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Evaluation of the Prophylactic Effect of Fennel Essential Oil on Experimental Osteoporosis Model in Rats

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The water-distilled essential oil of Iranian fennel seeds ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was investigated for its composition and anti-osteoporotic activities in ovariectomized rat osteoporosis model. After oil analysis by GC/MS, 15 components were identified in the oil. Among them, trans-anethole (81.1%) and fenchone (9.2%) were the major components. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each including sham operated (control), ovariectomized-vehicle and ovariectomized treated animals receiving fennel essential oil (FEO 500, 750, 1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) or estradiol valerate (5 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) for 30 days. The findings assessed on the basis of bone mineral density and uterine weight showed that the fennel essential oil has a preventive effect on development of osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. This protective effect of FEO on early post-ovariectomy bone loss was dose dependent and at the dose of 1000 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> it was even more than estradiol (BMD of 0.082±0.008 g cm<sup>-2</sup>, p<0.05) but more toxic than other doses. Trans-anethole, probably has an important role in these pharmacological effects.
... Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), a well-known Mediterranean aromatic herb from the family of Apiaceae, is rich in phytoestrogens such as lignans and has wide spectrum usage in herbal medicine. This medicinal plant has been used to reduce pain in menstruation (dysmenorrhea), to regulate menstruation, to reduce menopausal aches and symptoms, to reduce gastrointestinal pains [10][11][12], to treat osteoporosis [13] and to treat hirsutism [14]. Fennel compounds have been analysed and their effective fractions defined [12] but there is the possibility of different percentage composition of their fractions in different regions. ...
... Phenolic and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, limonene, and fenchone have been reported as the most important constituents of this herb. As mentioned above, treatment effects of fennel on dysmenorrhea, gastrointestinal pain, menstrual regulation, menopausal signs, hirsutism, and osteoporosis may be attributed to its steroidogenic components such as lignans [10][11][12][13][14]. Other notable effects of fennel include enhanced libido, testicular growth, increased mammary glands, induction of folliculogenesis, and increased numbers of growing ovarian follicles [12,27,28]. ...
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Evaluation of protective effect of fennel on mouse ovary against the destructive effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) was the aim of this study. Adult female NMARI mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): (A) negative control, (B) CP200 mg/kg, (C) fennel 400 mg/kg/day, (E, F, and D) that received fennel 200, 400 and 100 mg/kg/day respectively + CP200 mg/kg. Their ovary weight, volume, and diameter (WVD) were measured. Five micron sections were stained using the H&E method. The serum levels of oestrogen and progesterone were measured using ELISA kit. The results showed that WVD significantly reduced in the CP-treated groups in comparison with the A and C, but WVD increased after treatment of the mice with fennel extract, in comparison with B group. A significant decrease of serum in terms of oestrogen and progesterone levels among CP-treated groups in comparison with the A group was observed. In the CP-treated groups a reduction in the number of different ovarian follicles in comparison with the A and C groups was observed. However, in the treated animals with fennel extract, these parameters significantly increased in comparison with the B group. Finally, it is concluded that fennel can protect ovary from cyclophosphamide side effects.
... One more compound taken into consideration in one study is fennel essential oil (FEO). The major components of fennel essential oil (FEO) are trans-anethole, fenchone, and limonene [19] . ...
... The major component of FEO is trans-anethole that has estrogenic activity. Hence it seems that tarns-anethole has the potential to interact with estrogen receptors present in the body [19] . ...
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Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug but it has many side effects at a dose which shows therapeutic response. The main dose limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity is remarkably documented by reactive oxygen species generation and decreased levels of antioxidant mechanisms in the body. A single dose of cisplatin (5mg/kg, i.p) caused a marked renal damage, characterized by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and relative weight of kidney with higher kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), levels and lowered tissue nitrite, SOD, CAT, GSH levels compared to normal control. Different antioxidants have been proven to have nephro protectant action but in some cases the protective effect of these antioxidants is found to be altered in the presence of some hormones in the males and females. Hence the reasons for the change in the nephrotoxicity to be gender related are further discussed in the article.
... Variations in the relationship between SF and BMD across different studies may be attributed to factors such as, study design, age, sex, and site of BMD measurement. Nevertheless, coexistence of disease conditions especially chronic lung and renal diseases, diabetes, MetS, and obesity which are prevalent in the general population as well as in elderly patients can confound the results (12,(22)(23)(24). These conditions are usually associated with inflammatory process and thus, may impress on both SF and BMD sera (6,25). ...
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Background Iron overload influences negatively on bone mineral density (BMD) but the results of studies regarding serum ferritin (SF) and BMD are conflicting.This study aimed to determine the association of SF and BMD in the elderly. Methods All participants of the Amirkola cohort selected between 2011-2012, aged > 60 years were classified as high or normal (<200ng/ml) SF. BMD at femoral neck and lumbar spine was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the results were expressed as BMD g/cm2 and BMDT-score. Multiple logistic regression analysis with calculation of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval was used to estimate the association of low BMD (LBMD) defined as BMD T-score < -1 with SF. Results 1089 subjects (women, 44.7%) were studied. High SF was observed in 366 (33.6%) and LBMD in 874 (80.2%) subjects. The two groups of SF were similar regarding biochemical parameters and demographic characteristics except MetS, overweight /obesity and diabetes which were more prevalent in high SFgroup. BMD g/cm2 at both measurement sites was significantly higher (P=0.001 for both) and the prevalence of LBMD was significantly lower (74.1% vs 83.1%, P=0.001) in high SF group by OR= 0.60 (0.44-0.81). After adjustment for all biochemical and demographic variables, the association remained significant by adjusted OR= 0. 68 (0.49-0.94). Conclusions These findings show a negative association between high SF and LBMD indicating a beneficial effect of high SF in the elderly. Regarding detrimental effect of iron overload on bone mass, these findings require further studies.
... This protective effect on early post-ovariectomy bone loss was dose dependent and at the dose of 1000 mg/kg, it was even more than estradiol (BMD of 0.082±0.008 g cm-2, p<0.05) [101]. The clinically efficacy of fennel extract was compared with echinophora-platyloba in the primary dysmenorrhea. ...
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Medicinal plants have been widely used to enhance or regulate fertility in females. Several medicinal plants stimulated normal pituitary reponse of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, improved normal pulsatile secretion of FSH and LH, induced ovulation, enhanced secretion of steroid hormones, possessed estrogenic and progesteronic effects, and directly regulate ovarian function, at least in part by inducing the secretion of cytokine. Also many herbal therapeutics controlled birth. The current review will highlight the medicinal plants used to enhance fertility and to control birth in females, which confirmed experimentally and clinically.
... This protective effect on early post-ovariectomy bone loss was dose dependent and at the dose of 1000 mg/kg, it was even more than estradiol of 0.082±0.008 g cm 2 , P<0.05) (79) . ...
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... We could not find any previous study that assessed the effects of fennel on vaginal atrophy. However, because an active biological compound in fennel is phytoestrogen [17], we referred to studies that assessed the phytoestrogen effects on vaginal atrophy. Phytoestrogens are plant compounds with estrogen-like properties. ...
... Fennel is another type of phytoestrogenic herbs. Fennel essence obtained from distillation of its fruit by means of water steam is pale yellow and aromatic liquid which gradually turns brown (20)(21)(22). Fennel chemicals include: 10% fat, slightly sweet and mucilage and about 4% essence. Fennel oil composes of 4% palmitic acid, 22% oleic acid, 14% linoleic acid and 60% petroselinic acid (22). ...
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Following the oral administration of acetone extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seeds for 15 days is male rats, total protein concentration was found to be significantly decreased in testes and vas deferens and increased in seminal vesicles and prostate gland. There was a decrease in activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in all these regions, except that alkaline phosphatase was unchanged in vasa. In female rats, oral administration of the extract for 10 days led to vaginal cornification and oestrus cycle. While moderate doses caused increase in weight of mammary glands, higher doses increased the weight of oviduct, endometrium, myometrium, cervix and vagina also. The results confirm the oestrogenic activity of the seed extract.
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