence is attrib-
uted to their excellence in a specic domain, which makes
them experts in the eyes of their target audience. Studies on
advertising underline the importance of the relevancy of the
celebrity to the product. According to these studies, the per-
ceived expertise of the celebrity endorsers must be congruent
with or match the product they are advertising in order for
them to be effective and inuence the consumerspurchase
intentions and behaviors (Lafferty and Goldsmith, 1999).
However, other knowledgeable individuals can also be seen
as experts and as potential role models. In this regard, the
research on fashion opinion leaders and market mavens high-
lights the importance of expertise and unique knowledge in
the denition of both phenomena (e.g., Stokburger-Sauer and
Hoyer, 2009). In order for consumers to turn to other consu-
mers for advice about the market or a product, they must
perceive them as experts. Thus,
H4: The perceived level of the role models expertise will
be positively associated with the perception of that person
as a consumer role model.
In summary, the CDE reects the tendency to intention-
ally mimic other consumersbehavior. This paper suggests
that intentional mimicry takes place when the mimicked
individual is considered a consumer role model and is relevant
to the individuals identity. In other words, the consumersrole
model must be similar to the mimicking consumer, share the
same domain of interest, and be perceived as an expert in that
domain. The next two studies look at the phenomenon of the
consumers doppelganger among teenage girls. The rst
study explores the unidirectional CDE through a case where
teenage girls intentionally mimic a person outside their
dyadic relationships. The second study looks at the bidirec-
tional CDE. This study focuses on the tendency of teenage
girls and their mothers to imitate one anothersconsumer
62 A. Ruvio et al.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
The purpose of study 1 is to test intentional, unidirectional
CDE (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997). This study explores
consumersintentional resonation with other consumers,
with whom they are involved in a manner other than a dyadic
relationship. We posit that individuals will tend to doppel-
gang other people they consider a relevant consumer role
model (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997). Study 1 tests cognitive
age, fashion consciousness, and perceived expertise as indi-
cators of relevancy and celebrities as role models.
We collected data from a convenience sample of 152 high school
girls between the ages of 15 and 17 (mean = 15.92; std. = 0.47),
residing in a large metropolitan area in Israel. At this stage of late
adolescence, teenagers have relatively well-developed self-
concepts that incorporate awareness of brands and fashion
as public self-representation (Chaplin and John, 2005).
All measures in this study use items scored on ve-point
Likert scales.
The consumers doppelganger scale measures the inclination
of a consumer to resonate with other consumers. It uses the four-
item scale of Viswanathan et al. (2000) that measures intergen-
erational communication preferences for brands, stores, and
styles. In this study, participants indicate to what extent they
intentionally imitate the buying behaviors of a celebrity they
name as someone they admire, including buying the same
brands as the other person purchases, shopping in the same
same colors. The reliability (Cronbachsa)ofthisscaleis0.96.
Perception of the celebrity as a role model. The respondents
named a celebrity with whom they were familiar. All of them
selected an older female celebrity. About 30% of the girls
chose the same celebrity, a 24-year-old model. Next, the
participants indicated to what extent this celebrity served as
a role model for them, with specic reference to clothing
and cosmetics. An adapted version of Richs (1997) ve-item
scale, which measured the degree to which a sales managers
behavior is perceived as being consistent with the values
espoused by the manager, was used as the measurement tool.
Other studies have also used this scale to measure role
modeling among adolescents (e.g., Martin and Bush, 2000;
Bush et al., 2004). We omitted the fourth item in this scale,
exhibits the kind of work ethic and behavior that I try to
imitate,because it was irrelevant to the current study. The
reliability of the remaining four items is 0.91.
Role models perceived expertise refers to the role models
perceived skill or knowledge in a specic product context.
Referring to the same celebrity they chose in the previous
question, respondents assessed the celebritys expertise in
fashion and cosmetics using Donney and Cannons (1997)
three-item scale. Originally, this scale measured the consu-
mers trust in a salesperson. We converted it to measure the
role models perceived expertise. The reliability of this scale
is 0.93 for cosmetics and 0.95 for fashion.
Cognitive age refers to the subjective perception of ones
age. According to this concept, individuals can feel older or
younger than their chronological age (Barak and Schiffman,
1981). Therefore, in this study, the cognitive age scale
reects the sense of maturity and adulthood a young person
might feel. We measured cognitive age using a modied
version of Guiots (2001) three-item scale that was originally
designed to measure a sense of youthfulness. In the current
study, the reliability among the teenage girls is 0.81.
The fashion consciousness six-item scale (Lumpkin and
Darden, 1982) measures the importance that one accords to
being fashionable, particularly in terms of dressing. In the
current study, the reliability is 0.86.
The modied scales are available from the corresponding
The research hypotheses were initially tested with a simple
correlation analysis. Then, the data were subjected to a
structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis using AMOS19.
Following Anderson and Gerbings (1988) two-step approach,
the measurement model and then the structural model were
tested in both studies. The measurement model examines the
distinctiveness of the measures, and the structural model
assesses the nomologic relationships between the latent
variables (Bagozzi and Heatherton, 1994).
Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations, and correla-
tion coefcients of the constructs in study 1. As is evident,
the teenage girls have relatively moderate levels of fashion
consciousness (M= 3.24) and moderate assessments of the
expertise level of their celebrity with regard to fashion
(M= 3.34). In addition, their sense of being older than their
chronological age, their perception of the selected celebrity
as a role model, and their perceived doppelganger relationship
to their role model were slightly low (M=2.86,M= 2.60, and
Table 1. Means, standard deviations, range, and correlation coefcients of study 1
Means SD 1 2 3 4
1. Older cognitive age 2.86 1.07 (0.70)
2. Fashion consciousness 3.24 1.01 0.36 (0.69)
3. Role models perceived expertise 3.34 1.40 0.32 0.51 (0.88)
4. Role modelsinuence 2.60 1.29 0.48 0.59 0.59 (0.74)
5. Consumers doppelganger 2.38 1.42 0.39 0.41 0.52 0.68 (0.86)
All correlations are signicant at the p<0.01 level. Average variance extracted is in parenthesis.
Consumers doppelganger 63
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
M= 2.38, respectively). Next, we subjected the data to SEM
analysis and tested the measurement and the structural model.
Measurement model. The Conrmatory Factor Analysis CFA
results of the measurement model indicate that the model had
an acceptable t with the data: w
= 190.2 (df = 109; p<0.001);
= 1.74; CFI and NNFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.93, RMSEA =
0.07, and SRMR =.04. In addition, factor loadings were signif-
icant (p<0.01) and ranged from 0.73 to 0.91. Therefore, we
concluded that these measures were satisfactory for meeting
the requirements for convergent validity. Finally, moderate
correlations between the constructs ranged from 0.32 (for the
correlation between perceiving the celebrity as an expert and
older cognitive age) to 0.52 (for the correlation between perceiv-
ing the celebrity as an expert and consumer doppelganger),
suggesting that discriminant validity was achieved.
Structural model. The structural model tested the substantive
relationships between the constructs. The results of the structural
model, presented in Figure 1, indicate that the hypothesized
model ts the data well, with w
(df ) = 200.7 (112) p<0.001;
NNFI and CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.07, and SRMR = .04.
H1 postulated that the consumers doppelganger would be
positively associated with perceiving someone as a consumer
role model. As such, a signicant ( p<0.01) relationship was
found between teenagersconsumers doppelganger and per-
ceiving their celebrity as a role model (b= 0.70, 49%
explained variance). According to hypotheses H2H4, indi-
viduals will perceive someone as a consumer role model if
they see themselves as similar to this person, as measured
by cognitive age, sharing the same interest in fashion, and
perceiving him or her as an expert in this domain. These
hypotheses were fully supported. Teenagersperceptions of
their celebrity as a role model were positively and signi-
cantly ( p<0.01) related to cognitive age (g= 0.33), fashion
consciousness (g= 0.24), and the role models perceived
expertise (g= 0.33). The total explained variance of
perceiving the celebrity as a consumer role model was 54%.
Common method bias
As in every single source, self-reported research study, common
method bias (CMB) is a potential concern. To test for the pres-
ence of CMB, we used Harmans one-factor test and a conr-
matory factor analysis (Podsakoff et al., 2003). The results
revealed the existence of ve distinct factors reecting the re-
search constructs, with eigenvalues greater than 1.0, rather than
a single factor, which accounted for almost 76% of the total var-
iance. Factor loadings ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The rst factor
accounted for only 20% of the variance. Thus, no general factor
was apparent. Furthermore, we subjected the data to an SEM
conrmatory factor analysis, which showed that the single-
factor model did not t the data well, with w
= 1167.6; df = 120;
NFI = 0.50; CFI = 0.52; NNFI = 0.46; RMSEA = 0.25. Although
these results do not preclude the possibility of CMB, they do
suggest that CMB is not of great concern and thus is unlikely
to confound our interpretations.
As noted earlier, most of the research on consumer
mimicry has focused on automatic, unconscious mimicking
(e.g., Chartrand and Bargh, 1999; Tanner et al., 2008). This
study shows that individuals (in this case, teenage girls)
intentionally mimic other individuals whom they consider
to be role models, who are relevant to them. It is not merely
the mimicking act that is conscious. The ndings clearly
indicate that the subjects intentionally choose the gure they
want to emulate and report their inclination to mimic their
consumption behavior. Additionally, this study highlights
the importance of relevancy to the consumer behavior realm.
Similarities between the role model and the consumer, shared
interests, and the role models expertise in the consumption
domain will increase his or her inuence on the modeling
consumer. Finally, previous research on consumer modeling
indicates that role models affect other consumersprefer-
ences and buying intentions (e.g., Ward, 1974; Bush et al.,
2004). This study demonstrates that consumers have the
tendency to actually emulate a role models consumption
behaviors. We will discuss the implications of these ndings
in the discussion section.
The aim of study 2 is to test whether CDE exerts a bidirec-
tional inuence. Thus, we explore intentional mimicry within
explicit dyadic relationships by focusing on the tendency of
teenage girls to emulate their mothersconsumption behavior
as well as the tendency of the mothers to mimic their
daughters. To the best of our knowledge, this dyadic model
is the rst one to test the bidirectional inuence of children
and adults on the purchase of expressive products (clothes
and cosmetics) that both parties consume for personal use.
Although studies have looked at the inuence of children
on adults (e.g., Thomson et al., 2007), these studies focused
mainly on products that the family consumes as a unit
(e.g., cars, soup; Kim and Lee, 1997) or on products that
were important to the child (e.g., bicycles, computers;
Foxman et al., 1989).
Given the focus on a bidirectional CDE, we need to make
some adjustments to the studys hypotheses. The literature on
consumer socialization emphasizes that teenagers observe
their parentsbehaviors and preferences and model them
(Ward, 1974; Moschis, 1985; Ekstrom, 2007, 2010). In other
words, the core of relevancy shifts from an abstract percep-
tion of relevancy that the mimicker has (as in unidirectional
role modeling) to explicit behaviors that the mimicked
person performs. Thus, in addition to the original hypothe-
ses, this study argues that the mothers interest in fashion
and her perceived younger cognitive age will be positively
associated with her being perceived by her daughter as a
role model. Likewise, in order for the daughter to be a role
model for the mother in the consumption domain, she needs
to show an interest in fashion and exhibit an older cognitive
age. We make no adjustments to the hypothesis about the
role models perceived expertise.
H2a: A mothers younger cognitive age will be positively
related to her being perceivedby her daughter as a consumer
role model.
64 A. Ruvio et al.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
H2b: A daughters older cognitive age will be positively
related to her being perceived by her mother as a consumer
role model.
H3a: A high level of fashion consciousness on the part of
the mother will be positively related to the perception of
her daughter of her as a consumer role model.
H3b: A high level of fashion consciousness on the part of
the daughter will be positively related to the perception of
her mother of her as a consumer role model.
We used a sample of 343 dyads of mothers (age range: 3358)
and their adolescent daughters (age range: 1518). We distrib-
uted 560 self-report questionnaires to adolescent daughters in
ve metropolitan high schools in Israel and received 359 back,
for a 64% response rate. The girls took their questionnaires as
well as their mothersquestionnaires home and brought them
back to school for collection. Sixteen questionnaires were
disqualied because of missing information that prevented a
dyadic analysis. Thus, the nal sample includes 343 dyads of
mothers and their adolescent daughters (about 61% response
rate) with an average age of 16.41 (SD = 0.88) for the
daughters and 44.02 (5.17) for the mothers.
Measures and procedure
In this study, we use the same measures as in study 1. Both
the mothers and their daughters report their cognitive age,
their fashion consciousness, their perceived expertise in
clothing and cosmetics, the extent to which they perceive
their daughters/ mothers as consumer role models, and their
tendency to emulate their consumption behavior (the CDE).
As in study 1, we subjected our data to SEM analysis and
tested both the measurement model and the structural model.
This model tests the consumers doppelganger as a latent
construct composed of two indicatorsone from the mother
and one from the daughter. In other words, we calculated an
overall score of consumer doppelganger for the mother and
for the daughter separately. Next, we created a latent con-
struct in the SEM model consisting of these two variables,
one that represents the overall score for the mother and one
that represents the overall score for the daughter. As such,
this construct reects the mutual tendency of both parties to
resonate with one another. We entered the perception of the
mother as a consumer role model for her daughter as well
as the perception of the daughter as a consumer role model
for her mother as predictors of the consumers doppelganger.
Finally, in accordance with the hypotheses, we tested the three
measures of relevancy as predictors of role model inuence.
Specically, we posited that the daughters older cognitive
age, her perception of her mother as an expert, and her interest
in fashion would increase the perception of the mother as a
consumer role model, and vice versa for the mother. However,
given that these are dyadic relationships, we also conducted
tests to determine whether the mothers sense of youthfulness
and her interest in fashion would increase her perception as a
role model for her daughter, and whether the daughters older
cognitive age and her interest in fashion would increase her
perception as a role model for her mother.
Table 2 presents the means, standard deviations, and correla-
tion coefcients of the constructs in study 2. According to these
ndings, both mothers and daughters show a similar level of
fashion consciousness (M
= 2.81 versus M
and consumersdoppelganger (M
=2.30 versus
= 2.40) with no signicant differences between them.
Mothersperceptions of their daughters as experts were
signicantly higher than the daughtersperceptions of the
mothers as experts (M
= 3.08 versus M
t=3.93, p<0.001). However, the mothersperceptions of
their daughters as role models were signicantly lower than
the daughtersperceptions of their mothers as role models
=2.67 versus M
= 3.37; t= 17.49, p<0.001).
Measurement model
The results of the measurement model of study 2 demonstrated
an acceptable twithw
=722.16 (df =225; p<0.001);
= 3.2; CFI and NNFI = 0.95, NFI = 0.92,
RMSEA = 0.08, and SRMR = 0.04. In addition, signicant
(p<0.01) factor loadings ranged from 0.66 to 0.89. There-
fore, we concluded that these measures were satisfactory
for meeting the requirements for convergent validity.
Table 2. Means, standard deviations, range, and correlation coefcients of study 2
Mean SD 12345678910
1. Older cognitive age 2.73 0.93 (0.70)
2. Fashion consciousness 2.98 1.10 0.21 (0.71)
3. Mothers perceived expertise 2.83 1.06 0.25 0.42 (0.75)
4. Perception of the mother as a role model 3.37 1.29 0.20 0.31 0.58 (0.74)
5. Consumers doppelganger 2.40 1.01 0.32 0.41 0.47 0.43 (0.68)
6.Younger cognitive age 3.51 1.00 0.13 0.17 0.31 0.58 (0.71)
7. Fashion consciousness 2.81 1.03 0.25 0.47 0.61 0.61 0.45 (0.72)
8.Daughters perceived expertise 3.08 1.05 0.16 0.56 0.39 0.40 0.24 0.43 (0.71)
9. Perception of the daughter as a role model 2.67 1.10 0.14 0.50 0.23 0.39 0.24 0.40 0.53 (0.70)
10. Consumers doppelganger 2.30 1.02 0.32 0.41 0.47 0.43 0.32 0.59 0.49 0.58 (0.68)
All correlations higher than 0.10 are signicant at the p<0.01 level.
Consumers doppelganger 65
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
Correlations between the constructs ranged from 0.01 (for
the correlation between perceiving the mother as an expert
and the mother mimicking her daughter) to 0.55 (for the
correlation between perceiving the daughter as a role model
for the mother and their mutual CDE), suggesting that
discriminant validity was achieved.
Structural model
Table 3 and Figure 2 presents the results of the structural model
of study 2, showing that the hypothesized model ts the data
well, with w
(df ) = 775.17 (233) p=0.00; all model ts are
over 0.90, RMSEA = 0.08, and SRMR = 0.05. There are
positive and signicant (p<0.01) relationships between the
perception of the mother/daughter as a role model and consu-
mers doppelganger. However, the mothersperceptions of
their daughters as consumer role models are a stronger predic-
tor of their mutual CDE than the daughtersperceptions of
the mothers as consumer role models (b=0.50 vs. b=0.27,
respectively; 40% explained variance of CDE). These ndings
support H1 for both mothers and daughters.
Hypotheses H2H4 focus on the relationships between
relevancy and the perception of the mother/daughter as
consumer role model. According to the results, the daugh-
tersperceptions of their mothers as consumer role models
were positively related to the extent to which they view their
mothers as experts in cosmetics and clothing (g= 0.35; H4
for the mothers), to the mothersperceptions about being a
younger cognitive age (g= 0.40; H2a) and to the mothers
level of fashion consciousness (g= 0.32; H3a). The total
explained variance of the mothers as role models for their
daughters is 50%. Surprisingly, the daughtersinterest in
fashion and their older cognitive age have no signicant
relationship with their mothersinuence as role models.
Daughters will be regarded as consumer role models for
their mothers if the mothers see them as experts in fashion
(g= 0.35; H4 for the daughters) and if they both share an
interest in cosmetics and clothing (g= 0.16 for the mothers;
H3, g= 0.29 for the daughters; H3b). The total explained
variance of the daughters as role models for their mothers
is 30%. Neither the cognitive age of the daughters nor the
mothers is associated with the daughtersinuence on their
mothers as role models, leading to the rejection of H2 (for
the daughters) and H2b.
The results of study 2 corroborate those of study 1. The CDE
occurs when the mimicking consumer views the mimicked
individual as a role model, providing the latter is relevant
to the former. The ndings also suggest that intentional
mimicry between dyads can be asymmetric. According to
the results, mothers who see their daughters as consumer role
models will tend to doppelgang their consumption behavior.
However, this relationship between the perception of the
mother as a role model for the daughter and the tendency
of the daughter to doppelgang her mother is not as strong.
There was a signicant difference between these correlations
= 0.50 versus r
= 0.27; z= 3.55, p<0.001).
This nding may suggest that teenage girls prefer to mimic
others they nd more relevant to them. Possible explanations
for this asymmetry will be presented in the general discussion.
These ndings of the model of study 2 suggest that when
dealing with dyads, the focus of relevancy shifts from an
internal reference of relevancy (such as in a unidirectional
role model) to an external one. In unidirectional mimicry,
the role models relevancy rests upon the mimickers percep-
tion of relevancy alone, as there is no actual contact between
the mimicker and the role model. In bidirectional mimicry,
the mimicker has an opportunity to observe the role models
behavior. To the best of our knowledge, this is the rst study
that tests relevancy with regard to both unidirectional and
bidirectional role models.
Finally, this study contributes to the literature on family
consumption. As noted earlier, studies exploring the inu-
ence of children on their parentsconsumption behavior
focused mainly on products that the entire family consumes
or are relevant to the child (Foxman et al., 1989; Thomson
et al., 2007). However, the ndings of this study clearly
demonstrate that children affect their parentsconsumption
behavior with regard to the products that the parents
themselves consume. These ndings may provide initial
Table 3. Regression weights and t measures of the structural model of study 2
From To Standardized regression weights*
Mothers constructs
Younger cognitive age Mother as a role model for the daughter 0.40**
Fashion consciousness Mother as a role model for the daughter 0.32**
Perceived expertise Mother as a role model for the daughter 0.35**
Younger cognitive age Daughter as a role model for the mother 0.07
Fashion consciousness Daughter as a role model for the mother 0.16*
Mother as a role model for the daughter Consumers doppelganger 0.27**
Older cognitive age Daughter as a role model for the mother 0.04
Fashion consciousness Daughter as a role model for the mother 0.30**
Perceived expertise Daughter as a role model for the mother 0.35**
Older cognitive age Mother as a role model for the daughter 0.02
Fashion consciousness Mother as a role model for the daughter 0.02
Daughter as a role model for the mother Consumers doppelganger 0.50**
Fit measures w
(df ); p= 775.17 (233); 0.00
NFI; NNFI; CFI; RMSEA 0.95; 0.96; 0.96; 0.08
*p<0.05. **p<0.01.
66 A. Ruvio et al.
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
support for what Moschis (1985) calls reverse socialization
(Ekstrom, 2007).
Consumers mimic other consumers. They often do so
automatically and unintentionally (Tanner et al., 2008), but
our study demonstrated that consumers also tend to mimic
others intentionally when they perceive them as consumer
role models. By integrating two streams of researchthe
study of mimicry and the literature on role modelingwe
sought insights into the phenomenon of what we termed
the CDE. Thus, this research contributes to the knowledge
about mimicry, role modeling, and family consumption.
Consumers doppelganger effect and the study of
This paper provides evidence that consumers will tend to
intentionally mimic other consumers they regard as either
unidirectional or bidirectional role models (e.g., family mem-
bers, friends, teachers, and celebrities). Focusing on teenage
girls, we found that the teenage girls in study 1 demonstrated
a signicantly stronger inclination to doppelgang the con-
sumption behavior of a celebrity than the girls who emulated
their mothers in the second study (0.70 in study 1 versus 0.27
in study 2; Z= 6.01, p<0.001). Although this cross-study
comparison should be interpreted with caution, this nding
is fully consistent with the stage in life when forming an
independent self-perception that is a crucial task (Erikson,
1980). During this quest for self-denition, teenagers may
see a remote celebrity as the representation of a desirable
possible self (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997; Nuttall, 2009),
enabling adolescents to experiment with alternative selves
and separate themselves from their parents. Another strong
potential source of mimicry, especially for teenagers, is their
peers. Studies show that the inuence of peers peaks during
the teen years (Elliott and Leonard, 2004; Nuttall, 2009)
and that certain peers are more inuential than others (e.g.,
peer group leaders). Thus, the dynamics of bidirectional
mimicry of peers may be very different in terms of its
magnitude. Future studies should explore the concept of the
consumers doppelganger in the context of peer groups.
Finally, this study does not examine the possible
consequences of consumers doppelganger inclinations. For
example, studies on automatic mimicry suggest that it serves
as a powerful communication tool (Bavelas et al., 1986).
Whereas automatic mimicry communicates to the person
being mimicked that I show how you feel(Bavelas et al.,
1986), intentional mimicry may communicate a different
set of messages, such as I show who I want to be.This
type of message associates intentional mimicry with self-
perception. We can assume that consumers will mimic other
consumers to signal membership in a desirable social group,
as well as to differentiate themselves from other, less desirable,
social groups (Lakin et al., 2008). This dual motivation
would have an effect on their product and brand choices, tastes,
and behaviors. Consequently, the consumers doppelganger
should be positively associated with constructs such as
brand consciousness.
* p< 0.05; ** p< 0.01
cognitive age
cognitive age
Daughter as a
role model for
the mother
Mother as a
role model for
the daughter
Figure 2. Structural model of study 2direct role model.
Consumers doppelganger 67
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Consumer Behav. 12:6069 (2013)
DOI: 10.1002/cb
Role modeling
This paper shows that consumers doppelgang those whom
they see as role models, on the basis of their relevancy.
The ndings suggest that the domain of relevance is a
dynamic concept that changes in different situations. The
ndings also demonstrate that it is the individuals percep-
tion that he or she shares certain characteristics with the
role model that establishes the relevancy of a unidirectional
role model (where there is no direct interaction with the role
model). In contrast, in a dyadic relationship, it is the actual
behavior of the role model that governs this perception.
These ndings extend the knowledge about relevancy,
suggesting that it is not merely the domain of relevance that
plays a part in role modeling (Lockwood and Kunda, 1997)
but also the intensity of the relevancy. These ndings align
with previous studies, which report that the impact of direct
role models (Figure 2) is stronger than that of indirect models
(e.g., Clark et al., 2001). Here too, the question regarding
boundary conditions arises. It is plausible to assume that
one can be irrelevant to another person, leading to ones
rejection as a possible role model. However, can relevancy
be manipulated to make a seemingly irrelevant person
become relevant, and consequently be modeled? Recall that
this view of the domain of relevance consists of many factors
directly related to an individuals identity, which jointly
determine whether one will model the consumption behavior
of another individual (Tesser, 1986; Lockwood and Kunda,
1997). It may be possible to manipulate the level of perceived
relevancy using different determinates of relevancy, such as
ethnic identity, group identication, and social class, as well
as other factors that reect the individualsself-identity.Such
manipulation can potentially increase/decrease the perceived
relevancy of an irrelevant/relevant person and ultimately affect
his or her likelihood of being modeled. This line of research
can also help determine which factors serve as better proxies
for relevancy under different conditions.
Family consumption
We found that mothers doppelgang their adolescent daughters.
As noted, research on family consumption demonstrates that
children affect their parentsbuying decisions when it comes
to products that the family consumes as a unit or are consumed
by the child (Foxman et al., 1989; Ekstrom, 2007; Thomson
et al., 2007; Mittal and Royne, 2010). However, this study
shows that children affect their parents even when it comes
to the consumption of expressive products that the parent alone
uses. This nding provides initial support for the notion of
reverse socialization (Moschis, 1985; Ekstrom, 2007, 2010)
and suggests that the impact adolescents have on their parents
is much more profound than has been credited to them. The
possibility that adults tend to emulate their childrens con-
sumption behavior should be taken into consideration in future
studies on the family dynamics of consumption behavior.
Conclusions and future challenges
Although the study demonstrates that consumers intention-
ally mimic other consumers they regard as relevant role
models, it does suffer from some limitations. For example,
we use convenience samples in these studies, which might
raise a question about the generalizability of the ndings.
Nevertheless, these ndings are consistent in three different
samples. In addition, these studies look only at teenage girls
between the ages of 15 and 18 and their mothers. A valid
question would be whether the ndings of this paper are
restricted to this special dyadic relationship. One might argue
that mothers and daughters have a special relationship that
may not exist in other types of relationships (e.g., fathers
and sons, siblings). In addition, studies have demonstrated
that similarity is very effective for girls, as girls tend to be
strongly inuenced by female role models (for a review,
see Groesz et al., 2002). For boys, however, similarity is
less effective. Thus, one might ask whether teenage boys
exhibit similar CDEs with regard to their fathers or other
male role models.
Another issue that needs to be addressed in future studies
is the extent to which the phenomenon of the consumers
doppelganger is different from other closely related con-
structs such as the reference group effect. Even if individuals
are inuenced by others in their environment, it does not
necessarily mean that they will mimic these people. Where
does social inuence end and doppelganging begin? What
are the distinct characteristics of each phenomenon and to
what extent and under what conditions do they overlap?
These questions were not addressed in this paper, but
deserve scholarly attention and investigation. Despite the
weaknesses of the present effort, we have acquired some
useful understanding of the CDE that hopefully will attract
further scholarly attention.
Dr. Ayalla Ruvio is an assistant professor of Marketing at the Fox
School of Business at Temple University; she received her PhD from
the University of Haifa in Israel and was a visiting scholar at the
University of Michigan. She is a consumer behavior researcher who
focuses on issues such as consumersself-identity, possessions as an
extension of the self, materialism, consumersneed for uniqueness,
and cross-cultural consumer behavior. Dr. Ruvio has published her
work in refereed journals including the Journal of Academy of
Marketing Science, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Con-
sumer Behaviour, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Leader-
ship Quarterly.
Yossi Gavish (PhD, 2009, Haifa University) is a lecturer in marketing
and economic in the Ono Academic College. His research focuses
mainly on consumer behavior (consumer socialization, Intergenera-
tional inuences) and drivers of customersreactions to service
Aviv Shoham (PhD, 1993, University of Oregon) is an associate
professor of marketing and head of the Business Administration De-
partment at the University of Haifa, Israel. He serves as a visiting pro-
fessor at the Ljubljana University, Slovenia. His research focuses on
international marketing management/strategy and international con-
sumer behavior. His research has been published in journals such as
the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Management Inter-
national Review,theJournal of International Marketing, Interna-
tional Marketing Review,theJournal of Business Research,the
Journal of Advertising Research, International Business Review,the
Journal of Applied Social Psychology,theEuropean Journal of Mar-
keting, European Journal of Management, and the Journal of Global
68 A. Ruvio et al.
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Consumers doppelganger 69
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DOI: 10.1002/cb
... Peers influence consumers' purchase intentions on Instagram (Copeland & Zhao, 2020). People copy the consumption behaviours of other consumers (Ruvio, Gavish, & Shoham, 2013), and this mimicry can further influence preferences toward the consumed items (Tanner, Ferraro, Chartrand, Bettman, & Baaren, 2007). Traditionally, the object of mimicry has been limited to role models such as superstars, actors, and mothers (Gavish, Shoham, & Ruvio, 2010;Martin & Bush, 2000). ...
... However, mimicry should not be dismissed as always negative. Mimicry consumption can be a conscious choice that occurs when consumers are aware of their own buying and consumption behaviours (Ruvio et al., 2013). Consumers can use a 'follow' service to choose the sources of their information according to their preferences. ...
... Specifically, they emphasised the importance of discovering the imitable consumption-orientated behaviours that do not occur in the context of direct interactions. In a later study, Ruvio et al. (2013) noted that although consumers can be unconsciously influenced by others, they may also choose to follow those they resonate with and make purposeful decisions. A series of experiments conducted by Hug et al. in 2014 revealed that people mimic other people's product choices. ...
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The increase in the use of social media in recent years has enabled users to obtain vast amounts of information from different sources. Unprecedented technological developments are currently enabling social media influencers to build powerful interactivity with their followers. These interactions have, in one way or another, influenced young people's behaviors, attitudes, and choices. Thus, this study contributes to the psychological literature by proposing a new approach for constructing collective cognitive maps to explain the effect of social media influencers' distinctive features on teenagers' behavior. More in depth, this work is an attempt to use cognitive methods to identify adolescents' mental models in the Tunisian context. The findings reveal that the influencers' distinctive features are interconnected. As a result, the influencer's distinctive features are confirmed in one way or another, to the teenagers' behavior. These findings provide important insights and recommendations for different users, including psychologists and academics.
... In the following sections, different theoretical frameworks that apply to the study of influencer marketing are detailed. Ruvio et al. (2013) suggested that the desire to mimic others plays a significant role in influencing consumers' decisions. In particular, individuals mimic the consumer behavior of others when those sources of comparison are considered role models. ...
... Their findings showed that consumers' positive attitudes toward the content resulted in a stronger desire to mimic influencer behavior, and thus, stronger intentions to engage in eWOM and purchase intentions. Given that after a target consumer develops positive attitudes to influencer content, consumers may feel inspired to conform to the lifestyle and preferences depicted in the influencer posts (Ruvio et al., 2013), it is important to investigate the emotional and behavioral outcomes when consumers cannot comply with the behavior depicted by an influencer. ...
Scholars have noted that consumer processing of ads leads to a number of unintended effects, such as irrationality, depression and lower self-esteem, and marginalization. The call for more research on how advertising hinders well-being is ever prevalent (Stafford & Pounders, 2019). Influencers have become particularly important for marketers given that they hold a level of trust akin to that of close friends (Swant, 2016), which makes their content more persuasive than other strategies (Lou & Yuan, 2019). As social media users are cutting back social media consumption because of negative outcomes such as problematic social media use (Marino et al., 2016), fatigue (Dhir, Yossatorn, Kaur, & Chen, 2018), addiction (Su; Han, Yu, Wu & Potenza, 2020), and life dissatisfaction (Chu, Windels, & Kamal, 2016), a question remains: what are the unintended effects of exposure to influencer marketing?
... There is a desire among people to mimic their role models as per social learning theory. Imitating role models affects consumer purchase intentions and brand preferences (Ruvio et al. 2013). Within the SMI context, De Veirman et al. (2017) states that consumers may perceive influencers as role models and seek to imitate them. ...
... Mimicking can be a conscious or unconscious process through which an individual tries to replicate a role model's consumption patterns (e.g. product or brand preferences) (Ruvio et al. 2013). In this case, influencers are role models whom followers are trying to imitate. ...
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Objective-This paper conceptualizes a novel theoretical model of consumer mimicry of various types of influencers and associated behavioral outcomes. Design-This model was conceptualized after a thorough literature review and gap analysis. Moreover, prominent and underrepresented concepts from the literature were integrated to develop the novel model synthesized in this paper. Findings-Many facets of social media influencers have been studied in extant literature. These include source and content characteristics along with marketing strategies and sponsorship disclosures. However, most studies examine influencers from a broad perspective without refinement. Influencers are grouped into four categories based on their following and expertise: mega, macro, micro, and mini-influencers. Such categorizations are rarely reflected in the existing literature. Moreover, consumer mimicry of influencers and the consumer well-being aspects have been largely understudied. Policy Implications-Choosing the right influencer is challenging. Therefore, recognizing which types of influencers evoke consumer mimicry (and which don't) will ease the selection process. This will increase the efficiency of influencer marketing campaigns run by marketers and brands. Originality-This is the first paper to incorporate all four types of influencer categories into a theoretical model. Subsequently, the largely scarce concept in SMI research, consumer well-being, has also been incorporated to ensure followers' welfare.
... La teoría de las marcas humanas propone que este fuerte apego hace que sean lideres para crear efectos de marketing exitosos (Ki et al., 2020); de hecho, a la gente le gusta e imita el papel de modelos, como una celebridad, cuyos comportamientos y actitudes son lo suficientemente inspiradores como para inducirlos a modificar sus propias actitudes y comportamientos para que coincidan con la celebridad (Ruvio et al., 2013). Ellos creen, que siguiendo modelos inspiradores apoyan su personal auto-mejora (Lockwood & Kunda, 1999); por lo tanto, postulamos que un SMI que muestra una personalidad inspiradora hará que los seguidores perciban esta SMI como marca humana que satisface la necesidad de idealidad de los seguidores (Ki et al., 2020). ...
El constante flujo de datos en todos los escenarios de una realidad globalizada, obligan a que los especialistas estén en constante movimiento para mantener un adecuado nivel de conocimiento sobre los tópicos de su interés, este aspecto cobra vital importancia si se trata de aspectos de marketing o mercadotecnia. Aunado a ello, si se concreta más este escenario, con la inclusión de datos del sector primario y específicamente de los agronegocios, el reto es viable, obvio esta decir que en la búsqueda se establece que la información debe contener los principios básicos de oportunidad, suficiencia y pertinentes. Todo ello se agrupa en torno a un sistema de información, que se debe elaborar el diseño conceptual de dicho sistema sobre aspectos de marketing en los agronegocios, capaz de integrar información, imágenes, estudios, estadísticas, medio ambiente y con ello generar indicadores, estudios y proyecciones acerca del tema, su evolución, perspectivas y prospectiva para apoyar la toma de decisiones en la materia. La presente propuesta señala los pasos a seguir para lograr tal propósito, en una primera parte se analizan los conceptos teóricos, para posteriormente establecer las políticas de funcionamiento, los indicadores primarios y los límites para determinar el funcionamiento de las sesiones de trabajo de los actores involucrados, los productos que genera y las características de los servicios que prestaría.
... La teoría de las marcas humanas propone que este fuerte apego hace que sean lideres para crear efectos de marketing exitosos (Ki et al., 2020); de hecho, a la gente le gusta e imita el papel de modelos, como una celebridad, cuyos comportamientos y actitudes son lo suficientemente inspiradores como para inducirlos a modificar sus propias actitudes y comportamientos para que coincidan con la celebridad (Ruvio et al., 2013). Ellos creen, que siguiendo modelos inspiradores apoyan su personal auto-mejora (Lockwood & Kunda, 1999); por lo tanto, postulamos que un SMI que muestra una personalidad inspiradora hará que los seguidores perciban esta SMI como marca humana que satisface la necesidad de idealidad de los seguidores (Ki et al., 2020). ...
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la mercadotecnia política en las redes sociales de jóvenes adolescentes
The fourth industrial revolution has fundamentally altered the way we live, and social media has become a crucial channel for the promotion of brands through influencers. This study explored the relationship between a virtual influencer's attractiveness and a consumer's purchase intention, the mediating effect of mimetic desire and brand attachment, as well as the moderating effect of the product–endorser fit with the brand. An online survey of 364 female Instagram users was developed using confirmatory factor analysis and PROCESS macro models 4 and 59. The findings revealed that virtual influencers' attractiveness was not directly associated with purchase intention; however, mimetic desire and brand attachment mediated this relationship. Additionally, the conditional direct effect of virtual influencers' attractiveness on purchase intention was partially supported while indirect effects via mimetic desire and brand attachment were moderated by the product–endorser fit. This study makes important contributions to source attractiveness model literature through emphasis on the role of virtual influencers in enhancing customers' favorable perceptions toward advertisements, which in turn leads to greater purchase intention. It also suggests managerial implications for marketers, including the finding that a good product–endorser match is a crucial factor in determining the effectiveness of advertisements.
This research examines how arriving late to social gatherings operates as a signal of social connectedness and desirability, leading to elevated sociometric status attributions. Drawing on costly signaling theory and the premises of sociometric status and consumption mimicry, we argue that tardiness to a gathering, as a costly and visible signal, can lead to positive inferences of sociometric status, thereby leading to mimicry. We define fashionably late as a separating equilibrium tardiness based on a signaling game and demonstrate through a series of experimental studies that people infer higher status to late- rather than on-time-arriving people. Consequently, they strive to be in the same social network with such individuals, favor their product choices, and imitate their consumption behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on the conspicuous consumption of time and to research on costly signaling by revealing the powerful influence of signaling (through late arrival to a social event) on perceptions of sociometric status.
Elon Musk, one of the richest individuals in the world, is considered a technological visionary and has a social network of over 110 million followers on social media platform Twitter. He regularly uses his social media presence to communicate on various topics, one of which is cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin or Dogecoin. Using an event study approach, we analyze to what extent Musk's Twitter activity affects short-term cryptocurrency returns and volume. In other words, we investigate whether cryptocurrency markets exhibit a “Musk Effect”. Based on a sample of 47 cryptocurrency-related Twitter events, we identify significant positive abnormal returns and trading volume following such events. However, we discover that on average, price effects are only significant for Dogecoin-related Tweets but not for Bitcoin. This is because regarding the latter, the significant price effects of positive and negative news cancel each other out. Considered in isolation, non-negative tweets from Musk lead to significantly positive abnormal Bitcoin returns. Individual tweets do raise the price of Bitcoin by 16.9 % or reduce it by almost 11.8 %. Our study shows the significant impact that the social media activity of influential individuals can have on cryptocurrencies. This suggests a conflict between morals, risks of market manipulation and investor protection.
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Purpose – Social media influencers (SMIs) are becoming a powerful force within the marketing and branding landscape, with several leading brands opting to use SMI endorsements for their products and brands. Extant SMI literature has primarily focused on the influence mechanism exerted by SMIs on their followers. Less is known about how followers view their favorite SMIs. This study aims to explore the SMI–follower relationship from the follower’s perspective and examine the underlying attachment mechanism. Design/methodology/approach – First, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the attributes that individuals consider following an SMI and ensure that it is consistent with the literature review. This was followed by a survey-based quantitative study where a structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses using 508 SMI followers. Findings – Followers find the SMI as a source to fulfill their intrinsic needs, that is, need to escape or self-improvement. The findings of this study suggest that followers attribute glamor, fun and connectedness to the SMIs driven by their need for self-improvement and fun with their need to escape. Finally, these attributions influence the overall perceived image of the SMI in followers’ minds. Originality/value – This study uses qualitative and quantitative approaches to picture SMIs as human brands from a follower’s need fulfillment perspective. Keywords Social media influencers, Attachment theory, Escape, Self-improvement, Human brand theory
h1> The central purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between television viewing habits of children and their consumer behavior, however this study also focuses on possible factors influencing television viewing. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed to school going children between the ages of 10-12, personality measurements were taken through a semantic test. The aspects of children’s consumer socialization included in this study are how much television children watch, what they watch and their purchasing behavior. The children’s gender and family income are considered as influences on their television viewing and consumer socialization. Results of the study indicated that family income and personality traits had a significant effect on the Childs consumer socialization; it also identified relationship between other demographic factors and consumer socialization. Shown by a p value in the chi-square table as p<0.1. This research was originally conducted in Malaysia and it will be interesting to see its results in Pakistan, secondly with the growing influence of television viewing in our everyday lives and also the identification of children as a vital part of the consumer population this study carries importance both in the field of psychology and marketing. </h1
What drives children as consumers? How do advertising campaigns and branding effect children and young people? How do children themselves understand and evaluate these influences? Whether fashion, toys, food, branding, money - from TV adverts and the supermarket aisle, to the internet and peer trends, there is a growing presence of marketing forces directed at and influencing children and young people. How should these forces be understood, and what means of research or dialogue is required to assess them? With critical insight, the contributors to this collection, take up the evaluation of the child as an active consumer, and offer a valuable rethinking of the discussions and literature on the subject. Features: • 14 original chapters from leading researchers in the field • Each chapter contains vignettes or case examples to reinforce learning • Contains consideration of future research directions in each of the topics that the chapters cover. This book will be relevant reading for postgraduates and advanced undergraduates with an interest in children as consumers, consumer behaviour and on marketing courses in general as well as for researchers working in this field.
The goal of the present research was to analyze the consumer socialization process of adolescents, utilizing social learning theory as a conceptual guide to understand how role models influence adolescents’ materialism and marketplace knowledge. A convenience sample of 175 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 18 were surveyed in a major metropolitan area. Direct role models included in this study were mothers, fathers and teachers. Vicarious role models included athletes and entertainers. Results at the .05 level of significance show that materialism and marketplace knowledge are associated with members of both direct and vicarious role model groups. Specifically for materialism, athletes and fathers were found to have the greatest impact. Teachers and athlete role models were found to have the greatest impact on adolescents’ marketplace knowledge. Implications from the empirical analysis of these proposed relationships are provided for marketing managers and practitioners.
The close ties between the U.S. and Mexican market has led to an increasing number of American firms considering operations south of the border. A number of segments within the Mexican market represent substantial opportunities for U.S. companies. This study considers the information sources used to form brand preferences by the emerging adolescent segment in the Mexican market when compared to their American counterparts. The findings indicate that Mexican adolescents are receptive to outside information sources in forming brand preferences for products at various involvement levels. However, significant differences exist between Mexican and American adolescents suggesting that, for U.S. firms to be successful in reaching this market segment in Mexico, a specialized advertising strategy may be advisable.
In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
The authors integrate theory developed in several disciplines to determine five cognitive processes through which industrial buyers can develop trust of a supplier firm and its salesperson. These processes provide a theoretical framework used to identify antecedents of trust. The authors also examine the impact of supplier firm and salesperson trust on a buying firm's current supplier choice and future purchase intentions. The theoretical model is tested on data collected from more than 200 purchasing managers. The authors find that several variables influence the development of supplier firm and salesperson trust. Trust of the supplier firm and trust of the salesperson (operating indirectly through supplier firm trust) influence a buyer's anticipated future interaction with the supplier. However, after controlling for previous experience and supplier performance, neither trust of the selling firm nor its salesperson influence the current supplier selection decision.