Conference Paper

The negative effects of open government data - Investigating the dark side of open data

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Abstract

Reports and research appears to assume that the benefits of open data dominate open data’s negative consequences. Moreover, much of the existing research discusses benefits and disadvantages on a high level without providing much detailed insight in the underlying processes. Yet many governments are reluctant to open their data, as they are afraid of possible negative consequences of opening data. The objective of this policy paper is to better understand the aspects of the dark side of open data and contributes to the literature by providing a more realistic perspective on open data. We conducted nineteen in depth interviews with public sector officials and data archivists and identified sixteen categories of negative effects. For the dark side inherent to open data efforts the research suggests that a context and dataset dependent decision-making model needs to be made weighing the benefits of open data on the one hand (e.g. creating transparency, the possibility to strengthen economic growth), and the risks and disadvantages of open data (e.g. violating privacy and possible misuse and misinterpretation of data) on the other hand.

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... Regardless of the amount of effort put into removing privacy sensitive content from datasets, privacy cannot be guaranteed. Even if an individual dataset does not violate a person's privacy, the combination of multiple datasets or the combination of open datasets with information from the media may allow for identifying persons in a dataset (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b), especially when open data is combined with social media data (Nieuwenhuijs, 2014). For instance, let us imagine that a researcher locates two datasets. ...
... Data protection legislation often prescribes on a very general level how one should handle privacy sensitive data, and thus it does not give much guidance for removing (privacy) sensitive information from datasets (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Laws and regulations need to give sufficient space for the interpretation of privacy sensitivity and therefore they cannot be too specific (idem). ...
... Furthermore, the situation in different countries might vary, as privacy is valued more in some countries than in others (idem). In sum, guidelines about privacy sensitivity partly help to identify which data cannot be published, yet much interpretation effort by the data provider is still required, and combining data could still lead to identifying a person or company (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). When privacy-sensitive data is opened, this can result in considerable negative attention and might lead to reputation damage of the organization that opened the data or might lead to a decrease of trust in the government in general. ...
Chapter
In developing open data policies, organizations aim to stimulate and guide the publication and use of data and to gain advantages from this. Often open data policies are guided by a high-level directive, such as those of the United States (Obama, 2009b) and the European Commission (European Commission, 2013c). Open data policies are important, as their purpose is often to ensure the long-term availability of government information to create transparency and thereby to contribute to citizens’ rights to public access to government information. This right is considered a fundamental tenet of democracy (Allen, 1992). Moreover, open data policies have the potential to increase the participation, interaction, self-empowerment and social inclusion of open data users (e.g. citizens) and providers alike, stimulating economic growth and innovation and realizing many other advantages.
... The data might also lack utility and have no usability, which would make OGD costly. Zuiderwijk and Janssen (2014b) have identified through interviews that data can be biased and have poor quality. ...
... OGD has the risk to come with more than benefits. Zuiderwijk and Janssen (2014b) have observed in interviews that users may misinterpret data, misuse data, and violate others' privacy. Barry and Bannister (2014) report a risk of media running with more negative stories about the government or public organizations, something that can increase mistrust between the government and the citizens. ...
... The publisher registers metadata on an OGD portal and the OGD portal presents the metadata to the user Attard et al., 2015). The user searches the OGD portal to find the data (Lee, 2014;Zuiderwijk et al., 2014b). ...
... Bila konsep sound governance menekankan tata kelola yang terintegrasi dengan dunia internasional, konsep dynamic governance memberi penekanan pada adaptasi tata kelola pemerintah terhadap perubahan lingkungan. Kebiasaan buruk yang selalu diperlihatkan terutama pemerintah daerah, seperti pengangkatan seseorang aparatur birokrasi (posisi untuk menduduki jabatan) sering terjadi praktek jual beli, menempatkan seorang pimpinan atas dasar paternalistik, sebagai imbalan dukungan politik Sumber: Diolah dari berbagai sumber (Data Sekunder, 2017 (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). Open government juga belum tentu menghasilkan transparansi (Bannister & Connolly, 2011). ...
... Efek negatif lain adalah salah tafsir dan penyalahgunaan, orang dengan pengetahuan yang terbatas untuk menafsirkan data akan cenderung menghasilkan kesimpulan yang salah dari analisis data yang mereka lakukan. Dan data ini juga akan digunakan oleh sekelompok orang untuk memeras para pejabat negara demi keuntungan pribadi dan kelompok (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). ...
... Keterbukaan belum tentu akan berkontribusi signifikan terhadap transparansi (Shkabatur, 2013;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Evolution experienced by the various concepts of governance ranging from good governance, sound governance, dynamic governance, to open government is a concept of the reference that is considered able to manage governance activities properly. The concept governance of anything adopted implies to reject various forms of government based on the activity of authoritarian activity, corruption, collusion, and nepotism that would open up opportunities for other evil actions in the carry out the activity of the government. The focus of the research objectives is trying to contribute knowledge by exploring theoretical conceptual from different scientific literature because it is not necessarily the concept of governance adopted and successfully implemented at the place differently. This research article is a synthesis of qualitative research, using the research method of meta-theory (the analysis of theory). This study seeks to identify all existing written evidence concerning the themes of research, produce a variety of studies are systematically used to develop and examine the theory has ever produced. The results of this study reveal the evolution of governance occurs due to a new thought to fill the lack of a concept that has been there before. Other results are also revealed that the concept of governance has a digest and refer to the innovation of the government. The concept of governance of this will be meaningless when run by people with the low quality of human resources, not smart, and it is not agile.
... Open government data (OGD) is interoperable data published on the internet by public organizations to be freely used and redistributed by anyone [1,14,17]. The public organizations, who collect and share data, are referred to as publishers, while those who reuse the data are called users [43]. OGD is a change from the traditional system where those who collect and analyze data have been the same [35]. ...
... Using OGD is believed to lead to benefits, such as increased governmental transparency, democratic accountability, external problem-solving, and evidence-based policymaking [7,15,20,22,38]. However, publishing OGD for reuse is associated with various risks: violations of privacy, misinterpretations, and misuse [3,43]. Moreover, use can come in multiple forms, such as studying voting history for specific facts, making graphs or texts to illustrate data, developing searchable interactive digital maps, and combine and clean data to republish through an API [12]. ...
... This approach follows the user process framework of Crusoe and Ahlin [9]. The authors' framework is a recent attempt to synthesise previous research and empirical data on the user process, as such it contains the findings of [e.g., 1,12,25,26,29,42,43,44]. Their user process consists of phases with activities and relating impediments: motivation, search and evaluate, access and prepare, and aggregation and transformation (see Table I). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Open Government Data (OGD) is interoperable data that is published on the Internet by public organizations and can be freely used and redistributed by users. OGD is expected to result in several benefits, such as innovative products and services , collective problem solving, and equal access to information. However, several impediments complicate the realization of the benefits. These impediments can impact the process of using OGD that consists of the four phases: motivation, search and evaluate, access and prepare, and aggregate and transform. In this paper, we examine the case of a data science project conducted by master's students to understand how impediments impact their use. In order to study this case, we use a mixed-method approach combining a questionnaire sent to the 30 students and nine in-depth interviews. The analysis of the data allowed us to identify and discuss the impact of several impediments on use, such as difficulties in finding an idea and the lack of longitudinal data. Subsequently, we were able to give recommendations to publishers to improve their OGD portals, infrastructure, and data as well as opening up research directions in the OGD field.
... Open data originates from an organisation where it starts as closed, which means that the data has an organisational context [9], before and after publication. In between data being close and open, there needs to be a decision for data release [23,40,41]. Meaning that we have five distinct processes containing barriers; when (1) identifying data's suitability for publishing, (2) deciding to release, (3) publishing the data, (4) someone uses the data, and (5) evaluating the impact and collect feedback. ...
... The organisation might have several datasets and no idea which to publish, which relate to Market barriers. Here Supply and Demand [26,27,40] can identify sought-after data; if demand is neither expressed or heard then it forms a barrier as an organisation cannot prioritise publishing. Another side is Competition [3,31]. ...
... 35). If something does go wrong (abuse, misinformation, fraud, accidents, etc.) there will be the question of Liability [3,4,20,23,29,31,39,40]; if this is unclear, both publisher and users might be at risk of unexpected and unwanted responsibilities. Laws and norms also make Privacy [1, 3, 5, 16, 18-20, 23, 26-31, 39-42] intrusions something that must be avoided (a barrier), where the solution might be to clean the data, which can also make it lose value. ...
... Regardless of the amount of effort put into removing privacy sensitive content from datasets, privacy cannot be guaranteed. Even if an individual dataset does not violate a person's privacy, the combination of multiple datasets or the combination of open datasets with information from the media may allow for identifying persons in a dataset (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b), especially when open data is combined with social media data (Nieuwenhuijs, 2014). For instance, let us imagine that a researcher locates two datasets. ...
... Data protection legislation often prescribes on a very general level how one should handle privacy sensitive data, and thus it does not give much guidance for removing (privacy) sensitive information from datasets (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Laws and regulations need to give sufficient space for the interpretation of privacy sensitivity and therefore they cannot be too specific (idem). ...
... Furthermore, the situation in different countries might vary, as privacy is valued more in some countries than in others (idem). In sum, guidelines about privacy sensitivity partly help to identify which data cannot be published, yet much interpretation effort by the data provider is still required, and combining data could still lead to identifying a person or company (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). When privacy-sensitive data is opened, this can result in considerable negative attention and might lead to reputation damage of the organization that opened the data or might lead to a decrease of trust in the government in general. ...
... Regardless of the amount of effort put into removing privacy sensitive content from datasets, privacy cannot be guaranteed. Even if an individual dataset does not violate a person's privacy, the combination of multiple datasets or the combination of open datasets with information from the media may allow for identifying persons in a dataset (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b), especially when open data is combined with social media data (Nieuwenhuijs, 2014). For instance, let us imagine that a researcher locates two datasets. ...
... Data protection legislation often prescribes on a very general level how one should handle privacy sensitive data, and thus it does not give much guidance for removing (privacy) sensitive information from datasets (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Laws and regulations need to give sufficient space for the interpretation of privacy sensitivity and therefore they cannot be too specific (idem). ...
... Furthermore, the situation in different countries might vary, as privacy is valued more in some countries than in others (idem). In sum, guidelines about privacy sensitivity partly help to identify which data cannot be published, yet much interpretation effort by the data provider is still required, and combining data could still lead to identifying a person or company (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). When privacy-sensitive data is opened, this can result in considerable negative attention and might lead to reputation damage of the organization that opened the data or might lead to a decrease of trust in the government in general. ...
Chapter
Semantic technologies enable open data interoperability beyond the point of pure format and structure alignment.
... Regardless of the amount of effort put into removing privacy sensitive content from datasets, privacy cannot be guaranteed. Even if an individual dataset does not violate a person's privacy, the combination of multiple datasets or the combination of open datasets with information from the media may allow for identifying persons in a dataset (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b), especially when open data is combined with social media data (Nieuwenhuijs, 2014). For instance, let us imagine that a researcher locates two datasets. ...
... Data protection legislation often prescribes on a very general level how one should handle privacy sensitive data, and thus it does not give much guidance for removing (privacy) sensitive information from datasets (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Laws and regulations need to give sufficient space for the interpretation of privacy sensitivity and therefore they cannot be too specific (idem). ...
... Furthermore, the situation in different countries might vary, as privacy is valued more in some countries than in others (idem). In sum, guidelines about privacy sensitivity partly help to identify which data cannot be published, yet much interpretation effort by the data provider is still required, and combining data could still lead to identifying a person or company (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). When privacy-sensitive data is opened, this can result in considerable negative attention and might lead to reputation damage of the organization that opened the data or might lead to a decrease of trust in the government in general. ...
Chapter
The concept of open data itself is strongly associated with innovative capacity and transformative power (Davies, Perini, & Alonso, 2013). It is increasingly recognized that proactively opening public data can create considerable benefits for several stakeholders, such as firms and individuals interested in the development of value added digital services or mobile applications, by combining various types of Open Government Data (OGD), and possibly other private data. On the other hand, OGD also empowers scientists, journalists and active citizens who want to understand various public issues and policies through advanced data processing and production of analytics (Janssen, 2011a; Zuiderwijk, Helbig, Gil-García, & Janssen, 2014).
... Regardless of the amount of effort put into removing privacy sensitive content from datasets, privacy cannot be guaranteed. Even if an individual dataset does not violate a person's privacy, the combination of multiple datasets or the combination of open datasets with information from the media may allow for identifying persons in a dataset (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b), especially when open data is combined with social media data (Nieuwenhuijs, 2014). For instance, let us imagine that a researcher locates two datasets. ...
... Data protection legislation often prescribes on a very general level how one should handle privacy sensitive data, and thus it does not give much guidance for removing (privacy) sensitive information from datasets (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Laws and regulations need to give sufficient space for the interpretation of privacy sensitivity and therefore they cannot be too specific (idem). ...
... Furthermore, the situation in different countries might vary, as privacy is valued more in some countries than in others (idem). In sum, guidelines about privacy sensitivity partly help to identify which data cannot be published, yet much interpretation effort by the data provider is still required, and combining data could still lead to identifying a person or company (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). When privacy-sensitive data is opened, this can result in considerable negative attention and might lead to reputation damage of the organization that opened the data or might lead to a decrease of trust in the government in general. ...
Chapter
The opening of data has grown tremendously over the past decade. More and more datasets have been opened to the public, application programming interfaces (APIs) gave been design for enabling the public to make use of real-time data and new apps based on this data have been developed. Data about policy-making, software code (open sources), documents, minutes, financial data and so on has been opened resulting in a large repository of government data that can be on open data portals and government websites. Nevertheless the potential is even more higher, as most of the data still are closed and not directly accessible by the public. Furthermore, more and more data is collected and can be share in nowadays words driven by The Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT consist of devices that are able to collect data such as GPS (geographical location), Compass, temperature, movement, pollution and so on. Devices collecting data combined with data analytics are expected to transform the government and society. This can provide insight into the energy consumption of smart cities (https://amsterdamsmartcity.com/projects/energy-atlas) or the pollution (http://airindex.eea.europa.eu/). These initiates are all driven by the opening of data and extended by user-friendly apps to enable a large use by the public.
... Regardless of the amount of effort put into removing privacy sensitive content from datasets, privacy cannot be guaranteed. Even if an individual dataset does not violate a person's privacy, the combination of multiple datasets or the combination of open datasets with information from the media may allow for identifying persons in a dataset (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b), especially when open data is combined with social media data (Nieuwenhuijs, 2014). For instance, let us imagine that a researcher locates two datasets. ...
... Data protection legislation often prescribes on a very general level how one should handle privacy sensitive data, and thus it does not give much guidance for removing (privacy) sensitive information from datasets (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). Laws and regulations need to give sufficient space for the interpretation of privacy sensitivity and therefore they cannot be too specific (idem). ...
... Furthermore, the situation in different countries might vary, as privacy is valued more in some countries than in others (idem). In sum, guidelines about privacy sensitivity partly help to identify which data cannot be published, yet much interpretation effort by the data provider is still required, and combining data could still lead to identifying a person or company (Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014b). When privacy-sensitive data is opened, this can result in considerable negative attention and might lead to reputation damage of the organization that opened the data or might lead to a decrease of trust in the government in general. ...
Chapter
Evaluation of Open Data is a systematic determination of open data merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards (Farbey, Land, & Targett, 1999). It is an essential procedure trying to ignite a learning and innovation process leading to a more effective data exploitation. Examples of questions to be answered by open data evaluation could be: what is the current status of published data against the best practices identified, how effectively these data are published or used, what are the most valuable data for users, what are the problems and barriers discouraging the publication and use of open data and in which extend these barriers affects users’ behaviour towards data usage. The answers on these questions will affect the next developments of an open data portal or initiative and the publication procedure.
... This provision of civic technology is often supported by open government policies that aim to make government more transparent, accountable, and by association, seem more forward-thinking and 'innovative' [9,37]. Despite the strong potential for civic technology to improve government-citizen interactions, and increase both the efficiency and impact of municipal actions, there are also notable challenges and a potential 'dark side' of unintended consequences to technology adoption and implementation [23,42]. Given the wide variety of civic technology types, literature on this topic largely focuses on two types; open data [23,42], and smart city infrastructure development [27,36]. ...
... Despite the strong potential for civic technology to improve government-citizen interactions, and increase both the efficiency and impact of municipal actions, there are also notable challenges and a potential 'dark side' of unintended consequences to technology adoption and implementation [23,42]. Given the wide variety of civic technology types, literature on this topic largely focuses on two types; open data [23,42], and smart city infrastructure development [27,36]. This general framing places open data and smart city infrastructure as a public subsidy of the private sector and opening doors to the outsourcing of government services [17,38]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Governments are increasingly negotiating the adoption of civic technologies to improve government functioning and to better connect with citizens. Despite the benefits of civic technology to make government more efficient, effective, and transparent, there are many challenges and even unintended outcomes to civic technology adoption. This exploratory paper presents a conceptual argument using two types of civic technology; open data and smart city infrastructure, as examples where their procurement by government can disintermediate government from citizen. This disintermediation can have both positive and negative outcomes for different parties. Four mechanisms that drive this disintermediation are discussed, including the use of legal frameworks, jumping of scales, conversion of public to private goods, and the creation of standards. These mechanisms can serve to shift the role of government from a service provider to a more background role as a data custodian or regulator, opening many opportunities for other actors, including private sector to assume critical roles in service provision.
... These data can be observed in Table 1. [69], [68], [15], [80], [28], [29], [54], [1], [76], [82], [5], [4], [43], [75], [34], [39], [6], [18], [21], [65], [81], [46], [57], [53], [13] , [59], [32] Culture Benefits of opening data are not recognized; People are not willing to associate open data publication with their work routine [67], [80], [28], [76], [43], [39], [21], [65], [81], [13], [31], [32], [16], [27], [40], Economic Relatively High Costs [15], [28], [54], [43], [46], [53], [13], [77], [49], [60], [61], [7], [50] Political Privacy Laws; Lack of interest in transparency; Security issues; [49], [36], [80], [84], [65], [37], [1], [76], [63], [77], [82], [8], [85], [10], [13], [31], [35], [42], [71], [60], [32], [6], [24], [26], [67], [27], [66], [74], [5], [4], [43] Technical Difficulty in finding data; Low value formats; System heterogeneity [55], [49], [15], [36], [17], [81], [46], [34], [18], [30], [58], [37], [29], [51], [54], [76], [83], [63], [77], [82], [48], [25], [11], [19], [10], [13], [2], [70], [44], [7], [24], [27], [40], [68], [66], [4], [43], [75] Data Quality Incomplete Data; Data Duplicity; Irrelevant Information; Few Data Description [49], [15], [36], [17], [46], [34], [84], [30], [21], [58], [65], [29], [51], [54], [37], [76], [83], [63], [77], [82], [48], [53], [19], [12], [6], [69], [52], [40], [68], [66], [4], [50], [43], [75] 3.2 RQ2 -Which factors contribute to a satisfactory OGD implementation? 28 [71], [72], [43], [80], [46], [13], [16], [35], [2], [12], [66], [15], [28], [1], [40], [39], [45], [45], [21], [59], [47], [85], [48], [82], [56], [84], [29]. ...
... [69], [68], [15], [80], [28], [29], [54], [1], [76], [82], [5], [4], [43], [75], [34], [39], [6], [18], [21], [65], [81], [46], [57], [53], [13] , [59], [32] Culture Benefits of opening data are not recognized; People are not willing to associate open data publication with their work routine [67], [80], [28], [76], [43], [39], [21], [65], [81], [13], [31], [32], [16], [27], [40], Economic Relatively High Costs [15], [28], [54], [43], [46], [53], [13], [77], [49], [60], [61], [7], [50] Political Privacy Laws; Lack of interest in transparency; Security issues; [49], [36], [80], [84], [65], [37], [1], [76], [63], [77], [82], [8], [85], [10], [13], [31], [35], [42], [71], [60], [32], [6], [24], [26], [67], [27], [66], [74], [5], [4], [43] Technical Difficulty in finding data; Low value formats; System heterogeneity [55], [49], [15], [36], [17], [81], [46], [34], [18], [30], [58], [37], [29], [51], [54], [76], [83], [63], [77], [82], [48], [25], [11], [19], [10], [13], [2], [70], [44], [7], [24], [27], [40], [68], [66], [4], [43], [75] Data Quality Incomplete Data; Data Duplicity; Irrelevant Information; Few Data Description [49], [15], [36], [17], [46], [34], [84], [30], [21], [58], [65], [29], [51], [54], [37], [76], [83], [63], [77], [82], [48], [53], [19], [12], [6], [69], [52], [40], [68], [66], [4], [50], [43], [75] 3.2 RQ2 -Which factors contribute to a satisfactory OGD implementation? 28 [71], [72], [43], [80], [46], [13], [16], [35], [2], [12], [66], [15], [28], [1], [40], [39], [45], [45], [21], [59], [47], [85], [48], [82], [56], [84], [29]. ...
Conference Paper
Open Government Data (OGD) is a practice that has become widespread and has brought countless benefits to both government and citizens. The Open Government Partnership is a group formed by over 60 countries, all countries sharing the same purpose: A plan to define open data by following a list of requirements. However, the number of open datasets is still low and does not have the minimum level of quality and technique. The Open Data initiative still faces a large number of challenges to become reality. The goal of this study is to map and characterize the main barriers prevent OGD, exposing the mitigation forms found in literature papers, as well as identifying which sectors of public administration have a higher incidence of publication on OGD. In order this, it was realized a Systematic Literature Mapping (SLM), resulting in 85 relevant papers able to response 3 Research Questions. The SLM identified 6 main barriers: Public Engagement; Culture; Economic; Political and Technical, where it is highlighted Education, Health and Finances as public sector areas with Open Data major publication incidence. The Open Government Directive, a guidelines series, published in 2009 by Ex-President of United States of America, Barack Obama is the factor most quoted in literature as barrier mitigation way in OGD implementation.
... The institutional theory is probably one of the most classic and popular conceptual approaches that have been widely utilized by a number of researchers to study technology-driven public sector reforms since the early 2000s (Barry & Bannister, 2014;Criado, Sandoval-Almazan, & Gil-Garcia, 2013;Fountain, 2004;Hassan & Gil-Garcia, 2008;Wang & Lo, 2016;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014c). The key proponents of the institutional theory argue that it is important to study a new phenomenon of open data in its close relationship to the surrounding institutional and bureaucratic contexts that indirectly shape the course and pace of all public sector reforms in the area and adoption of presumably universal information and communication technologies in accordance with established organizational structures (Criado et al., 2013;. ...
Book
Full-text available
This book offers a cross-national comparison of open data policies in Estonia and Kazakhstan. By analyzing a broad range of open data-driven initiatives in both countries, it sheds light on the potential of open data phenomena to promote public sector innovations in transitional settings. In this book, the author investigates various political and socioeconomic contexts in these two countries, and reviews the strategies and tactics adopted by policymakers and stakeholders to identify key drivers, trends and challenges in the implementation of open data innovations. Given its scope, the book will appeal to scholars, policymakers, e-government practitioners and data entrepreneurs interested in implementing and evaluating open data-driven public sector projects.
... The economic efficiencies are based on further use and development of OGD, such as commercial applications and time-based efficiency for the user. However, publishing OGD is also associated with risks, such as misinterpretations, misuse and privacy violations (Barry and Bannister, 2014;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b). ...
... The major sources for Open Data are, but not limited to, scientific communities, governments and non-profit organizations. On the site of disadvantages, Open Data might be biased, violate privacy unintentionally, misinterpreted and misused, lead to decisions because of the poor data quality and cause unclear accountability among other possibilities [13]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the Smart City approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications on various aspects of urban life - e.g. supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other use cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. This paper constitutes a continuation of a series of research documents and standardization activities, which relate to the concept of Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way they serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of an ICT backbone. Thereby, the current paper emphasizes on the aspects of sustainability and resilient ICT, whilst reporting on our latest activities and related developments in the research area.
... The institutional theory is probably one of the most classic and popular conceptual approaches that have been widely utilized by a number of researchers to study technology-driven public sector reforms since the early 2000s (Barry & Bannister, 2014;Criado, Sandoval-Almazan, & Gil-Garcia, 2013;Fountain, 2004;Hassan & Gil-Garcia, 2008;Wang & Lo, 2016;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014c). The key proponents of the institutional theory argue that it is important to study a new phenomenon of open data in its close relationship to the surrounding institutional and bureaucratic contexts that indirectly shape the course and pace of all public sector reforms in the area and adoption of presumably universal information and communication technologies in accordance with established organizational structures (Criado et al., 2013;. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief introduction to the concept of open data politics and its key terms, which are actively used in other parts of the book, especially in understanding its fundamental elements such as phenomena of open data, open data platforms, open data-driven projects, open government, e-government, and e-participation, as well as its key political and socioeconomic values such as transparency of government, civic engagement, public–private partnership, public sector innovations, and digital democracy. Another goal of the chapter is to develop a conceptual framework for the empirical analysis. The framework is built in accordance with key research questions and analytical approaches that shape conceptually the methodology of the case study investigation hereinafter. In particular, the author explains why these topics are important and relevant as part of the current research on open data to propose new policy agendas in academic and professional literature. Also, he tries to justify the use of descriptive analysis to address the chosen research questions, especially in understanding different institutional stakeholders, their perspectives on open data policies, and operation of related networking platforms at different institutional levels of government.
... On the other hand, the need to safeguard the individuals' privacy that, in the EU legislation, is considered a fundamental human right (Graux 2011;Scassa 2014). This makes the re-use of PSPI a non-trivial matter, which makes the simplest choice to exclude as much PSI containing personal infor-mation as possible from the scope of PSI legislation (AA.VV., 2018, p. 137) thus leav- ing an huge amount of potential value untapped (Janssen, 2011;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b;van Loenen et al., 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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In their day-today operations, public sector organizations collect and use huge amounts of information that if made available for re-use would contribute to economic growth. Much of this information directly or indirectly can lead to the identification of 'natural persons' and, as such, the personal data protection regulation applies to it. According to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) issued by the EU in 2016, unless it is regulated by a specific legislation, personal information can be processed only based on the data subject's explicit consent. This raises the question of what strategies public organizations could implement to make the data subjects willing to allow the (possible) re-use of their personal information. By elaborating on evidences from the economics and the psychology of privacy literature, the paper suggests that public sector organizations can implement a coproduction strategy to unlock the value of public sector personal information in a user-centric personal information ecosystem. More specifically , the paper argues that the data subjects can be made more willing to consent to the processing (and possibly to the re-use) of personal information by involving them as coproducers in the processes through which public sector organizations can support economic growth in the digital society.
... Not all government data should be open. Where government data relates to individual citizens, privacy protection means that restrictions have to be placed on access [17]. In other cases Departments may choose to restrict access for their purposes, for example, to levy an access fee to recover the costs of generating data. ...
Conference Paper
Data has value helping individuals, businesses and government make decisions. Sharing government data can, therefore, enhance its value, providing privacy is safeguarded. Open government data can also enhance equity by reducing the information advantage that large businesses increasingly have over smaller competitors and customers. However, there are costs associated with open data. It must be curated and disseminated. Protecting individual privacy may require aggregation or transformation. There are also different ways of sharing data. At its crudest, this may take the form of providing files, in whatever form, on a website. More usefully and at greater cost, sharing data may take the form of machine-readable APIs. Data services also help users draw insights from data, for example by identifying patterns or trends or highlighting the most salient information. These different sharing models incur different costs to government and users. More accessible data with associated services generally increase the potential benefits to users but will come at some cost to government. From an economic perspective, it will be more efficient if this is done once by the government. However, given the limited budget resources of governments it is worth considering how the process of opening government data could be optimized. The objective of this research is to provide a framework to assist decision-makers responsible for open data. A data prioritization index could assess the trade-offs between the costs and benefits of making particular datasets open. The benefits depend on the extent to which data are likely to be used by citizens, or to enhance competition among firms. The costs include the ICT infrastructure requirements and privacy safeguards needed to make the data open. Ultimately the value of open data will grow as artificial intelligence lowers the cost of drawing insights from it. Open data could also reduce the extent to which a small number of large companies are able to profit from monopolizing their data holdings.
... However, Zuiderwijk et al. [73] also point out that there are negative eects of open data, like decreasing trust in government as result of opening datasets which have poor quality, useless data to support decision making and even that in some cases transparency can result in a negative image of the government. This context highlights the complexities that arise from numerous reasons, including a large number of stakeholders involved in the process, uncertainty about how open data will be used, multiple social and technical contexts, and the diculty valuing intangible eects generated through open data innovation [72]. ...
Chapter
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Innovation in the Public Sector has been seen as a way to respond the current challenges posed to society. However, the literature shows that little attention has been given to link public sector innovation to existing theories based on system and complexity. This essay aims to contribute to filling this gap with the development of a theoretical framework focused on the relation of organizational capabilities and public value generation in a systemic context. We discuss that the concept of Dynamic Capabilities - Sensing, Seizing and Transforming - is adherent to analyze public sector innovation, especially open innovation in government. In this context, the development of these organizational capabilities contributes to public value creation and can be analyzed through System Dynamics. We argue that these theoretical fields can be joined to elucidate complex and non-linear relationships related to open innovation in the public sector, making possible to scholars and policymakers to understand aspects of the systemic environment that can increase or decrease the creation of public value to providers, users, and beneficiaries.
... However, Zuiderwijk et al. [73] also point out that there are negative eects of open data, like decreasing trust in government as result of opening datasets which have poor quality, useless data to support decision making and even that in some cases transparency can result in a negative image of the government. This context highlights the complexities that arise from numerous reasons, including a large number of stakeholders involved in the process, uncertainty about how open data will be used, multiple social and technical contexts, and the diculty valuing intangible eects generated through open data innovation [72]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The capability to innovate is seen as fundamental to solve the current challenges posed to governments and to create public value to society. However, many studies in the public sector field did not link innovation to existing theories. There are calls for a systemic approach to understand public sector innovation and its complexity, but there are few studies on how to develop a comprehensive analytical model that fits this need. This essay aims to contribute to fill this gap with the development of a theoretical framework to demonstrate how public sector innovations affects public value in a systemic context. We discuss that (1) Public Value Theory (PVT) is adherent to analyze public sector innovation, given its focus on the effects of government action; (2) public sector innovations foster the development of organizational capabilities (Public Service Delivery, Resource Acquisition, Co-production and Public Engagement), which in turn contribute to public value creation in a complex and intertwined manner better captured through System Dynamics. We argue that joining this theoretical fields can elucidate complex and non-linear relationships regarding public sector innovation, assisting scholars and public managers to understand aspects of the organizational environment that can increase or decrease the public value delivered to society over time.
... This in mind, we argue that the adoption of open data portals is obtained by the implementation of specific software platforms, whereas the effective use is managed when open data portals are loaded with a considerable number of datasets updated in a time basis to reach what we call culture of data openness, although we advise the releasing of data should be directed to the need of transparency to increase unrestricted participation [7] and avoid wasting resources to publish invaluable data [30]. ...
Conference Paper
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Deploying a suitable open data platform is one of the most important requirements for succeeding in the provision of open data. Currently, there are several platforms available in the market ranging from the commercial ecosystem to free and open source software. However, we know less about the extent to which they are adopted and what they offer. This paper aims to provide a methodology to investigate this. The methodology is illustrated through studying adoption and use of open data software platforms through a comprehensive survey of 3,152 open data portals worldwide. We have identified 1,104 installations relying on the main existing platforms CKAN, Socrata, ArcGIS Open Data, and OpenDataSoft. To support our analysis, we have automatically fetched metadata about 1,921,636 stored datasets. Our findings indicated that there is a gap between the adoption and the effective use of open data platforms, particularly in terms of technology choice. These data are both from a descriptive and analytical point, non-trivial and showcase the relevance of the methodology. This work makes contributions regarding the development of methods to automatically survey open data platforms and provides insights about availability of open data portals based on the utilization of software platforms, organized by country and frequency of dataset updates.
... However, there may be also drawbacks in the use of OGD. Misinterpretation and unreliable outcomes of analysis or misguided decisions can result from poor quality data [11]. This might also happen if the users of the data do not understand the limitations of the data or they use the data unprofessionally. ...
Article
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Open government data (OGD) is expected to generate economic growth and boost innovation. To demonstrate how open government data was utilised by business actors and how the data translated into economic gross value added, the case of Finnish Transport Safety Agency's data is shown. The estimated annual increased marginal turnover enabled by the OGD of the private companies yielded to a minimum of 102 million EUR. The estimated annual gross value added to the economy based on the use of OGD was 41 million EUR. The industries benefitting the most from open data policy were the insurance and financial services, marketing and publishing.
... Some take as the remedy for every kind of organizational dysfunction as well as the solution to social problems and lack of competitiveness (BAREGHEH; ROWLEY; SAMBROOK, 2009;TIDD, 2007;WOLFE, 1994). However, despite the remarkable role played by innovations as a key factor in the evolution of mankind (TIGRE, 2014), this approach does not encompass all the characteristics of this phenomenon, given that intended and unintended consequences stem from innovation adoption (ROGERS, 2003;SVEIBY et al., 2009;SVEIBY;GRIPENBERG;SEGERCRANTZ, 2012;ZUIDERWIJK;JANSSEN, 2014a). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss intended and unintended consequences regarding innovation adoption. Starting with the assumptions presented on the seminal work of Everett M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations, a framework to the analysis of the consequences of innovation adoption has been developed and then applied to the case of the open government data adoption by the Federal District Government of Brazil. The model is useful because it shows that different stakeholders of an innovation can perceive inversely the effects of the very same consequence, which brings new perspectives in the management of the innovation process inside a pro-innovation bias society. With the model, it is possible to analyze that some groups put pressure against innovation adoption, not because of resistance to change but because they are perceiving negative consequences related to the innovation adoption. The study presents two major contributions. First theoretical, presenting a model for analysis of the consequences of innovation adoption based on literature review and interview of specialists. Second empirical, providing a way to map the innovation adoption process regarding the view of the different stakeholders’ roles and can be used by the private and public sector.
... As discussed above, an important enabler of IoT is to permit others to access and use the things that have been published publicly on the Internet and many believe that should be possible for users to make use of things that others have shared and to make use of things in their own applications, perhaps in ways unanticipated by the owner of the thing (Blackstock & Lea, 2012). According to Zuiderwijk & Janssen (2014), much of the existing research regarding the "openness" of data has oriented towards data provision. However, the duality of the openness of IoT means that a mature set of mechanisms is required to publish and share things as well as ensure that they are findable and accessible (Blackstock & Lea, 2012). ...
Article
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The Internet of Things (IoT) might yield many benefits for organizations, but like other technology adoptions may also introduce unforeseen risks and requiring substantial organizational transformations. This paper analyzes IoT adoption by organizations, and identifies IoT benefits and risks. A Big, Open, Linked Data (BOLD) categorization of the expected benefits and risks of IoT is made by conducting a comprehensive literature study. In-depth case studies in the field of asset management were then executed to examine the actual experienced, real world benefits and risks. The duality of technology is used as our theoretical lens to understand the interactions between organization and technology. The results confirm the duality that gaining the benefits of IoT in asset management produces unexpected social changes that lead to structural transformation of the organization. IoT can provide organizations with many benefits, after having dealt with unexpected risks and making the necessary organizational changes. There is a need to introduce changes to the organization, processes and systems, to develop capabilities and ensure that IoT fits the organization's purposes.
... The theme brought in this study is consistent with previous study by [11], where the author take the effort to evaluate the OGD initiatives in the city of Vienna, Austria to find the implementation success factors. Whereas the study by [12] focused on the other side of the success factor of OGD, which is the negative consequences of OGD implementation by applying in-depth interviews with the government personnel. These studies reinforce the purpose of this paper by adding to the OGD knowledge in presenting the progress and identifying the general issues of OGD implementation from the viewpoint of the policymakers. ...
... While there is a consensus that open government data initiatives can reduce corruption, there are certain factors that may affect the effectiveness of this initiative (Parung, Hidayanto, Sandhyaduhita, Ulo, & Phusavat, 2018;Zuiderwijk & Janssen, 2014). Such factors include citizens or bureaucratic resistance, public trust in government data, culture, and fear of criticism on the part of the government, among others (Bertot et al., 2010b;Cox, 2014;Grönlund, 2010;Heacock & Sasaki, 2010;Parung et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The pervasiveness of public sector corruption has been a major concern by successive governments and their citizenry. In order to curb such corruption, previous studies have focused on the anti-corruption strategies adopted by governments in isolation, but little or no study has focused on the interactions of the anti-corruption strategies. Using the concept-centric approach, we reviewed 91 studies systematically to understand the trends of government anti-corruption strategies. From the synthesized studies, we identified three dominant themes of anti-corruption strategies and their associated concepts. In addition, we also identified one dimension that captures information technology (IT) as a vehicle that enhances corrupt practices in the public sector. The identified themes include traditional, technological, transparency, and accountability anti-corruption strategies. We leveraged the identified themes and their associated concepts to develop a conceptual model that could explain the trends of anti-corruption strategies for curbing the public sector corruption. Our findings suggest that there are things we still need to know, particularly in the case of IT anti-corruption strategies that have been misused for corrupt purposes, especially in the context of e-government systems’ adoption in the public sectors as a new stream of IS research.
... The data can come from or be parliament minutes and weather reports [1,2,20]. The use of OGD could lead to benefits, such as increased governmental transparency and citizen participation [14,15,11,26], but there are also risks, such as privacy violations as well as misinterpretations of data [3,27]. ...
Chapter
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Public organizations in the role of publishers publish data for anyone to reuse, which can lead to benefits. However, the process descriptions for this publishing work focus on one or a few issues, which leaves out important areas and decisions. Little seems to be known about variations between publishers based on one common point of comparison. Therefore, this paper presents a comparison between two publishers: Namur (Belgium) and Linköping (Sweden). The comparison is based on a process framework, seven in-depth interviews, document studies, and a verification meeting with one respondent. We learned that the OGD manager is an agent of change who need to balance implementation and guidance, the orthodox method of e-mail registration can be used to engage users and monitor impact, the organizational unit for OGD is cross-organizational, and the publisher process framework could be used as ex-ante strategic guidelines and context-specific recommendations.
... The described advantages of an open data policy, such as transparency and strengthening economic growth must be weighed against risks such as misinterpretation and misuse of data, perceived competitive disadvantages, security challenges and privacy concerns. 112 Disadvantages, unintended consequences and costs must be thoroughly investigated in the Data Act impact assessment. Impact assessments are mandatory for EC initiatives expected to have significant economic, social or environmental impacts. ...
Article
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Europe is now at a crucial juncture in deciding how to deploy data driven technologies in ways that encourage democracy, prosperity and the well-being of European citizens. Normative preferences about how related technology laws ought to be designed should define sustainable exponential innovation policy. These preferences are dynamic and contextual. The upcoming European Data Act provides a major window of opportunity to change the story. In this respect, it is key that the European Commission takes firm action, removes overbearing policy and regulatory obstacles, strenuously harmonizes relevant legislation and provides concrete incentives and mechanisms for access, sharing and re-use of data. The article argues that to ensure an efficiently functioning European data-driven economy, a new and as yet unused term must be introduced to the field of AI & law: the right to process data for machine learning purposes. To make AI and machine learning thrive, we should critically reexamine the applicability and scope of intellectual property rights to data, including copyrights, sui generis database rights and trade secrets. The article demonstrates that exclusive de facto possession or control over machine learning input training, testing and validation datasets hinders healthy competition, a fair level playing field and rapid European innovation. The article rejects exclusive legal ownership rights over autonomously machine generated non-personal data, including AI made creations and inventions: this output belongs to the public domain. Machines do not need incentives, people need freedom of expression and businesses need freedom to operate. Synchronous to harmonized legislation, the social impact of digital transformation can be balanced and regulated by the architecture of digital systems. Embedding values in design should become a fundamental starting point of our data paradigm. Data has become a primary resource that should not be enclosed or commodified per se, but used for the common good. Commons based production and data for social good initiatives should be stimulated by the state. We need not to think in terms of exclusive, private property on data, but in terms of rights and freedoms to use, (modalities of) access, process and share data. If necessary and desirable for the progress of society, the state can implement new forms of property. Against this background the article explores normative justifications for open innovation, drawing inspiration from the works of canonical thinkers such as Locke, Marx, Kant and Hegel. Whether or not data as digital assets are ultimately admitted to the numerus clausus of legal objects i.e. acknowledged as subject matter eligible for private ownership, or whether other modalities and states of property are being developed, the article maintains that there should also be exceptions to (de facto, economic or legal) ownership claims on data that provide user rights and freedom to operate in the setting of AI model training. The article concludes that this exception is conceivable as a legal concept analogous to a quasi, imperfect usufruct in the form of a right to process data for machine learning purposes. A combination of usus and fructus (ius utendi et fruendi), not for land but for primary resource data. A right to process data that works within the context of AI and the Internet of Things (IoT), and that fits in the EU acquis communautaire. Such a right makes access, sharing and re-use of data possible, and helps to fulfil the European Strategy for Data's desiderata.
... In addition, research on big data suggests that governments may face with some other challenges related to implementing big data projects, including technical issues (Maciejewski, 2017), privacy (Janssen and van den Hoven, 2015;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014), staffing (Mayer-Schönberger and Ramge, 2018), machine readability and operability Desouza and Jacob, 2017), dictatorship of data (Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier, 2013) and lack of big data readiness (Klievink et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose-Despite several big data maturity models developed for businesses, assessment of big data maturity in the public sector is an under-explored yet important area. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to identify the big data maturity models developed specifically for the public sector and evaluate two major big data maturity models in that respect: one at the state level and the other at the organizational level. Design/methodology/approach-A literature search is conducted using Web of Science and Google Scholar to determine big data maturity models explicitly addressing big data adoption by governments, and then two major models are identified and compared: Klievink et al.'s Big Data maturity model and Kuraeva's Big Data maturity model. Findings-While Klievink et al.'s model is designed to evaluate Big Data maturity at the organizational level, Kuraeva's model is appropriate for assessments at the state level. The first model sheds light on the micro-level factors considering the specific data collection routines and requirements of the public organizations, whereas the second one provides a general framework in terms of the conditions necessary for government's big data maturity such as legislative framework and national policy dimensions (strategic plans and actions). Originality/value-This study contributes to the literature by identifying and evaluating the models specifically designed to assess big data maturity in the public sector. Based on the review, it provides insights about the development of integrated models to evaluate big data maturity in the public sector.
... The data can come from or be parliament minutes and weather reports [1,2,20]. The use of OGD could lead to benefits, such as increased governmental transparency and citizen participation [14,15,11,26], but there are also risks, such as privacy violations as well as misinterpretations of data [3,27]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Public organizations in the role of publishers publish data for anyone to reuse, which can lead to benefits. However, the process descriptions for this publishing work focus on one or a few issues, which leaves out important areas and decisions. Little seems to be known about variations between publishers based on one common point of comparison. Therefore, this paper presents a comparison between two publishers: Namur (Belgium) and Linköping (Sweden). The comparison is based on a process framework, seven in-depth interviews, document studies, and a verification meeting with one respondent. We learned that the OGD manager is an agent of change who need to balance implementation and guidance, the orthodox method of e-mail registration can be used to engage users and monitor impact, the organizational unit for OGD is cross-organizational, and the publisher process framework could be used as ex-ante strategic guidelines and context-specific recommendations.
... Based on the risk analysis carried out from several open data implementations, there were seven categories: governance, economic issues, licenses, data characteristics, limitations, access and capabilities. Apart from these risks, the risk of open data is assessed by 3 factors, namely effort, implementation and management of open data [11]. In Luo et al. research regarding the risks to open data initiation states that financial risk is a factor that inhibits open data programs in public organizations such as local governments [12]. ...
Article
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This paper presents a conceptual model to analyze motivation factors and perceived risk factors of open data measurement in Indonesia local government. The conceptual model is developed from a theoretical background and literature reviews of related research, which describes open data government, indicators of open data measurement, motivation factors and perceived risks factor in open data. In result, there are eight factors that construct in the model. There are four motivation indicators and four perceived risk indicator that influence open data measurement. For each indicator are determined from the literature review and previous research. In the future, the conceptual model is expected to be able to provide insight to Indonesian local governments on open government data through an analysis of the relationship of identified motivational factors and perceived risks factors.
... New risks and challenges are arising from the implementation of ICTs in co-production. Besides potential issues of equity and representativeness caused by "digital divide", other ICT-induced concerns include personal privacy, information security, misuse of government data, and biased open data [62,90]. Those negative side of ICTs may risk resulting in the negative effect of public service provision and even intensifying the problems in non-digital co-production. ...
Conference Paper
Recent years have witnessed growing public administration practitioners’ and researchers’ interests in the involvement of citizens as co-producers of public service design and delivery. With advanced information and communication technologies (ICT) favoring multilateral interactivity and ubiquitous communication, governments are able to expand new opportunities for public service co-production. This literature review contributes to our understanding of current knowledge about the use of ICTs in co-production and the potential outcomes. The results of the review show three models of ICT-enabled co-production: (1) Citizen-sourcing; (2) Automatic Co-production; (3) Government as an Open Platform, each with its unique features in terms of citizens’ contributions, citizens’ capacities, and government openness. This review highlights future developments in electronic sensors and the use of data could lead to new approaches to co-production. ICT-enabled coproduction is promising to bring positive outcomes on public service provision and citizen engagement, yet the effectiveness of those practices is conditioned on factors both inside and outside government organizations. The review also indicates that ICT-enabled co-production is not a panacea and potential dark sides need to be acknowledged. Future research needs to address critical drivers and barriers for governments to utilize different models of ICT-enabled coproduction as well as to evaluate the outcomes of those practices in multiple contexts.
... The uses of OGD should be centered on creating public value and constructing public policies based on an open culture (Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014a), such that governments should move from open data to open service (Chan, 2013;Yang et al., 2015), deploy collaborative so-dark side (Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b), and therefore only those open data policies that offer a clear contribution to the decision making processes of the different stakeholders should be deployed. Data protection issues arise when collecting and sharing open data among organizations, an action which may be in conflict with the goals of the data users and holders. ...
Article
The goal of open government data (OGD) initiatives is to promote transparency, efficiency and public participation in public management policies. To do so, public organizations must consider which elements might help the development of their open government data portals (OGDP). This paper studies the evolution of OGDP in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU) in a multidisciplinary setting. Whereas the comparative frameworks in the literature are mostly based only on technological parameters, this exploratory research aims to uncover which factors might uphold the successful development of OGDP through the analysis of the relationships between a number of technical and socioeconomical indicators over a period of three years (2015–2017), using a clustering methodology. The results show that EU countries are slowly homogenizing their OGD approaches into two currents/speeds, based mainly on economic factors and open government development status. The originality of this research lies in the sense that it provides not only a technical benchmark, but also a longitudinal and multidisciplinary perspective that will add to the current formulation of OGD policies and practices in any international setting.
... The economic efficiencies are based on further use and development of OGD, such as commercial applications and time-based efficiency for the user. However, publishing OGD is also associated with risks, such as misinterpretations, misuse and privacy violations (Barry and Bannister, 2014;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b). ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to develop a user process framework with activities and their variations for the use of open government data (OGD) based on empirical material and previous research. OGD is interoperable data that is shared by public organisations (publishers) for anyone (users) to reuse without restrictions to create new digital products and services. The user process was roughly identified in previous research but lacks an in-depth description. This lack can hamper the ability to encourage the use and the development of related theories. Design/methodology/approach A three-stage research approach was used. First, a tentative framework was created from previous research and empirical material. This stage involved three different literature reviews, data mapping and seven interviews with OGD experts. The empirical material was analysed with inductive analysis, and previous research was integrated into the framework through concept mapping. Second, the tentative framework was reviewed by informed OGD experts. Third, the framework was finalised with additional literature reviews, eight interviews with OGD users, and a member check, including all the respondents. The framework was used to guide the data collection and as a tool in the analysis. Findings The user process framework covers activities and related variations, where the included phases are: start, identify, acquire, enrich and deploy. The start varies relating to the intended use of the OGD. In the identify phase, the user is exploring the accessible data to decide if the data are relevant. In the acquire phase, the user is preparing for the delivery of the data from the publisher and receiving it. In the enrich phase, the user is concocting and making something. In the final deploy phase, the user has a product or service that can be provided to end-users. Research limitations/implications The framework development has some limitations: the framework needs testing and development in different contexts and further verification. The implications are that the framework can help guide researchers towards relevant and essential data of the user process, be used as a point of comparison in analysis, and be used as a skeleton for more precious theories. Practical implications The framework has some practical implications for users, publishers and portals. It can introduce users to the user process and help them plan for the execution of it. The framework can help publishers understand how the users can work with their data and what can be expected of them. The framework can help portal owners to understand the portal’s role between users and publishers and what functionality and features they can provide to support to the user. Originality/value In previous research, no user process with an in-depth description was identified. However, several studies have given a rough recall. Thus, this research provides an in-depth description of the user process with its variations. The framework can support practice and leads to new research avenues.
... While most researchers are optimistic about the adoption of DOGs, however, there are barriers in government's data openness. As observed by Zuiderwijk and Janssen [20], the main obstacle was access to inappropriate and effective data sets from users' perspective. ...
... 162 The benefits of an open data policy, such as transparency and strengthening economic growth must be weighed against disadvantages such as misinterpretation and misuse of data, perceived competitive disadvantages and privacy concerns. 163 ...
Article
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This article seeks to clarify the relation between AI and IP in the information society. It aims to critically examine our intellectual property framework at the dawn of the fourth industrial revolution. In that context, it contends that human authorship remains the normative organ point of intellectual property law. Additionally, it argues that extending copyrights hinders innovation, cultural diversity and even fundamental freedoms. Adding extra layers to the existing rainbow of IP rights is not a good solution to balance the societal impact of technological progress. Legislative gaps can be remedied by contracts and generous application of fair use and the three-step-test. Finally, parts of the Roman multi-layered property paradigm can be relevant for AI. Building upon this framework, section VIII of the article includes a proposal for a new public domain model for AI Creations and Inventions that crossed the autonomy threshold: Res Publicae ex Machina (Public Property from the Machine). The introduction of the legal concept of Public Property from the Machine is a Pareto improvement; many actors benefit from it while nobody -at least no legal person- will suffer from it. For illustrative purposes, the article includes a human-machine collaboration example. The examined AI Assisted Creation (a sound recording of a musical work) can be streamed online and does not qualify as Public Property from the Machine. The article also describes a pure AI Invention that qualifies as Public Property from the Machine and thus could be awarded with official PD mark status: a flu vaccine autonomously brewed by an AI called SAM. This article describes the current legal framework regarding authorship and ownership of AI Creations, legal personhood, patents on AI Inventions, types of IP rights on the various components of the AI system itself (including Digital Twin technology), clearance of training data and data ownership. It examines whether the rationales and justifications of IP are applicable to AI from the perspective of the function of copyright. Besides that, the article presents ideas and policy suggestions on how the law ought to be understood or designed with regard to AI input and output. Laws that would facilitate an innovation optimum. The main goal of this research is to contribute to the body of doctrinal knowledge by offering a relatively compact AI & IP overview analysis and in doing so, to provide some food for thought to interdisciplinary thinkers in the IP, tech, privacy and freedom of information field. Because AI and the internet are without borders, the article makes these recommendations through the eyes of a global acquis of intellectual property, as being a set of universal principles that form the normative backbone of the IP system.
... On the other hand, the need to safeguard the individuals' privacy that, in the EU legislation, is considered a fundamental human right (Graux 2011;Scassa 2014). This makes the re-use of PSPI a non-trivial matter, which makes the simplest choice to exclude as much PSI containing personal infor-mation as possible from the scope of PSI legislation (AA.VV., 2018, p. 137) thus leaving an huge amount of potential value untapped (Janssen, 2011;Zuiderwijk and Janssen, 2014b;van Loenen et al., 2016). ...
... , B. 2012. Opening public and private data is a complex activity that may result in benefits yet might also encounter risks (Conradie and Choenni 2014, Zuiderwijk and Janssen 2014, Zuiderwijk and Janssen 2015. An important risk that may block the publication of the data is that organizations might violate the privacy of citizens when opening data about them (Conradie and Choenni 2014). ...
Chapter
While the sharing of information has turned into a typical practice for governments and organizations, numerous datasets are as yet not openly published since they may violate users’ privacy. The hazard on data protection infringement is a factor that regularly hinders the distribution of information and results in a push back from governments and organizations. Moreover, even published information, which may appear safe, can disregard client security because of the uncovering of users’ personalities. This paper proposes a privacy risk assessment model for open data structures to break down and diminish the dangers related with the opening of data. The key components are privacy attributes of open data reflecting privacy risks versus benefits exchanges-off related with the utilization situations of the information to be open. Further, these attributes are assessed using a decision engine into a privacy risk indicator value and a privacy risk mitigation measure. Privacy risk indicator expresses the anticipated estimation of data protection dangers related with opening such information and privacy risk mitigation measure expresses the estimations that should be connected on the information to evade the expected security risks. The model is exemplified through five genuine scenarios concerning open datasets.
... It would be also possibility to misuse of documents, misinterpretation of data which are uploaded through website. [18]- [20]. Thus the local government through the IDMO must provide information and documents. ...
Article
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OGD is an agreement of countries in the world to implement disclosure of public information. This agreement is also applied in Indonesia. One of the most important problems in managing Open Government Data (OGD) is the ability to collect, classify information, publish, and present information. OGD management in Indonesia is carried out by the Information and Document Management Officer (IDMO). Research on OGD in Indonesia is still very minimal and limited to the issue of initiating the implementation of OGD. In fact, the problems that occur are not only at the organizational level, but also need to be focused on the actors or information management employees working on IDMOs. The important thing is how OGD should be managed, so that all information which are produced must be carried out for the benefit of the community. When the right OGD management model can be carried out, then the concept of service to the community should also be developed and implemented as better as possible as a manifestation of the sustainability of OGD implementation. This study uses a qualitative method with the chosen rationality approach is the soft systems methodology (SSM). The results obtained from this study are the OGD management model that adopts the SHEL concept, namely strengthening the understanding, use and strengthening of software, hardware, environment and life-ware. And when the SHEL can be done well, the concept of service to the community must also be improved by adopting the concept of RATER (Reliability, Assurance, Tangible, Empathy, and Responsiveness). The combination of SHEL and RATER is a conceptual model and change plan to strengthen management and maintain the sustainability of OGD implementation in Indonesia through IDMO in all local governments.
Chapter
In Kap. 10 werden die Entwicklung der Digitalisierung in der Gesellschaft und ihre Folgen für den modernen Staat und seine Verwaltung aufgezeigt. Anschließend wird auf die Entwicklungsstufen und Ursachen wie Ergebnisse der E-Government Reform eingegangen, die den eigentlichen Beginn des aktuellsten Reform-Leitbilds im öffentlichen Sektor charakterisiert. Danach werden die Reform-Konzepte der E-Democracy und des Open Government diskutiert, bevor schließlich auf die Zielkriterien der Digitalisierungsreformen anhand der Darstellung internationaler Ländervergleiche eingegangen wird.
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According to Open Government Data, governments should co-operate with citizens in order to co-create Open Data (OD). When large groups are involved, there is the need to orchestrate the work by clearly defining and distributing roles. Our Regional Administration - the Council of the Campania Region in Italy - claimed a motivating use case which inspired the proposed roles involved in the OD production process. We consider validator, creator, and filler as roles. To each role tasks and responsibilities are attached. Roles and related activities are integrated into SPOD (a Social Platform for Open Data) to guide users in producing high-quality OD by proactive quality assurance techniques.
Article
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Indonesia telah menerapkan Open Government Data (OGD) sejak tahun 2008, yaitu ketika Undang-UndangKeterbukaan Informasi Publik (UU KIP) No. 14 tahun 2008 disahkan. Penerapan UU KIP bagi segenap badanpublik, termasuk pemerintah pusat maupun pemerintah daerah mulai diberlakukan pada tahun 2010, melalui PPNomor 61 tahun 2010. Pengelola KIP di Indonesia dilakukan oleh Pejabat Pengelola Informasi dan Dokumentasi(PPID), yang dilaksanakan melalui surat keputusan (SK) pimpinan tertinggi pada badan publik, dimana ketikakonteksnya adalah pemerintah daerah, maka SK ditandatangani oleh Walikota atau Bupati. Secara faktual, Indonesiadimasukkan ke negara yang telah menginisiasi penerapan KIP tetapi berpotensi menghadapi kendala keberlanjutanpenerapannya. Sampai dengan tahun 2017, jumlah kota yang telah menunjuk dan memiliki PPID masih sebesar86,73% (85 kota dari 98 kota) se Indonesia. Hal ini menunjukkan adanya persoalan atau faktor-faktor yangmempengaruhi kesediaan atau kesiapan (readiness) untuk mengadopsi sistem baru di dalam ruang lingkupkelembagaannya. Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk untuk mengeksplorasi tentang kesiapan (readiness) untukmengadopsi pengelolaan KIP untuk memberikan layanan informasi dan dokumen kepada masyarakat. Hasilnyadiketahui bahwa faktor komitmen organisasi dan pengelola menjadi bagian dari rendahnya kualitas readinesspengelolaan KIP. Direkomendasikan melalui hasil pendekatan Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), agar dilakukanstrategi readiness organisasi dan pengelola melalui penguatan tata kelola dan penguatan individu dengan dukunganinfrastruktur dan pendanaan yang memadai.
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Open data are freely accessible online, available to be reused. They can be used for the development of applications which improve citizens’ life. A way to boost the development of innovative applications is by hosting hackathons, workshops and conferences. Apparently, as far as entrepreneurship, open data impact on economic growth, innovation, empowerment and new or improved products and services. There is limited previous research not only on what motivates the developers to participate in open data competitions, but also on the benefits and challenges which are caused from the use of open data. Furthermore, researches focus on factors that affect nascent entrepreneurs’ decision to create a startup but researchers in the field of open data and hackathons relative researches are limited. The purpose of this chapter is to present a theoretical framework in order to examine the impact of motivations, benefits and barriers of the use of open data in the participation in hackathons and to develop a startup based on their applications.
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Data market initiatives have, by assigning monetary value to data, and connecting the various actors responsible for its efficient production and consumption, far reaching consequences for national economies. The Data Market Austria (DMA) project represents a unique opportunity for Austria to leverage the enormous potential socio-economic benefits accruing from increased trade of data. At the same time, however, a number of key challenges to the successful uptake of the project needs to be considered, and new problems emerging from this new form of digital commercial infrastructure need to be anticipated and addressed. This study aims to examine how the benefits accruing to increased participation in a data-driven ecosystem can be applied to tackle the long-standing socio-cultural challenges and the possible societal and cultural impediments to the successful unfolding out of a data market. Theoretical discussions framed from arguments obtained through a systematic review of academic and scholarly literature are juxtaposed with empirical data obtained from data science experts and DMA project personnel to test whether they stand up to real-world practicalities and to narrow the focus onto the Austria-specific context. Our findings reveal that data is a dual-purpose commodity that has both commercial value and social application. To amplify the benefits accruing from increased data trading, it is vital that a country establishes a sound open data strategy and a balanced regulatory framework for data trading.
Article
While the potential benefits of open government data (OGD) initiatives are significant, there has often been a lack of participation by public agencies in these efforts. Motivated by this challenge and a corresponding research gap, we develop a theoretically grounded model to explain what drives public agencies to share their data on OGD platforms. Model testing with survey and objective data from 102 public agencies indicates that agencies’ resource dependence on external innovators significantly impacts their data sharing behavior. Furthermore, conformity need and the sensitivity of their function also influence agencies’ data sharing behavior. Contributions toward research and practice are discussed.
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Governments create and collect enormous amounts of data, for instance concerning voting results, transport, energy, education, and employment. These datasets are often stored in an archive that is not accessible for others than the organization’s employees. To attain benefits such as transparency, engagement, and innovation, many governmental organizations are now also providing public access to this data. However, in opening up their data, these organizations face many issues, including the lack of standard procedures, the threat of privacy violations when releasing data, accidentally releasing policy-sensitive data, the risk of data misuse, challenges regarding the ownership of data and required changes at different organizational layers. These issues often hinder the easy publication of government data.
Article
This article explores the complexity of open government and open data implementation from the perspective of local government in developing countries by addressing the challenges, success factors, lesson learned and the indicators of success. Using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with public managers and other actors at the Bojonegoro regency, this study found five major challenges to open government and data, namely: a) the misappropriation and misused of the data, b) limitedness of technological capabilities, c) ensuring data credibility, d) the availability of information policy to govern openness, and e) maintaining public involvement and enthusiasm. The authors also identified four critical success factors driving the success of open government and data: a) collaboration between government, academics, private entities and general public, b) the openness of government office to accept criticism and suggestion, c) the accommodating leaders, and d) the commitment of government agencies to engage in open government and open data. Copyright © 2018, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
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************************* See an advanced and more recent version of this paper here: Jetzek, T., Avital, M. and Bjorn-Andersen, N. (2019) “The Sustainable Value of Open Government Data,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 20(6), 702-734. ===== https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331644512_The_Sustainable_Value_of_Open_Government_Data ************************************************************************************** The exponentially growing production of data and the social trend towards openness and sharing are powerful forces that are changing the global economy and society. Governments around the world have become active participants in this evolution by opening up their data for access and re-use by public and private agents alike. The phenomenon of Open Government Data (OGD) has spread around the world in the last four years, driven by the widely held belief that use of OGD has the ability to generate both economic and social value. However, a cursory review of the popular press, as well as an investigation of academic research and empirical data, reveals the need to further understand the relationship between OGD and value. Subsequently, we apply a critical realist approach to explore these relationships through a case study analysis. Specifically, we focus on how open access to government data can bring about new innovative solutions to some of our most pressing economic and social challenges. In order to uncover the mechanisms that can explain how data is transformed to value, we analyzed the case of Opower, a pioneer in using information to induce behavioral change that has resulted in a considerable reduction in energy use over the last six years.
Article
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Transparency in public administration is generally held to be desirable, something to be fostered and enabled. This long standing idea has gained considerable further momentum with the emergence of e-government and the affordances of computing in general and the Internet in particular. This paper examines the argument that transparency may, in certain and not uncommon circumstances, be inimical to good government and good governance and suggests that the importance of understanding why this is so has increased as information and communications technology permeates government and society. It suggests that in an electronic age, the scope and nature of transparency needs to be carefully managed, and that expectations of the benefits of ICT enabled transparency may be too high.
Article
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When the Obama Administration released its Open Government Directive (OGD), agencies received specific guidelines regarding the development of Open Government Plans. The OGDdid not offer agencies guidance on how to assess the attainment of open and transparent government through the implementation of their plans. This paper describes the practical realities of measuring U.S. federal agency transparency and open government initiatives. The paper describes the development of a measurement framework, assessment tool, and methodology that is being used by the OpenTheGovernment.org organization and partners in 2010-11. The paper presents preliminary findings using a measurement tool the study team developed and discusses the lessons learned to date using this instrument. The paper also addresses the importance of open engagement with stakeholders, our experiences with online public comment tools, and issues associated with collaborative measurement development. The paper offers recommendations to those engaging in the measurement and assessment of open and transparent government.
Article
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Many government organizations publish a variety of data on the web to enable transparency, foster applications, and to satisfy legal obligations. Data content, format, structure, and quality vary widely, even in cases where the data is published using the wide-spread linked data principles. Yet within this data and their integration lies much value: We demonstrate GovWILD, a web-based prototype that integrates and cleanses Open Government Data at a large scale. Apart from the web-based interface that presents a use case of the created dataset at govwild.org, we provide all integrated data as a download. This data can be used to answer questions about politicians, companies, and government funding.
Article
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On his first full day in office, President Obama issued a Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government calling on his administration to develop recommendations that would “establish a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration.” Together, the recommendations would be used to create an “Open Government Directive” instructing agencies to transform themselves to become more transparent, collaborative, and participatory. The President also issued a Memorandum on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). These statements did not spring ex nihilo from President Obama and his aides (or even from the army of organizations and individuals who advised them or submitted recommendations during the transition). They have a basis in extant law and regulation, and it this basis at which this article looks.
Conference Paper
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Due to expected benefits such as citizen participation and innovation, the release of Public Sector Information is getting increased attention on various levels of government. However, currently, data release by governments is still novel, with little experience and knowledge thus far about the benefits and barriers of release. This is compounded by a lack of understanding about how internal processes influence data release. Our aim in this paper is to get a better understanding of these processes and how they influence data release, i.e, to find determinants for the release of public sector information. For this purpose, we conducted workshops, interviews, questionnaires and desk research. We find that the way data is used by a department, the way data is obtained, how data is stored, and the suitability of data to become open, as crucial indicators for open data release. We conclude with lessons learned based on the research findings. These are that we should take a nuanced approach towards data release, avoid releasing data for it's own sake and take small incremental steps to explore data release.
Article
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In 1992, DeLone and McLean suggested that the dependent variable for information systems (IS) research is IS Success. Their research resulted in the widely cited DeLone and McLean (D&M) IS Success Model, in which System Quality, Information Quality, Use, User Satisfaction, Individual Impact, and Organizational Impact are distinct, but related dimensions of IS success. Since the original IS Success Model was published, research has developed a better understanding of IS success. Meanwhile, comprehensive and integrative research on the variables that influence IS success has been lacking. Therefore, we examine the literature on the independent variables that affect IS success. After examining over 600 articles, we focused our attention on integrating the findings of over 140 studies. In this research, we identify 43 specific variables posited to influence the different dimensions of IS success, and we organize these success factors into five categories based on the Leavitt Diamond of Organizational Change: task characteristics, user characteristics, social characteristics, project characteristics, and organizational characteristics. Next, we identify 15 success factors that have consistently been found to influence IS success: Enjoyment, Trust, User Expectations, Extrinsic Motivation, IT Infrastructure, Task Compatibility, Task Difficulty, Attitudes Toward Technology, Organizational Role, User Involvement, Relationship with Developers, Domain Expert Knowledge, Management Support, Management Processes, and Organizational Competence. Finally, we highlight gaps in our knowledge of success factors and propose a road map for future research.
Article
The pressure for governments to release much of the vast reservoir of data that they collectively hold continues to grow. This pressure is grounded not just in principles such as the right of the public to know or freedom of information, but in beliefs about the economic, social, administrative and political benefits that will flow from the wide availability of such data. However it is also acknowledged that there is a considerable gap between such expectations and current realities one component of which is the many barriers to open data release. This paper examines these barriers from the perspective of senior managers in Irish central and local government. A taxonomy of such barriers is proposed and compared with other classifications of barriers in the literature. The paper concludes with some reflections on the implications for the opening up of government data.
Article
The causal link between accessibility to resources and economic development is frequently claimed, but not always supported by evidence-based studies. This is also the case for increased access to public sector information which is believed to offer major opportunities to boost innovation and growth, and contribute to reducing current economic difficulties. Recognising that little is present in the literature to support conclusively this belief, this paper discusses the main issues that arise when trying to assess the impact of open public sector data on innovation and growth in the private sector. The authors focus in particular on the impact of publicly accessible spatial environmental information on small and medium enterprises, presenting some research questions and proposing a research strategy to address them.
Article
In this article, based on data collected through interviews and a workshop, the benefits and adoption barriers for open data have been derived. The results suggest that a conceptually simplistic view is often adopted with regard to open data, which automatically correlates the publicizing of data with use and benefits. Also, five “myths” concerning open data are presented, which place the expectations within a realistic perspective. Further, the recommendation is provided that such projects should take a user's view.
Article
In developing open data policies, governments aim to stimulate and guide the publication of government data and to gain advantages from its use. Currently there is a multiplicity of open data policies at various levels of government, whereas very little systematic and structured research has been done on the issues that are covered by open data policies, their intent and actual impact. Furthermore, no suitable framework for comparing open data policies is available, as open data is a recent phenomenon and is thus in an early stage of development. In order to help bring about a better understanding of the common and differentiating elements in the policies and to identify the factors affecting the variation in policies, this paper develops a framework for comparing open data policies. The framework includes the factors of environment and context, policy content, performance indicators and public values. Using this framework, seven Dutch governmental policies at different government levels are compared. The comparison shows both similarities and differences among open data policies, providing opportunities to learn from each other's policies. The findings suggest that current policies are rather inward looking, open data policies can be improved by collaborating with other organizations, focusing on the impact of the policy, stimulating the use of open data and looking at the need to create a culture in which publicizing data is incorporated in daily working processes. The findings could contribute to the development of new open data policies and the improvement of existing open data policies.
Article
Governments around the world have developed e-Government programs expecting to obtain important benefits such as improved efficiency or greater transparency. However, many e-Government projects fail to deliver their promises in terms of specific outcomes. Some of such failures are the result of a lack of understanding about the relationships among technologies, information use, organizational factors, institutional arrangements, and socio-economic contexts involved in the selection, implementation, and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), producing mismatches and unintended consequences. This paper proposes the use of institutional theory and dynamic simulation, particularly system dynamics, as an integrated and comprehensive approach to understand e-Government phenomena. Combining a sound theory and a sophisticated analytical technique will help to improve our understanding about ICT in government settings. The paper draws on the case of the e-Mexico program, particularly on the strategy to create web-based content portals for citizens in the areas of education, health, economy, and government. Using the same technological infrastructure and under the leadership of the same Federal Ministry, four different networks of government and non-government organizations engaged in the creation of internet portals and their content. The results provide evidence to demonstrate important bidirectional relationships between formal processes (institutions), agency networks (organizational forms), and the resulting characteristics of the four thematic portals (enacted technology).
Article
What might an academic and a social anthropologist have to say about ‘making the invisible visible’? Taking its title from a paper by Tsoukas (‘The Tyranny of Light’), the result is a short excursus into the social world of accountability. Techniques for assessing, auditing and evaluating institutions are often defended on the grounds of transparency. What is interesting about this case is that in a social world where people are conscious of diverse interests, such an appeal to a benevolent or moral visibility is all too easily shown to have a tyrannous side—there is nothing innocent about making the invisible visible. How are we to understand such deliberate striving for transparency when it is applied, for instance, to research and teaching in higher education? This experimental account tries to avoid simply adding more visibility and more information.
Article
This paper looks at the role of the European Directive on re-use of public sector information in the current trend towards opening up government data. After discussing the PSI directive, it gives an overview of current policies and practices with regard to open government data in the Member States. It is argued that the success of the open government data movement in some Member States can be related to the confusion or ignorance about the relationship between traditional freedom of information legislation and the re-use of public sector data. If future information policies decide to follow this trend, they should always ensure that existing rights on freedom of information are not harmed.
Article
In recent years, many governments have worked to increase openness and transparency in their actions. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are seen by many as a cost-effective and convenient means to promote openness and transparency and to reduce corruption. E-government, in particular, has been used in many prominent, comprehensive transparency efforts in a number of nations. While some of these individual efforts have received considerable attention, the issue of whether these ICT-enabled efforts have the potential to create a substantive social change in attitudes toward transparency has not been widely considered. This paper explores the potential impacts of information and ICTs – especially e-government and social media – on cultural attitudes about transparency.
Article
Information quality (IQ) is critical in organizations. Yet, despite a decade of active research and practice, the field lacks comprehensive methodologies for its assessment and improvement. Here, we develop such a methodology, which we call AIM quality (AIMQ) to form a basis for IQ assessment and benchmarking. The methodology is illustrated through its application to five major organizations. The methodology encompasses a model of IQ, a questionnaire to measure IQ, and analysis techniques for interpreting the IQ measures. We develop and validate the questionnaire and use it to collect data on the status of organizational IQ. These data are used to assess and benchmark IQ for four quadrants of the model. These analysis techniques are applied to analyze the gap between an organization and best practices. They are also applied to analyze gaps between IS professionals and information consumers. The results of the techniques are useful for determining the best area for IQ improvement activities.
Article
This paper takes a supportive but critical look at "open data" from the perspective of its possible impact on the poor and marginalized and concludes that there may be cause for concern in the absence of specific measures being taken to ensure that there are supports for ensuring a wide basis of opportunity for "effective data use". The paper concludes by providing a seven element model for how effective data use can be achieved.
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