Article

Lavender and peppermint essential oils as effective mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors: A basic study

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Abstract

Screening and characterization of novel tyrosinase inhibitors is useful for applications in food technology, cosmetics and medicine. The hydrodistilled essential oils from lavender Lavandula spica L. and peppermint Mentha x piperita L. were investigated for tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Their composition was assessed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Both oils inhibited mushroom tyrosinase in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values were estimated, kinetics were analysed and Ki values were determined. Our results indicate that lavender and peppermint essential oils may be promising herbal ingredients for developing depigmenting agents in clinical, cosmetic and industrial processes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... In the fungi, tyrosinase plays a different biological role than in the human body. In plants and fungi, tyrosinase can oxidize a variety of phenolic compounds, leading to the undesirable effect of blackening of fruits and vegetables, causing a degradation both on nutritional quality and on the commercial value of commodities [7]. Because of this, depigmenting agents are highly sought after in agriculture and the food technology industry. ...
... Extrapolating the encouraging result of Fiocco et al 2011 and 2016 [7,8] and knowing that in the human body, tyrosinase is the key enzyme of melanogenesis, the present study attempts to highlight whether this biochemical property (inhibition of tyrosinase by lavender oil) would also have a beneficial impact on melanogenesis. The result could be encouraging and favorable, because after the worldwide avoidance of hydroquinone (due to its significant toxic potential), the other potential natural blockers of tyrosinase have a mediocre clinical effect, requiring continued and stronger, or synergistic use of those highlighted to date. ...
... Other studies explain the tyrosinase inhibitory activity in close connection with the chemical composition of the essential oils [24,25]. Fiocco, D. et al., 2011 which constituted our premise, has not yet advanced any explanation on the relationship between chemical structure and antithyrosinase activity, namely, it does not express which substance in the composition of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil inhibits or blocks tyrosinase [7]. ...
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Finding non-invasive skin depigmenting agentsrepresent an important goal of cosmetic research and industry. It is now admited that Tyrosinase inhibitor substances could be the most efficient molecules in this field because Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in the melanogenesis process. In the pathology of macular skin hyperpigmentations it can mention aesthetic problems such as: melasma gravidarum, pigmentation of aged skin, photosensibilisation, hepatic disfunctions and post-inflammatory residual pigmentation. The aim of the study was to find out if the Lavandula essential oil has depigmenting properties on human skin, having as theoretical premise its tyrosinase-blocking effect, previously reported in literature for some plant species. By using gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer (GC/MS), a pharmaceutical cream preparation, a protocol of exploration on volunteers (including criteria) and a mexameter, we have highlighted the composition of a sample of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LEO) and its depigmenting effect on skin melanic macula. The results highlightes that the main compounds identified were linalool (26.783%), terpinen-4-ol (22.143%) and 3-carene(21.668%), Terpinen-4-ol is represented as the possible active compound in tyrosinase inhibition. Our dermocosmetic assay shows that the depigmenting effect of Lavandula angustifolia oil is effective after 2 months of daily topical treatement, when the melanine average value (measured by the mexameter) decreases more than a third from the innitial value. The study remarks that Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LEO) in daily cutaneous pharmaceutical form application, during two month, reduces the intensity of spot skin melanin, exprimed through mexametric values.
... To the best of our knowledge there are no previous studies on the antityrosinase activity of the 3 Mentha species investigated in the present study. Previous works on Mentha piperita indicate that its essential oil also inhibits the mushroom tyrosinase (IC 50 , 240 g/mL) (Fiocco et al., 2011) and may cause inactivation or inhibition of the insect tyrosinase which results in incomplete cuticle hardening and darkening (El Nagar et al., 2012). Fiocco et al. (2011) concluded that Mentha essential oils are promising herbal ingredients for developing depigmenting agents in clinical, cosmetic and industrial processes; our data indicate that total extracts (polyphenols) may be even more interesting ingredients. ...
... Previous works on Mentha piperita indicate that its essential oil also inhibits the mushroom tyrosinase (IC 50 , 240 g/mL) (Fiocco et al., 2011) and may cause inactivation or inhibition of the insect tyrosinase which results in incomplete cuticle hardening and darkening (El Nagar et al., 2012). Fiocco et al. (2011) concluded that Mentha essential oils are promising herbal ingredients for developing depigmenting agents in clinical, cosmetic and industrial processes; our data indicate that total extracts (polyphenols) may be even more interesting ingredients. ...
... Lavandula species are among the most useful aromatic and medicinal plants with great economic value for perfumery, aromatherapy, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industry, mainly due to the commercial significance of lavender's essential oil (LEO). The essential oil (EO) is isolated from lavender mostly by hydrodistillation [1,[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] or steam distillation [15][16][17] of fresh or dried flowers, even though a few alternative techniques have been also used to accelerate this procedure [18][19][20]. The composition analysis of LEO has been performed in various studies assessing its antifungal [3,4,21], antibacterial [10], antioxidant [4,17,22], insect repellent [7,23,24] activity, as well as its application in the food industry [5]. ...
... In all these studies, chemical analysis has been performed by gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where sampling was applied by liquid injection of the LEO samples. Τhe number of the identified constituents by Liquid-GC-MS in these studies varied between 15 and 65 compounds, depending on the focus of the method which is linked with specific LEO's components [1,[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]21,22,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. ...
Article
A static headspace gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (HS–GC/MS) method was developed and optimized with the aim to be applied in the analysis of lavender essential oil. To obtain a comprehensive profile of the essential oil, the optimum HS–GC/MS method parameters were selected based on a Design of Experiments (DοE) process. Plackett-Burman experimental design was applied by utilizing seven parameters of the HS injection system. Incubation equilibration temperature and time, agitator’s vortex speed, post injection dwell time, inlet temperature, split ratio and injection flow rate were screened to select the optimum conditions on the basis of the number and the intensity of the identified compounds. Other parameters, such as sample volume and dilution solvent ratio, were also examined to achieve a comprehensive profile in a chromatographic run of 55 min. With the obtained optimum method, more than 40 volatile compounds were identified in lavender’s essential oils from different geographical regions in Greece. The method can find utility for the quality assessment of lavender’s essential oil and provide information on its characteristic aroma and discrimination among species based on the acquired GC-MS profiles.
... Moreover, alterations in this biosynthetic step are involved in the development of some histopathological features of malignant metastatic melanoma, thus its inhibition represents a viable target to treat skin cancer [95]. EOs ability to inhibit this enzyme has been reported as competitive, non-competitive or mixed, based on their chemical composition [96]. Due to the complexity of the EO compositions, this activity is most probably attributable to a synergistic interaction of their compounds with the enzyme, rather than to a single component [97,98]. ...
... Due to the complexity of the EO compositions, this activity is most probably attributable to a synergistic interaction of their compounds with the enzyme, rather than to a single component [97,98]. Contrary to published reports [96,99], however, the anti-tyrosinase activity does not seem correlated to the oxygenated monoterpenes fraction in the EOs composition: the two best performing ones in our assay were, indeed, the EOs with the lowest relative abundances of this chemical class of compounds. ...
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In this study, the essential oils (EOs) of six Algerian plants (Artemisia campestris L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Juniperus phoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Mentha pulegium L. and Lavandula officinalis Chaix) were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their compositions determined by GC-MS and GC-FID. The antioxidant activity of the EOS was evaluated via 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assays. Moreover, their cytotoxic effect was evaluated—as well as their tyrosinase, acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE) inhibitory activities. The chemical analyses detected 44, 45, 51, 53, 26 and 40 compounds in EOs of A. campestris, A. herba-alba, J. phoenicea, J. oxycedrus, M. pulegium and L. officinalis, respectively. A. campestris EO was mainly composed of β-pinene (20.7%), while A. herba-alba EO contained davanone D (49.5%) as the main component. α-Pinene (41.8%) was detected as the major constituent in both J. phoenicea (41.8%) and J. oxycedrus (37.8%) EOs. M. pulegium EO was characterized by pulegone as the most abundant (76.9%) compound, while linalool (35.8%) was detected as a major constituent in L. officinalis EO. The antioxidant power evaluation revealed IC50 values ranging from 2.61 to 91.25 mg/mL for DPPH scavenging activity, while the FRAP values ranged from 0.97–8.17 µmol Trolox equivalents (TX)/g sample. In the ABTS assay, the values ranged from 7.01 to 2.40 µmol TX/g sample. In the presence of 1 mg/mL of the samples, tyrosinase inhibition rates ranged from 11.35% to 39.65%, AChE inhibition rates ranged from 40.57% to 73.60% and BuChE inhibition rates ranged from 6.47% to 72.03%. A significant cytotoxic effect was found for A. herba-alba EO. The obtained results support some of the traditional uses of these species in food preservation and for protection against several diseases.
... There have been many reports on phytochemicals and the biological activities of essential oils obtained from both these families in different countries [2,[9][10][11]. However, only a few studies have been conducted on antityrosinase enzyme activity [12,13]. We intend to perform and record the steps involved with providing scientific information on certain regional spices and herbs for further selection of effective raw materials to be used in the food, cosmetics, and medical industries. ...
Article
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Objective: To determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant, antityrosinase and antibacterial activities of essential oils obtained from some Apiaceous and Lamiaceous plants collected in Thailand. Methods: The essential oils of the specified spices and aromatic herbs were obtained by hydro-distillation, and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant assays were based on the scavenging effects of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals as well as the lipid oxidation inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching by linoleic acid. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was evaluated by the dopachrome method. Broth microdilution technique was performed for the purposes of studying microbial growth inhibition against the isolated bacterial strains. Results: The essential oils of Elsholtzia stachyodes, Coleus amboinicus (I) and Trachyspermum ammi presented a high degree of potency in DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The Trachyspermum ammi oil, which mainly contained thymol (49.04%) and p-cymene (22.06%), proved to be the most effective in terms of antibacterial activity. The major compositions of Coleus amboinicus (I) were carvacrol (51.57%), y-terpinene (18.04%) and p-cymene (7.81%); while thymol (43.76%) and y-terpinene (24.61%) were identified as the major components of Elsholtzia stachyodes oil, with p-cymene (6.73%) being identified as a minor constituent. Moreover, Cuminum cyminum oil containing cuminaldehyde (49.07%) and Elsholtzia communis oil composed with geranial (44.74%) and neral (35.27%) as the major components displayed a specific ability for the inhibition of the mushroom tyrosinase enzyme. Conclusions: The results indicated that these bioactive essential oils obtained from indigenous herbs are of significant interest as alternative raw materials in food, cosmetic and medicinal products.
... The reason for the discrepant findings in tyrosinase inhibitory property of 2-methoxycinnamic acid remains to be determined, but may relate to differences in the cell culture conditions, assay methods or compound purities. Moreover, the biological activities of plant extracts and essential oils are related to their bioactive components, which may be affected by seasons, geographical origins, harvest times, agronomic practices, and extraction methods [27]. ...
Article
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Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy.
... However, the extraction methods or plant species mentioned in these studies are different from the present paper. Moreover, the biological activities of plant extracts and essential oils are contributed to their bioactive components which may be affected by seasons, geographical origin, harvest time, agronomic practices and extraction methods (Fiocco et al. 2011). Kojic acid, a fungal secondary metabolic product produced by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, was shown to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (Chen et al. 1991b). ...
Article
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Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for scientific research. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties, however, little information is available regarding the tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical composition and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the CC-EO. cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%) were found to be the two major components of the CC-EO identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The inhibitory activities of CC-EO and its major constituents were further evaluated against mushroom tyrosinase. The results showed that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities with IC50 values of 6.16 ± 0.04 mg/mL and 4.04 ± 0.08 mg/mL, respectively. However, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not show any anti-tyrosinase activity. The inhibition kinetics were analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots and second replots, which revealed that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde were mixed-type inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki) for CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde were calculated to be 4.71 ± 0.09 mg/mL and 2.38 ± 0.09 mg/mL, respectively. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase activities and may be a good source for skin-whitening agents.
... In the conducted studies, Sarker et al. (2012) identified the essential oil compounds of linalool, linalyl acetate, borneol, camphor and 1,8-cineole as major compounds, while Fiocco et al. (2011) determined linalool (44.5%), 1,8 cineole (11.0%), borneol (10.9%), terpinene-4ol (9.8%) and cymene (4.7%) as major compounds. In the studies related to distillation times for different medical and aromatic plants, Zheljazkov et al. (2012a) determined that concentration of essential oil compounds with lower boiling point (α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, l-octen-3-ol, myrcene, α-terpinene, paracymene, β-phellandrene/limonene, αterpinene, cis-sabinene hydrate, terpinolene) was at the highest level in 1.25-2.5 in thyme (Origanum), it increased until the 40th min and then it kept constant, while carvakrol concentration was lowest at the 1.25th min and it continuously increased until 40th min. ...
Article
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The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of nine distillation times (DT 5, 10, ,20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 180 and 240 min) and 11 distillation fractions (DF 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 min) on essential oil content and composition of lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia var. Super A). Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation method. Composition of essential oil was identified with GC/MS. Lavandin essential oil content increased with length of the DT and reached maximum at 180 min (2.00%) DT. Fifty per cent of the total essential oil was obtained at the initial DT (5 min). Linalool, linalyl acetate, borneol, 1,8 cineole and camphor were determined as the main components in lavandin essential oils. The concentration of bomeol and 1,8 cineole (2.00 and 4.8%, respectively), linalool (53.50%), camphor (2.00%) and linalyl acetate (41.50%) was high at the 0-5, 5-10, 15-20 and 30-35 min, respectively, and decreased with increasing DT. In these distillation fractions, the highest essential oil content of lavandin ranged from 1.05, 0.41, 0.21 and 0.067%, respectively. As a result, distillation time may be shortened to obtain high linalool and linalyl acetate content. Also, the essential oil which is produced in early minutes, having camphor at high contents is removed and the oil produced after 20th min having camphor at lower contents is used especially in perfumery.
... 이러한 기능성 성분을 함유한 페퍼민 트는 차 형태로 추출해도 항산화, 항알레르기, 항염증 등의 생리활성 효 과가 있었다 (McKay & Blumberg, 2006). 또한 페퍼민트잎을 수증기 증 류하여 얻어낸 에센셜오일은 여드름 피부에도 비교적 안전하게 사용할 수 있고 (Lee & Son, 2018), tyrosinase 저해 활성 역시 67%의 높은 저 해 활성을 보여 미백 기능성도 확인되었다 (Fiocco et al., 2011 ...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to determine the optimal mixing ratio of mulberry and peppermint leaves and evaluates their biological activities to identify whether the estimated ratio is suitable for use in inner beauty and cosmetic ingredients.Methods: Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, and tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities were measured to optimize the mixing ratio of mulberry and peppermint leaves.Results: The mixture of mulberry and peppermint leaves showed a total polyphenol content of up to 46.58 mg TAE/g, a total flavonoid content of up to 45.54 mg QE/g, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of up to 74.18% and 40.60%, respectively. Tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities were up to 67.46% and 35.01%, respectively. In the interest section, the maximum antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.49:0.75 (g:g). In the experimental section, the maximum antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.79:0.80 (g:g). Further, the maximum antioxidant and elastase inhibitory activities were obtained at a mulberry:pepperint mixing ratio of 1.11:0.75 (g:g).Conclusion: This study determined the superiority of the antioxidant activity, tyrosinase and elastase activity inhibition efficacies, and optimal mixing ratios of mulberry and peppermint leaves. Based on our findings, we believe that mulberry and peppermint leaves at an optimal mixing ratio will have considerable use as inner beauty and cosmetic ingredients.
... Galantamine was selected as a reference inhibitor and was tested in the range of 7-170 µg/mL under the same operative conditions. The inhibition of tyrosinase was evaluated according to Fiocco et al. with minor changes [71]. The reaction solution was prepared by mixing 250 µL of tyrosine 1.66 mM, 700 µL of PBS (20 mM, pH 6.8), and 200 µL of inhibitor solution (or PBS in the case of the enzymatic control) in a 1 mL cuvette. ...
Article
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The main focus of the current research was the characterization of the by-products from the steam distillation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (LA) and Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel (LI) aerial parts, as they are important sources of bioactive compounds suitable for several applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. The oil-exhausted biomasses were extracted and the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were, respectively, 19.22 ± 4.16 and 1.56 ± 0.21 mg/g for LA extract and 17.06 ± 3.31 and 1.41 ± 0.10 mg/g for LI extract. The qualitative analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) revealed that both the extracts were rich in phenolic acids and glycosylated flavonoids. The extracts exhibited radical scavenging, chelating, reducing activities, and inhibitory capacities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. The IC50 values against acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase were, respectively, 5.35 ± 0.47 and 5.26 ± 0.02 mg/mL for LA, and 6.67 ± 0.12 and 6.56 ± 0.16 mg/mL for LI extracts. In conclusion, the oil-exhausted biomasses demonstrated to represent important sources of bioactive compounds, suitable for several applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.
... It is generally believed that there are four main methods for inhibiting tyrosinase activity: (1) affecting the chelating activity of copper at the active site of the enzyme, thereby preventing the binding of copper ions to oxygen, leading to the irreversible deactivation of tyrosinase [37,38]; (2) the introduction of a powerful antioxidant, thereby preventing the activation of oxygen by tyrosinase [39,40]; (3) the use of a free radical scavenging agent to prevent the formation of melanins [41]; and (4) the use of competitive inhibitors. Compounds with high antioxidant and radical scavenging activities could inhibit tyrosinase [42]. ...
Article
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Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl. is a plant belonging to the Taxaceae family and Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii is the only grafted and thoroughbred species belonging to this species. In this study, we extracted five different seed oils, including T. grandis seed oil (TGSO), T. grandis “Xiangyafei” seed oil (XYSO), T. grandis “Zhimafei” seed oil (ZMSO), T. grandis “Majus”seed oil (TGMSO), and T. grandis “cunguangfei” seed oil (CGSO) using physical pressure. The resulting extracts were analyzed to determine their fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, and inhibitory activity towards tyrosinase. The results of the antioxidant activity assays revealed that XYSO and ZMSO exhibited much greater DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power than TGSO. Notably, all five of the seed oils showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity towards tyrosinase. XYSO and TGSO gave the highest activities of all of the seed oils tested in the current study against monophenolase and diphenolase, with IC 50 values of 227.0 and 817.5 μ g/mL, respectively. The results of this study show that wild TGSOs exhibit strong antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. These results therefore suggest that wild TGSOs could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant agents and tyrosinase inhibitors.
... It is noteworthy that individual terpenoid compounds differ in potency to inhibit BChE and AChE (Orhan et al., 2008). Peppermint EO also exhibited tyrosinase inhibition, enzyme responsible for undesirable browning of fruits and vegetables (Fiocco et al., 2011). ...
Article
Peppermint is widely used medicinal plant with distinguished bioactive potential, therefore, the aim of present work was to develop novel peppermint extracts with high activity by application of traditional and emerging separation techniques. Conventional hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) were applied for recovery of essential oil (EO), while organic solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus, microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted process and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were applied for non-selective recovery of peppermint lipophilic extracts. Extracts were characterized in terms of terpenoids profile with special emphasis on content of major compounds (mentol, menthone, isomenthol and eucalyptol). Antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, chelating and phosphomolybdenum assay) and enzyme-inhibitory assays (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase and glucosidase inhibition) were used for screening of peppermint bioactivity. MWHD was recognized as alternative for traditional process in EO recovery, while SFE extracts were useful for green production of solvent-free peppermint extracts rich in terpenoids and other lipophilic bioactives.
... However, essential oils are very complex mixtures, and it is difficult to define whether their activity is based on the complex composition and potentially synergistic effect(s) of individual compounds present in each sample. Therefore, it has been suggested that the inhibitory activity of such complex mixtures cannot be easily explained by a few major compounds [69,70]. It was already pointed in the Introduction section that species of the genus Mentha are very morphologically diverse. ...
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Mentha species are widely used as food, medicine, spices, and flavoring agents. Thus, chemical composition is an important parameter for assessing the quality of mints. In general, the contents of menthol, menthone, eucalyptol, and limonene comprise one of the major parameters for assessing the quality of commercially important mints. Building further on the phytochemical characterization of the quality of Mentha species, this work was focused on the composition of phenolic compounds in methanolic extracts. Thirteen Mentha species were grown under the same environmental conditions, and their methanolic extracts were subjected to the LC–MS/MS (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry) profiling of phenolics and the testing their biological activities, i.e., antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities, which are important features for the cosmetic industry. The total phenolic content (TPC) ranged from 14.81 ± 1.09 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g for Mentha cervina to 58.93. ± 8.39 mg GAE/g for Mentha suaveolens. The antioxidant activity of examined Mentha related with the content of the phenolic compounds and ranged from 22.79 ± 1.85 to 106.04 ± 3.26 mg TE (Trolox equivalents)/g for M. cervina and Mentha x villosa, respectively. Additionally, Mentha pulegium (123.89 ± 5.64 mg KAE (kojic acid equivalents)/g) and Mentha x piperita (102.82 ± 15.16 mg KAE/g) showed a strong inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is related to skin hyperpigmentation. The most abundant compound in all samples was rosmarinic acid, ranging from 1363.38 ± 8323 to 2557.08 ± 64.21 μg/g. In general, the levels of phenolic acids in all examined mint extracts did not significantly differ. On the contrary, the levels of flavonoids varied within the species, especially in the case of hesperidin (from 0.73 ± 0.02 to 109. 39 ± 2.01 μg/g), luteolin (from 1.84 ± 0.11 to 31.03 ± 0.16 μg/g), and kaempferol (from 1.30 ± 0.17 to 33.68 ± 0.81 μg/g). Overall results indicated that all examined mints possess significant amounts of phenolic compounds that are responsible for antioxidant activity and, to some extent, for tyrosinase inhibition activity. Phenolics also proved to be adequate compounds, together with terpenoids, for the characterization of Mentha sp. Additionally, citrus-scented Mentha x villosa could be selected as a good candidate for the food and pharmaceutical industry, especially due its chemical composition and easy cultivation, even in winter continental conditions.
... Its aqueous extract showed 82.2% inhibition of the mushroom tyrosinase. The plant essential oil was also previously reported to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase 31 . ...
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In Jordanian folkloric medicine, several medicinal plants–based recipes are used for skin lightening. Local recipes for skin lightening were collected and the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the plants reported in these recipes, as a potential depigmentation mechanism was evaluated in vitro on both, mushroom and murine melanoma tyrosinase. The surveyed recipes included a total of 25 traditional medicinal plants belonging to 19 families. Kojic acid and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract were used as positive controls. Thirteen extracts exhibited good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory potential (>70%), and 7 extracts showed moderate tyrosinase inhibition activity (30-70%) while 5 extracts showed poor mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity (<30%). Four of the tested extracts; Juniperus communis L. (Juniper), Rosa indica L. (Rose), Amygdalus communis var. amara L. (Bitter almond), and Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) showed good inhibitory activity (>70%) against both, mushroom and melanoma tyrosinase enzymes that was similar or better than that of kojic acid. While, 6 tested extracts, obtained from Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Juniperus communis L. (juniper), Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. (parsely), Salvia triloba L. (sage), Viola odorata L. (garden violet), and Mentha piperita L. (mint), showed almost similar mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity as licorice extract (73.4%). Tyrosinase inhibitory activities observed in many of the tested plant extracts validate their traditional use.
... In contrast, the Ro EO from Yemeni was practically inactive, at only 3.3% inhibition at 0.10 mg/mL [52]. According to several authors [53][54][55] the La EO presented an important dose-dependent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. ...
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Interest in the use of essential oils (EOs) in the biomedical and food industries have seen growing over the last decades due to their richness in bioactive compounds. The challenges in developing an EO extraction process that assure an efficient levels of monoterpenes with impact on biological activities have driven the present study, in which the EO extraction process of rosemary, lavender and citrus was performed by simultaneous hydrodistillation-steam distillation, and the influence of EO composition on biological activities, namely antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activity, were evaluated. The EO yields of combinations were generally higher than the individual plants (R. officinalis (Ro), L. angustifolia (La), and C. aurantium (Ca)) extracted by the conventional hydrodistillation. The EOs obtained by this process generally had a better capacity for scavenging the free radicals, inhibiting α-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase activities than the individual EOs. The combination of EOs did not improve the ability for scavenging peroxide hydrogen or the capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase activity. The antioxidant activity or the enzyme inhibition activity could not only be attributed to their major compounds because they presented lower activities than the EOs. The chemical composition of the combination Ro:La:Ca, at the ratio 1/6:1/6:2/3, was enriched in 1,8-cine-ole, linalool, and linalyl acetate and resulted in lower MIC values for all tested strains in comparison with the ratio 1/6:2/3:1/6 that was deprived on those components. The biofilm formation of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was impaired by the combination Ro:La:Ca at a sub-inhibitory concentration.
... Essential oils of different species of genus Lavandula have been reported to contain linalool, linalyl acetate, 1,8-cineol, camphor, fenchol, fenchone, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, bpinene , phenylacetaldehyde, a-phellandrene and b-phellandrene as major constituents (Iriti et al. 2006; Fiocco et al. 2011; Bousmaha et al. 2006; Ristorcelli et al. 1998; Figueiredo et al. 1995). The composition of L. gibsoni essential oil is thus found to be significantly different from that of other Lavandula species. ...
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Essential oils and acetone extracts from Lavandula gibsoni and Plectranthus mollis, family Lamiaceae, were investigated for their mosquito larvicidal activity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. LC50 values against these three species were 48.3, 62.8 and 54.7 mg/L for L. gibsoni essential oil and 118.5, 137.2 and 128.1 mg/L, respectively, for its acetone extract, while LC50 values for P. mollis essential oil were 25.4, 33.5 and 29.5 mg/L and 195.0, 213.8 and 209.0 mg/L, respectively, for its acetone extract. Repellence of the essential oils was assessed against A. aegypti adults. L. gibsoni essential oil provided 100 % protection for more than 7 h at a concentration of 2.0 mg/cm2. Under the same conditions, the standard repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, at 0.25 mg/cm2, provided 100 % protection for more than 8 h, while P. mollis essential oil was only weakly repellent. The major components from both essential oils were identified based on GC–MS analysis and linear retention indices. Our results demonstrated promising larvicidal activities of both essential oils against these mosquito species. L. gibsoni essential oil also showed promising repellent activity.
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Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils.
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Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes.
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Tyrosinase is a multifunctional, glycosylated, and copper-containing oxidase, which catalyzes the first two steps in mammalian melanogenesis and is responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Neither hyperpigmentation in human skin nor enzymatic browning in fruits are desirable. These phenomena have encouraged researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods and cosmetics. This article surveys tyrosinase inhibitors newly discovered from natural and synthetic sources. The inhibitory strength is compared with that of a standard inhibitor, kojic acid, and their inhibitory mechanisms are discussed.
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Many modalities of treatment for acquired skin hyperpigmentation are available including chemical agents or physical therapies, but none are completely satisfactory. Depigmenting compounds should act selectively on hyperactivated melanocytes, without short- or long-term side-effects, and induce a permanent removal of undesired pigment. Since 1961 hydroquinone, a tyrosinase inhibitor, has been introduced and its therapeutic efficacy demonstrated, and other whitening agents specifically acting on tyrosinase by different mechanisms have been proposed. Compounds with depigmenting activity are now numerous and the classification of molecules, based on their mechanism of action, has become difficult. Systematic studies to assess both the efficacy and the safety of such molecules are necessary. Moreover, the evidence that bleaching compounds are fairly ineffective on dermal accumulation of melanin has prompted investigations on the effectiveness of physical therapies, such as lasers. This review which describes the different approaches to obtain depigmentation, suggests a classification of whitening molecules on the basis of the mechanism by which they interfere with melanogenesis, and confirms the necessity to apply standardized protocols to evaluate depigmenting treatments.
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The inhibition mode of kojic acid on mushroom, potato, apple, white shrimp, and spiny lobster polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was investigated. Using a polarographic method, kojic acid was shown to inhibit melanosis by interfering with the uptake of O2 required for enzymatic browning. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods demonstrated that kojic acid was capable of reducing omicron-quinones to diphenols to prevent the final pigment (melanin) forming. The preincubation temperature did not significantly affect (P < 0.05) PPO inhibition by kojic acid.
Chapter
Cutaneous PigmentationFixed Drug EruptionDiscoloration of Skin Caused by Metals and Drugs
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In the last few years more and more studies on the biological properties of essential oils have been published and it seemed worthwhile to compile the studies of 2009, 2008 and the second part of 2007. Such an overview covering the scientific literature mainly from 2000 onwards, up to the first half of the year 2007, has been published recently. The focus of this overview lies on the anti-nociceptive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, penetration-enhancing, insect repellent, antiviral and antioxidative properties of essential oils. Many essential oils have been used for centuries in folk medicine and in recent years the biological properties of various essential oils have been proved by a number of studies. Their use in the treatment of pain, inflammation, viral diseases and cancer and their potential to enhance the penetration of other drugs, their insect repellent activity and their antioxidative effects were confirmed. Nonetheless, more studies are necessary to analyse the biological properties of other essential oils or to prove their mechanism of action. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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A retrospective study was conducted in six Hispanic women, 35–55 years of age, with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI, presenting to an academic dermatology clinic for resistant melasma (Table 1). They had all been treated with topical hydroquinone (2–4%) without success prior to being seen in our clinic. A Wood's lamp was used to determine whether the melasma was epidermal, dermal, or a combination of the two. The patients were treated with a mixture containing 0.05% tretinoin cream, 0.05% triamcinolone acetonide cream, 6% hydroquinone, and 0.1% ascorbic acid (as a preservative) applied at night, and a sun protection factor (SPF) 15 UVB-blocking sunscreen was applied each morning. They were instructed to use the mixture on the affected areas nightly for a period of 8 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated at baseline and monthly during the treatment period. Improvement in pigmentation was assessed at each subsequent visit by clinical examination and photography with polarized filters as well as black and white UV reflectance photography (Canfield Scientific, Inc.). Improvement was determined subjectively on a three-point scale as follows: I, mild improvement; II, moderate improvement; III, significant improvement.
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This study aimed to evaluate the inhibition properties of six lavender species, including Lavendula angustifolia, Lavandula angustifolia “Vera”, Lavendula X allardii, Lavendula stoechas, Lavendula viridis and Lavendula X heterophylla, toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-Dopa) as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the water extracts of leaves and stems from L. stoechas and L. angustifolia “Vera” showed strong inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase (70% and 66.4% inhibition, respectively). Oven-drying the leaves and stems or free-drying the water extracts significantly decreased the inhibitory abilities of the water extracts from all lavender species. The water extract from L. stoechas decreased the Vmax values when using l-Dopa, catechol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA) as the substrates. It increased the value of Km when l-Dopa and catechol were the substrates but it decreased the Km when DHPAA was used. It behaved as a mixed-type inhibitor toward mushroom tyrosinase.
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Half of the world's fruit and vegetable crops is lost due to postharvest deteriorative reactions. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), found in most fruit and vegetables, is responsible for enzymatic browning of fresh horticultural products, following bruising, cutting or other damage to the cell. Chemical methods for controlling enzymatic browning include the use of sodium bisulfite, ascorbic acid and/or packaging under controlled atmospheres. Current approaches to understanding and controlling enzymatic browning are presented in this review article, with special focus on the use of antisense RNA as a control method.
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Hydroquinone and other cutaneous depigmenting agents are widely used by dermatologists to treat pigmentary disorders. On 29 August 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a monograph in the US Federal Register proposing to ban all hydroquinone products that have not been approved via a New Drug Application process. Reports in the scientific literature on the occurrence of exogenous ochronosis, in relation to the use of hydroquinone, was one of the concerns expressed by the FDA in relation to this agent. However, a review of the English-language scientific literature reveals that most of the reported cases of hydroquinone-induced exogenous ochronosis occurs in Africa, where the cultural practice of skin bleaching is highly prevalent. Skin bleaching is the practice of applying hydroquinone and/or other depigmenting agents to specific or widespread areas of the body, the primary function being to lighten normally dark skin. This practice typically occurs in men and women with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI. It is a dangerous practice associated with a diverse range of side-effects, including mercury poisoning. Thus, this current discussion within the dermatological community on the safety of hydroquinone provides a unique opportunity to raise awareness about skin bleaching.
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This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as the substrate.The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny L-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay(IC50 = 15.3 and 82.2 microg mL)1 respectively).These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of L-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition,respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC50 = 102.8 and 192.6 microg mL)1 respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions.
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Arbutin, a naturally occurring beta-D-glucopyranoside of hydroquinone, is effective in the topical treatment of various cutaneous hyperpigmentations characterized by hyperactive melanocyte function. We examined the mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte cultures. Arbutin inhibited the tyrosinase activity of cultured human melanocytes at noncytotoxic concentrations. It did not affect the expression of tyrosinase mRNA. Melanin production was inhibited significantly by arbutin, as determined by measuring eumelanin radicals with an electron spin resonance spectrometer. The study of the kinetics and mechanism for inhibition of tyrosinase confirms the reversibility of arbutin as a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme. The utilization of L-tyrosine or L-dopa as the substrate suggests a mechanism involving competition with arbutin for the L-tyrosine binding site at the active site of tyrosinase. These results suggest that the depigmenting mechanism of arbutin in humans involves inhibition of melanosomal tyrosinase activity, rather than suppression of the expression and synthesis of tyrosinase.
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Melanin is an irregular light-absorbing polymer containing indoles and other intermediate products derived from the oxidation of tyrosine. Melanin is widely dispersed in the animal and plant kingdoms. It is the major pigment present in the surface structures of vertebrates. The critical step in melanin biogenesis is the oxidation of tyrosine by the enzyme tyrosinase. In vertebrates this enzyme is active only in specialized organelles in retinal pigment epithelium and melanocytes. In mammals melanin is formed as intracellular granules. Melanin granules are transferred from melanocytes to epithelial cells and form the predominant pigment of hair and epidermis. Melanin has many biological functions. Reactive quinone intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway exhibit antibiotic properties and the polymer is an important strengthening element of plant cell walls and insect cuticle. Light absorption by melanin has several biological functions, including photoreceptor shielding, thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage and display. Melanin is a powerful cation chelator and may act as a free radical sink. Melanin is used commercially as a component of photoprotective creams, although mainly for its free radical scavenging rather than its light absorption properties. The pigment is also a potential target for anti-melanoma therapy.
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In this study, we present evidence that cotreatment of aloesin and arbutin inhibits tyrosinase activity in a synergistic manner by acting through a different action mechanism. Aloesin or arbutin similarly inhibited enzyme activity of human- and mushroom-tyrosinases with an IC50 value of 0.1 or 0.04 mM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the enzyme kinetics data showed that aloesin inhibited tyrosinase activity noncompetitively with a Ki value of 5.3 mM, whereas arbutin did it competitively (Maeda, 1996). We then examined whether cotreatment of these agents inhibits the tyrosinase activity in a synergistic manner. The results showed that 0.01 mM aloesin in the presence of 0.03 mM arbutin inhibited activity of mushroom by 80% of the control value and the reverse was also true. The inhibitory effects were calculated to be synergistic according to the Bürgi method. Taken together, we suggest that aloesin along with arbutin inhibits in synergy melanin production by combined mechanisms of noncompetitive and competitive inhibitions of tyrosinase activity.
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Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, or immune-stimulating properties that may be useful adjuncts in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified. Several of these phytochemicals either inhibit nitrosation or the formation of DNA adducts or stimulate the activity of protective enzymes such as the Phase II enzyme glutathione transferase (EC 2.5.1.18). Research has centered around the biochemical activity of the Allium sp. and the Labiatae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae families, as well as flaxseed, licorice root, and green tea. Many of these herbs contain potent antioxidant compounds that provide significant protection against chronic diseases. These compounds may protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, inhibit lipid peroxidation, or have antiviral or antitumor activity. The volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices, and herbal teas inhibit mevalonate synthesis and thereby suppress cholesterol synthesis and tumor growth.
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Essential oils distilled from members of the genus Lavandula have been used both cosmetically and therapeutically for centuries with the most commonly used species being L. angustifolia, L. latifolia, L. stoechas and L. x intermedia. Although there is considerable anecdotal information about the biological activity of these oils much of this has not been substantiated by scientific or clinical evidence. Among the claims made for lavender oil are that is it antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxing), sedative, antidepressive and effective for burns and insect bites. In this review we detail the current state of knowledge about the effect of lavender oils on psychological and physiological parameters and its use as an antimicrobial agent. Although the data are still inconclusive and often controversial, there does seem to be both scientific and clinical data that support the traditional uses of lavender. However, methodological and oil identification problems have severely hampered the evaluation of the therapeutic significance of much of the research on Lavandula spp. These issues need to be resolved before we have a true picture of the biological activities of lavender essential oil.
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Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major environmental factor that dramatically alters the homeostasis of the skin as an organ by affecting the survival, proliferation and differentiation of various cutaneous cell types. The effects of UV on the skin include direct damage to DNA, apoptosis, growth arrest, and stimulation of melanogenesis. Long-term effects of UV include photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. Epidermal melanocytes synthesize two main types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Melanin, particularly eumelanin, represents the major photoprotective mechanism in the skin. Melanin limits the extent of UV penetration through the epidermal layers, and scavenges reactive oxygen radicals that may lead to oxidative DNA damage. The extent of UV-induced DNA damage and the incidence of skin cancer are inversely correlated with total melanin content of the skin. Given the importance of the melanocyte in guarding against the adverse effects of UV and the fact that the melanocyte has a low self-renewal capacity, it is critical to maintain its survival and genomic integrity in order to prevent malignant transformation to melanoma, the most fatal form of skin cancer. Melanocyte transformation to melanoma involves the activation of certain oncogenes and the inactivation of specific tumor suppressor genes. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the role of melanin and the melanocyte in photoprotection, the responses of melanocytes to UV, the signaling pathways that mediate the biological effects of UV on melanocytes, and the most common genetic alterations that lead to melanoma.
Article
In vitro studies have demonstrated antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus at levels between 0.2 and 10 microl ml(-1). Gram-negative organisms are slightly less susceptible than gram-positive bacteria. A number of EO components has been identified as effective antibacterials, e.g. carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, perillaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, having minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05-5 microl ml(-1) in vitro. A higher concentration is needed to achieve the same effect in foods. Studies with fresh meat, meat products, fish, milk, dairy products, vegetables, fruit and cooked rice have shown that the concentration needed to achieve a significant antibacterial effect is around 0.5-20 microl g(-1) in foods and about 0.1-10 microl ml(-1) in solutions for washing fruit and vegetables. EOs comprise a large number of components and it is likely that their mode of action involves several targets in the bacterial cell. The hydrophobicity of EOs enables them to partition in the lipids of the cell membrane and mitochondria, rendering them permeable and leading to leakage of cell contents. Physical conditions that improve the action of EOs are low pH, low temperature and low oxygen levels. Synergism has been observed between carvacrol and its precursor p-cymene and between cinnamaldehyde and eugenol. Synergy between EO components and mild preservation methods has also been observed. Some EO components are legally registered flavourings in the EU and the USA. Undesirable organoleptic effects can be limited by careful selection of EOs according to the type of food.
Article
Thirteen kinds of citrus essential oils and their volatile flavor constituents were investigated for tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Eureka lemon, Lisbon lemon, Keraji, and Kiyookadaidai significantly inhibited the oxidation of L-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA) by mushroom tyrosinase. Citral and myrcene among volatile flavor constituents of citrus essential oils exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activities with Ki values of 0.318 and 2.38 mM, respectively. The inhibition kinetics analyzed by a Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that citral is a noncompetitive inhibitor and myrcene is a competitive inhibitor. These results indicated that citral and myrcene are responsible for the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of citrus essential oils.
Article
Essential oils from the stems/leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern Sardinia (Italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. The major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in L and 66.20% in F, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in L and F, respectively). F essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased from the beginning to the end of the flowering stage, whereas L yields remained constant during the year. The nine main compounds derived from two different subpathways, A and B. The compounds that belong to the same subpathway showed a similar behavior during the year. The essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity using the paper disk diffusion method. The essential oils tested were effective on the inactivation of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum and less effective against Aspergillus flavus. Among the single compounds tested, fenchone, limonene, and myrtenal appeared to be the more effective on the inhibition of R. solani growth.
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