ArticlePDF Available

Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of different leaves crude extracts of Omani Ficus carica against food borne pathogenic bacteria

Authors:

Abstract

Objective To prepare different polarities crude extract from the leaves of Ficus carica and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential against food borne pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods The dried leaves were macerated in absolute ethanol for one week. The ethanol was evaporated and the crude extract was defatted with ethanol-water. The defatted hydro alcoholic crude extract was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant potential was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of different crude extracts against selected Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method. Results The total extraction yield was 2.2%. The highest extraction yield was in chloroform and the lowest in hexane. The antioxidant results were found in the order of hydro alcoholic>ethyl acetate>hexane>chloroform. Hydro alcoholic crude extract and its derived fractions display moderate antimicrobial potential against the selected bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheichia coli and Pseudomonas, in the range of 0%–13%. Conclusions It is concluded that the hydro alcoholic and ethyl acetate crude extracts of Ficus carica possess very good antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.
13
Document heading doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60619-8 2015 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of different leaves
crude extracts of Omani Ficus carica against food borne pathogenic
bacteria
Afaf Mohammed Weli, Afaf Ali Mohammed Al-Blushi, Mohammad Amzad Hossain*
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy and Nursing, University of Nizwa, P. O. Box 33, Postal Code 616, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman
Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2015; 5(1): 13-16
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apjtd
*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad A. Hossain, School of Pharmacy, College
of Pharmacy and Nursing, University of Nizwa, P. O. Box 33, Postal Code 616, Nizwa,
Sultanate of Oman.
Tel: +96892327578
Fax: +96892877745
E-mail: hossainabi@gmail.com
Foundation Project: Supported by University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman
(Grant No. 507/SOP/OB/1/2013).
1. Introduction
Ficus carica (F. carica) is a medicinal plant constituting
one of the largest genera with about 750 species. It is a woody
plants, trees and shrubs. Primarily it is found in subtropical
and tropical regions throughout the world[1]. The genus is
remarkable for the large variation in the habits of its species.
It is commonly referred as fig. F. carica grows well up to a
height of 6.9-10 m, with smooth grey bark. It is well known for
its large and fragrant leaves. The leaves are 12-25 cm long and
10-18 cm across, and deeply lobed with three or five lobes[2-4].
The complex inflorescence of the common fig consists of a
hollow fleshy structure called the syconium, which is lined
with numerous unisexual flowers. The edible fig fruit is the
mature syconium on the outside and numerous one-seeded
fruits on the inside. The fruit is 3-5 cm long, with a green skin,
sometimes ripening towards purple or brown. F. carica has
milky sap. It is rich in vitamins, mineral elements, water, and
fats. Figs are one of the highest plant sources of calcium and
fiber[5]. The chemical constituents in the leaves of F. carica
PEE R REVIEW ABSTR ACT
KEYWORDS
Ficus carica, Al-Teen, Maceration method, DPPH, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial potential
Objective: To prepare different polarities crude extract from the leaves of Ficus carica and to
evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential against food borne pathogenic bacterial
strains.
Methods: The dried leaves were macerated in absolute ethanol for one week. The ethanol
was evaporated and the crude extract was defatted with ethanol-water. The defatted hydro
alcoholic crude extract was successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate.
The antioxidant potential was determined against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.
Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of different crude extracts against selected Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria by agar disc diffusion method.
Results: The total extraction yield was 2.2%. The highest extraction yield was in chloroform and
the lowest in hexane. The antioxidant results were found in the order of hydro alcoholic>ethyl
acetate>hexane>chloroform. Hydro alcoholic crude extract and its derived fractions display
moderate antimicrobial potential against the selected bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus
aureus, Escheichia coli and Pseudomonas, in the range of 0%-13%.
Conclusions: It is concluded that the hydro alcoholic and ethyl acetate crude extracts of Ficus
carica possess very good antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Peer reviewer
Prof. Dr. Huge Dougle, Institute of
Natural Products, University of Yale,
UK.
E-mail: hugedu@gmail.com
Comments
The present study on antioxidant
and antimicrobial activity of various
leaves crude extracts of F. carica is
giving the valuable brief and scientific
information about this plant.
Details on Page 16
Article history:
Received 8 Apr 2014
Received in revised form 18 Apr, 2nd revised form 6 May, 3rd revised form 15 May 2014
Accepted 12 Jun 2014
Available online 11 Jul 2014
Afaf Mohammed Weli et al./Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2015; 5(1): 13-16
14
were protein (67.6%), fat (4.3%), fiber (1.7%), total ash (4.7%),
nitrogen free compounds (5.3%), pentoses (16.4%); carotene
(3.6%), bergaptene, stigmasterol, sitosterol, and tyrosine[6]. The
sap of the figs green parts is an irritant to human skin[5]. All
parts of this plant such as bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits,
seeds, and latex are medicinally important[2]. The fig is a very
nourishing food and used in industrial products. The leaves
of this plant have anti-diabetic properties and reduce the
amount of insulin needed by diabetics. The leaves have also
the ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and to prevent
colon cancer[7]. Figs are a good source of potassium and it is
very important mineral to help control blood pressure[8]. The
fiber of figs also helps to reduce weight and is recommended
for obese people[8]. The ethanol crude extract of F. carica
at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg showed significant dose-
dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast
provoked elevated temperature. Its crude extracts showed
high acute toxicity with hemorrhagic enteritis. In addition,
the crude extracts showed a weak anthelmintic efficacy. The
plant crude extracts and their mixture decreased the level of
mutations induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
in viciafaba cells, demonstrating the ability to decrease the
genotoxicity of environmental mutagens[9]. The main objective
of the present study was to determine the antioxidant and
antimicrobial potential of different concentrations and different
polarities of leaves crude extracts of F. carica against selected
food borne pathogenic bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus
aureus (S. aureus), Escheichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Chemicals
The chemicals such as ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate,
methanol and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were
obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company Limited. The
food borne pathogenic bacterial strains S. aureus, E. coli and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were obtained from
Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences,
College of Arts and Sciences, Nizwa University, Sultanate of
Oman. Filter paper discs of diameter 5 mm were obtained from
Whatman Company. Nutrient agar and plastic Petri dishes were
purchased from Sharlau Chemie Company. Deionized water
was used throughout the experiment. Shimadzu1800 UV-visible
spectrophotometer was used for analysis.
2.2. Plant samples
The leaves of F. carica sample were collected from Izki on
23 October, 2012 in the afternoon at 4.00-6.00 pm. The collected
leaves samples were transported to the lab for processing.
2.3. Preparation of crude extracts
The whole leaves samples were separated from the affected
one and washed with water. The fresh leaves samples were
placed on newspapers and dried under shade. After complete
drying, the leaves were grinded using kitchen grinder. The
powdered leaves samples (349.31 g) were taken in a three
liter beaker and added 95% ethanol (1.5 L) for one week. After
the complete extraction, the solvent was decanted out and
filtered under vacuum using Buchner apparatus to give clear
solution. The ethanol was evaporated at low pressure using
rotary evaporator to obtain crude ethanol extract. The crude
extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with
hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate.
2.4. Radical scavenging potential by DPPH method
Free radical scavenging potential of different crude extracts
was estimated as described by Blois[10,11]. Four concentrations
(12.5, 25, 50, 100 µg/mL) were prepared from different crude
extracts such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hyrdo
alcoholic. Four milliliter of each concentration were placed in
the separate test tube. One milliliter of freshly prepared DPPH
solution was added and shaken vigorously. After that, all the
test tubes were placed at room temperature in dark place for 45
min. The control was prepared in the same way without adding
any crude extract. The absorption of the samples was measured
using UV spectroscopy at 517 nm. The inhibition percentage
was calculated using the formula:
% Inhibition = Acontrol - Aextract
Acontrol
100
2.5. Antibacterial assay
The evaluation of antibacterial test was carried out by
the agar disc diffusion method[12]. Four concentrations of
each extract was prepared using serial dilution method with
dimethyl sulphoxide to obtained 2 000, 1 000, 500, and 250 µg/
mL solution. Filter paper discs were macerated with each
concentration and placed on previously prepared agar gel
plate. All the plates were incubated with microorganism at
37 °C for 24 h. Amoxicillin was used as a positive control.
The calculation of antibacterial activity was determined by
measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition against the
tested food borne pathogenic bacterial strains.
3. Results
3.1. Crude extracts from the leaves of F. carica
The powdered leaves samples were extracted with ethanol for
one week. The ethanol was evaporated at low pressure using
rotary evaporator to obtain crude ethanol extract. The crude
extract was defatted with water and extracted successively with
hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The total yield was 2.7%.
The highest extraction yield was in chloroform and the lowest
in hexane and the order was chloroform>ethyl acetate>hydro
alcoholic>hexane.
3.2. Antioxidant potential
The antioxidant potential was determined by agar gel
diffusion method. The results of antioxidant potential for
Afaf Mohammed Weli et al./Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2015; 5(1): 13-16 15
hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hydro alcoholic extract
against DPPH radical are shown in Figure 1. All crude extracts
from F. carica inhibited the DPPH radical. Hydro alcoholic
crude extract showed radical scavenging of more than 90%
at all concentrations. The lowest inhibition was shown by
chloroform.
120.00
100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
12.5 25 50 100 200
Hexane Chloroform Ethyl acetate Hydro alcholic
Figure 1. Antioxidant potential of different crude extracts against DPPH.
%
inhibition
Concentration (µg/mL)
3.3. Antimicrobial potential
The determination of antibacterial potential of hexane, ethyl
acetate, chloroform, hydro alcoholic crude extracts of F. carica
against three food borne pathogenic bacterial strains were
calculated the presence or absence of inhibition zones. The
exhibition of antibacterial potential of four crude extracts of F.
carica were shown against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa
bacterial strains at the concentrations of 2 000, 1 000, 500 and
250 µg/mL with dimethyl sulphoxide. Almost all crude extracts
of F. carica were showed moderate potential of antibacterial
activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus bacteria at
the concentrations of 2 000, 1 000, 500 and 250 µg/mL (Figure 2).
Amoxicillin was used as a positive control.
2000 1000
Hexane
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Chloroform Ethyl acetate Hydro alcoholic
Concentration (µg/mL)
E. coli S. aureus P. aeroginosa C. albicans
1000 1000 10002000 2000 2000
500 500 500 500 250250 250
Figure 2. Antimicrobial potential of different leaves crude extracts of F.
carica against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeroginosa.
Inhibition zones (mm)
4. Discussion
The powdered leaves samples were extracted with ethanol
and defatted with water and extracted successively with
hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The total extraction yield
was 2.7%. The highest yield was obtained from chloroform and
lowest from hexane. This result indicated that the chloroform
crude extract contained high percentage of non and semi
polar organic compounds. The antioxidant potential was
determined by well established DPPH method. The principle
of DPPH method based on production of free radical[13]. The
hydro alcoholic crude extracts produced more free radical and
chloroform crude extracts produced less free radical. Therefore,
the highest antioxidant potential was obtained hydro alcoholic
crude extract among the other crude extracts and the lowest
was chloroform. The antioxidant results was found in the order
of hydro alcoholic>ethyl acetate>hexane>chloroform (Figure 1).
The hydro alcoholic extract showed highest potential and the
ethyl acetate also showed high potential compared to hexane
and chloroform crude extracts. The variation of antioxidant
potential might be poly phenolic chemical compounds in
the crude extracts[14,15]. It was observed to have the highest
antioxidant potential in DPPH assay, which is in agreement with
previous study[11].
There are several studies of antimicrobial potential of
F. carica leaves crude extracts. Jung reported that the
methanol crude extract from the leaves of F. carica exhibited
strong potential against E. coli but weak potential against
S. aureus[14]. Another good study demonstrated that the
variation of antimicrobial potential was due to some flavonoid
compounds in the leaves of F. carica[15]. Ahmad et al. reported
that antimicrobial potential of methanol leaves crude extract
of F. carica against five bacterial strain Bacillus cereus,
Enterobacter aerogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus
subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis at different concentrations
was found in the following decreasing order Staphylococcus
epidermidis>Klebsiella pneumoniae>Bacillus subtilis>Bacillus
cereus>Enterobacter aerogens[16]. The antibacterial potential by
agar disc diffusion assay showed that methanol crude extract
of F. carica exhibited potential against pathogenic as well as
non-pathogenic test bacteria. The authors also mentioned that
significant effect on growth inhibition of Gram positive and
Gram negative bacteria[16].
In this present study, highest strong potential was obtained
from ethyl acetate against E. coli and P. aeroginosa at all
applied concentration but exhibited moderate potential against
S. aureus at the concentration 2 000 and 1 000 µg/mL (Figure
2). However, the concentration at 500 and 250 µg/mL did not
show any microbial potential against S. aureus. Chloroform
crude extracts showed moderate potential against E. coli at
all applied concentration but the other pathogenic bacterial
strains showed moderate potential only at the concentrations of
2 000 and 1 000 µg/mL. However, 500 and 250 µg/mL did not show
any activity against S. aureus and P. aeroginosa. Hexane crude
extract showed moderate potential against all applied bacteria
at the concentration of 2 000, 1 000, and 500 µg/mL. Hydro
alcoholic extract also showed potential against all pathogenic
bacteria at concentration 2 000 and 1 000 µg/mL.
In conclusion, the leaves of F. carica were found to possess
strong antioxidant and moderate antimicrobial activity. Gram
negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible than
Gram positive bacteria indicating that active ingredients
in the studied extracts are inhibiting growth of bacteria via
unusual mechanism. It will be thus interesting to isolate
these compounds and further investigated their antimicrobial
properties. Antioxidant compounds are known to possess both
anticancer and neuro protective characteristics. Hence, it is
suggested to extend phytochemical investigation of F. carica
Afaf Mohammed Weli et al./Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2015; 5(1): 13-16
16
from Oman in order to evaluate further its pharmacological
potentials.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to Prof. Dr. Nafsiah Binti Shamsudin,
Dean, College of Pharmacy and Nursing, University of Nizwa,
Sultanate of Oman for her continuous encouragement during
the work and all laboratory facilities. The authors are also
grateful to University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman
for providing all chemicals and other expenses from their
internal fund to carry out this project (Grant No. 507/SOP/
OB/1/2013). Thanks also go to Qasim Al-Riyami, Assistant
Dean, Training, School of Pharmacy, University of Nizwa for
his continuous encouragement and Khaloud Ali Said Al-Alawi
and Ahlam Rashed Alabri, Lab Technicians, Natural Product
Lab, University of Nizwa for their continuous help during the
experiment. The authors wish to express sincere gratitude to
the Central Instrument Laboratory, College of Agriculture and
Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
where the tests were confirmed.
Comments
Background
F. carica plant is a medicinal plant constituting one of the
largest genera with about 750 species. All parts of this plant
such as bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits, seeds, and latex are
medicinally important. The fig is a very nourishing food and
used in industrial products. The leaves of this plant have anti-
diabetic properties and reduce the amount of insulin needed
by diabetics.
Research frontiers
The aim of this study is to prepare various crude extracts
using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively
evaluate antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of F.
carica collected from Izki, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman.
Related reports
According to the literature search, no work has been done
on Omani F. carica by the researcher. The other parameters of
this plant have been done by other researchers.
Innovations & breakthroughs
Although the experimental work done by the author is routine
work, it gives the new information and data to the scientific
community.
Applications
This plant is used worldwide as a traditional herbal
medicine. According to the paper, there are so many bioactive
compounds that can be used to prepare medicine.
Peer review
The present study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of
various leaves crude extracts of F. carica is giving the valuable
brief and scientific information about this plant.
References
[1] Kislev ME, Hartmann A, Bar-Yosef O. Early domesticated fig in the
Jordan Valley. Science 2006; 312(5778): 1372-1374.
[2] Salem MZ, Salem AZ, Camacho LM, Ali HM. Antimicrobial activities
and phytochemical composition of extracts of Ficus species: an over
view. Afr J Microbiol Res 2013; 7(33): 4207-4219.
[3] Abdel-Hameed El-Sayed S. Total phenolic contents and free radical
scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf samples.
Food Chem 2009; 114(4): 1271-1277.
[4] Hada LS, Kakiuchi N, Hattori M, Namba T. Identification of
antibacterial principles against Streptococcus mutants and inhibitory
principles against glucosyltransferase from the seed of Areca catechu
L. Phytother Res 1989; 3(4): 140-144.
[5] Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB. Antimicrobial activity of Ficus
deltoidea Jack (Mas Cotek). Pak J Pharm Sci 2012; 25(3): 675-678.
[6] Adeshina GO, Okeke CL, Osuagwu NO, Ehinmidu JO. Preliminary in
vitro antibacterial activities of ethanolic extracts of Ficus sycomorus
Linn. and Ficus platyphylla Del. (Moraceae). Afr J Microbiol Res 2010;
4(8): 598-601.
[7] Herre EA, Jandér KC, Machado CA. Evolutionary ecology of figs and
their associates: recent progress and outstanding puzzles. Ann Rev
Ecol Evol Syst 2008; 39: 439-458.
[8] Wallis TE. Textbook of pharmacognesy. 4th ed. Boston: J. & A.
Churchill; 2008.
[9] Ahmad S, Rao H, Akhtar M, Ahmad I, Hayat MM, Iqbal Z, et al.
Phytochemical composition and pharmacological prospectus of
Ficus bengalensis Linn. (Moraceae)-a review. J Med Plants Res 2011;
5(28): 6393-6400.
[10] Bolis MS. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free
radical. Nature 1958; 181: 1199-1200.
[11] Hossain MA, Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, Iqbal M. In vitro total phenolics,
flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil,
various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant
Tetrastigma from Sabah. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011; 4(9): 717-721.
[12] Ahlam AA, Hazaa AM, Afaf W, Sadri S, Amzad H, Sohail A. In vitro
antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial screening of the leaves
of Acridocarpous orientalis, native to Sultanate of Oman. British J
Pharm Res 2013; 3(4): 734-742.
[13] Hossain MA, Rahman SM. Total phenolics, flavonoids and
antioxidant activity of tropical fruit pineapple. Food Res Int 2011;
44(3): 672-676.
[14] Jung EK. Antimicrobial activity of extract and fractions from Dryaria
fortune against oral bacteria. J Bacteriol Virol 2007; 37(2): 61-68.
[15] Jeong MR, Cha JD, Lee YE. Antibacterial activity of Korean fig (Ficus
carica L.) against food poisoning bacteria. Korean J Food Cookery
Sci 2005; 21: 84-93.
[16] Ahmad J, Khan I. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial
activity of Ficus carica leaves: an in vitro approach. J Plant Pathol
Microbiol 2013; 4: 157.
... It has large and fragrant leaves, can be up to approximately 25 cm long, deeply lobed with three or five lobes, and a toothed type of margin. The petiole is long and stands from the leaf base (Ali et al., 2012;Weli, Al-Blushi, & Hossain, 2015). The edible part of Ficus carica L., fig fruit, is the important harvest worldwide with widespread consumption as dried and fresh fruit form, and also jams and beverages since it is an excellent source of phenolic compounds (Mawa, Husain, & Jantan, 2013). ...
... The edible part of Ficus carica L., fig fruit, is the important harvest worldwide with widespread consumption as dried and fresh fruit form, and also jams and beverages since it is an excellent source of phenolic compounds (Mawa, Husain, & Jantan, 2013). (Weli et al., 2015), antifungal, antidiabetic (Lansky, Paavilainen, Pawlus, & Newman, 2008), antibacterial (Ahmad, 2012), anti-inflammatory (Ali et al., 2012), antipyretic (Ahmad, 2012;Yu et al., 2020) properties as stated in the several studies. These significant properties of the leaves mainly depend on the presence of α-tocopherol, flavonoid, and phenol contents as reported by Konyalio glu, Sa glam, and Kivçak (2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ficus carica Linn leaves having significant pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic are available just in season. The effective utilization of nutritional values of leaves with enhanced shelf life has gained attention. Drying is usually the preferred technique to eliminate microbial attacks and increase shelf life of seasonal food products. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of microwave drying conditions on effective moisture diffusivity, activation energy, specific energy consumption (SEC), and energy efficiency were investigated at various microwave output power levels and sample amounts. The seven mathematical models were applied to describe the microwave drying kinetics of leaves and Page model was found as the best model. The maximum effective moisture diffusivity and drying rate constant values were determined as 9.84 × 10⁻¹¹ m²/s and 1.15 1/min, respectively, at microwave output power level of 900 W and sample amount of 20 g. The activation energy values were estimated using the modified Arrhenius equation associated with effective moisture diffusivity (Ea = 11.41 W/g) and drying rate constant (Ea = 8.28 W/g). Additionally, the minimum SEC and maximum energy efficiency values (%) were found as 5.60 MJ/kg water and 40.31, respectively, at microwave output power level of 360 W and sample amount of 100 g. The results obtained from the present study seemed potentially useful to explore the applicability of microwave drying on Ficus carica Linn leaves to expand the availability of leaves having numerous nutritional ingredients throughout the whole year and take the advantage of their benefits in various industries. Practical Applications Even if the benefits of Ficus carica L. leaves have been well presented in various studies in the literature, no study was found particularly which investigated the microwave drying kinetics of these leaves. Apart from the mathematical modeling of the drying characteristic and energy aspects of the leaf samples, the present study also targets to expand the usage area of these leaves with high shelf life and enable people to reach the leaves easily throughout the whole year. Hence, this study has potential for the commercial usage of these leaves for their effective utilization in various industries; such as beverage, bakery, cosmetic, and so on. In that way, the valuable nutritional ingredients of these leaves have been turned in favor of human consumption.
... Sometimes, the bark is green, but other times it is yellow with white latex. (Singh et al., 2011;Weli et al., 2015;Cathbert, 2019). ...
... Oliveira et al. (9) investigated and compared the chemical composition and biological potential of the pulps, peels, and leaves of two Ficus carica cultivars. Other studies examined the sterols, phenolic compounds, volatile compounds, organic acid composition, antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial potential, and fatty acid profile of the fruit latex and leaves, fruits, and roots of fig (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ficus carica (common fig) is a tree native to southwest Asia and the eastern Mediterranean and is among the first plants cultivated by humans. Fig harvest is of worldwide importance for their dry and fresh consumption. The fruit, roots, and leaves of figs are used as anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic drugs for treating various disorders such as gastrointestinal (colic, dyspepsia, anorexia, and diarrhea), respiratory (a sore throat, cough, and bronchial problems) and cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. Previous studies have reported the use of latex, leaves, fruit, and root of the fig in the literature. However, so far, fig seeds (Ficus carica) have not been decomposed and analyzed for their oil content. High-Performance Chromatography Fluorescence Detector (HPLC-FLD) method was used to measure the level of vitamin E tocopherol, and the fatty acid content was analyzed with Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) method. The results showed that Ficus carica seed oil is a rich source of linolenic acid (C18:3), linoleic acid (C18:2) and oleic acid (C18:1). Besides, it contains 314.61±51.53 mg/100 g gamma tocopherol. Thus, Ficus carica seed oil is of importance in the health sciences.
... Bacteria were grown in Muller Hinton broth (Liofilchem, Italy) for 18 to 24 h. Each culture was then suspended in a sodium chloride solution (NaCl, 0.9%) to reach turbidity equivalent to that of the 0.5 MacFarland standards [20]. Extracts were diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide to 100 mg/mL. ...
Chapter
The Sultanate of Oman, also known as land of frankincense, is one of the fastest growing economies in the Gulf countries. This country of the Arabian Peninsula is worldwide known for its heritage and culture. Nature has bestowed Sultanate of Oman with abundant natural resources. About 1200 vascular plants species are found across Oman. Some of these species are of significant cultural, medicinal and economic value. Once upon a time, Omani frankincense was used as a trading currency and was considered as precious as gold. Various parts of several wild species are edible and consumed by the locals as a source of nourishment as well as fodder for the domestic animals. Hundreds of plants are still popularly used as folkloric medicines.
Article
The serious problems caused by extensive usage of petroleum-based plastic materials led to investigating the comprehensive studies and developing active food packaging materials. Even if the chitosan-based films are considered an attractive source, they exhibit some practical difficulties in developing active food packaging applications. Hence, Ficus carica Linn leaves extract (FLE), with the features of its cheapness, easy accessibility and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, was incorporated into chitosan (CS) film at various concentrations (2%–6% w/w). To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that FLE was utilized as a bioactive substance incorporated into chitosan films to develop eco-friendly, biodegradable, active food packaging material. The results obtained revealed that FLE incorporation into chitosan films significantly improved the swelling, water solubility and opacity of neat chitosan films. FTIR and morphological analysis indicated that the films produced exhibited smooth structure with homogenous dispersion of FLE. In mechanically, the addition of FLE resulted in a significant reduction in tensile strength while the elasticity of the films was improved. Additionally, the antioxidant and biodegradability properties of neat chitosan films were enhanced significantly. It was concluded that CS-FLE films appeared to be a capable and enhanced option for synthetic polymer-based food packaging materials. Based on the analyses performed, further studies are suggested on the packaging application for various foods and to evaluate the possible interaction of packaging film materials with the compounds of the food products, to avoid possible negative effects.
Article
Ficus sycomorus (F. sycomorus) is a medicinal plant which has been used traditionally for its medicinal benefits as metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory remedy. Therefore the present work was designed to isolate and characterize antibacterial compounds from the fruits of F. sycomorus and their antibacterial activity was assayed. The crude extract was prepared by using different polarity solvents. The pure bioactive compounds were isolated and characterized from the ethyl acetate extract by using different chromatographic techniques. The antibacterial activity of the isolated pure compounds and crude extracts was assessed by using disc diffusion method. The crude extract and flavonoids quercetin-3-rutinoside 1 showed significant antibacterial activities against two Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pneunoniae (S. pneunoniae) and two Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Haemophilus influenza (H. influenza) in the disc diffusion assay. Inhibition zones were in the range of 0–13 mm. The maximum inhibition was shown by compound 1 at concentration 200 μg/ml against S. aureus (IZ = 13 mm) in comparison with the standard levofloxacin. Phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate crude extract of fruits resulted in the isolation of one glycoside compound named quercetin-3-rutinoside 1 with several other minor compounds. The structure was deduced on the basis of ¹H NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMBC, and MS. The results showed that the isolated pure compound 1 has significant antibacterial activity, which can be used as natural antibiotics for the treatment of different infection diseases.
Article
Nowadays, effective medications as antioxidant agents are mandatory for a safe and sustainable environment. Dodonaea viscosa (D. viscosa) is used traditionally by the Omani people to treat rheumatism, toothaches, fever, cold, malaria, headaches, indigestion, ulcers, diarrhea, and constipation, dysmenorrheal and irregular menstruation. This study was carried out to prepare leaf extracts by different solvents and to determine their antioxidant activity and total phenols content. The selected plant was collected locally near the University Campus, Nizwa, Oman. The dried coarse powder was used for the extraction with methanol and it was defatted with water and successively partitioned with different polarity solvents with increasing solvent polarity. The total phenols content and antioxidant activity of the prepared different extracts were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The total phenols content of different extracts was in the range of 3.02-249.93 mg gallic acid/g dry extract. The chloroform extract showed the maximum amount of total phenol compounds (249.93 mg GAE acid/g dry extract) and the minimum content was found in water extract (3.02 mg GAE acid/g dry extract). The leaf crude extracts were obtained to significant levels of antioxidant activity that ranged from percentage of inhibition from 33-85.92 %. The water extract and n-butanol extracts showed significant levels of antioxidant activity (85.92 % and 84.99 %) against the DPPH free radical method. In conclusion, this study showed that different polarities crude extracts of D. viscosa comprise a significant amount of phenols plus antioxidant properties and have possibilities of being potential use of the selected species for a natural source of antioxidants.
Article
Full-text available
Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes is increasing amidst growing cases of global malaria, leading to high fatality in mostly Africa. To overcome the resistance as well as environmental effects of the synthetic insecticides, preliminary insecticidal and botanical potentiating effects of sub-lethal concentration (LC25) Ficus sycomorus active fraction (AFFS) and its synergistic potential with standard insecticide permethrin were evaluated against malarial vector Anopheles coluzzii (Coetzee & Wilkerson) populations. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibitory activity of the AFFS was also investigated compared to standard GST inhibitor, diethyl meleate (DEM). The WHO standard protocol for adult bioassay was used to expose the adult mosquitoes with sub-lethal concentration (LD25=0.49 mg/ml) of the plants’ active fraction and permethrin (0.75%). The permethrin susceptibility screening result showed high level of resistance to permethrin in the field populations of A. coluzzii from Kano with 50.29 ± 2.14% average mortality after exposure to WHO diagnostic dose 0.75% permethrin. Post hoc Fisher’s exact test showed that combination of sub-lethal concentration of AFFS with permethrin (mortality=73.02±12.10%; p=0.00352; RR=0.6923 and 95% CI = 0.5358–0.8946) was statistically significant, while the combination of sub-lethal concentration of AFFS with DEM showed no statistical difference (mortality=63.22±5.03; p=1; RR=0.6667 and 95% CI=0.4470–0.8438). This potentiation effect was signified to be additive effects with co-toxicity factor (CTF) of − 12.66. There was significant reduction of GST activities in the AFFS- and permethrin -exposed groups compared to unexposed populations of A. coluzzii (p < 0.05). The AFFS additively potentiate the permethrin activities by inhibiting GSTs, bio-transformational enzymes implicated in pyrethroids resistance. This study finding generally signifies the potential for bio-rational insecticide approach for malarial vector control.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the diversity of melliferous plants and to recognize the state of beekeeping in the Fez-Meknes region in Morocco. We conducted a questionnaire for beekeepers that set up their hives in the prefectures and provinces of the region, and we have studied the pharmacological evidence of the most preferred plants by beekeepers to assess its medicinal values. The results indicate that honey, bee pollen, bee bread, royal jelly, propolis, bee wax, bee venom, and bee queens are produced in this region with different percentages, and 102 plants belonging to 32 families were obtained in the inventory of melliferous plants; the most represented families were Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (13.73% each) followed by Rosaceae (8.82%). Among these 102 plants identified, 79 plants provide nectar and pollen for bees, 16 plants provide only pollen, 3 plants provide only nectar, 35 plants are resinous, and 6 plants provide honeydew for bees. The outcome of this study will contribute to the valuation of melliferous plants and help to establish a practical guide for the development of the beekeeping sector as an agricultural economic approach.
Article
Full-text available
One of the traditional Korean medicine, Drynaria fortunei (D. fortunei) is one of candidates known to be effective for the treatment of inflammation, hyperlipemia, arteriosclerosis, rheumatism, and gynecological diseases such as osteoporosis and bone resorption. The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity of methanol (MeOH) extract and n-butanol (n-BuOH), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of D. fortunei against oral bacteria. The n-BuOH and CHCl3 fractions (MICs, 0.0078 to 0.3125 mg/ml; MBCs, 0.019 to 0.625 mg/ml) were demonstrated as strong antibacterial activity than the MeOH extract and EtOAc fraction. The combination effects of n-BuOH fraction with ampicillin or gentamicin were synergistic against some oral bacteria. We suggest that D. fortunei could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in oral care products.
Article
The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Ficus sycomorus and Ficus platyphylla was carried out using standard biochemical methods. The antimicrobial activities (i.e. zonesof inhibition) of the ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem bark of Ficus sycomorus and Ficus platyphylla against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated under varying temperature, pH and storage duration of nine months. The zones of inhibition of the test plants extracts were evaluated using agar diffusion methods. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, anthraquinone, glycoside, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and reducing sugars. The effects of temperature and pH on the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of the plants remained relatively unaffected at P>0.05. There were no significant (P>0.05) changes in the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against the test organisms throughout the nine months period of investigation. The implications of these findings in the use of these plants are discussed.© 2009 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved
Article
Antibacterial therapeutic failure due to emergence of resistant bacterial strain is a world wide phenomenon. The search for effective antibacterial substances from sources such as plants has become a necessity to overcome emergent of bacterial resistant in clinical practice. The dried leaves and stem barks of Ficus sycomorus and Ficus platyphylla were collected in Samaru-Zaria, Nigeria in July 2006 and extracted with 70% aqueous ethanol at room temperature. The antibacterial activities such as susceptibility, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (M.I.C.) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (M.B.C.) were determined using appropriate methods. Using the same concentration of the two test plants extracts, the zones of inhibition showed by F. sycomorus ranged between 11.5 -21.5 mm while that of F. platyphylla was from 17.0 -22.0 mm. The values of the M.I.C and M.B.C of F. sycomorus were 1.95, 31.3 and 3.91, 250 mg/ml, respectively. Similarly, F. platyphylla displayed 1.95 and 7.81 mg/ml M.I.C. values and 3.91 to 62.5 mg/ml M.B.C. values against the test organisms. The observed antibacterial activities in this study proved that the leaves and stem bark extracts of Ficus spp. obtained in Zaria support the forcloric claims of the use of Ficus plants in the treatment of ailment such as wound dressing.
Article
The antibacterial activities of methanol extract and systematic solvent fractions( -hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) from Korean common type figs at different ripening stages were tested by the broth dilution method against 8 representative food-poisoning bacteria- : L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, Y. enterocolitica, V. parahaemolyticus, and S. typhimurium. The methanol extracts of unripened I and II showed stronger activity than that of the ripened figs especially against L. monocytogenes, S. enteritidis, E. coli O157:H7, Y. parahaemolyticus and S. typhimurium in 10 mg/mL. The systematic solvent fractions showed stronger antibacterial activities than the methanol extract, even al the lower concentrations. The hexane fraction of ripened figs showed higher growth inhibition than those of unripened I and II against L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, Y. enterocolitica and V. parahaemolyticus. The chloroform fraction showed strong antibacterial activity in all ripening stages against E. coli O157:H7 and V. parahaemolyticus. The butanol fraction showed better inhibition activity in unripened I and II than in the ripened figs. The hexane and chloroform fractions showed inhibition activity of more than against E. coli O157:H7, V. parahaemolyticus in 0.5 mg/mL. Each fraction showed a little different antibacterial activity according to the ripening stages of the fruits and the tested strains. Especially, figs in the unripened II stage revealed superior activity relatively and the hexane and chloroform fractions revealed the strongest activity, followed by the butanol fraction, while the ethylacetate and water fractions hardly showed any activity.
Article
This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on Ficus species. Antimicrobial methods [disc and well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bacterial concentration (MBC)] were used to evaluate the different extracts. The majority of published articles use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. An overview is given on the activities; extracts, compounds or oils from the publication. Phytochemical screenings as well as some bioactive compounds are given with empirical data. Preliminary results of antimicrobial activity supported the traditional use of Ficus in folk medicine. These findings suggest a new pathway in elucidating a potent antimicrobial agent from Ficus species.
Article
Ficus carica L. (fig) belongs to the mulberry tree (Moraceae) which is one of the oldest fruits in the world. It is used in our traditional system of medicine for healing various diseases. In a continuous bid to explore new biocompatible antioxidant and antimicrobial with the least associated side-effects Ficus carica were tested against pathogenic microorganisms; S. epidermidis, K. Pneumoniae, B. Subtilis, E. aerogens, and B. cereus. The methanol extracts were prepared and screened for in-vitro antioxidant activities an antimicrobial activity using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and agar well diffusion method respectively. In addition, extract of Ficus carica prepared by soxlet apparatus and were partially purified by preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). In conclusion, the results indicate antimicrobial activity of the extract which could be further explored for purification of antioxidant compounds.
Article
METHODS for measuring antioxidants and appraising antioxidant activity appear to be of two general types. If the chemical nature of the antioxidant is known, one may strive for a test specific for the compound or group of interest; for example, the nitroprusside test for sulphydryl groups. Alternatively one may observe the inhibition of some natural oxidative process such as the β-oxidation of fats, as a function of the added antioxidant.