ArticlePDF Available

Metrosideros in cultivation: Pohutukawa

Authors:
10
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
M
etrosidero
s
is the botanical name for
s
a group of trees, shrubs and woody
c
limbers that include New Zealand’s
iconic and widely grown
p
ö
h
utukawa
an
r
ä
t
ä
.
Th
e name
Metrosideros
is
s
derived from the
G
reek words me
t
r
a
,
meaning
heartwood’, and
s
idero
n
,
‘iron’, referring to the dense wood
typical of the genus
.
Metrosideros
belongs to the myrtle
s
family (Myrtaceae), comprisin
g
some 5500 spec
i
es an
d
130
g
enera
i
nc
l
u
di
n
g
L
e
p
tos
p
ermu
m
(the tea-
m
trees with about 87 s
p
ecies
)
and the
w
ell
-
k
nown
Eucalyptus
(with about
s
680 s
p
ecies
)
.
Metrosideros
contains
s
some 53 s
p
ec
i
es
di
str
ib
ute
d
across
New Zealand
,
New Caledonia
,
Hawai’i, Pa
p
ua New Guinea,
e
l
se
wh
e
r
e
ac
ro
ss
s
m
a
ll i
s
l
a
n
ds
o
f
the Paci
c, and one outlier s
p
ecies in
South Africa
(
Box 1
)
.
New Zealand has 12 native s
p
ecies
and all are endemic (onl
y
found
naturall
y
in this countr
y
) (Allan, 1961;
Dawson, 1985
)
. Some of the best
known and tallest
g
rowin
g
species
in
c
l
ude
M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
(p
a
ö
hu
t
u
k
a
w
a
or New Zealand Christmas tree
)
,
M
. ro
bus
t
a
(northern r
a
ä
t
ä
)
and
M
.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
(southern r
a
ä
t
ä
)
.
New Zealand is also the only country
to have lianoid
(
climbing
)
species
.
When in fl ower
,
M. excelsa
is probably
a
New Zealand’s most spectacular
and colourful native tree. Meanin
g
splashed by the sea’, pöhutukawa
is an im
p
ortant tree to Mäori as it is
said that s
p
irits de
p
art to the next
world via the sacred tree
g
rowin
g
at
C
ape Rein
g
a on the northern tip of
Aotearoa – New Zealand. Bark from
p
öhutukawa trees was used by M
ä
ori
for a wide ran
g
e of medicinal uses,
and the sweet nectar was collected
and drunk. This nectar also makes
quality bee honey.
Metrosideros in cultivation: P
ö
hutukawa
The fi rst of a two-part series
Murray Dawson1, Jack Hobbs2, Graeme Platt3 and Jim Rumbal4
1 Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand; dawsonm@landcareresearch.co.nz
2
Auckland Re
g
ional Botanic Gardens, 102 Hill Road, Manurewa, Auckland, New Zealand; hobbsj@rnzih.or
g
.nz
3
New Zealand Botanical Institute, PO Box 302084, North Harbour, Auckland, New Zealand
4
M
atar
ik
or
ik
o
R
oa
d
,
W
a
i
tara,
N
ew
Z
ea
l
an
d
W
hile
p
ö
hutukawa is ada
p
ted to
survivin
g
the salt-laden and wind-
swe
p
t conditions of the sea coast,
some forest-dwelling species of
Metrosideros
grow on host plants as
s
e
piphytes. Northern
r
ä
t
ä
(
M
. robust
a
)
a
n
d
oth
e
r tr
ee
r
ä
t
ä
can begin life
ei
t
h
er on t
h
e groun
d
or
i
n t
h
e
branches of another tree
,
in which
case roots are sent to the
g
round and
e
nvelo
p
the host tree. This
p
rocess
can take 200
y
ears or more to occur
.
S
outhern r
ä
t
ä
(
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
)
, as
i
ts common name suggests,
h
as
the most southerly distribution of
a
ll
Metrosideros
species and is
s
consequent
l
y t
h
e most co
ld
h
ar
d
y.
I
t
occurs naturally from latitude 36°
S
to
as
f
ar south as the Auckland Islands
at latitude 50°31’
S
, and can grow
at relatively high altitudes
(
to about
1000 m above sea level
).
C
limbing species such as
M.
ca
rmin
ea
,
M. diffusa
and
a
M. perforata
climb by means of
a
special attachin
g
roots like ivy. They
will
g
row up a support to reach hi
g
her
li
g
ht levels, then produce shrubby-
type
g
rowth and be
g
in to fl ower.
These plants usuall
y
occur in lowland
for
es
t
a
n
d
sc
r
ub
a
r
eas.
Th
ere
i
s
g
reat natura
l
var
i
at
i
on
in
p
lant form and fl ower colour
amon
g
species
(
particularly within
M
. exce
l
s
a
)
and some s
p
ecies
hybridise. This natural variation
has allowed several forms to have
been selected and
g
iven cultivar
names. Althou
g
h there are some
outstandin
g
cultivars, there has been
little deliberate breedin
g
work in
M
e
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
, and the
g
reat majority
of
se
l
ec
tion
s
h
a
v
e
bee
n m
ade
from
the wild or from plants already in
cu
ltiv
a
tion.
Many of the recent cultivars were
selected from trees not yet fully
mature, so their ultimate dimensions
may not be known. For the species,
s
i
zes state
d
i
n t
hi
s art
i
c
l
e are
b
ase
d
upon botanical descriptions of wild
plants
(
mainly from Allan, 1961
)
.
C
ultivated specimens will take
decades to reach these dimensions
.
This
a
rt
icle
discusses
Me
tro
side
ro
s
s
p
ec
i
es
i
n cu
l
t
i
vat
i
on an
d
compre
h
ens
i
ve
l
y
d
ocuments t
h
e
ori
g
ins of the hybrids and cultivars
derived from them. Part
O
ne covers
t
he interspecifi c hybrids (hybrids
between s
p
ecies
)
and cultivars of
M
.
e
x
celsa
(p
a
ö
hutukawa
)
and its
cl
o
se
r
ela
t
i
v
e
M
.
ke
rm
adece
n
sis
(the
s
K
erma
d
ec
p
ö
hutukawa
)
. Part Two
will
d
ocument t
h
e rema
i
n
i
n
g
spec
i
es
(
the r
ä
t
ä
trees and vines
)
and their
cul
t
i
v
a
r
s.
C
ultivars and h
y
brid
s
C
ultivars of
Metrosideros
have arisen
s
f
rom selectin
g
wild
f
orms, outstandin
g
t
rees alread
y
in cultivation that are
o
f
unknown ori
g
inal provenance, or
chance mutations such as at
y
pical
ower colour or varie
g
ated folia
g
e.
Once selected
,
these forms are
usually maintained through vegetative
propagation such as cuttings
.
Flower colours in
M. excelsa
are the
a
most variable of the New Zealand
species. In addition to the many
shades of crimson and scarlet,
t
here are pink-, oran
g
e-, apricot-,
yellow-, and off-white fl owered
p
lants
(
Edwards, 1991; Hobbs, 1992;
S
im
p
son, 2005
)
. The colourful
p
arts
of Metrosidero
s
owers are not petals
s
but actually the stamens
.
Y
ellow fl ower colour instead of
th
e usua
l
re
d
h
as ar
i
sen severa
l
t
imes. For example,
y
ellow-fl owered
f
orms o
f
M
. exce
l
s
a
,
M. fulgens
an
d
s
M. umbellata
have been discovered
a
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
11
i
n t
h
e w
ild
an
d
i
ntro
d
uce
d
i
nto
c
ultivation.
S
ubsequent seedling
selection of
M
. exce
l
s
a
Aurea’ and a
yellow-
owered
f
orm o
f
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
ha
v
e
r
esul
t
ed
i
n t
he
de
r
i
v
ed
c
u
l
t
i
vars
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Moon Maiden’
a
and M. umbellat
a
‘Gold Beacon’,
a
respectively, with more vivid yellow
owers
.
Varie
g
ated forms, with
g
reen leaves
and
g
rey or yellow mar
g
ins (and
reverse varie
g
ations where the
g
reen
is on the outside leaf margin) have
also arisen independentl
y
several
times. Examples of variegated
cu
ltiv
a
r
s
in
c
l
ude
M
.
ca
rmin
ea
‘Carousel’
,
M.
d
iff
usa
‘Crystal
a
Showers’
,
M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Variegata’,
a
M
. k
e
rm
adece
n
s
i
s
‘Variegata’,
s
M. perforata
‘Wee Willie Winkie’
,
a
a
n
d
M
.
u
m
bella
t
a
‘Harlequin’. Some
a
of these cultivars have under
g
one
further selection, whereb
y
branch
s
p
orts
h
ave
b
een se
l
ecte
d
an
d
ma
i
nta
i
ne
d
t
h
rou
gh
ve
g
etat
i
ve
p
ropa
g
at
i
on to accentuate t
h
e ye
ll
ow
l
ea
f
c
olo
u
r. In
s
t
ead
of th
e
usua
l
varie
g
ation, the yellow leaf colour is
p
resent
i
n
l
ar
g
e
bl
otc
h
es, sp
l
as
h
es
or spec
kl
es, or on t
h
e ent
i
re youn
g
l
ea
v
es
o
f
cu
ltiv
a
r
s
suc
h
as
M
.
e
x
celsa
‘Sun
g
low’,
M
.
u
m
bella
t
a
‘Gold Nugget’
a
a
n
d
M
.
u
m
bella
t
a
‘Moonlight’.
a
M
an
y
Metrosideros
cultivars are
s
relatively recent and their ori
g
ins are
reasonabl
y
well documented – b
y
Hu
g
h Red
g
rove
(
1983
)
; Bob Edwards
(
1987a, 1987b, 1989, 1990a, 1990b,
1990c, 1991, 2000
)
; Lawrie Metcalf
(
1987, 2000
)
; Colin Hutchinson
(
1988
)
; Jack Hobbs
(
1992
)
; in an
Auckland Botanic Gardens advisory
leafl et published by the Auckland
Regional Council (ARC, 1999); and
e
l
se
wh
e
r
e
.
M. excelsa
cultivar origins
a
are particularly well documented
wh
e
r
eas
M. umbellata
cultivars are
a
l
ess
w
e
ll r
ec
or
ded
.
A few cultivars are mentioned in Philip
S
impson’s (2005) excellent book on
p
öhutukawa and
r
ä
t
ä, althou
g
h that
b
ook focuses instead on cultural
aspects and the natural history of
these plants. Ber
g
in and Hoskin
g
(
2006
)
do not cover cultivars in detail
either, but
p
rovide useful information
on the ecolo
g
y, establishment,
g
rowth
and mana
g
ement of pöhutukawa.
Duncan & Davies nurser
y
were
p
ioneers who introduced man
y
n
e
w
se
l
ec
tion
s
of
Metrosideros
into
s
cu
l
t
i
vat
i
on.
Th
e
y
were most act
i
ve
from the 1940s to the early 1990s,
w
h
en t
h
ey
i
ntro
d
uce
d
a
b
out 14
selections. The year o
f
commercial
release provided in this article
f
or
e
ach cultivar
(
where known
)
is
based on the fi rst Duncan & Davies
nursery catalogue to list that cultivar.
H
owever, severa
l
were ava
il
a
bl
e
i
n
sma
ll
quant
i
t
i
es as tr
i
a
l
p
l
ants an
d
cas
h
sa
l
es t
h
at may pre-
d
ate t
h
e ma
i
n
release dates.
S
ome of the Duncan
&
Davies selections of Metrosidero
s
were originally provided by the late
Felix Jury
(
Mark Jury, pers. comm.
)
.
Early in the history of the nursery,
D
u
n
ca
n
&
D
a
vi
es
d
i
s
tri
bu
t
ed
numerous seed-raised
p
ö
hu
t
u
k
a
w
a
for coastal plantin
g
. It is possible
that some of these early plantin
g
s,
g
rowin
g
around the Coromandel
P
en
i
nsu
l
a an
d
e
l
sew
h
ere
,
were
l
ater se
l
ecte
d
, propa
g
ate
d
an
d
gi
ven cu
l
t
i
var names
b
y
A
uc
kl
an
d
plantsman Graeme Platt (Terr
y
Hatch,
p
ers. comm.
).
G
raeme Platt has been a keen
o
bse
rv
e
r of th
e
n
a
t
u
r
a
l v
a
ri
a
tion of
p
ö
hu
t
u
k
a
w
a
a
n
d
h
as
intro
duced
mor
e
than 1
8
selected forms.
S
everal are
outstandin
g
cultivars and the result of
e
xaminin
g
many thousands of trees
in his
q
uest for
p
erfect s
p
ecimens.
Mo
s
t of hi
s
work w
as
u
n
de
rt
a
k
e
n in
the mid-1980s but continues u
p
to the
present
(
e.
g
., Edwards, 1989, 1991,
2
000; Hobbs, 1992; Sim
p
son, 2005;
Platt, 2008
)
.
B
ob Edwards
(
1991
)
and Jack
Hobbs’s
(
1992
)
articles provide
g
ood summaries of the features that
G
raeme Platt looks for, including
a clean and uncluttered tree form
(
without twiggy growth
)
, long and
g
lossy leaves, large bright fl owers
with long stamens and prominent
yellow pollen, abundant and reliable
owering, well-displayed fl owers
that are not concealed by vegetative
g
rowth, and fl owerin
g
inside the
canopy of the tree rather than just on
the extremities of the branches.
Deane Keir o
f
Westland has grown
many thousands o
f
M
etros
id
ero
s
p
l
ants s
i
nce t
h
e ear
l
y 1990s.
Th
ese
plants are used by
S
olid Ener
g
y
International for mine rehabilitation
projects and by Project
C
rimson for
several of their plantin
g
projects on
the West
C
oast of the
S
outh Island.
Durin
g
this time, many different
f
orms and selections have been
g
rown and evaluated for commercial
potent
i
a
l
an
d
g
enera
l
i
nterest.
D
eane
Keir
(p
ers. comm.
)
has released
se
v
e
r
a
l
se
l
ec
tion
s
o
f
M. robusta
and
a
M
. um
b
e
ll
at
a
.
Les
C
leveland of Dunedin has a
lon
g
-standin
g
interest in
Me
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
breedin
g
. From the 1960s up
t
o the current da
y
, he has been
makin
g
numerous selections and
deliberate inters
p
ecifi c crosses
be
tw
ee
n
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
,
M
. ro
bus
t
a
a
n
d
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
.
H
e
h
as
a
l
s
o
successfull
y
crossed the Vanuatu
s
p
ecies M.
c
ollin
a
(
a
)
with the
N
e
w Z
ea
l
a
n
d
M
.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
(
a
)
a
n
d
c
on
s
i
de
r
s
th
e
d
oz
e
n or mor
e
h
y
brids to be relativel
y
cold hard
y
.
Les raises his plants in Ota
g
o and
oft
e
n
uses
M. umbellata
as a parent
a
f
or in
c
r
eased
c
ol
d
-tol
e
r
a
n
ce
. Within
M
.
u
m
bella
t
a
,
he has also selected for
cold-hardiness, form, folia
g
e, fl ower
colour and reliable heavy fl owerin
g
(
Les Cleveland,
p
ers. comm.
)
. Several
of hi
s
se
l
ec
tion
s
a
r
e
whol
esa
l
ed
th
rou
gh
W
a
lli
s
s
N
urser
i
es,
M
os
gi
e
l
(
Clive Wallis,
p
ers. comm.
)
.
A
rtifi cial h
y
brid
s
M
e
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
‘Cleveland Red’ and
s
M
.
Rustic Beaut
y
’ are the onl
y
Metrosideros
cultivars currently
s
sold that are
p
roducts of artifi cial
h
y
bridisation. Both were raised b
y
Les
C
leveland
(p
ers. comm.
).
Metrosidero
s
‘Cleveland Red’ is
s
a deliberate interspecifi c hybrid
between
M
. umbellat
a
(
a
)
and
M. excels
a
(
a
)
, raised in the mid- to
late 1990s.
M
.
Rustic Beauty’ is
another deliberate
M. umbellata
×
a
excelsa
hybrid, raised some years
a
e
arlier
(
perhaps about 1985
)
by Les
C
leveland. They have been sold at
W
allis’s Nurseries since about 1990–
1995
(C
live Wallis,
p
ers. comm.
)
.
Natural hybr
i
ds
M
etros
id
eros
k
erma
d
ecens
is
(
the Kermadec p
ö
hutukawa
)
and
M. excels
a
(p
a
ö
hutukawa
)
are closely
related and readily hybridise when
g
rown toget
h
er.
Natural h
y
brids between
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
a
n
d
M. robusta
occur in areas where
a
t
he two s
p
ecies distributions and
owerin
g
times overlap, typically just
inl
a
n
d
from th
e
c
o
as
t
a
n
d
tow
a
r
ds
t
he end of
p
ö
h
utukawa fl owerin
g
a
n
d
n
ea
r th
e
s
t
a
rt of north
e
rn r
ä
t
ä
owerin
g
. This natural hybrid (called
12
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
Metrosideros
×
s
s
u
b
-tomentos
a
)
is the
most common one an
d
R
ang
i
toto
I
s
l
an
d
i
s a
g
oo
d
p
l
ace to see t
h
em.
Further out in the Hauraki
G
ulf
,
on
G
reat Barrier Island, is another place
to
nd natural hybrids;
M
.
×
s
u
b
-
t
omen
t
os
a
occurs there, and
a
occasionally
M. excelsa
×
a
u
mbellat
a
an
d
M. robusta
×
a
u
m
b
e
ll
at
a
.
In the Far North at Te Paki
,
natural
hybrids involvin
g
Bartlett’s r
ä
t
ä
ma
y
p
ossibl
y
occur. Specimens have
b
een collected b
y
botanists Peter
de Lange (pers. comm.) and Gillian
Crowcroft and tentativel
y
identifi ed
as
M. bartlettii
×
i
e
x
ce
l
sa
(e.g., Allan
a
Herbarium s
p
ecimen CHR 475174
)
.
Six putative natural hybrids of
N
e
w Z
ea
l
a
n
d
Metrosideros
have been
s
n
a
m
ed
a
n
d
intro
duced
into
cu
ltiv
a
tion.
All exce
p
t
M
. ‘R
ed
H
a
z
e
’ w
e
r
e
selected by Graeme Platt.
Metrosideros
×
s
s
u
b
-tomentos
a
Hauparapara’: a natural hybrid
b
etween
M. excelsa
and
a
M. robust
a
that resembles
M. robusta
more
a
than the other parent. The fl owers
are a somewhat dull oran
g
e-red as
is t
y
pical of its northern rä
t
ä paren
t
.
This selection is a ver
y
erect tree
with potential for use in amenit
y
street plantin
g
.
M
.
Hauparapara’ was
discovered b
y
G
raeme Platt in the late
1980s near Hauparapara River in the
Ba
y
of Plent
y.
M
.
×
sub-tomentosa
‘Mi
s
tr
a
l’:
a
anot
h
er natura
l
hyb
r
id
b
etween
M. excelsa
and
a
M
.ro
bus
t
a
.
I
t
has
da
r
k
green leaves and deep scarlet
owers
that appear early to mid-December
(
Fig. 1
)
. This selection is a vigorous,
me
di
um-s
i
ze
d
, erect-grow
i
ng tree.
M
.
Mistral’ would make an excellent
street tree and is also suitable for
large containers.
G
raeme Platt found
i
t
i
n
k
ä
nuka
/m
ä
nu
k
a scru
b
on t
h
e
C
oromandel Peninsula, on the ranges
east of
C
oromandel township on the
road from
C
oromandel to Te Rerenga
(
Edwards, 1989; Hobbs, 1992
)
. It did
not originate on
G
reat Barrier Island
as stated in some references
(
e.g.,
R
e
d
grove, 1983;
Ed
war
d
s, 1987a;
M
etcalf, 1987, 2000; AR
C
, 1999) and
websites
(
e.
g
., Lyndale Nurseries
on
li
ne cata
l
o
g
ue, 2010;
Pl
ant
P
ro
d
uct
i
on on
li
ne cata
l
o
g
ue, 2010;
Plantman online catalo
g
ue, 2010
)
.
Di
scovere
d
i
n t
h
e 1970s,
M
.
Mistral’
is one of the fi rst
M
etros
id
ero
s
se
l
ect
i
ons to
b
e
i
ntro
d
uce
d
i
nto
c
ultivation by
G
raeme Platt. He found
t
h
at t
hi
s se
l
ect
i
on was ver
y
w
i
n
d
resistant
,
so named it “Mistral” after
t
h
e co
ld
w
i
n
d
t
h
at
bl
ows
i
n sout
h
ern
F
rance
.
Fi
g
. 1
Metrosideros
×
s
sub
-t
o
m
e
nt
osa
Mistral’, a natural h
y
brid between
p
ōhutukawa and northern rātā. Photo:
L
y
ndale Nurseries.
A
not
h
er se
l
ect
i
on
,
s
i
m
il
ar to
M
.
‘Mistral’, is currently being sold
i
ncorrect
ly
un
d
er t
hi
s name.
Th
e true
f
orm o
f
M
. ‘Mistral’ has slightly wavier
f
oliage than the wrongly named plant
.
M.
×
sub-tomentosa
‘Rangi’:
a
t
hi
s
p
ro
b
a
bl
e
M. excelsa
×
a
ro
bus
t
a
h
y
b
r
id
was so-name
d
as t
h
e parent
plant grows near the grave of Guide
Ran
g
i
(
Mrs Ran
g
itiaria Dennan
)
i
n
Wh
a
k
arewarewa
,
R
otorua.
I
t
was propa
g
ated by Graeme Platt
i
n t
h
e
l
ate 1980s an
d
i
s not w
id
e
l
y
cu
l
t
i
vate
d
.
M
. ‘Maungapiko’:
M
M
a natural hybrid
between
M. excelsa
and
a
M. umbellat
a
that
f
orms an erect tree more like
M. umbellat
a
(Edwards, 1989; Hobbs,
a
1992; AR
C
, 1999; Metcalf, 2000). It
develops into a narrow, upright tree
with an open habit that tends to lose
its lower leaves.
M
.
Maungapiko’ has
bright crimson blooms
(
resembling
those o
f
a southern r
ä
t
ä
)
that
appear a little later than most
p
ö
h
utukawa
(
Fig. 2
)
. It is more frost
tolerant and resistant to psyllid
attack than cultivars o
f
p
ö
hutukawa.
M.
Maungapiko’ was discovered
by
G
raeme Platt in the early 1980s
g
rowing in
m
ä
nuka scrub at the
j
unction o
f
Maungapiko Track and the
old Whangaparapara – Port Fitzroy
Road on
G
reat Barrier Island. The
original tree has since been destroyed
by road widening and the old
f
orestry
road is now a walking track.
Fi
g
. 2
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
Maun
g
apiko’, a natural
hy
brid between pōhutukawa and southern
r
ātā. Photo: Naturall
y
Native NZ Plants.
M
. ‘Red Haze’:
MM
r
aised in the mid
-
1980s at
O
ratia Native Plant Nursery
along with a number of other
seedlings that looked different from
th
e usua
l
M
. exce
l
s
a
in the rest of the
a
batch. At the time David Hayes
(
now a
landscaper in Northland
)
was working
f
or
G
eoff Davidson (pers. comm.) and
h
e ra
i
se
d
t
h
em an
d
se
l
ecte
d
one to
g
row on. The name
Red Haze” is a
play on David Hayes surname.
G
eoff
D
avidson
(
pers. comm.
)
consider
s
M
.
Red Haze’ to be a hybrid between
M. excelsa
and
a
M
.
k
erma
d
ecens
is
.
T
his cultivar was
rst marketed by
O
ratia Native Plant Nursery in the late
1980s to the early 1990s (
G
addum,
1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2001;
G
eoff
D
avidson, pers. comm.
)
. An earl
y
planting growing on
G
eoff Davidson’s
property
i
s now a
l
arge w
id
e-
sprea
di
ng tree w
i
t
h
a mu
l
t
i
-stemme
d
habit. Many years ago, Auckland
C
ity
C
ouncil planted some along Tamaki
D
rive, between The
S
trand bridge and
S
olent
S
treet in Auckland
C
ity.
M
. ‘Sentinel Flame’:
MM
a natural h
y
brid
be
tw
ee
n
M. robusta
and
a
M.
u
m
be
ll
a
t
a
discovered b
y
Graeme Platt. He has
g
rown it for many years and is now
uncertain of where he collected it
,
e
ither on
G
reat Barrier Island or in
North-West Nelson. In about 2007
,
G
raeme Platt
g
ave propa
g
ation
material to Mar
y
Duncan (pers.
comm.) of Vibrant Earth nurser
y
,
Nelson
,
who named it
M
.
S
entinel
Flame’ after its upri
g
ht
g
rowin
g
habit.
Pl
a
nt
s
a
r
e
a
v
a
il
ab
l
e
from Vi
b
r
a
nt
Earth nurser
y
.
A
ll of the above-mentioned h
y
brids
are within Sub
g
enus M
e
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
(
Box 1
)
. Recent DNA evidence
su
gg
ests an ancient history of
repeated h
y
bridism in the evolution
of New Zealand s
p
ecies within this
sub
g
enus (Gardner et al., 2004).
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
13
Although Allan
(
1961
)
claimed
t
h
at t
h
ere
i
s some ev
id
ence t
h
at
M. colensoi
crosses with
i
M. diffus
a
,
t
hi
s
h
as not
b
een su
b
stant
i
ate
d
an
d
t
h
ere are no
k
nown
h
y
b
r
id
s
i
nvo
l
v
i
n
g
New Zealand (or New
C
aledonian)
species of
S
ubgenus
M
earnsi
a
(John
a
Dawson, pers. comm.
)
.
P
öö
hutukawa trees
Metrosi
d
ero
s
e
x
c
els
a
(p
a
öö
hutukawa)
Of all the s
p
ecies, the iconic
p
ö
h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
i
s
th
e
bes
t known
(
Fig. 3
)
. Besides its spectacular
owers around Christmas time
,
trees
are well known for their incredibl
y
gnarled trunks and branches that can
be
ad
orn
ed
with
ae
ri
a
l root
s
. Tr
ees
c
an
g
row to 20 m tall. Leaves are dark
g
reen above, with dense white hairs
b
elow, leathery, and up to 10 cm lon
g
.
P
ö
hutukawa
g
row naturally on sea
c
liffs
,
in coastal forest in areas north
of Poverty Bay, on the shores of the
Rotorua lakes and on the Three Kin
g
s
Islands
(
Allan, 1961; Sim
p
son 2005
)
.
Ran
g
itoto Island has the lar
g
est
remainin
g
p
ö
h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
for
es
t. Th
e
trees there are no more than 1
50
–2
00
y
ears old and have rapidl
y
colonised
the volcanic lava. Ma
y
or Island in the
Ba
y
of Plent
y
is also dominated b
y
p
ö
h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
for
es
t wh
e
r
e
th
e
r
e
a
r
e
some ver
y
mature trees. Plants found
on Motutaiko Island in Lake Tau
p
o
are likely to have been ori
g
inally
p
lanted b
y
M
ä
ori instead of naturall
y
dispersin
g
there
(
M. J. Johnston in
Bergin and Hosking, 2006
)
.
Fi
g
. 3 B
o
t
a
ni
ca
l ill
us
tr
a
ti
o
n
of
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
(
then as
M
. t
o
m
e
nt
osa
)
in
C
urtis’
s
Botanical Magazine, London, Vol. 76
(
=
S
er. 3, Vol. 6
)
: Tab. 4488, 1850. Ima
g
e
c
ourtes
y
Missouri Botanical
G
arden,
www.botanicus.or
g
.
B
ecause
p
ö
h
utu
k
awa ma
i
n
ly
occurs
i
n nort
h
ern, coasta
l
areas
i
t w
ill
on
ly
tolerate li
g
ht frosts
(
Bannister, 1990
)
and is unsuitable
f
or cultivation in cool
inland areas of New Zealand. There
may be potential for selectin
g
plants
with some increased cold-resistance
from the outlier populations growing
wild at the inland lakes
.
In the
S
outh Island, p
ö
h
utu
k
awa
is cultivated successfully in milder
locations near the sea, such as
N
elson, on the west coast in
G
reymouth and as far south as
Jackson Bay (
S
impson 2005;
L
awrie Metcalf, pers. comm.
)
, on
t
h
e east coast
i
n
M
ar
lb
oroug
h
an
d
K
a
ik
oura, on coasta
l
B
an
k
s
P
en
i
nsu
l
a
at Redcliffs,
S
umner (Fi
g
. 4–6),
S
carborou
g
h, Little Akaloa and
Akaroa
(
Murray Dawson, pers. obs.;
W
arwick Harris, pers. comm.
)
, and
alon
g
Portobello Road around
O
ta
g
o
Peninsula
(
Tom Myers, pers. comm.
)
.
Th
ere are a
l
so severa
l
M
.
e
xce
l
s
a
trees planted on the
C
hatham Islands
(e.
g
.,
C
HR 476937) and it is cultivated
as far south as
S
tewart Island (Ron
and Elspeth Tindal, pers. comm.
).
Most
p
ö
h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
a
r
e
su
it
ed
for
planting in large gardens and exposed
c
o
as
t
a
l
c
on
d
ition
s
in mil
de
r
a
r
eas
.
However, with the wide range of
forms now available it is
p
ossible to
choose one that suits a wider ran
g
e
of sites – be it city waterfront, lar
g
e
p
ark or
p
ublic
p
lace, urban street, or
a smaller home garden. When young,
p
ö
hu
t
u
k
a
w
a
ca
n
a
l
s
o m
a
k
e
su
it
ab
l
e
container
p
lants.
Fi
g
. 4 This pōhutukawa
g
rowin
g
at
C
li
f
ton
Ba
y
in
S
umner is a
C
hristchurch
C
it
y
C
ouncil
h
erita
g
e and notable tree. It is more than
8
0
y
ears old and the lar
g
est
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
in
C
hristchurch. Photo: Murra
y
D
a
w
so
n.
Fi
g
. 5
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
Aurea’, a
y
ellow-
owered variant o
f
pōhutukawa.
A
, plant in
ower. B, close-up o
f
owers.
Photos: Murra
y
Dawson.
Fi
g
. 6 This unusual street tree
g
rowin
g
at
S
umner,
C
hristchurch, appears to be hal
f
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
Aurea’
(
le
f
t
)
and hal
f
the usual red-
owered
f
orm
(
ri
g
ht
)
. The
most likel
y
explanation is that the tree was
a
y
ellow-
owered
g
ra
f
t, and buds below the
g
ra
f
t
f
rom red-
owered rootstock also
g
rew
f
rom an earl
y
a
g
e. Another possibilit
y
is that
y
oun
g
red- and
y
ellow-
owered plants were
inter-planted and allowed to
g
row to
g
ether.
Least likel
y
is that a side-branch mutation
to the
y
ellow-
owered colouration or a side-
b
r
a
n
c
h r
e
v
e
r
s
i
o
n t
o
r
ed
o
w
e
r
s
occu
rr
ed
e
arl
y
on in the
g
rowth o
f
the plant. Photo:
M
urra
y
Dawson.
A
B
14
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
P
öö
hu
t
uka
w
a
as
a
w
eed
Metrosideros
species
s
p
ro
d
uce
v
ast numbers of fi ne seeds that
are readil
y
dispersed b
y
the
w
ind. Given the ri
g
ht
g
ermination
an
d
g
row
i
n
g
con
di
t
i
ons, t
h
ese
a
ttri
bu
t
es
a
r
e
c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
ri
s
ti
cs
of
w
eedy species.
Metrosideros excelsa
is a popular
a
an
d
w
id
e
l
y cu
l
t
i
vate
d
p
l
ant
i
n
coastal Wellington where it grows
w
e
ll
an
d
pro
d
uces numerous
s
eedlings. The concern there is
th
at coasta
l
W
e
lli
ngton
i
s we
ll
outside o
f
its natural range and
M. excelsa
now grows in habitats
a
th
at
M. robusta
would have
a
occupied naturally when it was
more w
id
esprea
d
.
Th
e remnant
populations o
f
M. robusta
may
a
be at risk from encroachin
g
M. excelsa
and possible genetic
a
contam
i
nat
i
on t
h
rou
gh
i
nter-
hybridisation
(
Ber
g
in and Hoskin
g
,
2006
)
. For these reasons it is
listed as a weed on the D
OC
consolidated list of environmental
w
eeds
(
Howell, 2008
).
Overseas,
p
ö
h
u
t
u
k
a
w
a
i
s
cu
ltiv
a
t
ed
in
c
o
u
ntri
es
with mil
de
r
climates and in some
p
laces it
h
as
bec
om
e
a
w
eed
. M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
has esca
p
ed from cultivation in
t
he Western Ca
p
e
p
rovince of
S
outh Africa and has become
a serious weed of the fynbos (a
major ecosystem renowned for its
diversit
y
of native plant species
)
(e.g., Harris, 2002).
Similarly
,
M. kermadecensis
has
s
r
ecently naturalised on Maui,
H
awai’i, and is considered a
p
est
s
pecies
(
Evenhuis and Eldredge,
2004).
T
he
f
amous p
öö
hutukawa o
f
La
C
oru
ñ
a and debate on the
discovery o
f
New Zealand
Metrosideros excelsa
thrives in
a
t
he frost- and possum-free coastal
r
egions of
G
alicia in
S
pain. A very
f
amous pöhutukawa is growing
at La
C
oruña, capital of
G
alicia
province. This tree was chosen as
t
he city’s fl oral emblem and is said
by the locals to be 400–500 years
o
ld
.
Dr W
a
rwi
c
k H
a
rri
s
w
as
in
La
C
oruña in 2
00
1 and caused a
urry of local media covera
g
e, and
afterwards in New Zealand
,
when
h
e
s
t
a
t
ed
hi
s
be
li
e
f th
a
t th
e
tr
ee
cou
ld
not
b
e more t
h
an 200 years
old. He considered that it was
most likely the tree came to Spain
vi
a t
h
e ear
l
y p
l
ant tra
d
e t
h
roug
h
En
g
land
(
e.
g
., Landcare Research
media release, 20 Se
p
tember
2
001; Bergin and Hosking, 2006
)
.
Winston
C
owie and
J
uan Pinero in
f
ront
o
f
the
f
amous
p
ö
h
utukawa at La
C
oruña.
Photo: An
g
us Fraser.
N
obody knows exactly how the
tree
g
ot to La Coruña, but if the
locals are right on its age it could
onl
y
mean that the Spanish sailed
to New Zealand before Ca
p
tain
C
ook in 17
69
or Abel Tasman’s
si
g
htin
g
in 1642.
S
cientifi cally ageing the tree
wo
uld
se
tt
le
t
his
deba
t
e
.
The
r
e
is
a
renewed initiative to get an o
ffi
cial
a
g
e for the tree
(
Lambly, 2009
)
,
and in Se
p
tember/October 2010
tree-r
i
ng sc
i
ent
i
st
D
r
J
onat
h
an
Palmer
(p
ers. comm.
)
will travel to
L
a
C
oruña to take core samples to
d
eterm
i
ne
i
ts age.
History books on the fi rst
E
uropeans to reac
h
N
ew
Z
ea
l
an
d
would have to be rewritten i
f
the
L
a
C
oruña p
ö
h
utu
k
awa pre-
d
ates
C
aptain
C
ook’s voyage
.
Flower size and colour vary between
trees and fl owerin
g
time also varies
considerabl
y
within the period
N
ovember to January. This variability
h
as
a
llow
ed
th
e
se
l
ec
tion of mor
e
than
30
named cultivars of M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
,
by far the
g
reatest number for any
Me
tro
s
i
de
ro
s
. Tho
se
with r
ec
or
ded
ori
g
ins include the followin
g
.
M
. ex
c
e
l
s
a
Aurea’
:
a
g
reen
i
s
h
-
yellow-fl owered variant that originated
on Motiti Island in the Ba
y
o
f
Plent
y
.
It was fi rst offered for sale in a 1947
D
uncan & Davies Nursery
C
atalo
g
ue
(
no. 97
)
. For man
y
y
ears Duncan
&
Davies produced it
f
rom seed
only and all seedlings remained
re
l
at
i
ve
l
y true to type w
i
t
h
ye
ll
ow
owers (Hobbs, 1992).
G
reen (1975)
i
ncorrect
l
y assume
d
t
h
at
i
t was
g
rown
f
rom cuttings to maintain its
ower colour. Metcalf
(
1987, 2000
)
states t
h
at a
ll
cu
l
t
i
vate
d
mater
i
a
l
i
s
derived
f
rom two trees discovered on
Motiti Island about 1940.
S
impson
(
2005
)
states that naturally occurring
yellow-fl owered variants are relatively
common on
M
ot
i
t
i
I
s
l
an
d
.
Other yellow-fl owered p
ö
hu
t
uka
w
a
have been discovered in the Bay of
Plenty. Adams (1967) discovered
one
i
n 1966,
g
row
i
n
g
i
n t
h
e
hill
s
behind
O
ruaiti Beach near Waihau
B
ay. Ber
g
in and Hoskin
g
(
2006
)
provide a photo
g
raph of another
naturally occurrin
g
yellow-fl owered
plant
g
rowin
g
at Ohiwa Harbour near
Whaka
t
a
n
e
.
A
menit
y
plants o
f
M
.
e
x
celsa
‘Aurea’ are cultivated at
C
ornwall
Park
,
Auckland
,
C
ameron
S
treet in
T
auran
g
a (Simpson, 2005), and at
S
umner,
C
hristchurch (Fi
g
. 5A–B, 6).
M
. exce
l
s
a
Blockhouse Ba
y
’:
bri
g
ht red rounded
(
pompom
)
owers
and neat
g
lossy leaves
(
Fi
g
. 7;
Edwards, 2000).
G
raeme Platt
re
g
ar
d
s
i
t as
h
av
i
n
g
g
oo
d
potent
i
a
l
f
or
g
rowin
g
in containers. It was
discovered by
G
raeme
g
rowin
g
in a
par
k
i
n
Bl
oc
kh
ouse
B
ay,
A
uc
kl
an
d
,
i
n
t
he mid-1980s
.
Fi
g
. 7
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
Bl
oc
kh
ouse
Ba
y’
. Photo: Jack Hobbs.
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
15
M. ex
c
els
a
Butterscotch’
:
re
ddi
s
h
stems an
d
re
ddi
s
h
-
g
o
ld
new
l
eaves
b
ecom
i
n
g
b
utter-ye
ll
ow an
d
nally
g
reen with a
g
e
(
Fi
g
. 8
)
. This
c
u
l
t
i
var or
igi
nate
d
as a
b
ranc
h
sport
o
f
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Sunglow’ and was
a
c
ommerc
i
a
ll
y re
l
ease
d
b
y
D
uncan
& Davies nursery in 1993
(
Hobbs,
1992
)
.
Several
y
ears before its main release,
Red
g
rove (1983) and Metcalf (1987)
p
rovided the same colour photo
g
raph
of M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Butterscotch’,
a
incorrectl
y
under the name M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Sunglow’. M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Butterscotch’
a
is currently available (e.g., Gaddum,
1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2001; Lyndale
Nurseries online catalogue, 2010).
Fi
g
. 8
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
B
u
tt
e
r
sco
t
c
h’.
Photo: L
y
ndale Nurseries.
M
. exce
l
s
a
C
entennial’: an erec
t
-
g
row
i
n
g
, reverse-var
i
e
g
ate
d
cu
l
t
i
var
w
i
t
h
di
st
i
nct, erect, narrow
l
eaves.
I
t
c
an be distin
g
uished
f
rom
M
. exce
l
s
a
Varie
g
ata’ by its narrower leaves with
a prominent bri
g
ht yellow stripe alon
g
the central vein. It was propa
g
ated
by
G
raeme Platt from a parent
p
lant
g
rowin
g
in the Auckland
C
ity
C
entennial plantin
g
in the Auckland
Domain
(
Edwards, 1989; Metcalf,
2000
)
.
M. ex
c
els
a
C
hristmas
C
heer’:
p
roduces crimson
owers in
di
st
i
nct
i
ve
l
y
l
arge c
l
usters cons
i
stent
l
y
about
C
hristmas time. It was selected
b
y plantsman Bob Bayly in Gisborne
(
Edwards, 1991; Hobbs, 1992
)
. This
c
u
l
t
i
var
d
oes not seem to
b
e w
id
e
l
y
a
v
ailable.
M. ex
c
els
a
Dalese’: an unusuall
y
compact,
l
ow-
g
row
i
n
g
se
l
ect
i
on
with distinctl
y
short internodes of
10–13 mm
(
Fi
g
. 9
)
. This is a new
release for New Zealand from L
y
ndale
N
urseries
(
online catalo
g
ue, 2010
)
,
who imported it from Australia and
current
l
y se
ll
i
t un
d
er t
h
e
i
ncorrect
spec
i
es name
M
. tomentos
a
Dalese’.
The s
p
ecies name “tomentosa” is
an old s
y
non
y
m for M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
. Th
e
cultivar arose as a seedlin
g
selection
raised from a seed batch b
y
Robert
Don
a
to
a
n
d
N
e
il P
e
rrott
a
t Ro
be
rt
Donato Nurseries, NSW
(
P
l
a
n
t
V
arieties
J
ournal
,
1997
,
Vol. 10
,
N
o. 4
)
. The Australian Plant Varieties
j
ournal should not have used the
n
a
m
e
Metrosideros tomentosa
and
a
i
n a
l
ater
i
ssue t
hi
s was c
h
an
g
e
d
to
(
the miss
p
elt
)
M
.
e
x
celsus
” (
s
s
Pla
n
t
V
ar
i
et
i
es
J
ourna
l
,
1998
,
V
o
l
. 11
,
N
o. 3
)
. Because of this confusion,
a formal identifi cation would hel
p
to
confi rm its identity. Unfortunately, the
n
a
m
e
M
. tom
e
nto
sa
‘Dalese’ currently
p
ers
i
sts
i
n
A
ustra
li
an nurser
i
es t
h
at
sell
i
t.
Fi
g
. 9
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
D
a
l
ese
’. Ph
o
t
o
:
L
y
ndale Nurseries.
L
yndale Nurseries state that it
g
rows
to 0.3 m tall
,
whereas some Australian
nurseries state 1.
5
m and the
Australian Plant Varieties descri
p
tion
(
Plant Varieties
J
ournal
,
1997
,
Vol. 10
,
N
o. 4
)
states several metres tall. It has
b
een grante
d
Pl
ant
B
ree
d
ers
Ri
g
h
ts
(
PBR
)
p
rotection in Australia.
M. excelsa
Fire Mountain’
:
a
a small
t
ree w
i
t
h
a w
id
e
g
rowt
h
h
a
bi
t an
d
very bri
g
ht oran
g
e-scarlet fl owers
(
Hutchinson, 1988; Hobbs, 1992;
A
RC, 1999
)
. It was obtained from a
parent plant
g
rowin
g
near the AFF
CO
F
reez
i
ng
W
or
k
s
i
n
N
ort
h
T
arana
ki
.
T
his is one of several selections
ma
d
e
b
y t
h
e
l
ate
F
e
li
x
J
ury t
h
roug
h
th
e 1970s
b
y assess
i
ng p
l
ants
g
rowing along the bank o
f
the Waitara
Ri
ver.
Th
ese r
i
vers
id
e p
l
ant
i
ngs are
said to have originally come
f
rom a
P
a
l
merston
N
ort
h
nursery somet
i
me
i
n t
h
e 1950s.
F
e
li
x an
d
Mi
mosa
J
ury selected the best forms and
prov
id
e
d
t
h
em to
D
uncan
&
D
av
i
es
nursery to propagate an
d
mar
k
et
(
Mark and Abbie Jury, pers. comm.
)
.
Thi
s se
l
ect
i
on was or
i
g
i
na
ll
y ca
ll
e
d
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Rata Maid’ by Felix Jury
a
b
ut
i
t was never so
ld
un
d
er t
h
at name.
D
uncan
&
D
av
i
es nursery re
l
ease
d
i
t
as
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Fire Mountain’ in 1988
a
along with several other M. excels
a
cultivars
(
Hutchinson, 1988
)
.
M. excelsa
‘Fir
es
t
o
n
e
’:
a
a
l
ar
g
e
sprawlin
g
form with pointed leaves
and lar
g
e, rounded
ower heads that
are a bright
re-red colour. It was
selected and introduced by Graeme
Pl
att a
b
out 1
983
an
d
so-name
d
because Graeme was collecting
stones
f
or a
re
p
lace that he was
building
f
or his house. The parent tree
w
as grow
i
ng
b
es
id
e t
h
e p
l
ace w
h
ere
h
e co
ll
ecte
d
t
h
e stones on t
h
e s
l
o
p
es
of Mt Moehau in northern
C
oromandel
Peninsula
(
Edwards, 1989; Hobbs,
1992; ARC, 1999
)
. Graeme does not
r
ec
omm
e
n
d
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Firestone’ for
a
g
eneral commercial production as it is
not
a
w
e
ll
s
tr
uc
t
u
r
ed
tr
ee.
M. excelsa
‘Flame Crest’:
a
a
tall
e
rect tree with an oval-sha
p
ed habit
selected for its lar
g
e and showy
oran
g
e-scarlet fl owers. This cultivar
w
as selected by Cyril Watson and
G
eor
g
e Smith from a tree
g
rowin
g
at
Kawaroa Park, New Plymouth. It was
rst released b
y
Duncan & Davies
nurser
y
in 1991
(
Anon., 1991
)
and
mentioned b
y
Hobbs
(
1992
)
. However,
it no lon
g
er appears to be widely
available
.
M
. exce
l
s
a
‘Gold Finger’:
a
a reverse
-
varie
g
ated selection with bri
g
ht
g
old
l
eaves t
h
at
h
ave
g
reen mar
gi
ns,
re
ddi
s
h
stems an
d
d
eep cr
i
mson
owers
(
Hutchinson, 1988; Hobbs,
1992
)
. This cultivar was introduced b
y
D
uncan & Davies nurser
y
in 1986.
16
New Zealand Garden Journal, 2010, Vol. 13(1)
M. ex
c
els
a
‘Gold Nugget’:
a
a varie
g
ated cultivar with fresh
g
reen
l
eaves
b
an
d
e
d
w
i
t
h
a
b
r
igh
t ye
ll
ow
mar
gi
n.
Thi
s cu
l
t
i
var was se
l
ecte
d
by
Ji
m
R
um
b
a
l
an
d
re
l
ease
d
by
D
uncan
&
D
av
i
es nurser
y
i
n 2000.
Note that this is a different cultivar to
M
.
u
m
b
e
ll
at
a
‘Gold Nugget’.
a
M. excelsa
‘H
au
r
a
ki’:
a
a
t
a
ll
e
r
ec
t
tree that
p
roduces red fl owers of
outstandin
g
size, density and colour.
This cultivar was selected b
y
Graeme
Platt from Long Bay Regional Park,
Auckland
(
Edwards, 1991; Hobbs,
1992). It does not appear to be widely
available in the nursery trade
.
M
. excelsa ‘Ko
p
ere’
:
a new selection
with
g
lossy
g
reen folia
g
e and
abundant vibrant oran
g
e-red fl owers.
Graeme Platt fi rst encountered it on
the foreshore at Brook Beach near
Awhitu Re
g
ional Park in 2007 after
b
ein
g
informed about it by Wayne
and Trish As
p
en of Awhitu.
G
raeme
re
g
ar
d
s
i
t as
hi
s most prom
i
s
i
n
g
r
ece
nt
selec
t
i
on.
M
.
e
x
ce
l
sa
Ko
p
ere’
is in the early sta
g
es of production
an
d
not
y
et ava
il
a
bl
e to t
h
e pu
bli
c
.
M. excelsa
‘Lighthouse’:
a
an avera
g
e-s
i
ze
d
tree w
i
t
h
l
ar
g
e
leaves. It is an early-fl owerin
g
se
l
ect
i
on t
h
at
bl
ooms
i
n
N
ovem
b
er
(Edwards, 1990a, 1991; AR
C
, 1999;
M
etcalf, 2000).
G
raeme Platt selected
i
t aroun
d
1983 an
d
g
ave
i
t t
h
e
name
Li
g
hthouse” because it was
sourced from a tree
g
rowin
g
near the
li
g
hthouse at the north-western end
of Ran
g
itoto Island.
G
raeme re
g
ards
it as a well-structured tree with lar
g
e
attractive leaves and well suited to an
avera
g
e-s
i
ze
d
g
ar
d
en
b
ut per
h
aps
lackin
g
the ‘wow factor’ of the best
c
ultivars. It is currently available
(
e.
g
.,
Plantman online catalo
g
ue, 2010
)
.
M. excelsa
‘Manukau’
:
a
p
roduces copious oran
g
e-red fl owers
w
i
t
h
we
ll
-
b
a
l
ance
d
t
i
g
h
t
l
y arrange
d
fl o w
e
r h
eads
th
a
t
a
l
s
o
b
loom in
s
i
de
the canopy of the tree (Edwards,
2000). The original tree is growing
near Manukau City shopping centre
(Fig. 10A–B). Phil Jew (former
Director of Parks, Auckland Re
g
ional
Authority) brou
g
ht this tree to the
attention of
G
raeme Platt who
i
ntro
d
uce
d
propa
g
at
i
on mater
i
a
l
aroun
d
1
990
.
Fi
g
. 10
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
M
a
n
u
k
au
’.
A
, mature ori
g
inal tree
g
rowin
g
near the
M
anukau
C
it
y
shoppin
g
centre. B, close-up
o
f
its
owers. Photos:
J
ack Hobbs.
M. excelsa
M
ao
ri Prin
cess
:
a
an open-branched, upri
g
ht tree with
strikin
g
red fl owers that have a mauve
tone to the fi laments
(
Red
g
rove, 1983;
Metcalf, 1987, 2000; AR
C
, 1999). It
was selected
f
rom a large tree planted
(
perhaps in the 1940s
)
in Brougham
S
treet, New Plymouth (Fig. 11).
Th
e
l
ate
I
an
M
c
D
owe
ll
recogn
i
se
d
its value
f
or wider propagation while
he was emplo
y
ed at the Parks
and Reserves Department o
f
the
N
ew Plymouth
C
ity (later District)
C
ouncil. This cultivar was trialled
amon
g
about 20 selections by
Duncan & Davies nurser
y
in the late
1970s and early 1980s. Named by
the late Trevor Davies
,
M.
e
xcels
a
‘M
a
ori Princess’ was not released on
a commercial scale by their nursery.
Althou
g
h Duncan & Davies probably
did not propa
g
ate additional plants
of it, some of the trial plants ma
y
have been sold to the Auckland
Re
g
ional
C
ouncil. AR
C
considered it
to be a su
p
erior selection as a street
tree because it does not develop
untid
y
aerial roots as some forms
do. This cultivar is available in the
nursery trade (e.
g
.,
G
addum, 2001;
Plant Production online catalo
g
ue,
2
010; Plantlife Propa
g
ators online
catalo
g
ue, 2010; Plantman online
catalo
g
ue, 2010
)
.
Fi
g
. 11
Me
tr
os
i
de
r
os
e
x
ce
l
sa
Ma
o
ri
Princess
. This is the ori
g
inal tree
g
rowin
g
in Brou
g
ham
S
treet, New Pl
y
mouth,
f
rom
which cuttin
g
s were obtained
f
or cultivar
p
roduction. Photo: Rainbow Trees, Auckland.
M. excelsa
‘M
oo
n M
a
i
de
n’
:
a
li
g
ht-
g
rey-
g
reen folia
g
e and sulphur
-
yellow fl owers produced in early
su
mm
e
r. Thi
s
cu
ltiv
a
r i
s
a
se
l
ec
t
ed
and ve
g
etatively propa
g
ated form of
M. excels
a
‘Aurea’ of superior habit
a
a
n
d
fl o w
e
r
c
olo
u
r. It w
as
n
a
m
ed
M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Moon Maiden’ to separate
a
it fr
o
m M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Aurea’ which
a
could potentially vary sli
g
htly from
seed
. M.
e
x
ce
l
sa
‘Moon Maiden’
a
w
as introduced b
y
Duncan & Davies
nurser
y
in 1988
(
Hutchinson, 1988;
Hobbs, 1992
)
and is still available
(
e.
g
., Plantman online catalo
g
ue,
2010
)
.
M. excelsa
‘Mt Maunganui’:
a
th
e or
i
g
i
na
l
tree
i
s grow
i
ng
i
n
Pi
tau
R
oa
d
,
M
ount
M
aunganu
i
,
T
auranga.
Thi
s very
l
arge tree
i
s t
h
e
l
ast
rema
i
n
i
ng pre-
E
uropean p
ö
h
utu
k
awa
on the Mt Maunganui
sand bar’. The
t
ree
i
s 29 m across an
d
12–15 m
t
a
ll
an
d
i
s est
i
mate
d
to
b
e 400–500
years old (
S
teve Webb, pers. comm.).
I
t
h
as
l
oca
l
N
g
ä
i
T
e
R
ang
i
i
w
i
signi
cance and in the early days o
f
co
l
on
i
a
l
sett
l
ement, severa
l
M
ä
o
r
i
skeletons were
f
ound at the base
o
f
the tree. In about 1990, the tree
had a major ‘split out’
f
ailure which
resu
l
te
d
i
n a propp
i
ng system
b
e
i
ng
i
nsta
ll
e
d
to sta
bili
se t
h
e rema
i
n
i
ng
t
ree. In about 1993, the
S
pecimen
T
ree
C
ompany of Auckland obtained
propagat
i
on mater
i
a
l
to ma
i