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Perspectives for offshore wind energy development in the South-East Baltics


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Manual for potential investors interested in offshore areas of the South-East (SE) Baltics with specific focus on mapping of “conflict free” technically suitable, economically feasible and environmentally acceptable areas suitable for OWE development. Current issue is in fact an updated version of the former publication “Perspectives of offshore wind energy development in marine areas of Lithuania, Poland and Russia” with new knowledge and experience developed during the implementation of the South Baltic Programme project SB OFF.E.R.– “South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions” – by the international consortium seeking to unlock certain offshore wind energy activities via specific training programmes for students and potential employees, OWE business clusterization, initiation of OWE tourism, etc.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Offshore Wind Energy
development in
(Eu.opO" ROll"'".'
n, Fund)
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy
Development in the South-East Baltics
Compiled by
Nerijus ,
Klaipėda University
Coastal Research
and Planning Institute
Marcin ,
Polish Offshore Wind Energy Society
Stasys S,
Strategic Self-management Institute,
IC Eksponentė
Within the framework of the INTERREG IVA project South Baltic Offshore Wind
Energy Regions (South Baltic OFF.E.R)
ISBN 978-9955-18-723-3
© SB OFF.E.R, 2013
The report reects the editor’s views and EU
Commission and the Managing Authority is
not liable for any use that may be made of the
information contained therein.
Arūnas Balčiūnas
Viačeslav Jurkin
Ilona Minevičiūtė
Jolita Petkuvienė
Mindaugas Zakarauskas
Mariusz Witoński
Polish Offshore Wind
Energy Society
Aleksandras Paulauskas
Wind Energy
Strategic Self-
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Acronyms and Abbreviations 6
Introduction 8
1. Growth of wind energy market 10
1.1 Strategic vision 11
1.2 Current state and perspectives 11
2. International legal aspects 14
3. Technical characteristics 18
3.1 Foundations 19
3.2 Connection to the power grids 21
4. Wind measurement and environmental investigations 26
5. Perspectives for offshore wind power development in Lithuania 30
5.1 Current progress of offshore wind energy in Lithuania 31
5.2 Potential locations for offshore wind energy development 33
5.3 Alternatives for connection to power grid 34
5.4 Legislative framework 39
5.5 Assessment of the Environmental Impact 40
6. Perspectives for offshore wind power development in Poland 42
6.1 Towards offshore wind sector development in Poland 43
6.2 Procedures regulating offshore wind farm’s development 43
6.3 Potential locations for offshore wind energy development 45
6.4 Possibilities of grid interconnection 46
6.5 Assessment of the Environmental Impact 47
7. Tools facilitating offshore wind energy development: Maritime Spatial Planning 48
Conclusions and recommendations 52
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
AC - Alternate Current
DC - Direct Current
DTU - Danish Technology University
EC - European Commission
EEZ - Exclusive Economic Zone
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
EMC - Electromagnetic Compatibility
EP - European Parliament
EU - European Union
EWEA - European Wind Energy Association
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
GW - Giga-watt
HVDC - High Voltage Direct Current
HVAC - High voltage alternating current
IMSP - Integrated Maritime Spatial Planning
INTERREG - Initiative that aims to stimulate
cooperation between regions
in the European Union
IT - Information Technology
kV - kilo-volt
kW - kilo-watt
LE - Lietuvos Energija AB
MSP - Maritime Spatial Planning
MW - Mega-watt
MWh - Mega-watt-hour
OWE - Offshore Wind Energy
PEEZ - Polish Exclusive Economic Zone
RES - Renewable energy sources
SEA - Strategic Environmental Assessment
TEN-E - Trans-European Energy Network
TWh - Terra-watt-hour
WWEA - World Wind Energy Association
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Rapid development of the offshore wind energy
sector in Europe and the world-wide proves the
great potential and possibilities for the areas that
have no electricity production from the offshore
renewable energy sources yet. SE Baltic as a spe-
cic region with good wind conditions and still
relatively low intensity of usage of the sea space is
an area where considerable growth in the OWE de-
velopment is expected in the coming 10-20 years.
First attempt to identify the offshore wind energy
opportunities was carried out in 2006 when the
project “Perspectives of Offshore Wind Energy de-
velopment in marine areas of Lithuania, Poland
and Russia (POWER)” was launched. Supporting
the overall European as well as worldwide initia-
tives when promoting the use of renewable energy
sources, a group of scientists from Lithuania, Po-
land and Russia have initiated the international
project which was part-nanced by the European
Union INTERREG Programme European Regional
Development Fund and Tacis Cross-border coop-
eration facility.
One of the main outputs of the project is the Man-
ual for potential investors interested in offshore
areas of the South-East (SE) Baltics with specic
focus on mapping of “conict free” technically suit-
able, economically feasible and environmentally
acceptable areas suitable for OWE development.
Current issue is in fact an updated version of the
former publication “Perspectives of offshore wind
energy development in marine areas of Lithuania,
Poland and Russia” with new knowledge and ex-
perience developed during the implementation of
the South Baltic Programme project SB OFF.E.R.–
“South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions” – by
the international consortium seeking to unlock
certain offshore wind energy activities via specic
training programmes for students and potential
employees, OWE business clusterization, initiation
of OWE tourism, etc.
The demand to promote energy generation from re-
newable sources, including wind energy, has been
clearly specied in the RES Directive 2001/77/EC
of the European Parliament and the Council on the
promotion of the electricity produced from renew-
able energy sources in the international electricity
market (
R80.htm). Nowadays the greatest potential for the
future belongs (together with solar energy) to the
wind energy and here especially offshore installa-
tions. Favour is given to offshore locations due to
the limitations for wind turbines location on land
and due to relatively higher wind efciency. The
development of advanced technologies and posi-
tive experience of already installed offshore wind
parks in Denmark, United Kingdom and Germany
show the high development potential of the off-
shore wind energy market also in SE Baltic.
Despite keen interest of potential investors, no
offshore wind farm has been built in the Lithu-
anian, Russian and Polishsea areas so far. The
main reasons of such situation are among others:
lack of national strategies on possible offshore
wind use, absence of clear legislation and spatial
development plans with indicated potential areas
for offshore wind power installations. Nevertheless
actions are being taken by independent investors
initiated feasibility and EIA studies for particular
locations. Utilisation of renewable energy sources,
including wind, is an important component of sus-
tainable development of these regions, which may
result in measurable positive economic, ecological
and social effects. The main objective of the pro-
ject is the attraction of potential investors to the
SE Baltic region and thereby to stimulate the uti-
lization of renewable energy sources. Prepared
overview and recommendations should give a clear
impression on actual state and future potential for
OWE development. Publication aims to facilitate
decision making, to improve the process of further
development of offshore wind parks and reduce
environmental as well as investment risks.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
1.1. Strategic vision
The strategic objective of EU-electricity enlarge-
ment is to move towards a single, sustainable Eu-
ropean electricity market. A single market refers
to the expectation of a competitive market and the
efcient allocation of generation and transmission
resources, at least at a regional level. Sustainability
refers to the ability of the electricity system to meet
the environmental objectives of the EU, in particu-
lar with regard to the share of renewable energies
in electricity production and the greenhouse gas
emissions targets, while assuring reliable electric-
ity supply at reasonable costs.
The enlarged European Union will become in-
creasingly dependent on energy imports. Accord-
ing to the Green Paper ‘A European Strategy for
Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy‘ from
8 March 2006, if no measures are taken in the next
30 years, 70% of the Union’s energy requirements,
as opposed to the current 50%, will be covered by
imported products.
The main challenge is to create and foster a real
European electricity market. The existing capaci-
ties of the electric networks are largely insufcient
for the growing exchange and trade. For this objec-
tive additional network capacity between Member
States is essential. Linking national networks and
creating additional interconnections are elements
of economic integration. This Europe-wide refer-
ence network will have to overcome the limitations
of the still fragmented national networks.
The TEN-E guidelines adopted by the European
Council on 24 July 2006 are an important policy
instrument for establishing the effective operation
of the internal energy market and reinforcing the
security of energy supply by better linking the na-
tional markets and by strengthening relations with
third countries in the energy sector. Increasingly
interlinked regional and national markets give cus-
tomers the benet of better service quality, a wider
choice of energy mix and competitive prices. The
2006 guidelines clearly reect the three main ob-
jectives of Europe’s energy policy, namely sustain-
ability, competitiveness and security of supply.
Concerning renewable energy, the integration of
wind generated electricity in the future increas-
ingly from offshore wind parks into the high-volt-
age grid and subsequent transport to the distant
load centres constitutes a Europe-wide challenge,
exceeding the national dimension already today.
The objective is to boost and to accelerate the im-
plementation and construction of connections and
to increase the incentives for private investors.
1.2. Current state
and perspectives
Recent report by WWEA shows
, that worldwide
wind capacity reached more than 270 GW by the
end of June 2012. And this reects the continu-
ous growth of the wind energy market if compared
with 94 GW installed globally by the end of 2007.
Worldwide installed capacity is adding around 40
GW yearly since 2009 (159 in 2009, 197 in 2010
and 237 GW in 2011). Top wind energy markets
remain unchanged - China, USA, Germany, Spain,
and India represent together a total share of 74 %
of the global wind capacity.
The European Commission’s 1997 White Paper
on Renewable Sources of Energy set a target for
40 GW of wind power to be installed in the EU by
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
2010. That target was reached in 2005, ve years
ahead of schedule. The wind capacity in Europe
grew from 86 GW in 2010 to 94 GW in 2011. This
equals to 11 % growth rate. The top markets in Eu-
rope continue to be Germany with a total capacity
of 30 GW, Spain - 22 GW, Italy and France - 7 GW,
United Kingdom - 6.5 GW and Portugal 4.4 GW.
Europe continues to be the leading continent in
offshore installations where 96 % of the offshore
wind turbines can be found. In 2010, 2.9 GW of
wind capacity was operational offshore (3.5 % of
total in-stalled wind energy capacity). It is expected
that in 2020 offshore installations will sum to 40
GW and to 150 GW in 2030 (Table 1.1). At the end
of 2010 offshore wind installations produced 10.6
TWh or 5.8% of total wind energy production
. It
is predicted that in 2020 and 2030 offshore wind
energy will generate about 25 % and 49 % of total
wind energy respectively. A total of 1,371 offshore
turbines are now installed and grid connected in
European waters totalling to 3.8 GW spread across
53 wind farms in 10 countries
EWEA, 2012. Green Growth - The impact of wind
energy on jobs and the economy. ISBN 978-2-930670-
EWEA, 2012. The European offshore wind industry
key 2011 trends and statistics.
European wind market still aims to grow further.
According to the WWEA
, in Germany, a wind
share of 20-25 % of electricity supply is expected
by the year 2020, equaling 150 TWh, or 45 GW on-
shore installations plus 10 GW offshore. Spain ex-
pects 38 GW of installed capacity by the year 2020,
including 370 MW of small wind and 3 GW of off-
shore wind. The United Kingdom, world leader in
offshore wind, has set a target for 2020 of 15 GW
onshore and 13 GW offshore. Italy set an ofcial
target of 12 680 MW in 2020, which would more
than double its installed capacity. Poland expects
8.6 GW to be installed by 2020.
Eastern European countries are among the new
emerging and the most dynamic markets, e.g. Ro-
mania (more than 4 000 % growth, 591 MW total
capacity), Croatia (161 %, 70 MW), Bulgaria (112 %,
375 MW), Lithuania (69 %, 154 MW), Poland (53
%, 1.1 GW) and Hungary (47%, 295 MW) in 2011.
Table 1.1. Wind power capacity in Europe. Source: EWEA.
[In GW] 2007 2008 2009 2010 2020 2030
Onshore 55.4 63.2 73.0 81.4 190 250
Offshore 1.1 1.5 2.1 2.9 40 150
The statistics provided above show the dramati-
cally growing wind energy sector. And this is not
only the number of turbines. As it is stated in the
EWEA’s report on Green Growth, 2012, in 2010
the wind energy sector has contributed (directly
and indirectly) to more than 32 billion EUR of the
EU’s GDP, which corresponds to 0.26%. The wind
industry is growing faster than the EU’s economy
in general and it is expected to remain the same
during the next two decades at least. The wind in-
dustry is very much inuencing other economic
sectors became driving industry for the growth
of related industry such as electric and electronic
equipment, metal, IT, construction materials and
designs, transport and logistics, nancing and in-
surance, research, tourism and more. And these
are the main economy sectors contributing to the
wind energy related share to the EU’s GDP indi-
rectly. The direct contribution is being provided by
wind energy developers, manufacturers and ser-
vice providers.
Employment rate is another important indicator
showing the potential of the wind energy market.
More than 150 000 direct working places are cre-
ated by the wind industry. And another 120 000
is added by the related sectors representing the
indirect employment and it is constantly growing
(5-8 % per year since 2007), but keeping the same
proportion of jobs created directly and indirectly.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
The basic provisions regulating the general con-
struction, operation and use of the installations
within exclusive economic zone of Coastal States
are given in the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea, 1982. According to the Convention,
Coastal States exercise sovereignty over their terri-
torial sea up to 12 nautical miles and have sovereign
rights in a 200-nautical mile exclusive economic
zone (EEZ) with respect to natural resources and
exercise jurisdiction over marine science research
and environmental protection and certain eco-
nomic activities, such as the production of energy
from water currents and wind (article 56).
Article 60 of the Convention enables coastal states
to construct, to authorize and regulate the con-
struction, operation and use (in the EEZ) of:
articial islands;
installations and structures for the purposes
provided for in article 56 and other economic
installations and structures which may inter-
fere with the exercise of the rights of the coastal
state in the zone.
General obligation to protect and preserve the ma-
rine environment is established in the Part XII of
the Convention. Accordingly which, States shall
take, individually or jointly as appropriate, all
measures that are necessary to prevent, reduce and
control pollution of the marine environment from
any source, using for this purpose the best prac-
ticable means at their disposal and in accordance
with their capabilities, and they shall endeavour to
harmonize their policies in this Connection (194.1).
Pollution prevention and minimization measures
shall include:
all sources, including installations;
prevention of accidents from other installa-
tions and dealing with emergencies, pollution
from other installations and devices operating
in the marine environment, in particular meas-
ures for preventing accidents and dealing with
emergencies, ensuring the safety of operations
at sea, and regulating the design, construction,
equipment, operation and manning of such in-
stallations or devices (194.3d);
measures taken shall include those necessary to
protect and preserve rare or fragile ecosystems
as well as the habitat of depleted, threatened or
endangered species and other forms of marine
life (194.5).
Under article 60 dealing with the safety of naviga-
tion it is stated that coastal states shall pursue fol-
lowing main duties:
any installations or structures which are aban-
doned or disused shall be removed to ensure
safety of navigation (60.3);
where necessary, establish reasonable safety
zones around such articial islands, installa-
tions and structures in which it may take ap-
propriate measures to ensure the safety both of
navigation and of the articial islands, installa-
tions and structures (60.4);
the breadth of the safety zones shall be deter-
mined by the coastal state taking into account
applicable international standards. Such zones
shall be designed to ensure that they are rea-
sonably related to the nature and function of
the articial islands, installations or structures,
and shall not exceed a distance of 500 metres
around them, measured from each point of
their outer edge (60.5);
articial islands, installations and structures,
and the safety zones around them, may not be
established where interference may be caused
to the use of recognized sea lanes essential to
international navigation (60.7).
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Coastal states have the duty to protect objects of
an archaeological and historical nature found at
sea (303). Their removal from the sea-bed in the
territorial sea and contiguous zone (within 24 nau-
tical miles from the coast) without a state consent
“would result in an infringement within its terri-
tory or territorial sea of the laws and regulations
referred to in that article”. The provisions of this
Article do not affect “the rights of identiable own-
ers, the law of salvage or other rules of admiralty,
or laws and practises with respect to cultural ex-
Joining the European Union, the new member
states have committed to certain policies with re-
gard to the electricity sector:
Electricity directive 2003/54/EC (“Accelera-
tion Directive“) as the key European legislation
establishing the internal market of electricity. It
requires unbundling of transmission and distri-
bution, non-discriminatory access to the trans-
mission and the distribution networks, and a
low market concentration;
Regulation 1228/2003/EC on cross-border
trade in electricity sets rules for transmission of
electricity between Member States. It lays down
basic principles of tarifcation and capacity al-
location; it is directly applicable Community
Decision 1229/2003/EC establishes a set of
guidelines related to trans-European energy
sector networks;
Directive 2001/77/EC stipulates that electric-
ity generated from renewable sources shall
amount to 22% of total electricity production.
However the targets for the new member states
are in general signicantly lower;
Directive 2003/87/EC establishing a scheme
for greenhouse gas emissions allowance trading
within the Community and
Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC of
the EP and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on
the promotion of the energy use from renew-
able sources.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Current offshore wind energy system designs have
been adapted from onshore-based versions and
deployed in shallow waters for more than a dec-
ade. Offshore wind energy technology is evolving
towards large-scale offshore systems that can be
deployed in a range of water depths across a wider
range of geographical areas. Today, a number of
large wind turbine types primarily designed for off-
shore use are available. Although long-term pros-
pects for offshore wind power are promising, the
technology faces a number of challenges in terms
of technological performance, lack of skilled per-
sonnel, shortage of appropriate auxiliary services
(e.g. specic vessels), impact on the local environ-
ment, competition for space with other marine
users, compatibility with the European grid infra-
structure and secure integration into the energy
system. The development of offshore wind electric-
ity production technologies is related to two main
Capacity of wind power stations;
Connection to the sea bottom solutions.
The acceptability of wind energy depends on the
improvement of production and reduction of wind
turbines costs. During the last 25 years the nomi-
nal capacity of turbines has increased from 30 kW
to 6 MW. Rotor diameter increased from 15 to 115
m or even more. Tower hub height has increased
up to more than 115 m.
Character of wind distribution in marine areas
doesn’t require increasing hub height. Making the
turbines larger, however, raises technical chal-
lenges. The new turbines are mounted on towers
up to 90 to 95 m and have rotors of 140 m in diam-
eter. To decrease the weight of the massive rotor
blades, composite bbers are being used. Offshore
turbines also need to be more reliable than their
onshore counterparts, because maintenance is far
more difcult and expensive.
Today’s turbines compensate for changes in wind
speed by actively turning their blades. The new
turbines will adapt to gusts by using sensor-based
technology that will quickly angle the blades out of
the wind to reduce the wear and tear on the tur-
bine. These sensors could include basic accelerom-
eters, embedded bber-optic sensors that detect
shape changes in the blades in response to gusts,
and forward-looking, laser-based “radar” that al-
lows the turbine to anticipate wind-speed chang-
es. Recent developments in operational strategy,
choosing between variable or xed speed, show a
tendency towards variable-speed designs.
Foundation based solutions are related to shallow
(up to 50 m water depth) sea technologies with di-
rect connection of foundation to the bottom of the
In general, there are several types of direct offshore
wind power station connection to the sea bottom:
gravity base, a monopile, a jacket, and tripod steel
foundations (Fig. 3.1).
Massive gravity base foundations and monopile
due to their simple design are the preferred solu-
tions for waters up to 30 m in depth. Monopile
foundations are the choice for the sandy soil. Since
it cannot bear great horizontal forces and moments
because of its small lever arm, its global stiffness is
generally rather low.
Tripods are mostly used in areas with water depths
greater than 25 m. It was designed for a North Sea
location with about 40 m water depth. The global
stiffness of the tripod is comparable to that one of
the jacket foundation, but consists of fewer compo-
nents, which makes it easier to build, and decreas-
es building costs.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Jacket structures combine high global stiffness
with low structural mass. For offshore wind ener-
gy however, costs of manufacture and installation
seem to be more relevant. It may be used at loca-
tions with greater water depths, e.g. more than 25
m and up to 50 m.
Going further offshore, wind turbine installation
solutions went even further the oating turbine
concepts are being developed. Floating platforms
allow the turbines to be located farther out in the
sea and out of sight. Going farther out on the con-
tinental shelf, which extends several hundred kilo-
meters from the coast (in the Baltic Sea the extent
is limited up to 150 km from shoreline of coastal
states), would mean locating them at depths down
to 50 m, which is probably too deep to build tow-
ers. Wind power turbines on oating platforms are
most promising for spreading offshore wind ener-
gy in marine areas:
The marine areas of 30 - 60 m depth have the
considerable extent and capacity for offshore
wind power parks to be installed;
Less environmental problems, no visual pollu-
Good mobility all parks could be placed in
the marine zone with best economical (wind
efciency vs. installation/maintenance costs)
It is estimated (source: DTU) that 400-500 tones
weighting foundation costs 1.76-3.3 MEUR. Hav-
ing in mind that the installation of 5MW tower
costs about 13 MEUR, foundations will contribute
by 14-25 % of the total investment costs.
Fig. 3.1. Possible solutions for the construction of foundation for wind turbine installations.
Source: DTU.
3.2. Connection to
the power grids
The selection of the technology for energy transfer
from offshore wind energy parks is mainly depend-
ent on the size of the OWE park and the distance
to power grid. In general, technologies for offshore
farm connection to existing electric power system
High voltage direct current transfer (HVDC) -
traditional technology for long (more than 100
km) circuit power on offshore farm, connection
converter and synchronous condenser.
High voltage alternating current transfer
(HVAC) - energy transmission through 110 kV
and higher voltage power cable lines at a dis-
tance less than 100 km. Selection of higher volt-
age transmission will effect in arising problems
- reactive power cable generation (high current
for cable charging), the requirement of higher
compensation, cable resonant frequency.
HVDC transfer may be selected for the whole
transfer grid and for the onshore part only. In the
latter case the necessity to install the power con-
verting station in the OWE park is eliminated. For
instance HVDC Light 65 MW terminal occupies
around 800 m
. DC transfer for HVDC Light is bi-
polar, which practically eliminates magnetic eld.
DC cables have more voltage resistance as well as
longer life in comparison to AC cables. Cables for
DC transfer are also less expensive. However DC
transfer involves more losses. An analysis carried
out for 160 MW offshore farms proved that for 55
km cable grid, DC transfer losses amount to 6%
and for AC 2%. HVDC Light provides possibili-
ties for voltage and reactive power adjustment as
well as it may improve both power quality and dy-
namic properties of the system. Additional facili-
ties to compensate unfavourable inuence of wind
generation variability are also unnecessary.
The limited capabilities of the currently exist-
ing grids in coastal areas may become a limiting
factor for the large scale development of offshore
wind energy. Connecting large-scale offshore wind
farms will denitely require the reinforcement of
existing power grids and the development of new
In order to integrate into EU electricity system,
Baltic States have developed three main new inter-
connections with European countries (Fig. 3.2.):
Estonia Finland (Estlink, 350 MW) (realised
in the end of 2006);
Lithuania – Poland (1000 MW, HVDC, planned
for 2015);
Lithuania – Sweden (700 MW, HVDC, planned
for 2015);
The Estlink submarine cable connects the Harku
330 kV converter station outside Tallinn and the
Espoo 440 kV converter station near Helsinki,
linking for the rst time the electricity markets of
the Baltic States and the Nordic countries.
Electricity transmission system operator “Lietu-
vos Energija AB” (Lithuania) and PSE Operator
(Poland) signed a shareholders agreement on joint
venture for interconnection of Lithuanian and Pol-
ish power systems (Warsaw, February 12, 2008).
“Lietuvos Energija AB” (LE) and PSE Operator
will own 50 per cent of the joint venture shares
each. The interconnection of the power grids in-
volves a construction of 154 km high-voltage (400
kV) double-circuit power transmission line from
Alytus (Lithuania) to Ełk (Poland) (Fig. 3.3). It is
scheduled that 500 MW Poland-Lithuania power
interconnection will be launched into operation in
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Fig. 3.2. Map of the existing and planned power grid interconnections. Source: LE.
and CIS
350 MW
Lithuania -
1000 MW
Lithuania –
1000 MW
The interconnection of Lithuanian and Polish
power systems should enable to complete the
Baltic Energy Ring, interconnecting Lithuanian,
Latvian, Estonian, Finnish, Swedish and Polish
power systems. Baltic States power grids will be
integrated into common European power market
and connected to UCTE system. Poland will secure
the power supply for the north-eastern part of the
“Lietuvos Energija AB“ and Swedish power trans-
mission system operator Svenska Kraftnat have
completed a feasibility study for construction of
a power interconnection between Lithuanian and
Swedish power grids (Fig. 3.4.) in February, 2008.
Fig. 3.3. Map of interconnections between Lithuanian and Polish power grids. Source: Litgrid, 2012.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Fig. 3.4. Outline of interconnection between Lithuania and Sweden. Source: Litgrid, 2012.
The aim of the NordBalt project is to construct an
interconnection between Lithuanian and Swed-
ish electric power systems. The line’s approximate
length - 450 km, capacity would be 700 MW. The
interconnection would be composed of high volt-
age direct-current submarine and underground
cables as well as converter stations in Lithuania
and Sweden. The interconnection is scheduled for
launching into operation in December, 2015.
One of the most promising solutions while solv-
ing the energy transmission problem from the
potential offshore wind parks is the Trans Euro-
pean “Supergrid” (Fig. 3.5.).
The Communication
Fig. 3.5. Vision of Trans European “Supergrid”. Source: Airtricity.
from the Commission on energy policy (adopted in
April 2007) presents the idea of connection of high
power wind parks installed in the Baltic, North and
Mediterranean Seas with 1000 kV HVDC electric-
ity cable. This would increase the capacity factor of
the offshore installations by 10-20 % (to reach 40
% at the average). Moreover, it would enable the
interconnection of European electricity markets
and expansion of electricity trade.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Before deciding on an investment, any potential
operator will have to carry out a site assessment
in order to estimate the potential energy yield.
The basis of such an assessment is the prevailing
wind conditions at the proposed site and the power
curves of wind turbine generators of different types
and different manufacturers. The manufacturer
himself uses the results of power curve measure-
ments for the optimisation of his wind turbines.
For operators of wind turbines already installed, a
power curve test proves whether or not a turbine
conforms to the specications given by the manu-
To date, wind prole measurements have success-
fully been realised from permanently installed me-
teorological towers, at locations close to the wind
farms. In most cases however, these measurements
do not extend considerably above the turbine hub
height as the increase in mast height would also in-
crease the price of the whole installation. Another
disadvantage of the permanent masts is that they
do not typically give the opportunity to study in de-
tail both the upstream effect as well as the wake
recovery at various distances from the wind farm.
The evolution of the multi-MW wind turbines has
increased the need for measurements at higher
heights and this in combination with plans of
building wind farms at larger distances from coast-
al areas, in deeper water, will further increase the
cost of the meteorological tower installations. In
this case, the ideal solution would be a mobile facil-
ity which could allow surveying of both the incom-
ing wind and the wake of the wind farm at heights
well above the blade tip in the vertical direction.
The dimensions of such a mobile meteorological
mast are clearly prohibitive but remote sensing
techniques are an obvious solution if the data qual-
ity and availability are sufciently high (Antoniou
et al., 2006
Apart from general rules and regulations for off-
shore wind turbine design, wind conditions and
other, site specic environmental conditions and
environmental impact of the planned installations
are of specic interest.
Helsinki Convention (article 7 Environmental
impact assessment) determines “whenever an en-
vironmental impact assessment of a proposed ac-
tivity that is likely to cause a signicant adverse
impact on the marine environment of the Baltic
Sea area is required by international law or supra-
national regulations applicable to the Contracting
Party of origin, that Contracting Party shall notify
the Commission and any Contracting Party which
may be affected by a transboundary impact on the
Baltic Sea Area. The Contracting Party of origin
shall enter into consultations with any Contract-
ing Party which is likely to be affected by such
transboundary impact, whenever consultations
are required by international law or supra-national
regulations applicable to the Contracting Party of
Helsinki Commission Recommendation 17/3 spec-
ies criteria in determination of environmental
signicance of proposed activities:
Size: proposed activities are large for this kind
of activity;
Location: proposed activities are located in the
Convention area; proposed activities are locat-
ed close to an international frontier; proposed
activities are located close to areas of special
environmental sensitivity or importance;
Antoniou I., Jørgensen H. E., Mikkelsen T., Frandsen
S., Barthelmie R., Perstrup C., Hurtig M. Offshore
wind prole measurements from remote sensing
instruments, 2006
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Effects: proposed activities cause disturbances
of natural hydrological (including sediment
transport), hydrochemical and biological re-
gime e.g. behaviour of sh and marine mam-
mals); proposed activities result in release of
hazardous substances (operational/accidental).
According to the Helsinki Convention, further de-
velopment of potential wind parks in the vicinity of
the sea areas of the neighbouring countries, is pos-
sible only after the consultation with their compe-
tent authorities. Analogical requirements are laid
down in the Convention on environmental impact
assessment in a transboundary context (ESPOO
Convention, 1991
It should be noted that Strategic EA, EIA, Habitats
and Birds Directives were transposed into national
legislation by Lithuania and Poland. They do not
apply to Russia as non-EU member. It should be
noted that SEA is designed to come before EIA.
SEAs are strategic appraisals of major programmes
or plans, assessing the impact on the environment
that various options for achieving a pre-dened
goal might have. In the case of offshore wind, this
might involve evaluation of various possible loca-
tions for future offshore wind farms with regard to
their suitability for development. This can form the
basis of subsequent decision-making on where to
proceed with developments. SEA is a helpful tool
for consenting authorities and for developers. It
allows pre-dene potential areas for development,
identify potential impacts, reduce individual pro-
ject permitting time, save time and later expenses,
EIA is generally considered as a more detailed pro-
ject-level assessment. EIAs are mandatory for the
assessment of environmental impacts of large in-
dividual projects in the EU. In the case of offshore
wind farms, this includes both the assessment of
impacts of the actual construction of wind farms,
as well as their operation once in place. Baseline
analysis of the marine environment should be con-
ducted too. In the context of EIA, the direct and
indirect effects of a project are to be identied, de-
scribed and assessed. In this context, the focus is to
be put on facts relevant to the decision-making and
approval process. The correlation/combination of
the protected assets and their specic sensitivity
towards the impact factors caused by offshore wind
farms not only shows which protected assets can
be neglected in the context of the decision-making
process. Also those correlations of impacts become
identiable, which could full the grounds for re-
fusal and should therefore be examined thoroughly
in the course of the Environmental Impact Study.
Such correlations of impacts relevant for the deci-
sion-making process include:
displacement, disturbance or collision of sea
birds due to construction activities and opera-
tion of the turbines;
collision or diversion of migrating birds due to
construction activities and operation of the tur-
damage to or displacement of marine mammals
due to construction and operational noise;
damage to sh fauna by sediment dispersion,
vibration, or electromagnetic elds;
change of character of sh occurrence due to in-
troduction of new habitats (articial hard sub-
damage to benthos communities by over-build-
ing, sediment exchange and changed benthos
communities due to introduction of hard sub-
disturbance of the stratication of water, espe-
cially in the Baltic Sea;
visual impairment of the landscape;
maritime pollution due to ship collision.
An evaluation of the concrete impairment of ma-
rine ecosystems due to the correlations of impacts
of planned offshore wind farms identied as rel-
evant to the decision-making process requires
knowledge on the one hand of the specic impact
factors, and on the other, of the existing character-
istics of the protected assets of the marine environ-
ment, both living and non-living, present in the
project area. A recording and assessment of these
environmental assets is a prerequisite for a signi-
cant prognosis of effects, and should be carried out
in a target-oriented and impact factor related man-
ner in terms of the effect analysis.
Formal application of SEA on offshore wind re-
quires offshore wind exploitation to be subject of
an ofcial plan or program. This could be deter-
mined by national authorities. Information on pro-
cedures and methodology concerning SEA are still
few in number.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
5.1. Current progress of
offshore wind energy in
The development of wind energy market in Lithua-
nia started already in 1993 promoted by Norwegian
electricity enterprise Nord Trondelag Electricity
Board. Quite a number of installations have been
developed onshore since then. First attempts to
investigate the offshore potential have been made
in 2006-2008 in the framework of INTERREG
IIIa project „POWER – Perspectives of offshore
wind energy development in marine areas of Po-
land, Lithuania and Kaliningrad region, Russia”
by Lithuanian Wind Energy Association, Strategic
Self-Management Institute and Coastal Research
and Planning Institute of Klaipeda University. The
feasibility study has shown that Lithuanian EEZ
and territorial waters are capable to accommodate
more than 1 GW of wind power installations off-
shore at the depth from 20 to 40 m (Fig.5.1).
Fig.5.1. Identied areas for OWE development for year 2008. Source: Power, 2008.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
The vision to develop wind energy offshore has
been supported by throughout analysis of the ex-
isting legislative system and the existing obstacles
for the developments at the sea, stocktaking of ex-
isting maritime uses; OWE targets set by the na-
tional authorities. The OWE potential was clearly
understood by the potential investors into the fast
developing market. This has resulted in three EIA
studies - for locations identied by POWER project
and some additional. But due to the formal uncer-
tainties and lack of legislative background for new
developments at sea, projects have not been nally
approved and therefore no implementation took
place to date.
The demand of renewable energy and high pressure
by the investors and researchers being in line with
commitments to the EU, ensured that in May 2011
the Law on Renewable energy sources of Republic
of Lithuania has been approved. Special article in
this law is dedicated to offshore wind power. The
second important obligation of the Governments
of Republic of Lithuania is the preparation of regu-
latory framework for OWE development, auctions
and produced electricity purchase fees by the 1
of January, 2013. This supposes to foster the full
scale investigations and real panning of offshore
wind power parks.
Fig.5.2. Identied areas for OWE development and projects under EIA, for year 2012. Source: CORPI,
Next and essential step unlocking the possibilities
to switch from the OWE vision to the real imple-
mentation – strategic action initiated by the Minis-
try of Environment (in 2012) to extend the spatial
solutions of the terrestrially grounded National
General Plan to the sea. Project leaded Coastal
Research and Planning Institute has built up the
consortium composed of professional planners,
cartographers and scientists in order to provide a
professional knowledge on existing and planned
organization of the sea space. Wind (among other
marine resources) as a potential, renewable re-
source has been mapped (Fig. 5.2) during the in-
tegrated planning process. This allows to set the
specic priorities on certain marine areas where
OWE development has the maximum economical
prot and minimal environmental impact on the
ecosystem. The nalization of the Plan is foreseen
for the 1
of November, 2013.
Industry has also shown their preparedness to meet
the emerging market demands. One of the good
examples - West Lithuania Ship Yard, company
that is already constructing wind turbine founda-
tions and electricity substation for OWE projects,
has built the offshore wind turbine mounting ship
Windlift1 (currently in an operation in the North
5.2. Potential locations
for offshore wind energy
Selection of the most suitable sites for offshore
wind power parks construction depends on certain
critical pre-conditions:
Sea depth. We assume that technically reason-
able maximum depth is 50 m;
Wind speed. Modelling data versus real (all year
long) measurements at the pre-selected site;
Seabed geology. Geological structure of the sea-
bed for optimal choice of foundations and cable
laying routes;
Transmission grid. Distance from-to the shore,
available substations, capacity of existing/
planned power lines.
Current and planned sea use;
Existing natural heritage and resources;
Limitations (reserved zones and areas danger-
ous for development) for economic activities.
According the above-mentioned conditions, 6
potential zones suitable for offshore wind energy
development in the Lithuanian EEZ have been
identied (Fig. 5.3).
The basic characteristics of the identied areas are
given in the table below.
Table 5.1. Identied areas suitable for OWE development in Lithuania.
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
 25-59 5-15 15-26 2.5-25 2.3-45 83-97
677 113 64 70 225 62
Sea depth, m 20-50 20-30 30-40 20-40 20-50 50
Average annual wind speed, m/s 9-9.5 8.5-9.3 8.7-9.3 8.7-9 8.5-9.3 >9.5
No of wind turbines (rotor Ø 107-120) 845-671 140-112 79-63 87-69 281-224 78-62
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
5.3. Alternatives for
connection to power grid
Lithuanian electricity grid system is being operated
by two companies - electricity transmission system
operator LITGRID and electricity distribution grid
operator AB LESTO. LITGRID is managing elec-
tricity ows in Lithuania and maintaining stable
operation of the national electricity system. LIT-
GRID is also in charge of the integration and de-
velopment of the electricity market of Lithuania as
well as the operation and development of the elec-
tricity transmission grid - strategic projects of elec-
tricity interconnections with Sweden and Poland.
LESTO is responsible for distribution of electrical
power throughout the entire territory of Lithuania
through developed grid of low and medium voltage
lines as well as maintenance of the grid.
The grid system in the western part of Lithuania,
along the coast – most suitable for interconnection
of the offshore wind energy parks, is mainly 110 kV
Fig. 5.3. Sea use and potential OWE areas. Source: CORPI, 2013.
Fig. 5.4. Expantion of Lithuanian electricity system: 330-110 kV grid development plan for 2012-2021.
Source: Litgrid, 2012.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
(red lines) based (Fig. 5.4). The most suitable 110
kV substations are in Nida, Palanga and Šventoji.
The 330 kV grid (green lines) part is basically far
from the shore and also under development (green
dotted line). Apart from Klaipėda 330 kV substa-
tion, there is no single available substation for the
interconnection of offshore installations. Actually,
this substation will also be used for currently being
developed NordBalt connection (violet dotted line)
linking Lithuanian and Swedish electricity grids.
Taking into account existing situation and grid de-
velopment projects there are several possibilities
to connect to the electricity grid disintegrated,
integrated, trans-Baltic.
Disintegrated approach (Fig. 5.5) considers each
offshore wind park separately. Connection of any
area to the onshore grid to the one of the substa-
tion (Nida, Palanga, Šventoji or Klaipėda) would
be planned independently from the other projects.
On the one hand, disintegrated grid connection
does not comply with the strategic aim of the Baltic
Sea region to develop the organized marine infra-
structure development corridors (cabling and pip-
ing), but on the other hand until Lithuania has
no maritime spatial plan in place, the disintegrated
way of cable rout and interconnection planning is
the only possibility to be considered.
Integrated connection (Fig. 5.6) deals with several
projects at one time, considering connection of
independent offshore wind energy parks into one
marine substation which has further link to the on-
shore grid via established underwater infrastruc-
ture corridor (for example corridor based on the
NordBalt cable route). The establishment of ma-
rine infrastructure corridors is also being offered
as one of the solutions within the framework of
being developed of extension of National General
Plan with marine solutions.
Trans-Baltic connectivity ensures that the energy
produced in the offshore wind energy parks is the
subject of transnational transmission (trade off)
via regional or global marine grid integrating the
OWE parks developed in the neighbouring coun-
tries as well as with other electricity markets of the
Baltic Sea Region.
Fig. 5.5. Principal scheme of disintegrated connection of potential OWE parks.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Fig. 5.6. Principal scheme of integrated connection of potential OWE parks.
5.4. Legislative
There are no separate regulatory acts governing de-
sign, construction and exploitation of the offshore
windmills and cables. Certain requirements con-
cerning technical data on windmill connection are
laid down in the Technical regulations on electric-
ity system in Lithuania (Order No. 4-102 of Minis-
ter of Economy of 6 April 2004) and Regulations
on connection of electricity consumers, producers
and installations (networks, facilities, systems) to
the operating installations of energy undertakings
(Order No. 4-272 of Minister of Economy of 12 July
Construction of installations and facilities in the
coastal area (down to 20 m depth) is governed
by the Coastal Stripe Law, Construction Law and
Protected Areas Law. Construction of the remote
installations and facilities is governed by the Law
of Protection of Marine Environment, and by the
Law of the Environmental Impact Assessment of
the Planned Economic Activity (EIA Law). An au-
thorisation must be obtained from the Ministry of
Environment for the constructions at depth more
than 20 m. However, the Ministry of Environment
has not yet adopted any regulations on the issu-
ance of such authorisation.
Other important technical standards are:
1. LST EN 61000-3-6 Electromagnetic compat-
ibility (EMC). Part 3. Limits. Paragraph 6. (IEC
2. LST EN 61000-3-7 Electromagnetic compat-
ibility (EMC). Part 3. Limits. Paragraph 7. (IEC
3. LST EN 61400-11 Systems of wind turbine
generators. Part 11. Methods of acoustic noise
measurement. (IEC 61400-11);
4. LST EN 61400-12 Systems of wind turbine gen-
erators. Part 12. Experiment of wind turbine ca-
pacity denition (IEC 61400-12);
5. LST EN 61400-21 Systems of wind turbine gen-
erators. Part 21. (IEC 61400-21);
6. LST EN 61400-22 Systems of wind turbine gen-
erators. Part 22. Attestation of wind turbines
(IEC 61400-22);
7. LST EN 61400-24 Systems of wind turbine gen-
erators. Part 24. Protection of wind turbines
from lightning. (IEC 61400-24);
8. LST EN 60870-5-101 Distance control equip-
ment and systems. Part 5. Transferring proto-
cols. 101 paragraph. (IEC 60870-5-101:2003);
9. LST EN 60870-5-104 Distance control equip-
ment and systems. Parts 5–104. Transferring
protocols. Net connection for IEC 60870-5-101,
using standard transport proles (IEC 60870-
10. LST EN 50160 Characteristics of voltage of gen-
eral distribution nets and LST 1567 (HD 472
11. LST 1567:1999 Nominal voltages of general low
voltage electricity supply nets (HD 472 S1).
It should be noted that currently existing Lithuani-
an legal and administration system doesn’t provide
any support or initiatives for offshore wind energy
According to the existing legislation and recent
practice when receiving the offshore wind park in-
stallation permissions, the legal procedure for the
offshore wind park construction permit consists of
two main stages:
I. EIA study;
II. Construction Permit (consist of technical pro-
ject and operating plan).
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
5.5. Assessment of
the Environmental
According to the National Law of the Environmen-
tal Impact Assessment of the Planned Economical
Activity (EIA Law
) and Lithuanian Law of Protec-
tion of Marine Environment
, the EIA study is ob-
ligatory in the rst stage of any economic activity.
There is no need for any special permission to start
EIA procedure but potential investor has to assume
the commercial risk and all expenses. According
to the order No. 406 of Minister of Environment,
“Regarding the conrmation of recommendations
R 44-03 for environmental impact assessment of
planned economical activity (installation of wind
power generators)” is the guiding document while
performing the EIA study. The navigation safety
and national requirements for elimination of oil
spill have to be strongly considered when planning
the offshore installations. Project must also foresee
the nances for possible compensation of catches
and sh resources loss Klaipėda Region Environ-
mental Protection Department is the responsible
authority which evaluates the EIA study and gives
the awards (or rejects) to the planned activity in
the investigated area.
After the EIA study is approved by Klaipėda Re-
gion Environmental Protection Department and
planned activity is recognised as harmless to the
environment, the permission for two stages imple-
mentation of the planned project is granted. First
the technical project for the offshore wind park
should be prepared. The digest of conditions for
construction should be received before the prepa-
ration of the technical project. Taking into consid-
Seimas of RL, 2005-06-21 Law No. X-258
Seimas of RL, 1997-11-13 Law No. VIII-512, art. 45 and
eration that wind energy towers are higher than 15
m, these are assigned to the specic structures. The
design and construction of such structures should
follow the regulations set up in the Construction
and CTR “Specic Constructions”
. The pre-
pared technical project has to pass the expertise
and be approved. After that, the construction per-
mit is given and operating plan for the construc-
tion can be prepared and implemented.
All 6 identied areas have been preliminary as-
sessed for impact on the different natural com-
ponents such as: geological conditions, seabed
habitats, shes, birds and related protected ar-
eas, visual pollution; and in relation with some of
the economic activities such as: shipping, shery,
dumping and mineral resources and engineering
Geological conditions. Possible negative impact on
the seabed integrity. If developed in the areas T2,
T4 and T5, OWE installations would have only lo-
cal impact for the modern sedimentary processes
and formation of the bottom sediments - due to the
altered conditions (currents, migration of the sedi-
ments, accumulation and erosion at the bottom).
In all of the areas, foundations would penetrate
the whole quaternary sequence and enter the pre-
quaternary layers or remain within the hard qua-
ternary layers. Engineering geological conditions
for foundation installations are favourable.
Seabed habitats. Possible direct destruction of ben-
thic habitats in OWE park foundation construction
sites; the negative effects on benthic organisms
are due to an increase in water turbidity during
construction, the positive impact is the possible
occurrence of secondary habitat structures after
installation of foundations. In most of the pre-
Žin. 1996, No. 32-788; 2001, No. 101-3597
Žin., 2002, No. 43-1639
selected areas, important seabed habitats are not
present, only T2 is bordering the important reefs.
Fishes. During construction, there is a possibility
of scaring away or of physical impact due to noise
and vibration, impact on feeding due to increased
water turbidity as well as loss of the feeding base
on the site of the foundations constructed. During
operation, a positive indirect impact is possible due
to an increase of potential nutrition objects and ap-
pearance of a new spawning ground. In the areas
T1, T3 and T6, there is no impact on sh migration
and spawning expected. T2, T4 and T5 are close to
the important sh migration paths and spawning
Birds. The biggest impact is possible on migrating
and wintering birds. During construction: possi-
ble indirect impact due to scaring away of sh as a
source of nutrition. During operation: possible im-
pact due to hitting into the OWE park. Only T3 and
T4 are out of the importantareas for birds, others
T1 and T6 are partly overlapping with research
areas devoted for development of Natura 2000
network; T2 and T5 are partly overlapping with ex-
isting areas important for birds’ protection.
Protected areas. Possible impact on protected her-
itage, thus it is important to pay special additional
attention. Only T4 and T5 are bordering the Cur-
ronian Spit National park, the rest of the areas are
away from protected areas.
Soil dumping and mineral resources. The avail-
able sand and oil resources need to be taken into
consideration as an objective of competition for
the same sea space. Only T1 area overlaps with po-
tential areas for oil extraction, but until the proper
exploration of the existing resources has not been
carried out, information is uncertain.
Engineering infrastructure. It is important for
planning the sites of foundation establishment and
cable laying routes. Safety zones of the cables may
limit the establishment plans of the wind power
plants and cables. All pre-selected areas are away
from existing underwater cabling and pipelines,
only T1 is traversed by underwater cables of uni-
dentied origin and ownership.
Shipping. A safe distance must be kept from the
shipping lanes, port roadstead and anchorages. T5
and T6 have no inuence to the shipping as they
are away from the main shipping corridors. All oth-
ers are away, but bordering the important shipping
corridors; proper buffer (safety) zones will have to
be established.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
6.1. Towards offshore
wind sector development
in Poland
The year 2011 brought crucial changes into Polish
legislation, which initiated rst stage of the offshore
wind sector development in Poland. In June, 2011,
amendments to the Act on the Maritime Areas of
Poland and Maritime Administration, approved by
the Polish Parliament, paved the way for submit-
ting applications for issuing consents for the in-
stallation of the offshore wind farms. Novelization
reduced barriers imposed by the previous version,
which originally had been created to enable exploi-
tation of the offshore oil and gas resources. Major
amendments referred to the time of the offshore
constructions operation (now 30 years with pos-
sible prolongation for other 20 years, previously
- 5 years) and terms of incurring the fee for issu-
ing the location consent. Primary version of the act
required immediate payment of the fee, worth 1%
of the total investment costs. The amended version
splits the payment into 4 instalments depending
on the project development stage, with only 10%
of the fee to be paid after the location decision is
Nowadays investors active in the renewables sec-
tor are awaiting termination of legislative works on
the act on renewable energy sources, which is ex-
pected to introduce new support mechanisms for
renewable energy projects. The system supporting
development of renewable energy in Poland has
been dened by the Energy Law and it is based
upon the green certicates’ scheme. In comparison
to the current system, one presented in the recent
drafts of the new bill on renewables, introduces a
modied scheme where level of support depends
on a given technology and is differentiated by “cor-
rection coefcient”. The coefcients will serve as
a mechanism allowing prioritization of a specic
technology. The weight of the coefcient will de-
cide on the number of green certicates granted for
1 MWh of electricity generated from renewables.
Works on the nal version of the act are currently
in progress. Approval of the act by Polish Parlia-
ment is expected however not earlier than by the
end of 2013. The bill on renewables has generated
controversies in the sector, referring to the weight
of coefcient, for specic technologies and the ex-
pected period of the support’s continuation, which
is expected to continue for 15 years.
6.2. Procedures
regulating offshore wind
farm’s development
Development of the offshore wind farms in the
Polish Exclusive Economic Zone is being regulated
by major legislative acts, which dene investment
processes. These include the Construction Law
and the act on access to information on environ-
ment and its protection and environmental impact
assessment (commonly referred to as EIA act).
However, major act that enables any type of con-
struction at the sea is the Act on maritime areas.
The overall formal procedures consists of the fol-
lowing main steps:
Procedure for acquiring the location consent
(Permit for Erection and Use of Articial Is-
lands, Constructions and Facilities);
Procedure for acquiring an environmental con-
Procedure for acquiring interconnection agree-
Procedures for acquiring the decision for laying
and maintenance of subsea cables;
Procedure for acquiring environmental consent
for export cable;
Analysis of wind conditions (including neces-
sary formal procedures);
Procedure for acquiring location consents for
grid interconnection on shore;
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Procedures for acquiring building permits for
offshore and onshore structures;
Procedure for acquiring concession for electric-
ity generation from renewable sources;
Commencement of the offshore wind farm.
Administrative procedure leading to acquiring the
location consent, formally called as “permit for the
erection and use of articial islands, constructions
and facilities at the Polish maritime area”, is based
on the act on Polish maritime areas and maritime
administration (Journal of Laws, 2003.153.1502
with amendments).
Location consent is being issued by the Minister of
Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy.
In the case where the spatial management plan of
maritime areas exists, the consent is issued by the
director of relevant Maritime Ofce. The consent
is relevant for the offshore wind farm but laying
the transmission cable requires another admin-
istrative decision on laying and maintenance of
subsea cables and pipelines within the Polish Ex-
clusive Economic Zone. In case of cables/pipelines
crossing internal sea waters and territorial sea, the
decision is being issued by the director of relevant
Maritime Ofce.
Administrative procedure for issuing the location
consent is conducted in a form of tender. After sub-
mitting the application by an investor, the Ministry
calls for other applications, referring to the same
plot indicated in the rst application. The call con-
tains, inter alia, the following information:
location of the plot, described by geographical
surface of the plot
most signicant selection criteria.
Evaluation criteria applied for other applications
include the following:
compliance of the planned investments with
assumptions of the spatial management plan
of the maritime internal waters or, in the case
of lack of the plan, usability of the area speci-
ed in the application, to serve requested func-
tions. Criteria is fullled if positively evaluated
by ministries relevant for economy, culture and
national heritage, agriculture and rural devel-
opment, environment, internal affairs and ad-
ministration, defense,
proposed periods of consent’s validity, includ-
ing commencement and completion as well as
exploitation of the planned investments;
securing nancial resources for incurring the
advance fee, constituting 10% of the total fee, to
be paid within 90 days from the day when the
location consent becomes valid;
ways of nancing the planned investment, in-
cluding own capital, credits, loans and pro-
posed co-nancing from public funds;
investor’s capacities to secure human resources
as well as technical and logistic base facilitating
implementation of a planned investment;
contribution of the planned investment to the
implementation of the EU and national sector
policies.The Ministry indicates the investment
nancing as the most important selection cri-
Prior to issuing, the consent is being opinioned by
ministries of Culture and National Heritage, Ag-
riculture and Rural Development, Environment,
Internal Affairs and Administration, and Ministry
of Defence. Opinions by the mentioned ministries
shall be issued within 90 days since receiving the
Ministry may refuse issuing the location consent in
the case where its issuing may result in hazards for
the following aspects:
maritime resources and environment
national economy
defense and security of the state
maritime trafc safety
maritime shery safety
air trafc safety
subsea archeological heritage
safety of the research, exploration and exploi-
tation of the seabed mineral resources and
Earth’s interior beneath.
So far the Ministry refused issuing location con-
sents to over 20 investors, mainly due to negative
opinions from the Ministry of Environment, Agri-
culture and Rural Development and National De-
fence, arguing that construction and exploitation
of wind farms may result in hazards for maritime
shery or safety of exploration and exploitation of
subsea mineral resources.
6.3. Potential locations
for offshore wind energy
Novelization of the act has delimited areas suitable
for the development of the offshore wind farms,
which excluded the internal and near shore waters
within range of 12 nautical miles from the coast.
Therefore, construction of the wind farms has been
allowed only at the area of the Polish Exclusive
Economic Zone (PEEZ).
Areas suitable for the construction of the offshore
wind farms within the PEEZ are estimated at 3500
. However, having considered various limita-
tions of technical character, total technical poten-
tial for the offshore wind development is estimated
at 2000 km
. Assuming density of the turbines’
distribution, technical potential of the Polish Ex-
clusive Economic Zone is being estimated at 10
GW. The potential might be a subject for a change,
depending on the density of the turbines’ distribu-
The Ministry of Transport, Construction and Mari-
time Economy, published a map indicating areas
suitable for the development of the offshore wind
farms, located within borders of the PEEZ. Plots
partially embrace the maritime areas of Natura
2000 network. Specically, they are located at
the northern and north-east side of Słupsk Bank,
southern and south-west side of Southern Central
Bank and northern side of the eastern border of the
Pomeranian Bay.
The Ministry of Transport, Construction and
Maritime Economy, which is the body responsi-
ble for issuing the location consents, received 65
applications. Until March 2013 nineteen positive
decisions have been granted. 7 positive location
decisions have been nally paid by the investors.
Due to the fact that the Ministry does not publish
information on the granted decisions, beneciar-
ies nor other parameters of the plots where the
investment is planned, only basic data concern-
ing the planned offshore wind farms is currently
available. Such parameters as number of turbines
Table 6.1. OWE areas in Poland with applied location consent.
 
] Planned capacity [MW] Number of turbines
 152,53 1500 300
 120 1200 240
PGE 108,19 900 180
PGE 189,35 1500 300
PGE 130,78 1050 210
 131,08 1200 240
DEME 49,38 200 40
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
or density have been derived using coefcients and
assumptions concerning capacity of wind turbines.
It has been assumed that capacity of wind turbines
to be installed will be at least 5 MW. The table be-
low presents data describing some of the projects,
which have applied for the location consent.
6.4. Possibilities of grid
Interconnection of rst planned offshore wind
farms in Poland, expected at the fall of the decade,
will be probably conducted individually through
the sea-land interconnectors to the grid nodes in
Żarnowiec, Wierzbięcin and Dunowo. Until now
TSO has granted 2 individual connection permits
to the investors – 1.2 GW for KI and 1 GW for
PGE. However along with the development of the
offshore wind farms at the Polish EEZ, electricity
transfer will need to be secured. Due to environ-
mental constraints, namely the areas included into
Natura2000 network, along the signicant part of
the Polish coast, may hinder development of new
sea-land interconnectors.
Concept developed by the BIG Invest Group in co-
operation with the Polish Offshore Wind Energy
Society assumes development of the Polish Off-
shore Grid that is currently being discussed with
the national Transmission System Operator as well
as other stakeholders. The concept assumes inter-
connection of the wind farms, which construction
is expected at the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone
and their further possible integration with the
planned sub-sea power cables connecting Sweden
and Lithuania NordBalt, which commencement
is expected in 2015 as well as SwePol Link 2. Inte-
Fig. 6.1. Concept of the Polish Offshore Grid by 2030.
gration of the system with the European networks
may improve functionality of the Polish transmis-
sion system.
Key elements of the system include sea hubs facili-
tating power transfer from offshore wind farms to
land and simultaneously constituting knot stations
for key interconnectors, integrating cross-border
and internal transfer system connections; inte-
grated sea-land interconnectors binding sea hubs
and constituting a joint power transfer infrastruc-
ture; cross-border and internal system connectors
including HVDC cross-border connector with the
NordBalt cable, interconnector to German and
Danish system as well as cables connecting sea
hubs, facilitating multidirectional transfers within
the national transmission system and cross-border
6.5. Assessment of
the Environmental
Environmental permit is a crucial administrative
decision necessary to apply for the construction
permit. Procedure related to issuing the environ-
mental permit is dened by the act on access to
information on environment and its protection,
public participation and environmental impact
assessment (Journal of Laws, 2008.199.1227).
Structure of the process leading to obtaining the
environmental permit depends on the categoriza-
tion of investment:
a. Always having a negative impact upon environ-
b. Having a potentially negative impact upon en-
Catalogue of the investments always having a
negative impact and potentially negatively impact
an environment had been dened by the resolu-
tion of the Council of Ministers (Journal of Laws,
2004.257.2573), which used to serve as a refer-
ence. Category of investments always negatively
inuencing environment used to include wind
farms of the capacity exceeding 100 MW, which
qualied such investment for the EIA procedure
and preparation of the EIA report. Nevertheless in
the case of complex projects, investors refer to the
relevant authorities, which in case of Poland are
constituted by Regional Directorates for Environ-
mental Protection of the coastal regions (Gdansk
and Szczecin), which decide of the necessity of pre-
paring EIA report, recommend scope of the report
as well as monitoring methods.
The experience collected so far by the offshore
wind investors, scope of the EIA reports and moni-
toring include the following aspects:
hydrological conditions,
hydro-chemical conditions,
sea bed ,
mineral resources
acoustic background
marine mammals
seabirds and migrating birds
other users of maritime areas (shipping, avia-
tion, shery).
Required monitoring period may last from 13 up
to 18 months. Results of the monitoring are valid
throughout 4 years but in case the environmental
consent is not issued within 4 years since termina-
tion of the monitoring, additional annual monitor-
ing can be required.
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
The development of offshore wind energy market
depends upon natural - wind parameters and ma-
rine environment and human factors associated
with other activities at sea. In order to designate
potential sites for offshore wind farms properly,
the analysis of the existing sea uses and prevailing
environmental conditions should be carried out.
While identifying the other maritime space users,
following issues have been identied as poten-
tially conicting with the development of the wind
Shipping routes: it is obvious that wind farms,
as additional obstacles for safe navigation, must be
planned outside main shipping routes in order to
avoid the trafcs and collision risk;
: the foundations and
cabling should also consider the existing installa-
tions on the sea bottom. Therefore it is important
that cables are put parallel or above to the existing
Military training areas: although these areas
cover the big parts of the internal and territorial
waters most suitable for development of renewable
energy, they cannot be taken into consideration
at the early stage of planning. There is no ofcial
strategy of the navy dening which areas should be
reserved and why. The navy should participate in
planning procedures from the beginning on a pro-
active basis instead of the hitherto reactive basis.
 : trawling shing inside the
wind farm and within the safety zone of the cable
linking the farm with shore has to be restricted for
security reasons. Some of the most suitable areas
for renewable energy production are also highly
productive as far as sh catch is concerned. Finan-
cial compensation will be hence necessary. In long
run, wind farms can create suitable conditions for
sh breeding and even mariculture.
Nature protection areas: the most important
are the restrictions in Natura 2000 sites. The most
common issue is the bird disturbance and mortal-
ity resulting from collisions here the main prob-
lem is lack of reliable data. The same problem is
impact on sea mammals.
Cultural heritage: wrecks, settlement structures
under the sea surface have not been evidenced
so far to the sufcient extent. Therefore it might
appear as a barrier only when preparing detailed
maritime plans for concrete sites.
: the main concerns are the degrada-
tion of maritime landscape and development of
recreational sailing.
Mineral extraction: extracting sand/gravel (or
amber) inside a wind farm is technically difcult
and could result in signicant danger to wind farm
installations. The only solution here is prioritiz-
ing between different forms of economic use of
the sea space at the stage of preparation of the sea
use strategic plans. With oil and gas extraction, the
conicts are less obvious since the contemporary
techniques allow for their extraction beneath the
wind farms.
As offshore wind energy (OWE) is the one of the
activities very rapidly developing at the Baltic
Sea and also requiring maritime space, demand
for proper knowledge how and where to allocate
new installations is necessary. On the one hand,
offshore renewable energy is competing with tra-
ditional sea uses, but on the other hand, OWE is
the activity that has fostered the MSP process to
be initiated in many of the states of Baltic Sea Re-
gion. Each new and also developing activity brings
certain pressure on the marine ecosystem. With
increasing pressures, it is becoming increasingly
necessary to manage the sea space efciently and
effectively, in a coordinated way, not only national-
ly but also across national borders. MSP-approach-
es at the national level need to be compatible with
a cross-border perspective, and vice-versa, to en-
sure that together they can deliver the best basis
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
for decision making and planning. There is strong
support for cross-border cooperation on MSP from
the European Commission, but there is little to
no rm guidance on how this should be achieved.
Related to this, National MSP initiatives have not
sufciently integrated the international context
and BSR countries usually do not have sufcient
frameworks in place that will encourage future
cooperation. To change this, the European Com-
mission has limited options: voluntary guidelines
encouraging cross-border cooperation; support of
individual regional projects and initiatives; estab-
lishing MSP expert working groups; or even intro-
ducing an MSP Directive that creates a framework
for cooperation.
In general, in the South Baltic there is not much
zoning for OWE on-going. Exceptions are Germa-
ny, Denmark and Sweden. In Denmark, offshore
renewables zoning is in progress, but far from be-
ing nalised, while in Sweden, the Coherent Swed-
ish Maritime Policy adopted in March 2009 has
been the legal basis for renewable energy develop-
ment in both its territorial sea and its EEZ. In the
South Baltic Sea, most of the countries do not have
a developed comprehensive MSP as legal frame-
work. Apart from Germany having integrated MSP
policy and Poland where legislation (Act on Mari-
time Areas of Poland and Maritime Administra-
tion) has allowed maritime spatial planning since
2003, there is no integrated spatial planning intro-
duced in the region.
Since 2012, Lithuania is preparing the marine
solutions extending the National General Plan to
the sea. This is an essential step for MSP to be of-
cially launched in the coming years. The newly
established Swedish Agency for Marine and Water
Management is in charge of drafting a programme
and plan. The Agency leads work on MSP with sup-
port from government county ofces, government
agencies and municipalities. A maritime spatial
plan should be elaborated for each of the three ar-
eas: Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, and Skagerrak
and Kattegatt.
MSP is a pre-condition of successful development
at the sea. Established coordination of a number of
aspects related to MSP including: planning time-
frames, onshore and offshore grid infrastructure,
data formats and availability, research methodolo-
gies and efforts, and some management measures
including elements of permitting are the key prin-
ciples in order to foster the sustainable develop-
ment and OWE growth in the region. It is clear that
transnational approaches to MSP can benet off-
shore wind energy through additional efciencies
from cross-border coordination. This will result in
reduced planning risks for developers – stakehold-
ers involvement process reduces the conict from
the initial stage of planning; expanded opportuni-
ties for deployment scientically based alloca-
tion of the sea space for OWE park developments
and the grid; cost savings that could arise from
shared infrastructure; minimized environmental
impact and maximized economic efciency of the
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
This guidebook is based on over two-years work
of experts united by the EU Neighbourhood Pro-
gramme project “Perspectives of Offshore Wind
Energy development in marine areas of Lithuania,
Poland and Russia” (POWER) and over three years
of South Baltic Programme project SB OFF.E.R.
“South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions” by
the international consortium seeking to unlock
certain offshore wind energy activities. Results of
the POWER project clearly show that the develop-
ment of offshore wind energy in SE Baltic region is
feasible. Despite the still abundant obstacles and
uncertainties, the investment in offshore wind en-
ergy in countries of SE Baltic in this early phase
is a great opportunity for entrepreneurs who can
take the risk. The still relatively low intensity of
maritime uses in this part of the Baltic sea in com-
bination with large energy consumer market and
pro-renewable EU policy (see recent Climate Pact)
creates very favourable conditions for this kind of
marine activity. However, in order to implement
these challenging projects, considerable improve-
ments of legal and administrative framework are
Two steps are particularly crucial for establishing
clear procedures for future development of off-
shore wind energy:
- one-desk policy (possibility for developers to
communicate with only one ofcial contact
point to handle administrative and legal mat-
ters in conjunction with clear and rationalized
procedures, one-stop shops, e.g. appointment
of one responsible institution for permitting
- open-market conditions, e.g. tendering system
(system for rights to develop projects elabo-
rated specic criteria which allow ranking ap-
plications or developers on the basis of criteria
it considers). Sites lease procedures for wind
farm operator companies should be also intro-
Development and endorsement of guiding docu-
ments on environment monitoring, geological-
geophysical site investigations, as well as on
navigational safety issues, emergency response,
special design and construction requirements, etc
will contribute substantially to the streamlining of
permitting procedures.
EIA and SEA instruments have the task of ascer-
taining the impact on the marine environment
caused by the construction, installation and opera-
tion of offshore wind farms, and of integrating this
information into the decision-making process of
authorisation of such projects. SEA, the strategic
impact assessment is, because of its larger scope
than the traditional EIA, the tool of choice for
OWE planning.
Therefore, the procedures and methodology for
SEA must be improved. The elaboration and coor-
dination with competent authorities of standards
for project related investigations such as establish-
ment of environmental monitoring programs for
the SEA and/or EIA purposes (duration, number
of reference sites, research stations are being set up
to collect environmental and other technical data,
e.g. shipping, hydrometeorology, method and fre-
quency of baseline investigations, etc.) should be
listed as top priority. Outputs of concerted envi-
ronmental monitoring and technical data collec-
tion would save time and reduce the developer’s
site assessment costs. The same approach could
be used for the wind turbines design purposes, e.g.
standardized geological-geophysical site investiga-
tions as well as technical-constructive parameters
should be developed.
Another key conclusion is the urgent necessity of
introducing elements of integrated maritime spa-
tial planning (IMSP) while designing the OWE
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
locations. So far only Poland has introduced a ba-
sic MSP legislation, which however still needs to
be improved. POWER project has been an impor-
tant step in introducing MSP principles in all three
countries. For instance, in order to protect the
marine nature and environment, areas of special
ecological and strategic value, e. g. NATURA 2000
sites, shipping lines anchorage and port areas as
well as other sea space user’s were excluded when
identifying the suitable places for offshore wind
park development. Also early public and expert
participation has to be the working principle. The
development of well-functioning legal basis and
institutional mechanisms for Integrated Maritime
Spatial Planning is one of the biggest challenges
for the SE Baltic countries. In the case of Poland
and Lithuania, some developments are fostered
through the Common Maritime Policy of the EU
and its Blue Book Action Plan. HELCOM and its
“Broad Maritime Spatial Planning” concept have
inuence on all Baltic countries, including Russia.
Development of common vision of the Baltic Sea,
consisting of harmonised development plans of the
Baltic Sea Region countries is one of the main ac-
tions guiding towards integrated sea use planning.
Such international vision (framework spatial plan)
is a necessary prerequisite for a safe and economi-
cally feasible location choice for offshore wind en-
ergy farms and their facilities, especially the power
transfer grid.
International perspective and cooperation are also
necessary to optimize the energy distribution and
supply network. The currently still limited capacity
of the existing power grid is a large limiting factor
for the development of OWE. Besides the existing
and planned power grid interconnections between
the Baltic region countries, new investments are
urgently needed. For their planning, further tech-
nical/economic studies should be initiated, in
particular an in-depth feasibility study of the Tran-
seuropean energy transmission network in the Bal-
tic Sea area (Baltic arm of European “Supergrid”
concept) which is expected to multiply the poten-
tial prot of the planned OWE.
The implementation of above mentioned recom-
mendations should be the subject of newly devel-
oped or updated existing national wind energy
development programs and strategies.
INTERREG IVA project South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions
(South Baltic OFF.E.R)
Klaipėdos universitetas
Perspectives for Offshore Wind Energy Development in the South-East Baltics
Compiled by Nerijus Blažauskas, Marcin Włodarski, Stasys Paulauskas
Klaipėda, 2013
SL 1335. 2013 04 17. Apimtis 7 sąl. sp. l. Tiražas 50 egz. Klaipėdos universitetas, Herkaus Manto g. 84, 92294 Klaipėda
Tel. +370 398 846,
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Offshore wind farms have become one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies in recent years. Projects developed in the area of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are considered crucial for the future of the energy sector in Poland. One of the arguments for the development of this sector is the common opinion among investors and decision makers that offshore wind farms are much less exposed to the risk of social conflicts compared to onshore installations. Due to the lack of completed investments in the Polish EEZ area and restriction of possible construction of farms to Baltic shoals only, explicit exclusion of the risk of protests seems wrong. The article identifies the factors of offshore wind farms OWF localization and the most important social groups at risk of participating in social conflicts. The Delphi method research indicates that, above all, numerous conflicts with other users of the maritime area should be expected, and the groups most vulnerable to conflict are fishermen, environmentalists, media and residents of coastal municipalities.
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Integration of marine research results into a maritime spatial plan for Lithuania. Abstract This paper presents the results of integration of the environmental, economic and social data into comprehensive spatial plan of Lithuania. The main driving forces for the economic developments at sea are offshore wind energy growth and demand for exploration and exploitation of potential oil deposits. The de-veloped spatial plan is a practical step towards implementation of the strategy for the Baltic Sea region and particularly focused on proper management of the marine resources. The concept of location of existing and future marine activities along with regulatory framework was created. The developed spatial solutions create the pre–conditions for future development at the sea and at the same time highlights the demand for new quality of the scientific research while investigating the marine resources and evaluating the economic effect as well as environmental consequences. Keywords • maritime spatial planning • sustainable use • marine resources Rosita Milerienė (rosita@corpi.
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