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Flat bread: Ingredients and fortification

  • Al-Balqa Applied University

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Flat bread is simple bread made from flattened dough of flour, water, salt, yeast and other optional ingredients. The manufacture of flat bread necessitates special characteristics in flour and dough. Additional (optional) ingredients may be used for processing aids which are essential in particular in the bread-making process, in improving the quality and for fortification of bread to have more nutritive value. Milk, eggs, other cereals, legumes, dates or date syrup, dried fruits, leafy vegetables, cassava, green banana, flaxseed flour, sesame, black seeds, species, meat, and dried or fresh herbs might be added to the formula of the bread. In addition to protein, vitamins and minerals, fibres are the most commonly used nutrients for fortifying flat breads. More development of flat bread products is essential.
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Flat bread: ingredients and fortification
Hanee M. Al-Dmoor
Department of Nutrition and Food Processing, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, Jordan
flat bread; flour; fortification; ingredients;
Hanee M. Al-Dmoor, Department of
Nutrition and Food Processing, Faculty of
Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied
University, Al-Salt, Jordan. Tel:
+962 77746 1218; Fax: +962553530469
Received 21 May 2011; Revised 27 June
2011; Accepted 26 July 2011
doi: 10.1111/j.1757-837X.2011.00121.x
Flat bread is simple bread made from flattened dough of flour, water, salt, yeast and
other optional ingredients. The manufacture of flat bread necessitates special char-
acteristics in flour and dough. Additional (optional) ingredients may be used for
processing aids which are essential in particular in the bread-making process, in
improving the quality and for fortification of bread to have more nutritive value.
Milk, eggs, other cereals, legumes, dates or date syrup, dried fruits, leafy vegetables,
cassava, green banana, flaxseed flour, sesame, black seeds, species, meat, and dried
or fresh herbs might be added to the formula of the bread. In addition to protein,
vitamins and minerals, fibres are the most commonly used nutrients for fortifying
flat breads. More development of flat bread products is essential.
Al-Dmoor HM (2012). Flat bread: ingredients and fortification. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods,4, 2–8.
Flat bread is as old as civilization. It is eaten with almost
every meal in the Middle East, North Africa and Central
Asia. Flat breads are often served freshly baked and produced
in both the home and bakeries. The consumption of flat
bread is increasing throughout the world; both from tradi-
tional production and commercial mechanical bread pro-
duction of Middle East breads. At the home level, dough is
mixed, allowed to undergo bulk fermentation, divided and
rounded by hand, and rested on a flat surface, then shaped
using hand and fingers. The flattened dough pieces are then
placed on wooden boards for the final proofing stage. The
dough is then placed in the oven for baking until it develops
the appropriate crust colour to be removed with a peel.
Semi-automated and fully automatic production systems are
applicable to producing flat bread.
Production of Middle East flat bread requires the selection
on many criteria in the flour which affect both quality and
shelf life; these include water absorption, protein or gluten
quality, baking conditions, gelatinization of starch, and mois-
ture content. A correct balance of visco-elastic properties is
important during the sheeting and moulding steps of flat
bread. The production steps include the mixing of flour, yeast
and salt with water to get the optimum development of the
dough which can be recognized when the dough appearance
changes from being dull and rough to smooth and silky. The
dough matures, and the gluten is developed by the biological
action of the fermentation through gas production which
helps the condition of the dough and brings about its mel-
lowing. The dough is turned and punched a number of times
during this step in order to expose the yeast to new food
sources. The dough mass is divided into pieces of desired
weight. The dough pieces are shaped in rounded pieces,
rested after the mechanical stress, and sheeted to desired
shape and thickness. The sheets are rested at room tempera-
ture on wooden boards or on the conveyer belts. The baking
of flat bread is carried out at high-temperature ovens and for
a short time. The baking time and temperature vary accord-
ing to the thickness of the sheeted dough. Mechanical ovens
are getting more and more popular; they operate at 350–
500 °C for 20–45 s then the flat bread is cooled and packaged.
Middle East flat breads are typically round in shape; bread
diameters range from 120 mm to 650 mm (5–25 in), while
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 2012, 4, 2–8
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd2
their thickness ranges from thin to thick (30 mm, 1 in);
the crust is very thin and light with brown or dark spots. The
proportion of crumb is small with a coarse structure and
intense with a low specific volume. Flat breads have higher
crust to crumb ratio than pan breads. In addition to the
previously described quality factors, there are other factors
such as proper pocket formation, easy separation of top and
bottom layers, white creamy colour of bread crumb (unless
baking wholemeal), fine uniform cell structure, and easy
tearing; this evaluation should be related to the ‘mouth feel’
of the bread which should be chewy without being tough.
Middle East flat bread also divides into leavened and
unleavened bread. Leavened products include pita or Middle
East bread, kmaj, tannouri, barbari, mashrouh as in
(Figure 1) and lavash. Unleavened products include tradi-
tional tortillas, chapatti, paratha, shrak and lizzagi. Flat
breads may be classified into two major groups: single
layered flat bread and double layered flat bread. The most
important processing difference between the two types of
flat bread is the proofing stage is very short, that is, less than
2 min for single layered flat bread; and pocket formation is
prevented by either a long baking time at lower temperature
and by punching the sheeted dough before baking. In the
twice layered flat bread, the final proofing period might
exceed 20 min, during this time the sheeted dough is aerated
and its surface is dried out which results in skin formation
and the subsequent puffing and formation of a double
layered product (Amr, 1988; Qarooni et al., 1989, 1992).
Pocket formation is important for quality evaluation of
twice layer bread, for example, kmaj bread as in (Figure 2)
(Amr, 1988). The most names of flat bread consumed in
Arab and Middle Eastern countries are shown in (Table 1).
Ingredients of flat bread
The four basic ingredients of flat bread are flour, water, salt
and yeast. The flour comes from various types of cereal
grains, especially wheat (Qarooni et al., 1989). In general,
flours with extraction rates of 78% to 80% are preferred for
the production of nearly all types of flat bread (Qarooni
et al., 1989).
Water is added according to the protein of flour and the
variety of wheat. Most of flat bread flours have lower levels of
water absorption and this makes them suitable for mechani-
Figure 1 Al-Mashrouh flat bread.
Figure 2 Thin kmaj flat bread.
Table 1 Some of Middle East’s flat bread names
Country Name of bread
Jordan mashrouh, tannouri, taboun, thick kmaj,thin kmaj,
baladi, markook, armani, lizzagi or saaj, shrak
Egypt shamy, baladi, eish baladi, bakoom, battawi
(mashtouh), shamsey, feno
Lebanon khubz, middle east, baladi, markouk, tannour,
Syria muraqqad, kubz or kmaj, tannouri, taboun, armani,
Gulf countries tannouri, middle east, rogag (saaj), mafrood
(middle east), burr, tannouri, tammees, korsan.
Iraq lebanese, kubbz (tannouri), khubz, saaj, sammoun
Iran naan-e sangak, naan-e barbari, taftoon, lavash,
Turkey pide, borek, tannouri
African countries chapati, injera, shamsi, kisra
Asian countries chapati, roti, naan
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 2012, 4, 2–8 Al-Dmoor H.M. Flat bread
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 3
cal production. Yeast is the most commonly used leavening
agent used for bread production especially in Middle East
flat bread. Salt is needed for flavor and increasing gas reten-
tion (Amr, 1988; Qarooni et al., 1989, 1992).
Additional ingredients
Additional ingredients may be used for adding new flavours,
improving the quality,increasing the nutritive value of bread
and as processing aids which assist the bread-making process.
Sugar or honey
Sugar or honey may be added for improving the quality of
flat bread in small amount. Sugar or honey provides a little
more food for the yeast and will make the bread brown faster
through caramelization and also gives more sweetness to the
Milk is often added to impart attractive sensory properties.
Olive oil
Olive oil is the most traditional oil used in Mediterranean and
Middle Eastern cooking. It is a source of oleic and linoleic
acids. Oleic acid is monounsaturated and makes up approxi-
mately 55–85% of olive oil while linoleic is polyunsaturated
and makes up about 9%. Mediterranean diet, which includes
olive oil, is not only generally healthy, but that consuming
olive oil can actually help lower harmful low density lipopro-
tein (LDL) cholesterol. Olive oil contains antioxidants that
discourage artery clogging and chronic diseases. Polyunsatu-
rated fatty acids lower both LDL and high density lipoprotein
(HDL) levels in the blood, but they do not affect their ratio.
Monounsaturated fatty acids on the other hand control LDL
levels while raising HDL levels. No other naturally produced
oil has as large an amount of monounsaturated fatty acids as
olive oil, which mainly contains oleic acid (Frankel, 2011).
Eggs are a good source of low-cost, high-quality protein.It is
a particularly rich source of vitamins B12 and B2 and a useful
source of folate. They are also a good source of the fat-soluble
vitamins A and D and provide some vitamin E. Eggs contain
many of the minerals that the human body requires for
health, such as iodine, phosphorus, selenium, zinc and iron.
Dates or date syrup might be added to the formula of the
bread. Health benefits of dates are significant as this fruit is
rich in natural fibres. These natural products also contain
oil, calcium, sulfur, iron, potassium, phosphorous, manga-
nese, copper and magnesium which are advantageous for
health. Dates are rich in several vitamins and minerals. It is
said that one date a day is the minimum requirement of a
balanced and healthy diet.
Other grains or cereals
Flours ground from cereal grains such as barley, corn, millet,
oats, rice, rye and sorghum may be used as wheat substitutes
for fortification to deliver greater nutritive value in flat
breads. For example, barley is rich in manganese, selenium,
phosphorus, copper, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium,
vitamin B6, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and folate. Sorghum
is rich in potassium and phosphorus and has a good amount
of calcium with small amounts of iron, sodium, amount of
thiamin, niacin and with small amounts of riboflavin.
Other foods may be added to flat breads to make pastries
which are consumed daily in the Middle East. For example,
production of flat bread covered with a layer of spiced thyme
and thyme mixture with olive oil, minced meat, spinach,
cheese, pastırma, eggs and animal fat adds many other nutri-
ents and confer other health benefits to bread.
Sesame seeds are sometimes added to flat breads. The seeds
are exceptionally rich in iron, magnesium, manganese,
copper and calcium, and contain vitamin B1 and vitamin E.
They contain lignans, including a unique content of
sesamin, which comprises phytoestrogens with antioxidant
and anti-cancer properties.
Black seeds
Black seeds contain numerous esters of structurally unusual
unsaturated fatty acids and their chemical composition is
very rich and diverse. Apart from their active ingredient,
crystalline nigellone, they contain 15 amino acids (including
eight of the nine essential ones), carbohydrates, fatty acids
including linolenic and oleic, volatile oils, alkaloids and
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 2012, 4, 2–8 Al-Dmoor H.M. Flat bread
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dietary fibre, along with minerals such as calcium, iron,
sodium and potassium. Other benefits for black seeds are
being an antibiotic, anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-
histaminic, antibacterial, anti-bronchial and immune-
boosting agent (Ilaiyaraja & Khanum, 2010).
Green banana flour
The clear advantage presented by green banana (Musa spp.)
flour includes a high total starch (73.4%); resistant starch
(17.5%) and dietary fibre content (~14.5%). Due to the high
content of these functional ingredients, regular consump-
tion of green banana flour can be expected to confer benefi-
cial health benefits for humans.
Flaxseed flour
While flaxseed, also known as linseed, is rich in protein,
research suggests that its health benefits probably have more
to do with its fatty acid and fibre profile (Valéria et al., 2010).
The addition of flaxseed increases protein and fibre but also
adds trace amounts of healthy, unsaturated fats. Flaxseed is
emerging as one of the key sources of phytochemicals in the
functional food arena (Valéria et al., 2010). In addition to
being one of the richest sources of alpha-linolenic acid boil
and lignans, flaxseed is an essential source of high-quality
protein and soluble fibre and has considerable potential as a
source of phenolic compounds (Oomah, 2001).
Dietary fibres
Dietary fibres have gained immense importance because of
their constructive role in releasing sugars and the absorp-
tion of these sugars slowly in the intestinal tract; conse-
quently, they reduce the severity of diabetes mellitus and are
helpful in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels.
Cereal bran or whole barley may replace up to 25% of the
wheat flour, and the subsequent breads contain more ash,
protein, dietary fibre fractions in comparison with control
breads. Apple pomace, a by-product of the apple juice
industry, is a rich source of fibre, pectin and polyphenols,
and in view of the antioxidant property of pomace, it would
play an important role in the prevention of some digestive-
related diseases (Masoodi & Chauhan, 1998).
Cassava flour has not been properly exploited for making
bakery products mainly because it is rich in carbohydrates
and low in protein content, contributing to poor dough
characteristics (Shittu et al., 2007). Induced malting using
amylolytic enzymes and pregelatinization through hydro-
thermal cooking were used to modify the textural and func-
tional attributes of cassava flour, which was then blended
with various cereal and legume additives as well as rice bran
and used for making baked products. Cassava flour can also
replace wheat flour and is used by some people with wheat
allergies or coeliac disease (Shittu et al., 2007).
Food additives
Dough modifying or improver agents such as emulsifiers,
gums, leavening agent, reducing and oxidizing agents have
been employed in the formulation of a number of flat bread
in automated bakeries.
Fortification of flours and bread
In the Middle East, bread has been a staple food for centu-
ries, and its consumption is among the highest in the world.
Therefore, fortifying wheat flour with the essential vitamins
and minerals is seen as one of the most effective and inex-
pensive ways of improving diet (WHO/UNICEF/MI, 2003;
WHO/EMRO, 2009). Fortification of flour and other cereals
has played a significant role in delivering essential vitamins
and minerals to people in the industrialized countries
(IFM’s Advisory Committee on Child Health and Nutrition,
2003). This has helped eliminate nutritional deficiencies and
contributed to improved health and reduction in child and
maternal morbidity and mortality. The levels of additions
of many other ingredients are not identified in flat bread
except for the level of additions advised by the World Health
Gluten is the protein backbone of baking. However, that
does not mean that other proteins are not valuable for
adding unique features to products, including healthful
protein levels. Bakers will need to reformulate to address
issues that arise when using protein sources other than
wheat. The addition of eggs, milk powders and soy flour are
used for functional rather than nutritional reasons. Flat
bread is reaping the benefits of added protein for health and
structural reasons. However, the largest area for almost all
protein is still in product structure, baking quality, texture,
shelf life, mouth-feel, colour and flavour. The most impor-
tant protein supplements in flat breads are enumerated next.
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 2012, 4, 2–8 Al-Dmoor H.M. Flat bread
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 5
Soy protein
Soy flour is the only consistent, economical protein resource
currently available for fortification programmes of any sig-
nificant size. Protein fortification in developing countries
must be based upon soy flour until indigenous protein
resources and processing industries can be developed. For-
tifying wheat flour with full-fat soy flour in making bread
can raise its protein content, balance essential amino acids
and increase bread’s caloric value. Such fortification,
however, can adversely affect both rheological properties
and baking quality of wheat flour (Tsen & Hoover, 1973;
Hoover, 1974).
Whey protein
Whey proteins deliver three benefits: flavour, function and
nutrition. From a nutritional standpoint, whey proteins
balance the weaker value of proteins from grains and plants.
Whey proteins are easily digested and offer the highest
protein efficiency ratio (PER) of any protein with the excep-
tion of eggs. Whey proteins are high-quality proteins with a
high biological value and contain high levels of branched
chain amino acids, such as isoleucine, leucine and valine,
which are lower in other plant-based proteins sometimes
used in bakery products (Jooyandeh, 2009).
Egg protein
With their significant protein, vitamin and mineral
content, and relatively low saturated fat content, eggs are a
valuable component in a healthy diet. Eggs are an excellent
source of protein. Egg protein is of high biological value as
it contains all the essential amino acids needed by the
human body. Eggs therefore complement other food pro-
teins of lower biological value by providing the amino
acids that are in short supply in those foods. 12.5% of the
weight of the egg is protein and it is found in both the yolk
and the albumen. Although protein is more concentrated
around the yolk, there is in fact more protein in the
Legumes protein
Flat bread may be prepared from wheat flour with an addi-
tion of chickpea, pigeon pea and bean flours to improve the
nutritive value and textural and organoleptic properties.
PER of supplemented breads was significantly increased.
Enrichment of Egyptian balady bread with decorticated
cracked broad bean flour (Vicia faba) increases the essential
amino acids and the protein efficiency ratio was found to be
significantly greater (Abdel-Kader, 2001).
Flat bread flour is fortified with the following.
Thiamin (B1)
Thiamin has been included in cereal fortification pro-
grammes since their inception in the 1940s. Breads and
cereals are considered ‘thiamin donors’ because they supply
more than sufficient thiamin to metabolize the kilojoules
they provide. Many studies suggest compliance with man-
datory fortification of thiamin in bread-making flour at the
level of 0.64 mg/100 g flour.
Folic acid
It is nearly impossible to get adequate intakes of folate
from natural sources, particularly so because the natural
folate has only 60% of the vitamin activity of synthetic
folic acid. The level of folate in cereals is low, even in whole
grain products (Hertrampf & Cortés, 2004). The surest way
to get folic acid to the whole population is to add it to a
food staple, with bread being the preferred vehicles par-
ticularly if it can be included with an existing or planned
fortification programme. There is growing evidence that
folic acid fortification will reduce the incidence of elevated
homocysteine levels, considered a major factor in cardio-
vascular disease and strokes (Hertrampf & Cortés, 2004:
WHO/EMRO, 2009).
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
Riboflavin has been part of most bread fortification pro-
grammes (WHO/EMRO, 2009).
Vitamin C
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C provides a number of important
nutritional benefits but the one considered most desirable
for cereal products is its ability to enhance the absorption
several-fold of both native and added iron (WHO/EMRO,
2009). Ascorbic acid is routinely added to bread flour
around the world at levels from 15 ppm to 100 ppm to
improve the flour protein functionality during bread baking.
Flat bread flour is fortified with the following.
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 2012, 4, 2–8 Al-Dmoor H.M. Flat bread
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd6
Wheat flour is the only food vehicle that has been used exten-
sively for iron fortification at national levels. Wheat flour for-
tification commonly assumed that it has contributed to the
reduction in the prevalence of iron deficiency in countries
where food iron fortification is mandatory.Because wheat is a
dietary staple in middle East where iron deficiency is highly
prevalent, the fortification of wheat bread is a logical interven-
tion strategy in Middle East countries (WHO/EMRO, 2004).
The dietary requirements for zinc and iron are similar.There
levels of presence in cereals are similar and the potential for
having their absorption inhibited by phytic acid usually
means that if there is a dietary deficiency in iron there will be
one for zinc as well. It is now being added to wheat flour in
many countries. The levels added are typically 20 ppm to
30 ppm zinc (restoration levels). All zinc sources are white in
colour so there is colour problem unlike the situation for
iron. Studies in Turkey reported that bread fortified with
zinc acetate had acceptable quality and was effective in pre-
venting zinc deficiency in children (Saldamli, 1996; Romana
et al., 2003; WHO/EMRO, 2009).
Wheat and maize are very poor sources of calcium. Most of
the calcium provided by cereal foods comes from the calcium
containing ingredients that are added to bread and biscuits as
functional ingredients, such as calcium propionate, calcium
phosphates and whey. However, these ingredients are not
normally added to bread in developing countries. Self-raising
flour also contains high levels of calcium due to the addition
of the chemical leavening ingredients. All other cereal prod-
ucts are very low in calcium. Flour can be fortified so that
it contains up to 211 mg of calcium per 100 g of flour. This
enrichment, however, provides only a modest amount of
calcium in finished products such as bread. Calcium carbon-
ate is added to flour at levels much higher than 211 mg
without adversely affecting bread quality and this calcium is
retained and well absorbed. The calcium sources used in
cereal fortification are calcium sulphate and calcium carbon-
ate. Both are white and bland in flavour. The other source of
calcium are milk and other dairy products (Ranhotra et al.,
2000; WHO/EMRO, 2009).
The fortification of bread with iodine is being achieved by
the addition of iodized salt which has resulted in a desirable
increase in iodine intake, and the currently recommended
salt fortification level seems reasonable (WHO/EMRO,
Flat bread developments
Flat bread is a traditional food produced by using basic
materials with hard wheat flour sold and consumed in Medi-
terranean countries and elsewhere. Production of flat breads
is often subsidized by governments. Developments in food
industry have been applied in the production of flat bread
but not to the same degree as many other types of foods, or
even other types of bread in the world. This is partly due to
the extra costs that additions would impose on the price of
flat breads and the subsequent potential impact on the con-
sumption of a food which is an important component of the
diet of a very large number of consumers. More develop-
ment studies are needed with respect to bread formulations
and to identify the levels of addition to improve the nutri-
tional value using such food products. These could include
fortification with nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, vita-
mins and minerals. Improvements of flat bread quality and
keeping quality are essential. Automation of flat bread
making must be increased.
Flat bread is eaten with almost every meal in the Middle East.
The manufacture of flat breads requires special characteris-
tics in both the flour and the dough. Additional ingredients
may be used in flat bread for adding flavour, improving
the quality, increasing the nutritive value of bread and as
processing aids which assist the bread-making process.
Flat bread manufacturing is reaping the benefits of added
protein for health and structural reasons. Flat bread flour is
fortified with some vitamins and minerals. More develop-
ment studies in flat bread production are needed.
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© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd8
... The possibility of being produced from different grains other than wheat, their easier cooking techniques, the convenience of transport and the option of being filled with several other foods making them a complete dish, have allowed FB to successfully transit from rural to modern society 3 . Generally, the production of FB requires a flattened dough obtained through mixing and kneading flour, salt, water and yeast (optionally); then, dough can undergo a proofing step before shaping and cooking 4 . A conventional leavening, namely sourdough, was used until the apparition of baker's yeast in the 18 th with the so called "Pain à l'Allemand" 5 . ...
... Their outstanding qualities as water binders and gelling agents have guaranteed that starches and fibers were employed as minor ingredients in flatbread formulations, especially in those GF 8 . Commonly, FB can include some vegetable oils in their formulations, they can be flavored with some spices (garlic, onion and ginger or chili powder) and the addition of sesame or black seeds participates to increase the content of minerals, vitamins, fiber, and unsaturated fatty acids 4,11 . As pointed out above, FB groups together many products with different formulations that deserve further investigation to evaluate their nutritional quality. ...
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Flatbreads are increasingly attracting consumers, driving them to new eating ways. To define and evaluate the nutritional intake provided by these products, flatbreads market of seven Mediterranean countries (France, Spain, Italy, Croatia, Greece, Malta, and Lebanon) were considered. Flatbreads were available in both traditional and gluten-free versions, and in the single and doble layer variety. Wheat flour was the primary ingredient in both types, while sunflower and olive oil were the most used fats. Lebanese flatbread did not contain any fat. The Spanish market mostly featured one-layer flatbreads, such as tortillas and wraps, whereas pita appeared more frequently in Greece. Many Croatian flatbreads were not fermented. In comparison to gluten-containing flatbreads, the gluten-free version had a larger number of components listed on the labels. Blending flours with starches was the most common recipe. Hydrocolloids, emulsifiers, and fibers were added largely for technical reasons, but also to increase nutritional quality. Gluten-free flatbreads, on the other hand, were discovered to have lower fiber and protein content than their gluten-containing counterparts. Furthermore, their calorie value, as well as carbohydrate and salt content, were found to be lower.
... Bread is a staple food (Al-Dmoor and Galali 2014) and is consumed regularly everyday with meals throughout the world. Flat bread consumption is steadily increasing at home and on a commercial scale in the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa (Al-Dmoor 2012). In particular breads like Tandoori and pita breads which are two-layered flat breads are popular. ...
A diet high in dietary fibre (DF) is thought to help reduce cholesterol levels, may control blood glucose levels and reduces gut transit time. However, people often fail to consume the recommended quantity of DF. The aim of this study was to supplement two types of bread with some novel functional food ingredients; waxy wheat flour (WF), inulin (IN) and guar gum (GG) to develop products rich in DF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effect of DF on two different breads. Breads were assessed using Cryo-SEM for its microstructure pattern, and physical attributes (pita; springiness, chewiness and hardness, Tandoori; hardness and elasticity). The results showed that, for pita bread, the outcome showed that IN and GG alone significantly increased hardness and chewiness and decreased springiness. WF addition only decreased springiness. GG linearly increased pita height and volume, but it quadratically increased weight loss. Moreover, IN increased volume and height in a quadratic way. Regarding Tandoori bread, IN reduced bread toughness, but showed no effect on extensibility. WF alone increased volume and diameter. The microstructure also showed that the novel ingredients modified starch gelatinisation and gluten-starch matrix in both pita and Tandoori breads differently. Therefore, the influence of the three functional ingredients alone and in combinations influenced quality parameters dissimilarly.
... The chemical composition of kocho changes during the prolonged fermentation time, the titratable acidity increased and anti-nutritional factors such as tannins and trypsin inhibitors are reduced. Flaxseed is the world potential functional food and has excellent source of source of essential nutrients of alpha-linolenic acid, lignans, high quality protein, soluble fiber and phenolic compounds [4][5][6]. Functional food can be defined as the food or food ingredients that may provide physiological benefits and helps in preventing and/or curing of diseases. Whole grain, oil, milled or ground flaxseed forms are incorporated in to diet [7]. ...
... D'autres ingrédients additionnels sont utilisés en panification pour améliorer la qualité rhéologique de la pâte, technologique et organoleptique du pain (Al-Dmoor, 2012). Parmi ces ingrédients on distingue les oeufs et la matière grasse. ...
The traditional bread "khobz eddar" is an important food for the Algerian population, due to the fact that it is a homemade product produced using natural ingredients. Developing this product with gluten-free ingredients for celiac patients is a challenge that deserves to be investigated. The aim of this study was to develop a natural gluten-free product for Algerian celiac patients based on the traditional "khobz eddar" bread flow diagram. Hydro-thermal treatment, starches (tapioca and corn) and hydrocolloїds (agar-agar, carob gum and arabic gum) as well as Moringa leaves and pomegranate seed powder are studied for their improving potential of the physical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of gluten-free "khobz eddar" bread type. The household’s survey in the commune of Constantine allowed to establish the flow diagram of the targeted bread. The response surface methodology optimized gluten-free production based on a rice/Fieldbeans and corn/Fieldbeans formula, improved by a treated rice and treated corn, respectively. The results showed a better volume and hardness of corn-based bread compared to that of rice. On the other hand, the sensory results depicted a better appreciation of rice-based bread than that of corn. The approach through a definitive screening design was used to locate the effect of starch/hydrocolloids interactions on the technological quality of gluten-free bread based on the rice/Fieldbeans formula. The effect of additive interactions has been reported and optimum bread has been technologically and sensorly characterized. The results show that gum arabic has an improving effect on all the quality parameters. Two types of plant ingredients were used to enrich gluten-free bread, pomegranate seed powder and Moringa leaf powder, with different levels (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10% w/w). The technological and sensory quality was evaluated. The assay of total polyphenols and the determination of antioxidant activity by different methods were performed. The results reported optimums with additions of 7.5% of the pomegranate seed powder and 2.5% of the Moringa leaf powder. The results obtained in the different parts of this study are of high interest and deserve to be developed and a complementary work has been done in order to diversify the gluten-free formulation. Combinations between improvers were carried out, three types of formulations were proposed: a first combination of treated rice and different levels of gum arabic (0.5, 1 and 1.5%), a second one with treated rice combined with three levels of the Pomegranate seed powder (2.5, 5 and 7.5%) and a third one between processed rice and three levels of Moringa leaf powder (2.5, 5 and 7.5%). The main results indicate that for all combinations, the specific volume increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to optimum breads with single improvers and gluten-free control bread. The best results for texture parameters are thus obtained with gluten-free breads made by incorporating improvers in combination. The best combination between improvers is obtained with treated rice and 1.5% of arabic gum, then comes the combination of rice treated with 5% of the seed powder of pomegranates and finally the combination of rice treated with 2.5 % of the powder from Moringa leaves.
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An in-depth survey was conducted by collecting information from web sources, supplemented by interviews with experts and/or bakers, to identify all the flat breads (FBs) produced in the nine Mediterranean countries involved in the FlatBreadMine Project (Croatia, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta and Spain), and to have an insight into their technical and cultural features. A database with information on 143 FB types (51 single-layered, 15 double-layered, 66 garnished, 11 fried) was established. Flours were from soft wheat (67.4%), durum wheat (13.7%), corn (8.6%), rye, sorghum, chickpea, and chestnut (together 5.2%). The raising agents were compressed yeast (55.8%), sourdough (16.7%), baking powder (9.0%), but 18.6% of FBs were unleavened. Sixteen old-style baking systems were recorded, classified into baking plates and vertical ovens (tannur and tabun). Artisanal FBs accounted for 82%, while the industrial ones for 7%. Quality schemes (national, European or global) applied to 91 FBs. Fifteen FBs were rare, prepared only for family consumption: changes in lifestyle and increasing urbanization may cause their disappearance. Actions are needed to prevent the reduction of biodiversity related to FBs. Information in the database will be useful for the selection of FBs suitable to promotional activities and technical or nutritional improvement.
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Chia seeds, being the golden seeds of the 21 st century, have a great potential for the food industries, because of their exceptional nutritional composition and functional properties, have been successively incorporated in the formulating of nutritious products, thus, classifying them as novel food ingredients. The current demand of producing nutritionally enriched and specially designed food products for gluten intolerant, celiac, diabetic, obese and cardiac patients, have taken a greater speed toward exploring the utilization of chia seeds. Therefore, a review about the industrial potential of chia seeds has been performed by focusing research studies belonging to various industries, such as, baking, dairy, oil, meat, extrusion and packaging industry. The studies were mostly conducted with the proportions ranging from 2.5-20% of either intact chia seeds, chia flour, chia mucilage or chia seed oil separately or in combinations. In all the studies, the resultant product has increased nutritional content, particularly PUFAs but may face some technical limitations as the chia seed content increases. However, among all studies it was observed that the 2.5% incorporations of either intact chia seeds, chia flour, chia mucilage or combinations, apart from meeting EU allowance limits, tend to produce products without any detrimental effect on quality parameters and resulted in developed product with high purchase intent. Citation: Masood, M. A B. Chia Seeds as Potential Nutritional and Functional Ingredients: A Review of their Applications for Various Food Industries, J Nut Food Sci Tech, 2022, 4(1): 1-14.
This chapter briefly discusses the basic principle and engineering aspects of ohmic heating along with a detailed perusal of its impact on microbial inactivation and quality attributes of the food product. The chapter also enlightens the currently operating as well as futuristic potential applications of Ohmic Heating like sterilization, pasteurization, blanching, fermentation etc. Considering the current marketability of various food processing techniques, a commercial and legislative comprehension has been provided with a varying range of food products that are susceptible to Ohmic Heating.
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Celiac disease is increasing all over the world. In this context, most recent research in this area is addressing and attempting to improve the nutritional value and sensory characteristics of gluten-free (GF) food products and to enhance their technological properties. Here, amaranth flour was studied as a potential healthy ingredient for the development of an innovative GF flat bread. Starting from two different basic formulations (rice flour:corn starch and rice flour:tapioca starch, 50:50), the impact of partially replacing rice flour (6%) and starch (6%) with amaranth on the nutritional characteristics, polyphenol composition, textural, and sensory properties of the resulting GF flat breads was explored. The substitution with amaranth led to detrimental effects on the doughs' viscometric properties, especially in the case of tapioca starch, but significantly improved the doughs' textural properties. All the amaranth-enriched flat breads showed a better color and a significant increase in all polyphenols fractions but lower antioxidant activity. During bread storage for three days, a detrimental effect on both starch retrogradation, toughness, and extensibility properties were observed, especially when tapioca starch was used. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) sensory test results showed that the incorporation of amaranth increased yeast odor and yeast flavor perception and decreased the softness in mouth-only in tapioca-based samples. A better compromise among technological, nutritional, and sensory properties was achieved when amaranth flour was added to the basic rice and corn formulation.
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The objective of this work was to compare the physicochemical characteristics of quinoa and flaxseed bread. Sensory acceptance, color and texture were also appraised. They showed appropriate balances between their content of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids and low levels of trans fatty acids. Flaxseed bread had larger amounts of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3, as well as a more balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Quinoa bread, on the other hand, had the advantage of presenting smaller contents of saturated fatty acids. With regard to color and texture, quinoa bread had similar characteristics to the flaxseed bread. The quinoa bread was well accepted by the consumers, who expressed high interest in buying it.
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Flat bread is the main staple food for most Iranians and Lavash is commonly consumed flat bread. In this investigation, the effects of addition of precipitated whey protein (PWP) and fermentation time on the physical properties and sensory characteristics of Lavash breads were studied. Dough was prepar-ed with four substitution levels of PWP (25, 50, 75 and 100%, instead of water used for dough making) and fermented at three different fermentation times (30, 60 and 90 min). Increasing level of supple-mentation with PWP generally caused an increase in all sensory scores of Lavash samples. This im-provement was more obvious when fermentation time was increased. Penetrometer values of Lavash samples showed that increasing fermentation time and supplementation up to 75% created significantly softer breads compare to control. In general, increase in the level of supplementation and fermentation time significantly increased bread yellowness (b* value) and redness (a*) and decreased lightness (L* value).
Zinc acetate supplementation of wheat flour affected the flour's theological properties and baking quality only at very high zinc addition levels. Sensory properties of breads were acceptable. When zinc-supplemented bread was fed to 7-11 year old school children for three months, significant gains in body weight, serum and leukocyte zinc, and alkaline phosphatase were found.
Chemical analysis of apple pomace revealed that it contains 29.4% neutral detergent fiber and 13.0% pectin. Pomace-flour blends were prepared by incorporating 2, 5, 8 and 11% pomace in wheat flour. Blends were evaluated for their bread making quality. Water absorption increased with the increase of pomace in the blends. Neutralizing the acidity of pomace blended dough did not change the water absorption significantly. As the percentage of pomace in blends increased from 0 to 11, a reduction of 42.8% in loaf volume was observed but neutralization of pomace acidity in dough resulted in only 26.6% reduction in volume under similar conditions. On the other hand loaf weight of the breads, prepared from blends with 11% pomace under unneutralized and neutralized conditions, increased by 7.0 and 3.1%, respectively. With increase of pomace percentage in blends up to 11, the bread firmness increased from 3N in control to 12 and 10N respectively, in unneutralized and neutralized pomace blended dough. Blending of pomace (0–11%) increased baking time from 20 min for control to 33 min for unneutralized and 27 min for neutralized blends. Sensory evaluation of the product revealed that breads containing up to 5% pomace were acceptable.
The effect of ascorbic acid and potassium bromate, reducing agents (L-cysteine and sodium metabisulphite), emulsifiers (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL) and sucrose fatty acid esters) and a combination of these additives on the quality of Arabic bread has been studied. Statistical analysis indicated that the internal quality parameters of Arabic bread significantly deteriorated with the addition of ascorbic acid and potassium bromate. The addition of reducing agents has the advantage of reducing mixing time and improving dough sheeting quality. SSL (3 g kg−1) improved the quality of Arabic bread especially after overnight storage. Sucrose ester F-110 had an adverse effect on most aspects of Arabic bread quality.
Cereal Chem. 77(3):293-296 White pan breads were prepared with flour highly fortified with cal-cium (Ca), using Ca carbonate (Ca, 38.8%) or a high Ca whey powder (Ca, 5.6%) as the Ca source; bread was also prepared using Ca carbonate plus lactose. Ca was added to flour at 924 mg/100 g of flour, a level 4.4 times higher than specified under the U.S. enrichment standards. Breads were dried and finely ground to prepare test diets (Ca, 0.5%) which were then fed to growing rats for four weeks (growth phase) or eight weeks (ap-proaching maturity). At either interval, femur ash content, femur Ca con-tent, femur strength, or Ca absorption values did not differ significantly among groups fed breads fortified either with Ca carbonate, Ca carbonate + lactose, or whey. Thus, breads can be highly fortified with Ca carbonate to be labeled as "high" in Ca, and this Ca may be as well absorbed and utilized as dairy Ca.