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The negative effects of open government data - Investigating the dark side of open data

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Abstract

Reports and research appears to assume that the benefits of open data dominate open data’s negative consequences. Moreover, much of the existing research discusses benefits and disadvantages on a high level without providing much detailed insight in the underlying processes. Yet many governments are reluctant to open their data, as they are afraid of possible negative consequences of opening data. The objective of this policy paper is to better understand the aspects of the dark side of open data and contributes to the literature by providing a more realistic perspective on open data. We conducted nineteen in depth interviews with public sector officials and data archivists and identified sixteen categories of negative effects. For the dark side inherent to open data efforts the research suggests that a context and dataset dependent decision-making model needs to be made weighing the benefits of open data on the one hand (e.g. creating transparency, the possibility to strengthen economic growth), and the risks and disadvantages of open data (e.g. violating privacy and possible misuse and misinterpretation of data) on the other hand.

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... The data might also lack utility and have no usability, which would make OGD costly. Zuiderwijk and Janssen (2014b) have identified through interviews that data can be biased and have poor quality. ...
... OGD has the risk to come with more than benefits. Zuiderwijk and Janssen (2014b) have observed in interviews that users may misinterpret data, misuse data, and violate others' privacy. Barry and Bannister (2014) report a risk of media running with more negative stories about the government or public organizations, something that can increase mistrust between the government and the citizens. ...
... The publisher registers metadata on an OGD portal and the OGD portal presents the metadata to the user Attard et al., 2015). The user searches the OGD portal to find the data (Lee, 2014;Zuiderwijk et al., 2014b). ...
... OGD publishers are public organisations, (Lassinantti et al., 2019;Safarov et al., 2017) and their value for publishing data is said to be benefits, such as cost reductions, increased citizen participation, and transparency (Carrara et al., 2018;Hartog et al., 2014;Janssen et al., 2012;Kucera & Chlapek, 2014). However, publishing OGD also has potential downsides, such as misinterpretations, misuse, and privacy violations (Barry & Bannister, 2014;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014a). ...
... The data's accuracy and "truth" are grounded in the practices of those who manipulate and mobilize them (Denis & Goëta, 2014). It contains the activities to: (1) create or collect data, (2) store data, process data, and (3) evaluate data (Carrara et al., 2018;Charalabidis et al., 2018;Esteve Casellas Serra, 2014;SKL, 2017;Trafikverket, 2019;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014a. This element also concerns, the information management of the organization (Carrara et al., 2018;Naturvårdsverket, 2018;ÖppnaData.SE, 2018). ...
... The monitoring could include monitoring the performance of the data and the system, and collection and preparation performance (Carrara et al., 2018), changes in organizational culture (Folmer et al., 2011), achievement of objectives (Lee, 2014). Other parts to monitor are, how the data portal is used (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014a), potential risks (Kucera et al., 2015), and how the published data is reused (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). The OGD team should assess the political, social, economic, technical, and operational impact of the OGD initiative, both internally and externally (Charalabidis et al., 2018;Folmer et al., 2011). ...
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This paper presents an Open Government Data (OGD) publisher framework, with work roles, field of work, and environmental descriptions. Previous knowledge about publishers' work is fragmented, with gaps and variations, indicating a high level of complexity with variations in approaches and processes. A two-stage research approach, based on Design Science Research, was used to synthesize the publisher framework. First, a tentative framework was synthesized from previous research, empirical material, and public documents. Second, it was reviewed by informed OGD experts, as well as researchers attending a work conference, and evaluated in two international contexts. As a result, the publisher framework includes environments, social units, and fields of work. The publisher framework is ready to be evaluated in other international contexts, where as, practitioners can use it to inform their work.
... While there is evidence that the imputed benefits of open data are being realized in some instances (European Commission, 2015;Straub et al., 2019;Verhulst & Young, 2017), studies also indicate that open data efforts have a mixed track record overall (Hossain et al., 2016;Janssen et al., 2012;C. Martin, 2014;Peled, 2011;Wang & Lo, 2016;Worthy, 2015;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). They often fail to generate intended benefits while at the same time generating unintended ones (Zuiderwijk et al., 2019). ...
... Huang et al., 2020;Janssen et al., 2012;Ma & Lam, 2019;C. Martin, 2014;Wirtz et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2015;Zuiderwijk, Helbig, et al., 2014a;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014;Zuiderwijk, Janssen, & Davis, 2014b). However, research on barriers to open data has not focused on environmental or water data. ...
... As mentioned by Conradie and Choenni (2014), the actual tasks of publishing open data sometimes fall to people for whom it is not part of their routine work. An interviewee told Zuiderwijk and Janssen (2014), "[o]ur politicians are not aware of what is necessary. First they push to publicize data, next they complain about the transparency and ask us to react to the questions asked … transparency seems to be desirable only for others rather than for their own activities". ...
Article
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Although the proliferation of open water data platforms and initiatives in recent years is a laudable phenomenon, there is little empirical evidence indicating whether and to what extent these efforts are generating anticipated benefits of improved transparency, citizen participation, innovation, and water resource decision making. Relatedly, water resource researchers have devoted little attention to identifying and accounting for barriers that may be limiting open water data efforts from realizing their potential. The premise of this overview is that (a) open water data efforts could be improved with a better understanding of the non‐technical challenges and that (b) water researchers interested in open water data would benefit from delving into the emerging body of research in public policy, information science, and other disciplines on open data barriers more broadly. However, the research on open data barriers has neglected water sustainability issues. In light of this asymmetry, the aim of this overview is to foster interdisciplinary engagement on this topic by introducing the water resource community to this literature via a discussion of key social barriers to open data. Additionally, I hope to motivate water resource researchers to develop a two‐way interdisciplinary engagement by making original research contributions to this larger literature. This article is categorized under: Engineering Water Science of Water > Methods Human Water > Water Governance Human Water > Water as Imagined and Represented The proliferation of open water data platforms and initiatives in recent years offers opportunities to research their effectiveness and impact. Although the water research community has paid little attention to the issue of non‐technical barriers to open water data, there is a growing body of research on open data more broadly that could provide relevant insights and generate valuable research directions for academics and practitioners interested in realizing the promise of open water data.
... Additional documented challenges to this open science system have been discussed in other works (e.g., Grant & Hrynaszkiewicz, 2018;Keßler & McKenzie, 2018;Schmidt et al., 2016;Sturges et al., 2015;Williams et al., 2019). An important consideration is that compliance with data availability policies does not equate to provision of quality data (Johnson et al., 2017;Peled, 2011;Sturges et al., 2015); yet the success of open data policies is often judged on compliance rather than quality (Janssen et al., 2012;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). If data are not reused, the investment in making them available is lost (Janssen et al., 2012;Koltay, 2020). ...
... One caveat to open data requirements is that individual privacy must be protected and carefully weighed against rights of access (Coetzee et al., 2020;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014a), which presents challenges for open geospatial data (Elwood & Leszczynski, 2011;Keßler & McKenzie, 2018;Kounadi & Leitner, 2014). Although historically governments have faced pressure to release geospatial data for general use (Rhind, 1999), many government agencies have incentives to release limited geospatial data (Janssen et al., 2012;Rhind, 1999;Sieber & Johnson, 2015;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Compliance with the 2018 OPEN Government Data Act illustrates the variability in how agencies have responded to federal mandates, including release of geospatial data (Kriesberg & Kowall, 2020;Peled, 2011). ...
... Methods for de-identifying data to protect privacy are well established in many fields that involve human subjects; however, datasets may be combined to reveal sensitive information about participants (Elwood & Leszczynski, 2011;Keßler & McKenzie, 2018;Kulk & Van Loenen, 2012;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Researchers have sought to develop best practices to minimize these risks (Bhumiratana & Bishop, 2009;Lundberg et al., 2019), and privacy considerations have been expanded to consider also future methodologies that may de-identify data; both efforts present challenges because it is unknown which variables pose such risks when datasets are combined (Kulk & Van Loenen, 2012;Wiseman et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Scientists are under increased pressure to provide research data freely and openly to all interested parties as a means of furthering science. More than sharing data, there is an additional expectation that data comply to Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable (FAIR) principles. The requirement to share data presents challenges for farm geospatial data. The primary contention of this commentary is that data sharing requirements will make on‐farm research increasingly difficult while also not achieving the stated purposes of opening data. De‐identification of farm geospatial data is not sufficient to protect privacy, reducing likelihood of participation in research. Moreover, de‐identified farm geospatial data will have greatly reduced reusability. Limited guidance is available on appropriate mechanisms for sharing of farm geospatial data. This commentary briefly summarizes benefits and realities of data sharing, expands discussion to support the primary contention, and concludes with high‐level suggestions for moving forward. As scientists we extol the merits of open data. However, there is no official guidance on how to implement opening of farm geospatial data while protecting the privacy of collaborators. Core Ideas Researchers are encouraged and/or required by funders and journals to share research data. There are challenges with protecting privacy of collaborators when sharing geospatial data. It may be difficult to obtain on‐farm collaboration without privacy protection. We need a community standard that is amenable to all parties.
... On the other hand, even though many countries developed and launched their own open data portals, they received criticism from both, society, by which is meant users who may not have IT knowledge, and technical experts. In other words, even though open data portals are intended to improve the reuse of open data and exploit their potential, the more often they do not achieve these aims (Janssen et al., 2012;Osagie et al., 2017;Wang & Shepherd, 2020;Zuiderwijk et al., 2015;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). Finally, the growing popularity of OGD and data portals is observed by the appearance of many initiatives, indices, rankings, and partnerships that have been established to analyze, manage, and improve the state of open data (portals). ...
... It also affects users' intention to reuse data. Unfortunately, it is rarely ensured, i.e., it is a common issue for OGD (Craveiro et al., 2016;Hellberg & Hedström, 2015;Nikiforova, 2020c;Saxena, 2017Saxena, , 2018Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). One of the reasons why this issue is widespread and the inability to address it effectively is the complexity of its nature, i.e., how to verify that data are up-to-date. ...
Article
Open data are freely available and can be used by every stakeholder for its own purposes. However, the practice demonstrates that it is important to ensure that the source from which they are available is usable and facilitates the re-use of data to the widest possible range of stakeholders. This task is carried out by open government data (OGD) portals. Therefore, this study proposes a multi-perspective approach where an OGD portal is analyzed from (1) citizens' perspective, (2) users' perspective, (3) experts' perspective, and (4) state of the art. By considering these perspectives, we can define how to improve the portal in question by focusing on its demand side. In view of the complexity of the analysis, we look for ways to simplify it by reusing data and knowledge on the subject, thereby proposing a knowledge-driven analysis that supports the idea under OGD – their reuse. Latvian open data portal is used as an example demonstrating how this analysis should be carried out, validating the proposed approach at the same time. We are aiming to find (1) the level of the citizens' awareness of the portal existence and its quality by means of the simple survey, (2) the key challenges that may negatively affect users' experience identified in the course of the usability analysis carried out by both users and experts, (3) combine these results with those already known from the external sources. These data serve as an input, while the output is the assessment of the current situation allowing defining corrective actions. Since the debates on the Latvian OGD portal serving as the use-case appear more frequently, this study also brings significant benefit at national level.
... Nevertheless, in real implementations of data portals, limitations appeared 30 soon enough [12] [13]. As a matter of fact, the inherent political, cultural, and linguistic diversity in Europe was not the only challenge to overpass. ...
... tools which help webmasters and online marketers present extra information to the search engines, despite 160 the fact that over a third of Google search results could benefit from rich snippets supported by schema.org 13 . We do suspect that the uptake has increased significantly since, but also that still far from all web resources are annotated. ...
Article
In Europe, an open government data ecosystem is being developed. This ecosystem is implemented using various technologies and platforms. In fact, the use of a common metadata standard for describing datasets and open data portals, i.e., the DCAT-AP specification, appears as the lingua franca that connects an, otherwise, fragmented environment. In this context, the standard-based consolidation of open data promotes the subsidiarity principle, allowing open data portal owners to choose platforms and internal representations based on their specific requirements. However, the portal owners must provide an export with DCAT-AP compliant metadata about the dataset they store. In this paper we provide a detailed study of how the DCAT-AP specification is used in practice, both at the national and the European level. Consequently, we also identify issues, challenges, and opportunities for improvements that can be used as input for the next revision cycle of the standard. Essentially, our goal is to contribute towards the enrichment of a growing and promising European open data ecosystem.
... 162 The benefits of an open data policy, such as transparency and strengthening economic growth must be weighed against disadvantages such as misinterpretation and misuse of data, perceived competitive disadvantages and privacy concerns. 163 ...
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University of Texas School of Law, Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal 28 (TIPLJ), 297, 2020, http://tiplj.org/wp-content/uploads/Volumes/v28/Kop_Final.pdf. - This article seeks to clarify the relation between AI and IP in the information society. It aims to critically examine our intellectual property framework at the dawn of the fourth industrial revolution. In that context, it contends that human authorship remains the normative organ point of intellectual property law. Additionally, it argues that extending copyrights hinders innovation, cultural diversity and even fundamental freedoms. Adding extra layers to the existing rainbow of IP rights is not a good solution to balance the societal impact of technological progress. Legislative gaps can be remedied by contracts and generous application of fair use and the three-step-test. Finally, parts of the Roman multi-layered property paradigm can be relevant for AI. Building upon this framework, section VIII of the article includes a proposal for a new public domain model for AI Creations and Inventions that crossed the autonomy threshold: Res Publicae ex Machina (Public Property from the Machine). The introduction of the legal concept of Public Property from the Machine is a Pareto improvement; many actors benefit from it while nobody -at least no legal person- will suffer from it. For illustrative purposes, the article includes a human-machine collaboration example. The examined AI Assisted Creation (a sound recording of a musical work) can be streamed online and does not qualify as Public Property from the Machine. The article also describes a pure AI Invention that qualifies as Public Property from the Machine and thus could be awarded with official PD mark status: a flu vaccine autonomously brewed by an AI called SAM. This article describes the current legal framework regarding authorship and ownership of AI Creations, legal personhood, patents on AI Inventions, types of IP rights on the various components of the AI system itself (including Digital Twin technology), clearance of training data and data ownership. It examines whether the rationales and justifications of IP are applicable to AI from the perspective of the function of copyright. Besides that, the article presents ideas and policy suggestions on how the law ought to be understood or designed with regard to AI input and output. Laws that would facilitate an innovation optimum. The main goal of this research is to contribute to the body of doctrinal knowledge by offering a relatively compact AI & IP overview analysis and in doing so, to provide some food for thought to interdisciplinary thinkers in the IP, tech, privacy and freedom of information field. Because AI and the internet are without borders, the article makes these recommendations through the eyes of a global acquis of intellectual property, as being a set of universal principles that form the normative backbone of the IP system.
... In addition, research on big data suggests that governments may face with some other challenges related to implementing big data projects, including technical issues (Maciejewski, 2017), privacy (Janssen and van den Hoven, 2015;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014), staffing (Mayer-Schönberger and Ramge, 2018), machine readability and operability Desouza and Jacob, 2017), dictatorship of data (Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier, 2013) and lack of big data readiness (Klievink et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose-Despite several big data maturity models developed for businesses, assessment of big data maturity in the public sector is an under-explored yet important area. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to identify the big data maturity models developed specifically for the public sector and evaluate two major big data maturity models in that respect: one at the state level and the other at the organizational level. Design/methodology/approach-A literature search is conducted using Web of Science and Google Scholar to determine big data maturity models explicitly addressing big data adoption by governments, and then two major models are identified and compared: Klievink et al.'s Big Data maturity model and Kuraeva's Big Data maturity model. Findings-While Klievink et al.'s model is designed to evaluate Big Data maturity at the organizational level, Kuraeva's model is appropriate for assessments at the state level. The first model sheds light on the micro-level factors considering the specific data collection routines and requirements of the public organizations, whereas the second one provides a general framework in terms of the conditions necessary for government's big data maturity such as legislative framework and national policy dimensions (strategic plans and actions). Originality/value-This study contributes to the literature by identifying and evaluating the models specifically designed to assess big data maturity in the public sector. Based on the review, it provides insights about the development of integrated models to evaluate big data maturity in the public sector.
... While there is a consensus that open government data initiatives can reduce corruption, there are certain factors that may affect the effectiveness of this initiative (Parung, Hidayanto, Sandhyaduhita, Ulo, & Phusavat, 2018;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). Such factors include citizens or bureaucratic resistance, public trust in government data, culture, and fear of criticism on the part of the government, among others (Bertot et al., 2010b;Cox, 2014;Grönlund, 2010;Heacock & Sasaki, 2010;Parung et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The pervasiveness of public sector corruption has been a major concern by successive governments and their citizenry. In order to curb such corruption, previous studies have focused on the anti-corruption strategies adopted by governments in isolation, but little or no study has focused on the interactions of the anti-corruption strategies. Using the concept-centric approach, we reviewed 91 studies systematically to understand the trends of government anti-corruption strategies. From the synthesized studies, we identified three dominant themes of anti-corruption strategies and their associated concepts. In addition, we also identified one dimension that captures information technology (IT) as a vehicle that enhances corrupt practices in the public sector. The identified themes include traditional, technological, transparency, and accountability anti-corruption strategies. We leveraged the identified themes and their associated concepts to develop a conceptual model that could explain the trends of anti-corruption strategies for curbing the public sector corruption. Our findings suggest that there are things we still need to know, particularly in the case of IT anti-corruption strategies that have been misused for corrupt purposes, especially in the context of e-government systems’ adoption in the public sectors as a new stream of IS research.
... The data can come from or be parliament minutes and weather reports [1,2,20]. The use of OGD could lead to benefits, such as increased governmental transparency and citizen participation [14,15,11,26], but there are also risks, such as privacy violations as well as misinterpretations of data [3,27]. ...
Chapter
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Public organizations in the role of publishers publish data for anyone to reuse, which can lead to benefits. However, the process descriptions for this publishing work focus on one or a few issues, which leaves out important areas and decisions. Little seems to be known about variations between publishers based on one common point of comparison. Therefore, this paper presents a comparison between two publishers: Namur (Belgium) and Linköping (Sweden). The comparison is based on a process framework, seven in-depth interviews, document studies, and a verification meeting with one respondent. We learned that the OGD manager is an agent of change who need to balance implementation and guidance, the orthodox method of e-mail registration can be used to engage users and monitor impact, the organizational unit for OGD is cross-organizational, and the publisher process framework could be used as ex-ante strategic guidelines and context-specific recommendations.
... The described advantages of an open data policy, such as transparency and strengthening economic growth must be weighed against risks such as misinterpretation and misuse of data, perceived competitive disadvantages, security challenges and privacy concerns. 112 Disadvantages, unintended consequences and costs must be thoroughly investigated in the Data Act impact assessment. Impact assessments are mandatory for EC initiatives expected to have significant economic, social or environmental impacts. ...
Article
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https://jolt.law.harvard.edu/digest/the-right-to-process-data-for-machine-learning-purposes-in-the-eu - Europe is now at a crucial juncture in deciding how to deploy data driven technologies in ways that encourage democracy, prosperity and the well-being of European citizens. Normative preferences about how related technology laws ought to be designed should define sustainable exponential innovation policy. These preferences are dynamic and contextual. The upcoming European Data Act provides a major window of opportunity to change the story. In this respect, it is key that the European Commission takes firm action, removes overbearing policy and regulatory obstacles, strenuously harmonizes relevant legislation and provides concrete incentives and mechanisms for access, sharing and re-use of data. The article argues that to ensure an efficiently functioning European data-driven economy, a new and as yet unused term must be introduced to the field of AI & law: the right to process data for machine learning purposes. To make AI and machine learning thrive, we should critically reexamine the applicability and scope of intellectual property rights to data, including copyrights, sui generis database rights and trade secrets. The article demonstrates that exclusive de facto possession or control over machine learning input training, testing and validation datasets hinders healthy competition, a fair level playing field and rapid European innovation. The article rejects exclusive legal ownership rights over autonomously machine generated non-personal data, including AI made creations and inventions: this output belongs to the public domain. Machines do not need incentives, people need freedom of expression and businesses need freedom to operate. Synchronous to harmonized legislation, the social impact of digital transformation can be balanced and regulated by the architecture of digital systems. Embedding values in design should become a fundamental starting point of our data paradigm. Data has become a primary resource that should not be enclosed or commodified per se, but used for the common good. Commons based production and data for social good initiatives should be stimulated by the state. We need not to think in terms of exclusive, private property on data, but in terms of rights and freedoms to use, (modalities of) access, process and share data. If necessary and desirable for the progress of society, the state can implement new forms of property. Against this background the article explores normative justifications for open innovation, drawing inspiration from the works of canonical thinkers such as Locke, Marx, Kant and Hegel. Whether or not data as digital assets are ultimately admitted to the numerus clausus of legal objects i.e. acknowledged as subject matter eligible for private ownership, or whether other modalities and states of property are being developed, the article maintains that there should also be exceptions to (de facto, economic or legal) ownership claims on data that provide user rights and freedom to operate in the setting of AI model training. The article concludes that this exception is conceivable as a legal concept analogous to a quasi, imperfect usufruct in the form of a right to process data for machine learning purposes. A combination of usus and fructus (ius utendi et fruendi), not for land but for primary resource data. A right to process data that works within the context of AI and the Internet of Things (IoT), and that fits in the EU acquis communautaire. Such a right makes access, sharing and re-use of data possible, and helps to fulfil the European Strategy for Data's desiderata.
... Based on the risk analysis carried out from several open data implementations, there were seven categories: governance, economic issues, licenses, data characteristics, limitations, access and capabilities. Apart from these risks, the risk of open data is assessed by 3 factors, namely effort, implementation and management of open data [11]. In Luo et al. research regarding the risks to open data initiation states that financial risk is a factor that inhibits open data programs in public organizations such as local governments [12]. ...
Article
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This paper presents a conceptual model to analyze motivation factors and perceived risk factors of open data measurement in Indonesia local government. The conceptual model is developed from a theoretical background and literature reviews of related research, which describes open data government, indicators of open data measurement, motivation factors and perceived risks factor in open data. In result, there are eight factors that construct in the model. There are four motivation indicators and four perceived risk indicator that influence open data measurement. For each indicator are determined from the literature review and previous research. In the future, the conceptual model is expected to be able to provide insight to Indonesian local governments on open government data through an analysis of the relationship of identified motivational factors and perceived risks factors.
... The data can come from or be parliament minutes and weather reports [1,2,20]. The use of OGD could lead to benefits, such as increased governmental transparency and citizen participation [14,15,11,26], but there are also risks, such as privacy violations as well as misinterpretations of data [3,27]. ...
Conference Paper
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Public organizations in the role of publishers publish data for anyone to reuse, which can lead to benefits. However, the process descriptions for this publishing work focus on one or a few issues, which leaves out important areas and decisions. Little seems to be known about variations between publishers based on one common point of comparison. Therefore, this paper presents a comparison between two publishers: Namur (Belgium) and Linköping (Sweden). The comparison is based on a process framework, seven in-depth interviews, document studies, and a verification meeting with one respondent. We learned that the OGD manager is an agent of change who need to balance implementation and guidance, the orthodox method of e-mail registration can be used to engage users and monitor impact, the organizational unit for OGD is cross-organizational, and the publisher process framework could be used as ex-ante strategic guidelines and context-specific recommendations.
... The major sources for open data are, but not limited to, scientific communities, governments and non-profit organizations. On the site of disadvantages, open data might be biased, violate privacy unintentionally, misinterpreted and misused, lead to decisions because of the poor data quality and cause unclear accountability among other possibilities [64]. Oxford defines big data as "extremely large data sets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behavior and interactions." ...
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the smart city approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities’ infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications in various aspects of urban life—e.g., supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges, whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. A structured way of providing and maintaining an open and resilient ICT backbone for a city/community is constituted by the concept of an Open Urban Platform. Therefore, the current article presents the activities and developments necessary to achieve a resilient, standardized smart city, based on Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way these serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of a sustainable and resilient ICT backbone.
... The uses of OGD should be centered on creating public value and constructing public policies based on an open culture (Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014a), such that governments should move from open data to open service (Chan, 2013;Yang et al., 2015), deploy collaborative so-dark side (Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b), and therefore only those open data policies that offer a clear contribution to the decision making processes of the different stakeholders should be deployed. Data protection issues arise when collecting and sharing open data among organizations, an action which may be in conflict with the goals of the data users and holders. ...
Article
The goal of open government data (OGD) initiatives is to promote transparency, efficiency and public participation in public management policies. To do so, public organizations must consider which elements might help the development of their open government data portals (OGDP). This paper studies the evolution of OGDP in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU) in a multidisciplinary setting. Whereas the comparative frameworks in the literature are mostly based only on technological parameters, this exploratory research aims to uncover which factors might uphold the successful development of OGDP through the analysis of the relationships between a number of technical and socioeconomical indicators over a period of three years (2015–2017), using a clustering methodology. The results show that EU countries are slowly homogenizing their OGD approaches into two currents/speeds, based mainly on economic factors and open government development status. The originality of this research lies in the sense that it provides not only a technical benchmark, but also a longitudinal and multidisciplinary perspective that will add to the current formulation of OGD policies and practices in any international setting.
... The theme brought in this study is consistent with previous study by [11], where the author take the effort to evaluate the OGD initiatives in the city of Vienna, Austria to find the implementation success factors. Whereas the study by [12] focused on the other side of the success factor of OGD, which is the negative consequences of OGD implementation by applying in-depth interviews with the government personnel. These studies reinforce the purpose of this paper by adding to the OGD knowledge in presenting the progress and identifying the general issues of OGD implementation from the viewpoint of the policymakers. ...
... The economic efficiencies are based on further use and development of OGD, such as commercial applications and time-based efficiency for the user. However, publishing OGD is also associated with risks, such as misinterpretations, misuse and privacy violations (Barry and Bannister, 2014;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to develop a user process framework with activities and their variations for the use of open government data (OGD) based on empirical material and previous research. OGD is interoperable data that is shared by public organisations (publishers) for anyone (users) to reuse without restrictions to create new digital products and services. The user process was roughly identified in previous research but lacks an in-depth description. This lack can hamper the ability to encourage the use and the development of related theories. Design/methodology/approach A three-stage research approach was used. First, a tentative framework was created from previous research and empirical material. This stage involved three different literature reviews, data mapping and seven interviews with OGD experts. The empirical material was analysed with inductive analysis, and previous research was integrated into the framework through concept mapping. Second, the tentative framework was reviewed by informed OGD experts. Third, the framework was finalised with additional literature reviews, eight interviews with OGD users, and a member check, including all the respondents. The framework was used to guide the data collection and as a tool in the analysis. Findings The user process framework covers activities and related variations, where the included phases are: start, identify, acquire, enrich and deploy. The start varies relating to the intended use of the OGD. In the identify phase, the user is exploring the accessible data to decide if the data are relevant. In the acquire phase, the user is preparing for the delivery of the data from the publisher and receiving it. In the enrich phase, the user is concocting and making something. In the final deploy phase, the user has a product or service that can be provided to end-users. Research limitations/implications The framework development has some limitations: the framework needs testing and development in different contexts and further verification. The implications are that the framework can help guide researchers towards relevant and essential data of the user process, be used as a point of comparison in analysis, and be used as a skeleton for more precious theories. Practical implications The framework has some practical implications for users, publishers and portals. It can introduce users to the user process and help them plan for the execution of it. The framework can help publishers understand how the users can work with their data and what can be expected of them. The framework can help portal owners to understand the portal’s role between users and publishers and what functionality and features they can provide to support to the user. Originality/value In previous research, no user process with an in-depth description was identified. However, several studies have given a rough recall. Thus, this research provides an in-depth description of the user process with its variations. The framework can support practice and leads to new research avenues.
... It would be also possibility to misuse of documents, misinterpretation of data which are uploaded through website. [18]- [20]. Thus the local government through the IDMO must provide information and documents. ...
Article
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OGD is an agreement of countries in the world to implement disclosure of public information. This agreement is also applied in Indonesia. One of the most important problems in managing Open Government Data (OGD) is the ability to collect, classify information, publish, and present information. OGD management in Indonesia is carried out by the Information and Document Management Officer (IDMO). Research on OGD in Indonesia is still very minimal and limited to the issue of initiating the implementation of OGD. In fact, the problems that occur are not only at the organizational level, but also need to be focused on the actors or information management employees working on IDMOs. The important thing is how OGD should be managed, so that all information which are produced must be carried out for the benefit of the community. When the right OGD management model can be carried out, then the concept of service to the community should also be developed and implemented as better as possible as a manifestation of the sustainability of OGD implementation. This study uses a qualitative method with the chosen rationality approach is the soft systems methodology (SSM). The results obtained from this study are the OGD management model that adopts the SHEL concept, namely strengthening the understanding, use and strengthening of software, hardware, environment and life-ware. And when the SHEL can be done well, the concept of service to the community must also be improved by adopting the concept of RATER (Reliability, Assurance, Tangible, Empathy, and Responsiveness). The combination of SHEL and RATER is a conceptual model and change plan to strengthen management and maintain the sustainability of OGD implementation in Indonesia through IDMO in all local governments.
... While most researchers are optimistic about the adoption of DOGs, however, there are barriers in government's data openness. As observed by Zuiderwijk and Janssen [20], the main obstacle was access to inappropriate and effective data sets from users' perspective. ...
... On the other hand, the need to safeguard the individuals' privacy that, in the EU legislation, is considered a fundamental human right (Graux 2011;Scassa 2014). This makes the re-use of PSPI a non-trivial matter, which makes the simplest choice to exclude as much PSI containing personal infor-mation as possible from the scope of PSI legislation (AA.VV., 2018, p. 137) thus leaving an huge amount of potential value untapped (Janssen, 2011;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b;van Loenen et al., 2016). ...
... However, there may be also drawbacks in the use of OGD. Misinterpretation and unreliable outcomes of analysis or misguided decisions can result from poor quality data [11]. This might also happen if the users of the data do not understand the limitations of the data or they use the data unprofessionally. ...
Article
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Open government data (OGD) is expected to generate economic growth and boost innovation. To demonstrate how open government data was utilised by business actors and how the data translated into economic gross value added, the case of Finnish Transport Safety Agency's data is shown. The estimated annual increased marginal turnover enabled by the OGD of the private companies yielded to a minimum of 102 million EUR. The estimated annual gross value added to the economy based on the use of OGD was 41 million EUR. The industries benefitting the most from open data policy were the insurance and financial services, marketing and publishing.
... The major sources for Open Data are, but not limited to, scientific communities, governments and non-profit organizations. On the site of disadvantages, Open Data might be biased, violate privacy unintentionally, misinterpreted and misused, lead to decisions because of the poor data quality and cause unclear accountability among other possibilities [13]. ...
Preprint
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the Smart City approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications on various aspects of urban life - e.g. supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other use cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. This paper constitutes a continuation of a series of research documents and standardization activities, which relate to the concept of Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way they serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of an ICT backbone. Thereby, the current paper emphasizes on the aspects of sustainability and resilient ICT, whilst reporting on our latest activities and related developments in the research area.
... One such challenge concerns the collection of data and how to ensure its quality. Some scholars indicate that datasets of insufficient quality may be misinterpreted or misused [10], rather than improving the quality of software. Common domain models and standards for how the data is shared and used, as well as transparent processes and OSS tools for collection and enrichment of the data, contribute to address this challenge. ...
Preprint
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High-quality data has become increasingly important to software engineers in designing and implementing today's software, for example, as an input to machine-learning algorithms and visualisation- and analytics-based features. Open data - i.e., data shared under a licence that gives users the right to study, process, and distribute the data to anyone and for any purpose - offers a mechanism to address this need. Data may originate from multiple sources, whether crowdsourced, shared by government agencies, or shared between commercial entities, and is undoubtedly inherent to all business and revenue models across the public sector, business and industry today. In this guest editorial for the Special Issue on Collaborative Aspects of Open Data in Software Engineering, we explore the collaborative aspects of open data in software engineering. We highlight how these aspects can benefit organisations, what challenges may exist and how these may be addressed based on current practice, and introduce the four papers included in this special issue.
... For example, Vietnam does not report data to the WHO Mortality Database regularly although it has had an established death registration system ("A6 death register") for almost 30 years [32]. These governments may worry about unwanted outcomes of submitting mortality data for public distribution, such as data misinterpretation or misuse, disruption of domestic legislation, and/or loss of data ownership [33]. ...
Article
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Background Several studies have assessed the reporting quality of all-cause mortality data from the WHO Mortality Database, but little is known about coding quality and its impact on elderly unintentional fall mortality data worldwide. We aimed to assess the coding quality of deaths and its impact on elderly unintentional fall mortality. Methods Using data from the WHO Mortality Database, 1990–2019, we calculated the number of countries/territories that had mortality data in the database, and the proportion of deaths with five types of problematic codes based on the 10th International Classification of Disease (unspecified deaths, injury deaths with undetermined intent, unspecified unintentional injury, unintentional falls with unspecified mechanism, unintentional falls with unknown occurrence place). We estimated age-adjusted unintentional fall mortality before and after correcting problematic codes. Results Only 64% (124/194) of WHO member states had at least 1 year of mortality data in the database during 1990–2019, and data unavailability was more common for underdeveloped countries/territories than for developed countries/territories. Coding quality was poor for many countries/territories. Among the study years when countries/territories possessed mortality data, 80, 53, 51, and 63% had a proportion of unintentional fall deaths with unspecified mechanism over 50% in low-income, lower middle-income, upper middle-income, and high-income countries/territories, respectively; comparable proportions for unintentional fall deaths with unknown occurrence place were 100, 42, 71, and 62%. Among the 94 countries/territories having mortality data, problematic codes caused a relative mortality difference ≥ 50% in 59 countries/territories (63%). After correcting problematic codes, 5 of 55 countries/territories with data witnessed a reverse in mortality changes between 2005 and 2015. Among the 82 countries/territories with mortality data for 5 or more years, 18 countries/territories (22%) experienced a directional reverse in linear regression coefficient. Conclusions The availability and coding quality of global data related to elderly unintentional fall mortality was poor between 1990 and 2019. When data are available, varying coding quality across countries/territories and over time have a substantial impact on mortality estimates and mortality comparisons. Global agencies plus each individual government should be aware of the importance of collecting and sharing high-quality mortality data, and take action to improve data quality for inclusion in the WHO Mortality Database.
... • Data with little or no value may be published resulting in a waste of resources [40]. ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores the concept of open data with a focus on Open Government Data (OGD). The chapter presents an overview of the development and practice of Open Government Data at the international level. It also discusses the advantages and benefits of Open Government Data. The scope and characteristics of OGD, in addition to the perceived risks, obstacles and challenges are also presented. The chapter closes with a look at the future of open data and open government data in particular. The author adopted literature review as a method and a tool of data collection for the purpose of writing this chapter.
... Level 1 (data list-up): Data consumers can directly find and download the relevant data that they need among available data that are simply listed like posts in message boards on data portals. Only a simple search function is supported based on the basic information of the data, such as titles, publishers, or abstracts, which may result in the user being overloaded to go through all the results to potentially identify the useful and relevant datasets [104]. In particular, this can be a major challenge in a situation in which similar data are provided from various decentralized data sources [105,106]. ...
Article
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Open government data (OGD) provide an opportunity for developing various services by disclosing information monopolized by the government to the public so that the private sector can use it. The private sector is utilizing this to improve the work efficiency and productivity by collecting, analyzing, and reprocessing OGD for various work steps of a BIM-based design project. However, most studies on OGD focus on the functionality and usability of data portals and the factors for evaluating the data itself such as openness, accountability, and transparency. This study aims to provide an evaluation framework for OGD for the AEC industry to assess the data utilization environment in order to improve the productivity of BIM-based projects. Several OGD principles found within related literature are discussed, and from them we extract evaluation framework levels. Then, we validate the proposed framework by applying it to a case of developing a BIM-based design support system using OGD datasets. This research concludes by suggesting that to effectively utilize OGD in the construction industry, the private sector should simply view data after collecting them, create an institutional environment for creating new values by reprocessing data, and build an active data utilization roadmap based on this environment.
... These mainly comprise policy measures and regulation due to antitrust, legal or ethical reasons, which arise due to the pivotal position of the platform provider in accessing and using data from their platforms. Among the examples are identity theft, privacy concerns and offensive messaging (Hoffmann et al. 2004) as well as biased or incorrect data and fraud on sharing (Malhotra & Van Alstyne, 2014) and open data platforms (Zuiderwijk & Janssen 2014). Most of such problems are summarized in the social and ethical values that are evoked by digitalization (Royakkers et al., 2018), which include privacy, autonomy, safety and security, balance of power, human dignity and justice. ...
... The institutional theory could also be helpful in analyzing hierarchical and networking roles of various actors that drive the open data governance movement as, first of all, interactive and collaborative phenomena, especially in understanding how related aspects of cooperation and collaboration between different institutions could be promoted within various open data-driven platforms and projects initiated by a wide range of actors in the market, both public and private ones (Ruijer et al., 2020;Sandoval-Almazan & Gil-Garcia, 2016). This could be especially important if one seeks to understand the key enablers and barriers that directly affect the adoption of various technology-driven implementation strategies in a multidimensional manner (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014), for example, in understanding complex relationships between information technologies, organizational structures and institutional processes (Hassan & Gil-Garcia, 2008;Karkin et al., 2018). All these institutional contexts, especially if they are analyzed in a cross-border manner, could be useful in generating new knowledge about these decisive environmental components and pressures for reforms (or resistance) in a more comparative and holistic way. ...
Chapter
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The primary purpose of the study in this chapter, which methodologically relies on stakeholder and institutional analyses, is to comprehend theoretically the concept of open data through its understanding as a multidimensional and multi-institutional networking phenomenon. The diffusion of this intrinsically political rather than technocratic idea all over the world affects communication processes in many sectors of public life, providing new conceptual platforms to enhance civic engagement, direct participation and collaboration of various actors, which operate in the e-government area and transform traditional channels of political networking via new information technologies not only in interactions between main stakeholders of digital communication such as public agents, citizens and businesses but also between such new active players in the area as non-governmental organizations, independent developers, intermediaries and even mass media and, more importantly, between peers themselves in both public and private sectors of economy and, correspondingly, equally at global, national and local institutional levels of governance.
Chapter
In Kap. 10 werden die Entwicklung der Digitalisierung in der Gesellschaft und ihre Folgen für den modernen Staat und seine Verwaltung aufgezeigt. Anschließend wird auf die Entwicklungsstufen und Ursachen wie Ergebnisse der E-Government Reform eingegangen, die den eigentlichen Beginn des aktuellsten Reform-Leitbilds im öffentlichen Sektor charakterisiert. Danach werden die Reform-Konzepte der E-Democracy und des Open Government diskutiert, bevor schließlich auf die Zielkriterien der Digitalisierungsreformen anhand der Darstellung internationaler Ländervergleiche eingegangen wird.
Article
The systematic review approach has been used to collect, examine, interpret, and synthesize research regarding enablers, challenges, opportunities, risks, and the usefulness of open government. The current review adopted the meta-synthesis approach to conduct the systematic review on 61 selected research papers. The study has covered the enablers for such initiatives and how governments of various countries can achieve open government benefits like lower level of corruption, higher level of public awareness and education, high level of transparency, more democratic control, improve efficiency and effectiveness of public services, and improve public services. The author has extracted various risks and challenges that obstruct open government efforts from getting their full potential. The study is helpful for policymakers of those countries who are planning to implement an open government system in their countries. However, a cooperation bias is one of the most considerable limitations in research studies that are included in this systematic literature review.
Article
While the potential benefits of open government data (OGD) initiatives are significant, there has often been a lack of participation by public agencies in these efforts. Motivated by this challenge and a corresponding research gap, we develop a theoretically grounded model to explain what drives public agencies to share their data on OGD platforms. Model testing with survey and objective data from 102 public agencies indicates that agencies’ resource dependence on external innovators significantly impacts their data sharing behavior. Furthermore, conformity need and the sensitivity of their function also influence agencies’ data sharing behavior. Contributions toward research and practice are discussed.
Chapter
Open data can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose. This simple concept initiated a new movement starting with Public Sector Information Directive in Europe in 2003. Organizations and individuals discussed what data sources should be open and how they can be used. There was a strong belief that the adoption of open data would bring certain benefits to the economy. We describe various initiatives, what barriers were encountered, and what are the resources that could bring value through reuse.
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The rhetoric related to benefits of Open Government Data (OGD) seems to lack anchor in practice affecting practitioners and empirical evidence restraining academia. This rhetoric could be hard to see for those already persuaded. As such, the rhetoric could contain inconsistencies that are based more on myths than facts, contributing to the slow pace of OGD development. OGD is sometimes based on dogmatic rhetoric that is overly simplistic, which hides significant benefits and blocks potential audiences from seeing the practical applications of OGD. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the persuasiveness of present OGD arguments from a rhetorical perspective to identify rhetorical patterns. We conducted desktop research, investigating the rhetoric of eight websites emphasising OGD benefits. Our findings include four common patterns of the rhetoric involving persuasion and dissuasion. The rhetoric contains paradoxes of promises and discoveries, which we categorised as the grand quest, promised opportunities, tribal solidarity, and the silver bullet patterns. A further finding was two mythical paradoxes: (1) promises versus discovery and (2) proving while arguing.KeywordsOpen government dataRhetoricPersuasionDissuasionMythical paradox
Chapter
According to Open Government Data, governments should co-operate with citizens in order to co-create Open Data (OD). When large groups are involved, there is the need to orchestrate the work by clearly defining and distributing roles. Our Regional Administration - the Council of the Campania Region in Italy - claimed a motivating use case which inspired the proposed roles involved in the OD production process. We consider validator, creator, and filler as roles. To each role tasks and responsibilities are attached. Roles and related activities are integrated into SPOD (a Social Platform for Open Data) to guide users in producing high-quality OD by proactive quality assurance techniques.
Chapter
Data market initiatives have, by assigning monetary value to data, and connecting the various actors responsible for its efficient production and consumption, far reaching consequences for national economies. The Data Market Austria (DMA) project represents a unique opportunity for Austria to leverage the enormous potential socio-economic benefits accruing from increased trade of data. At the same time, however, a number of key challenges to the successful uptake of the project needs to be considered, and new problems emerging from this new form of digital commercial infrastructure need to be anticipated and addressed. This study aims to examine how the benefits accruing to increased participation in a data-driven ecosystem can be applied to tackle the long-standing socio-cultural challenges and the possible societal and cultural impediments to the successful unfolding out of a data market. Theoretical discussions framed from arguments obtained through a systematic review of academic and scholarly literature are juxtaposed with empirical data obtained from data science experts and DMA project personnel to test whether they stand up to real-world practicalities and to narrow the focus onto the Austria-specific context. Our findings reveal that data is a dual-purpose commodity that has both commercial value and social application. To amplify the benefits accruing from increased data trading, it is vital that a country establishes a sound open data strategy and a balanced regulatory framework for data trading.
Article
Open government data (OGD) has attracted widespread attention and has been widely carried out on a global scale. With further promotion, OGD performance becomes a hot topic and meaningful enough for in-depth exploration. This research focuses on the influential factors and generation mechanisms of OGD performance. Based on the resource-based theory and institutional theory, this paper constructs a model from multiple dimensions of internal resources and external pressures. Subsequently, from the 122 cities in China that have constructed OGD platforms, this study adopts a mixed research methods approach, which combines the regression analysis method and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The regression analysis results show that the organization arrangement, legal and policy, and horizontal pressure have direct positive effects on OGD performance. On this basis, this paper use QCA method to explore the configuration paths for the generation of OGD performance of cities in different geographic regions and at different administrative ranks levels. The QCA results provide different configuration paths to achieve better OGD performance, which verified the conclusions drawn by the regression analysis, also provides alternative paths for governments with different characteristics. This paper enriches the studies on OGD performance and provides more targeted paths together with references for the implementation of OGD.
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Based on the cognition of stakeholders, this paper reveals the decision-making process of civil servants resisting open data based on perceived risks. Adopting grounded theory, this study interviewed 22 stakeholders to collect data and then identified four factors as the pillars of the theoretical framework: perception of risks, conservative organizational culture, insufficient external pressure and poor operability. After that, this paper constructed a model for the decision path, which explains the formation of perceived risks of civil servants, and it also explains how the perceived risks are transformed into resistance motivation and make a behavior decision. Based on the level of certainty, the decision environment can be divided into the resistance decision path under the determined environment and that under the uncertain environment. This study also summarizes that accountability and loss of interest are two types of risk that can be considered when civil servants decide not to open data.
Technical Report
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The rapid progress in digital information and communication technologies (ICTs) comes with both fresh opportunities and new challenges. Since the mid-2000s, the global land governance community has piloted a series of open data and transparency initiatives largely based on such digital innovations, aiming at increasing accountability and counteracting corruption in the land sector, both at the local and global level. By combining a desk-based review of the existing literature and data with a series of semi-structured interviews with a panel of sectoral experts, this study takes stock of more than a decade of interventions pioneering the use of open data to curb land corruption, and explores their impact, their achievements, the existing barriers and limitations, as well as potential ways to overcome them. While open data and transparency initiatives tackling land corruption – which is one of the key issues undermining the achievement of sustainable land governance – are reaching their maturity, their success and their ability to secure funding and investments in the near future still hangs in the balance, as it relies on the capacity to demonstrate, measure and track impact on the ground.
Article
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Indonesia telah menerapkan Open Government Data (OGD) sejak tahun 2008, yaitu ketika Undang-UndangKeterbukaan Informasi Publik (UU KIP) No. 14 tahun 2008 disahkan. Penerapan UU KIP bagi segenap badanpublik, termasuk pemerintah pusat maupun pemerintah daerah mulai diberlakukan pada tahun 2010, melalui PPNomor 61 tahun 2010. Pengelola KIP di Indonesia dilakukan oleh Pejabat Pengelola Informasi dan Dokumentasi(PPID), yang dilaksanakan melalui surat keputusan (SK) pimpinan tertinggi pada badan publik, dimana ketikakonteksnya adalah pemerintah daerah, maka SK ditandatangani oleh Walikota atau Bupati. Secara faktual, Indonesiadimasukkan ke negara yang telah menginisiasi penerapan KIP tetapi berpotensi menghadapi kendala keberlanjutanpenerapannya. Sampai dengan tahun 2017, jumlah kota yang telah menunjuk dan memiliki PPID masih sebesar86,73% (85 kota dari 98 kota) se Indonesia. Hal ini menunjukkan adanya persoalan atau faktor-faktor yangmempengaruhi kesediaan atau kesiapan (readiness) untuk mengadopsi sistem baru di dalam ruang lingkupkelembagaannya. Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk untuk mengeksplorasi tentang kesiapan (readiness) untukmengadopsi pengelolaan KIP untuk memberikan layanan informasi dan dokumen kepada masyarakat. Hasilnyadiketahui bahwa faktor komitmen organisasi dan pengelola menjadi bagian dari rendahnya kualitas readinesspengelolaan KIP. Direkomendasikan melalui hasil pendekatan Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), agar dilakukanstrategi readiness organisasi dan pengelola melalui penguatan tata kelola dan penguatan individu dengan dukunganinfrastruktur dan pendanaan yang memadai.
Chapter
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Open data are freely accessible online, available to be reused. They can be used for the development of applications which improve citizens’ life. A way to boost the development of innovative applications is by hosting hackathons, workshops and conferences. Apparently, as far as entrepreneurship, open data impact on economic growth, innovation, empowerment and new or improved products and services. There is limited previous research not only on what motivates the developers to participate in open data competitions, but also on the benefits and challenges which are caused from the use of open data. Furthermore, researches focus on factors that affect nascent entrepreneurs’ decision to create a startup but researchers in the field of open data and hackathons relative researches are limited. The purpose of this chapter is to present a theoretical framework in order to examine the impact of motivations, benefits and barriers of the use of open data in the participation in hackathons and to develop a startup based on their applications.
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Engineers require high-quality data for the design and implementation of today’s software, especially in the context of machine learning (ML). This puts an emphasis on the need for the publication and sharing of data from and between organizations, public as well as private. Following the paradigm of open innovation, open data provide a mechanism to increase the availability of information, offering utility and improving innovation and user choice through the inevitable interoperability this enables.
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This article reports the findings of a study on open data usage among Saudi scholars. It investigates the sample’s perceptions of open data and open data portals. The study reported the factors affecting the participants’ decision to use open data and aimed to understand Saudi researchers’ practices and perceptions related to the use and sharing of open data. It adopted a quantitative approach and a questionnaire was distributed to and collected from 190 Saudi academic staff to measure their perceptions, their open data usage, the benefits of open data, and the factors that significantly impacted their open data utilization. The findings reveal that 42.1% of Saudi researchers used government open data portals and regularly visited open data portals provided by the university and the government mainly for research purposes. The results also indicate that open data portals enabled Saudi researchers to obtain useful data for their research while giving them the tools to visualize and understand the data.
Conference Paper
Smart cities governance (SCG) consists of both to foster technology-enabled innovation, and to utilize disruptive technologies (DT) outcomes and impacts to increase public value of urban services. Despite widespread discussion of DT benefits, scientific literature identifies multiple determinants of unintended negative consequences (UC) of DT deployment in smart city initiatives. By considering UC as the negative aspects resulting from underestimating or ignoring the scale of such consequences, this study analyses the objectives of SCG and the negative unintended effects of five selected DT initiatives on these objectives’ implementation. The main contribution of this paper is the identification of determinants of negative UC of Smart City disruptive technologies initiatives and identifying the structure of their impact on the SCG objectives. The results indicate the need to establish a new governance framework of UC in smart cities as a tool to support local governments dealing with the changes caused by DT use in the smart city ecosystem
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Algorithmic technologies and artificial intelligence are centred on data and generate new business models, known as the data-driven economy. In the European Union context, the development of such new business is accompanied by a regulatory and political framework. An important aspect of this regulatory framework regards the legal conditions that enable the data collection, availability, sharing, use and reuse. Within the larger context, this article analyses the development of the European Union regulatory framework governing the availability, sharing and reuse of public sector data, also referred to as Public Sector Information policy. Anchored in the analytical tools provided by Discursive Institutionalism and Critical Data Studies and after studying the evolution of this policy over 25 years, this article argues that economic considerations have been overwhelmingly decisive in the European Union Public Sector Information policy and much less attention has been paid to fundamental rights and democracy issues. It also shows how European Union Public Sector Information policy contributes to the data infrastructure, enabling a thriving data-driven economy. In doing so, this article argues that the possible problematic effects of this new data-driven economy are not only affordances of the technology itself but are also the result of political and regulatory choices. More globally, the article stresses the need for policymakers to inscribe each of the policies and regulations affecting the digital transformation in the framework of fundamental rights and democracy.
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Transparency in the public sector is one of the most important topics of the current debates on accountable, participatory, and responsive governance. An open government addresses these major topics and aims to encourage the relationships and flows of information between involved stakeholders. This article explores the role of open data portals in supporting these efforts and provides findings regarding the features in the design of these data infrastructures. On the basis of evidence from the concept of transparency-by-design, we argue that transparency is facilitated by open data portals and their features enabling to work with datasets. We therefore propose the list of the categories and corresponding features of open data portals that should constitute the checklist of the portal aiming to achieve the highest level of transparency. The mapping of existing features found in literature to the phases of the transparency cycle demonstrates that open data portals meet the transparency requirements.
Article
Purpose The data economy mainly relies on the surveillance capitalism business model, enabling companies to monetize their data. The surveillance allows for transforming private human experiences into behavioral data that can be harnessed in the marketing sphere. This study aims to focus on investigating the domain of data economy with the methodological lens of quantitative bibliometric analysis of published literature. Design/methodology/approach The bibliometric analysis seeks to unravel trends and timelines for the emergence of the data economy, its conceptualization, scientific progression and thematic synergy that could predict the future of the field. A total of 591 data between 2008 and June 2021 were used in the analysis with the Biblioshiny app on the web interfaced and VOSviewer version 1.6.16 to analyze data from Web of Science and Scopus. Findings This study combined findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR) data and data economy and contributed to the literature on big data, information discovery and delivery by shedding light on the conceptual, intellectual and social structure of data economy and demonstrating data relevance as a key strategic asset for companies and academia now and in the future. Research limitations/implications Findings from this study provide a steppingstone for researchers who may engage in further empirical and longitudinal studies by employing, for example, a quantitative and systematic review approach. In addition, future research could expand the scope of this study beyond FAIR data and data economy to examine aspects such as theories and show a plausible explanation of several phenomena in the emerging field. Practical implications The researchers can use the results of this study as a steppingstone for further empirical and longitudinal studies. Originality/value This study confirmed the relevance of data to society and revealed some gaps to be undertaken for the future.
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************************* See an advanced and more recent version of this paper here: Jetzek, T., Avital, M. and Bjorn-Andersen, N. (2019) “The Sustainable Value of Open Government Data,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 20(6), 702-734. ===== https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331644512_The_Sustainable_Value_of_Open_Government_Data ************************************************************************************** The exponentially growing production of data and the social trend towards openness and sharing are powerful forces that are changing the global economy and society. Governments around the world have become active participants in this evolution by opening up their data for access and re-use by public and private agents alike. The phenomenon of Open Government Data (OGD) has spread around the world in the last four years, driven by the widely held belief that use of OGD has the ability to generate both economic and social value. However, a cursory review of the popular press, as well as an investigation of academic research and empirical data, reveals the need to further understand the relationship between OGD and value. Subsequently, we apply a critical realist approach to explore these relationships through a case study analysis. Specifically, we focus on how open access to government data can bring about new innovative solutions to some of our most pressing economic and social challenges. In order to uncover the mechanisms that can explain how data is transformed to value, we analyzed the case of Opower, a pioneer in using information to induce behavioral change that has resulted in a considerable reduction in energy use over the last six years.
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Transparency in public administration is generally held to be desirable, something to be fostered and enabled. This long standing idea has gained considerable further momentum with the emergence of e-government and the affordances of computing in general and the Internet in particular. This paper examines the argument that transparency may, in certain and not uncommon circumstances, be inimical to good government and good governance and suggests that the importance of understanding why this is so has increased as information and communications technology permeates government and society. It suggests that in an electronic age, the scope and nature of transparency needs to be carefully managed, and that expectations of the benefits of ICT enabled transparency may be too high.
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What might an academic and a social anthropologist have to say about ‘making the invisible visible’? Taking its title from a paper by Tsoukas (‘The Tyranny of Light’), the result is a short excursus into the social world of accountability. Techniques for assessing, auditing and evaluating institutions are often defended on the grounds of transparency. What is interesting about this case is that in a social world where people are conscious of diverse interests, such an appeal to a benevolent or moral visibility is all too easily shown to have a tyrannous side—there is nothing innocent about making the invisible visible. How are we to understand such deliberate striving for transparency when it is applied, for instance, to research and teaching in higher education? This experimental account tries to avoid simply adding more visibility and more information.
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This paper looks at the role of the European Directive on re-use of public sector information in the current trend towards opening up government data. After discussing the PSI directive, it gives an overview of current policies and practices with regard to open government data in the Member States. It is argued that the success of the open government data movement in some Member States can be related to the confusion or ignorance about the relationship between traditional freedom of information legislation and the re-use of public sector data. If future information policies decide to follow this trend, they should always ensure that existing rights on freedom of information are not harmed.
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In recent years, many governments have worked to increase openness and transparency in their actions. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are seen by many as a cost-effective and convenient means to promote openness and transparency and to reduce corruption. E-government, in particular, has been used in many prominent, comprehensive transparency efforts in a number of nations. While some of these individual efforts have received considerable attention, the issue of whether these ICT-enabled efforts have the potential to create a substantive social change in attitudes toward transparency has not been widely considered. This paper explores the potential impacts of information and ICTs – especially e-government and social media – on cultural attitudes about transparency.
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Information quality (IQ) is critical in organizations. Yet, despite a decade of active research and practice, the field lacks comprehensive methodologies for its assessment and improvement. Here, we develop such a methodology, which we call AIM quality (AIMQ) to form a basis for IQ assessment and benchmarking. The methodology is illustrated through its application to five major organizations. The methodology encompasses a model of IQ, a questionnaire to measure IQ, and analysis techniques for interpreting the IQ measures. We develop and validate the questionnaire and use it to collect data on the status of organizational IQ. These data are used to assess and benchmark IQ for four quadrants of the model. These analysis techniques are applied to analyze the gap between an organization and best practices. They are also applied to analyze gaps between IS professionals and information consumers. The results of the techniques are useful for determining the best area for IQ improvement activities.
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This paper takes a supportive but critical look at "open data" from the perspective of its possible impact on the poor and marginalized and concludes that there may be cause for concern in the absence of specific measures being taken to ensure that there are supports for ensuring a wide basis of opportunity for "effective data use". The paper concludes by providing a seven element model for how effective data use can be achieved.
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