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EUPHORBIA HIRTA LINN - A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY

Authors:
  • D.K.M.College for women, vellore

Abstract

Euphorbia hirta Linn. is a small herb, belongs to family Euphorbiaceae , distributed throughout the hotter part of India, often found in waste places along the roadsides. The plant parts are widely used in traditional system of medicines, in the treatment of respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, wound healing, pulmonary disorders, urinogenital disorders, tumors, lactation in women etc. The plant has also been used as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antidiabetic and free radical scavenging, anti allergic, analgesic and antianaphylactic, antioxytic, sedative, antiarthritic, antidiarrhoeal, spasmogenic, antithrombocytopenic, diuretic, GI tract, burn wound healing, immune stimulatory, sperm motility, genotoxic, synergic, antiviral, antihelmentic, immunoprohylatic, antimalarial, antimicrobial, herbicidal, antimolluscidal, larvicidal property and so on. In this report we explore investigations related to taxonomy, monographs, distribution, morphology, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological uses of the plant.
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EUPHORBIA HIRTA LINN - A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL USES,
PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY
Asha.S1, Deevika.B2, Mohamad Sadiq.A3*
1Department of Biochemistry, D.K.M. College For Women, Sainathapuram, Vellore, Vellore
DT, Tamilnadu-632001.
2Department of Biochemistry, Indo-American college, Vallarpuram, Cheyyar,
Tiruvannamalai DT, Tamilnadu-604407.
3Department of Biochemistry, Adhiparasakthi College Of Arts and Science, G.B.Nagar,
Kalavai, Vellore DT, Tamilnadu-632506.
ABSTRACT
Euphorbia hirta Linn. is a small herb, belongs to family
Euphorbiaceae , distributed throughout the hotter part of India, often
found in waste places along the roadsides. The plant parts are widely
used in traditional system of medicines, in the treatment of respiratory
diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, wound healing, pulmonary
disorders, urinogenital disorders, tumors, lactation in women etc. The
plant has also been used as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour,
antidiabetic and free radical scavenging, anti allergic, analgesic and
antianaphylactic, antioxytic, sedative, antiarthritic, antidiarrhoeal,
spasmogenic, antithrombocytopenic, diuretic, GI tract, burn wound
healing, immune stimulatory, sperm motility, genotoxic, synergic,
antiviral, antihelmentic, immunoprohylatic, antimalarial, antimicrobial, herbicidal,
antimolluscidal, larvicidal property and so on. In this report we explore investigations related
to taxonomy, monographs, distribution, morphology, phytochemistry, traditional uses and
pharmacological uses of the plant.
KEY WORDS: Euphorbia hirta L, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology.
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
SJIF Impact Factor 5.045
Volume 3, Issue 4, 180-205. Review Article ISSN 2277 7105
Article Received on
12 May 2014,
Revised on 06 June 2014,
Accepted on 30 June 2014
*Correspondence for Author
A. Mohamad Sadiq
Principal, Adhiparasakthi
College of Arts and
Science,G.B.Nagar, Kalavai,
Vellore DT, Tamilnadu -
632506.
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INTRODUCTION
Taxonomy
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridaeplantae
Infrakingdom Straptophyta
Division Tracheophyta
Subdivision Spermatophytina
Infradivision Angiosperms
Class Magnoliopsida
Superorder Rosanae
Order Malpighiales
Family Euphorbiaceae
Genus Euphorbia
Species hirta
Synonyms
Chamaesyce hirta (L) Millspaugh, Euphorbia pilulifera Linn.
Monographs
English Asthuma weed
Sanskrit Dugdhika, Kshirini, Ksheerani, Svaduparni
Hindi - Dudhi
Telugu Reddinanabrolu
Tamil Amampatcharishi
Gujarat Dudeli
Malayalam Chittirappula, Nelapalai
Bengali Barokheruie
Marathi Dudhi, Mothidudhi
Malaysia Ambin Jantin
Indonesia Daun Biji Kcang
Philippines Botobotonis
Thailand Nam Nom Raatchasee
Sundanese Nanangkaan, Nangkaan
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Javanese Gelang Susu, Gendong Anak, Kukon-Kukon, Patican. Euphorbia hirta is
commonly called as Australian asthuma herb, Queensland asthuma weed, Pills bearing
spurge, Cats hair, Hairy spruge, Spurge or milkweed, Garden spurge.[1]
Morphology
The plant Euphorbia hirta is a small annual herb, frequently seen occupying open waste
spaces, roadsides, grasslands, pathways, rice field and as a weed of cultivation. The plant is a
common herb, found in pan-tropic , partly subtropic areas and worldwide including Australia,
Western Australia, Northern Australia, Northern territory, Queensland, New south wales,
Central America, Africa, Indomalaysia, Philippines, China and India. It is native to Central
America. It is usually erect, grows upto a height of 40cm tall and it can also be seen lying
down.[2] The stem is slender, reddish in colour, covered with yellowish bristly hairs especially
in young parts. Leaves simple, arranged oppositely, distichous, leaf blades are lanceolate,
unequal base, cuneate one side, round otherside, acute apex, finally toothed margins, dark
green above, pale beneath, purple bloth in middle, measures about 1-2.5 cm long. Flowers-
unisexual, male flowers are sessile, linear bracteoles, fringed, single stamen, with absent
perianth. Female flowers are short pedical, rimmed perianth, superior ovary, three-celled,
three styles, minute, covered with short hairs, two-fid apex. Inflorescence cluster of flowers
called cyathium at terminal or auxillary. Several cyathia densely clustered into a cyme. Fruits
yellow, three lobed, three seeded, keeled capsules, containing three brown, four- sided,
angular, wrinkled seeds, base truncate, hairy, 1-2mm in diameter.[3,4,5] Seeds- oblong, four
sided, slightly wrinkled, pinkish brown, caruncle absent.
PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Euphorbia hirta contains flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, essential oil and other compounds.
Flavonoids:- Quercetin, quercitrin, quercitol and derivatives containing rhamnose, quercetin-
rhamnoside, a chlorophenolic acid, rutin, leucocyanidin, leucocyanidol, myricitrin, cyaniding
3,5-diglucoside, pelargonium 3,5-digucoside and camphol, flavonol glycoside xanthrhamnin,
hentriacontane , myricyl alcohol, inositol, tetraxerol, friedelin, β-sitosterol, ellagic acid,
kaempferol.
Terpenoids:- Titerpenoids, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, friedelin, teraxerol, and its esters-taraxerone,
11α, 12α-oxidoteraxerol, cycloartenol, 24-methylene-cycloartenol, euphorbol hexacosonate.
Diterpene esters of phorbol type and ingenol type including 12-deoxy phorbol-13-
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dodecanoate 20-acetate, 12-deoxy phorbol -13-phenyl acetate-20-acetate, ingenol triacetate,
higly toxic tinyatoxin, a resiniferonol derivative. 2-beta, 16-α, 19- trihydroxy ent-kaurane,
16-alpha, 19-dihydroxy-ent-kaurene. Other isolated terpenoids are sterols, including β-
sitosterol, campestrol, cholesterol and stigmasterol.
Tannins:- Dimeric hydrolysable dehydro ellagic tannins, euphorbins A, B, C, E and
terchebin, the monomeric hydrolysable tannins geraniin, 2,4,6-tri-o-galloyl-β-D-glucose and
1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and the esters 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (neo
chlorogenic acid), 3,4 di-o-galloyl quinic acid and benzyl gallate.
Acids:- Ellagic, gallic, tannins, maleic and tartaric acids.
Essential oil:- Major constituents include 3,7,11,15-tetra methyl-2-hexadecon-1-ol, 6,10,14-
trimethyl-2-pentadecanone,hexaecanal, phytol and n-hexadecanoic acid. Minor constituents
include 2-butoxyethanol, tetradecane, phtalic acid, butyl tetradecyl ester, oleic acid, 13-hepta
decyl-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-hexadecanol and 1,2 benzene dicarboxylic acid diisocylester.
Other compounds:- Alkaloids, saponins, amino acid and mineral. Two new compounds n-
butyl-1-0-L-rhamno pyranoside and n-butyl-1-0-L-rhamnopyranoside.
TRADITIONAL USES
Traditionally, plant is employed to cure several indications: gastro intestinal disorders (
diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal parasitosis, bowel complaints, digestive problems ), respiratory
diseases (cough, cold, asthma, bronchitis, hay fever, emphysema), [6,7] urinary apparatus (
diuretic, kidney stones), genital apparatus ( metrorrhagic , agalactosis, gonorrhoea, urethritis),
various ocular ailments ( conjunctivitis, corneal ulcer), [8,9,10] skin and mucous membranes
problems (guinea worm, scabies, tinea, trush, aphtha) and tumour. In south india, it is used as
ear drops, in the treatment of boils, score and wounds. [11] The latex of the plant is often used
as warts and cuts to prevent pathogen infection. A decoction of leaves induces milk flow and
the leaf chewed with palm kernel for restoration of virility. It is also effective in treating
ulcers. The plant is also eaten as vegetables.[12]
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Wu yi et al., 2012 investigated chemical constituents from aerial part of Euphorbia hirta
Linn. These chemical constituents were isolated , purified by chromatographic techniques and
structural elucidation based on spectroscopic analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and
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identified. The nine compounds were scopoletin (1), scoparone (2), isoscopoletin (3),
quercetin (4), isorhamnetin (5), pinocembrin (6), kaempferol (4), luteolin (8), gallic acid (9).
Among these compounds 1-3, 5-8 were identified for the first time from this plant.[13] Abha
Singh et al., 2012 isolated , screened and characterised a bacterial strain from rhizospheric
soil of Euphorbia hirta. The strain was screened as a gram positive motile rod bacteria with
terminal spore. It showed >98% similarity with reference strains in Gen bank. The 16srRNA
gene sequence construction identified the strain as Bacillus subtilis KC3. The maximum
enzyme production was achieved after 48h (22.92U/ml at 400c at PH 7. The optimum
temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 500c and 6.5 respectively. Barley starch (27.27
U/ml), corn starch (24.30 U/ml) and maltose (19.10 U/ml) were the inducers for α-amylase
production. Glucose (5.45 U/ml) acts as a repressor for α-amylase synthesis. These properties
suggest that Bacillus subtilis KC3, could be commercially exploited for production of α-
amylase in starch and various biotechnological processes.[14]
Girijesh kumar patel et al., 2012 purified a 34 KDa serine protease , hirtin, with fibronolytic
activity by combination of ion exchange and gel filteration chromatography.
YAVYIGLILETAA/NNE found at N-terminal sequence of hirtin. Hirtin contains esterase
and amidase activities along with azocaseinolytic, gelatinolytic, fibrinogenolytic and
fibrinolytic activities. For enzyme activity, the optimum pH and temperature was found to be
7.2 and 500c. Enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by PMSF and AEBSF. The specific
synthetic substrate for hirtin was P-tos-GPRNA. Hirtin hydrolysed Aα and α-chains, followed
by and β, and ϒ and ϒ-ϒ chains of fibrinogen and fibrin clot. The result indicated that
hirtin has thrombin-like serine protease and have potential industrial and therapeutic
applications.[15] Shijun yan et al., 2011 isolated , structural elucidated a new ent-kaurane
diterpenoid from Euphorbia hirta ethanol extract. 2β, 16α,19-trihydroxy-ent-kaurane a new
compound and two known ent-kauranes, 2β, 16α-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane and 16α, 19-
dihydroxy-ent-kaurane compounds.[16] Mallavadhani et al., 2009 isolated and structural
elucidated two new novel butanol rhamnopyranosides and nine known compounds from n-
hexane, ethylacetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta. The two new novel
compounds were n-butyl-1-0-β-L-rhamnopyranoside and n-butyl-l-0-α-L-
rhamnopyranoside.[17]
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Anti-inflammatory activity
Mei-Fen Shih et al., 2010 studied anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of Euphorbia
hirta (Eh) and active component β-amyrin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated
macrophage cells (RAW 264.7).The extract and active component inhibited nitric oxide (NO)
production and iNOS gene expression. Therefore, Euphorbia hirta and β-amyrin had
potential arthritis inflammation treatment.[18]
Prabhat Das et al., 2010 carried out an carragenan induced inflammation model. Diclofenac
sodium 50mg/kg served as reference standard. The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol,
ethanol and aqueous fruit extracts of Euphorbia hirta were tested for anti-inflammatory
activity. The aqueous and ethanol extract showed a maximum percentage of protection
towards inflammation compared to other extracts. Thus , the plant Euphorbia hirta reduces
and prevents experimentally induced inflammation in rats.[19]
Mariano Martinez-Vazquez et al., 1999 isolated and identified triterpenes like β-amyrin, 24-
methyl encycloartenol and β-sitosterol from n-hexane extract of Euphorbia hirta. The n-
hexane extract and triterpenes were evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Both
extracts and triterpenes exerted significant anti-inflammatory effects in TPA-induced ear
model. The result also showed that dual and triplet combinations exerted higher activity than
triterpene alone.[20]
Anti-oxidation activity
Kumar et al., 2010 carried out antidiabetic and antioxidant effect in mice. The flower
extracts, ethanol (250mg/kg) and petroleum ether (500mg/kg) of Euphorbia hirta were orally
tested for 21 days alloxan induced diabetic mice . The serum cholesterol, triglycerides,
creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase levels were reduced significantly. High density
lipoprotein and total proteins were increased after treatments. The antioxidant assays of all
extracts showed antioxidant activity. Euphorbia hirta flower extract posses both antidiabetic
and antioxidant activity.[21] Abu Arra Basma et al., 2011 reported antioxidant activity of
Euphorbia hirta . Methanol extract of four different parts of plants, leaves, stems, roots and
flowers were tested for invitro antioxidant activity. The IC50 for leaves, flowers, roots, stems
and BHT were 0.803, 0.972, 0.989, 1.358 and 0.794 mg/ml. Butylated hydroxy toluene
(BHT) acts as a standard. Leaves extract had highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid
content, followed by flowers, roots and stem extracts. Phytochemical screening of Euphorbia
hirta leaf methanol extract revealed the presence of reducing sugars, terpenoids, alkaloids,
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steroids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Based on data, it was suggested that
Euphorbia hirta had a strong antioxidant activity.[22]
Anti-tumour activity
Shao-Ming Chi et al., 2012 isolated a new cylclopentanone derivative (1’R,5’R)-5-(5’-
carboxylmethyl-2’-oxocyclopentyl)-3Z-pentenyl acetate from Euphorbia hirta. Based on
spectroscopic analysis 1D and 2D NMR the structure was elucidated. The cytotoxicity of
ethanol extract was evaluated against K562 (human leukemia) and A549 (lung cancer) cell
lines. From the data, the ethanol extract exhibited a weak activity against A549 cells
(inhibition ratio 15.02 ± 11.60%) and inactive against K562cells.[23]
Antitumour activity of Euphorbia hirta linn was studied by Sandeep et al., 2011. Aerial parts
of the plant, Euphorbia hirta were extracted with ethanol, chloroform and petroleum ether.
All the extracts showed positive result for tannin, saponin , alkaloids and flavonoids.
Chloroform, ethanol extract enhanced mean survival time and reduced solid tumor mass
tumour bearing mice. This antitumour activity due to presence of flavonoids.[24]
Anti diabetic and free radical scavenging activity
Goldie Uppal et al., 2012 discussed anti-diabetic activity. The ethanol extract of Euphorbia
hirta Linn was tested using animal screening models. Alloxan administered for 21 days, to
induce diabetics. The ethanol extract showed a significant decreased blood glucose level (
hypoglycemic effect) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.[25]
Invivo and invitro study of antidiabetic activity was done by Widharna et al., 2010. From the
invitro experiment, ethanol extract and ethylacetate fractions had α-glucosidase inhibition
activity, while n-hexane, chloroform, butanol and water fractions had no α-glucosidase
inhibitory effect. In vivo test, also had the same result. Based on in vitro and in vivo test,
Euphorbia hirta L. ethanolic extract and ethylacetate extract exerted anti-diabetic mechanism
and α-glucosidase inhibitory property.[26]
Anti allergic activity
Singh et al., 2006 described a antiallergic reactions. 95% ethanolic extract prepared from
whole aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta (EH A001). EH A001 significantly inhibited rat
peritoneal mast cell degranulation triggered by compound 48/80, dextran-induced rat paw
edema. It prevented eosinophil accumulation and eosinophil peroxidase activity and reduced
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the protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Extract suppressed the CD4/CD8
ratio in peripheral blood. It also attenuated interleukin-4(IL-4) release and augmented
interleukin –ϒ (IFN- ϒ) in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse splenocytes. The results of these
findings compared with ketotifen, cetirizine and cyclophosphamide, known compounds and it
proved that Euphorbia hirta possessed significant activity to prevent early and late phase
allergic reactions.[27]
Analgesic and anti anaphylactic activity
Euhorbia hirta ethanol extract (EH A001) administered orally (100 to 1000mg/kg) against
compound 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis. The data showed that EH A001 inhibited
passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat and active paw anaphylaxis in mice. The result
also showed a suppressive effect on TNF-α and IL-6 release from anti-DNP-HSA activated
rat peritoneal mast cells. Thus, Youssouf et al., 2007 proved anti-anaphylactic effect of
Euphorbia hirta.[28]
Antioxytic and sedative
Anuradha et al., 2008 studied anxiolytic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of euphorbia hirta.
Chronic immobilization (CIS) and forced swim stress (FSS) induced stress in rats. Eh
(200mg/kg p.o) for seven days showed a marked anti-anxiety activity in CIS and a partially
decreased activity in FSS. Cotreatment of rats with flumazenil (0.5mg/kg i.p), bicuculline
(1mg/kg i.p) resulted in a significant reduction in anxiolytic effect of Eh.this indicates that
anxiolytic activity are medicated through GABAA receptor, benzodiazepine receptor, Cl-
channel complex. Thus, result indicate that Eh acts as a potential anxiolytic drug, which
might be beneficial in treatment of stress induced anxiety disorders.[29] Marie-Claire Lanhers
et al., 1990 found behaviroal effects of Euphorbia hirta L. in mice. Lyophilised aqueous
extract does not show any mortality when administered i.p. and orally. Decrease and
increased behavioural parameters were measured by a activitest and staircase test at a high
(100mg of dried whole plant / kg ) and lowest dose (12.5 and 25mg of dried whole plant/ kg).
These findings support traditional use of Euphorbia hirta as a sedative and anxiolytic
property.[30]
Antiarthritic activity
Sheikh Fayaz Ahmed et al., 2012 investigated antiarthritic activity in animal model. Adjuvant
arthritis induced by subplantar injection of 0.05ml freshly prepared suspension (5.0mg/ml) of
steam killed mycobacterium tuberculli in liquid paraffin. Different doses 25, 50, 100 and
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200mg/kg of ethanol extract were used for treatment. According to result, Euphorbia hirta
significantly reduced IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-ϒ in splenocytes of arthritic rats and
down-regulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in peritoneal
macrophages. These results suggest that Euphorbia hirta exhibits an improved adjuvant-
induced arthritis.[31]
Kan Heng Lee et al., 2008 induced arthritis in rats using freund’s complete adjuvant
containing heat- killed mycobacterium tuberculosis 50,100, 500 mg/kg of water extract of
Euphorbia hirta. High dose of Euphorbia hirta had greater extend of cartilage degeneration,
while, intermediate and low doses showed improved histology. Decreased MMP 13 and
increased TIMP 1 levels were found with low dose of Euphorbia hirta.[32]
Antidiarrhoeal and Spasmogenic activity
Kamgang et al.,2001 discussed the contractile activity of total aqueous extract of Mallotus
oppositifolium (MO) and Euphorbia hirta (Eh) leaves in rat. Mallotus oppositifolium
(1.32mg/ml) inhibited the stimulation of rat ileal contractions by acetylcholine (9mm) and
potassium chloride (7mm ) and also reduced faecal quantity (11g, p<1%). Euphorbia hirta
activated the stimulation of rat ileal contractions by acetylcholine (+148%) and potassium
chloride (+381%).Eh aqueous extract also reduced the faeces quantity (12g, p<5%). The
result conformed that total aqueous extracts of Mallotus oppositifolium had antispasmodic
effect, while Euhorbia hirta had spasmogenic effect in vitro and antidiarrhoeic effects in
vivo.[33]
Antithrombocytopenic activity
Antithrombocytopenic effect of lyophilized decoction of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied
by Jovencio G Apostol et al.,2012 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Ethanol induction induced
thrombocytopenia within 7days in rats. Platelet count, bleeding time and clotting time were
assayed in four groups of rats. A significant increased platelet count, decreased bleeding and
clotting time observed after Euphorbia hirta treatment. Histopathological studies showed a
decreased liver sinusoidal dilation in Euphorbia hirta treated groups. Euphorbia hirta
decoction, thus, acts as potential antithrombocytopenic.[34]
Diuretic effect
Johnson et al., 1999 studied diuretic activity of Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts in rats using
acetazolamide and furosemide, a standard diuretic drugs. A time depended increase in urine
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output was observed with water and ethanol extracts (50 and 100mg/kg). From the result it
was found that water extract increased the urine excretion of Na+ , K+ and HCO3- and urine
output as like acetozolamide. Ethanol extract increased the excretion of HCO3-, decreased the
loss of K+ and a little effect on Na+ removal. The standard drug, furosamide increased renal
excretion of Na+ and Cl- but had no effect on K+ and HCO3- loss. Active component in
aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta had similar diuretic effect as acetazolamide, a standarad
drug. These result, support traditional use of Euphorbia hirta as a diuretic agent by Swahilis
and sukumus.[35]
GI tract
Hore et al., 2006 studied gastrointestinal motility in rats and mice. Findings reported that
aqueous leaf extract significantly and dose-dependently decreased gastrointestinal motility in
rats and Castrol oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. These findings supported the traditional use of
Euphorbia hirta in diarrhoea.[36]
Burn wound healing
Akinrinmade et al., 2010 reported antimicrobial effect and tissue reaction of crude ethanol
extract of Euphorbia hirta in canine infected incised wounds. 72h after treatment, gross
appearance and histopathological reactions were examined. Ethanol extract had a positive
effect on staphylococcus aureus growth in canine wound but the extract had not provoked
cutaneous tissue reaction in canine wounds. Thus, Euphorbia hirta can be recommended for
wound management.[37] Jaiprakash et al., 2006 studied burn wound healing activity of
Euphorbia hirta. The result concluded that 2% W/W cream of ethanol extract of whole plant
of Euphorbia hirta in rats showed significant burn wound healing activity.[38]
Immunostimulatory activity
Bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn evaluated by Karpagam
Kumara Sundari et al., 2004. Different doses 50,100, 200mg/kg, p.o. extracts, tested against
histamine aerosol induced bronchoconstriction. Dose at 200mg/kg was found to be more
effective as bronchodilator with a significance of p<0.001.[39]
Sperm motility
Oyeyemi et al., 2009 utilized sexually mautured and healthy west African Dwarf (WAD)
rams. The rams aged between 24 and 30 months were used for study. Experimental animals
were orally dosed with 400mg/kg body weight for 14days. Semen samples were collected
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after a day and seven days after administration. Semen picture showed a significant reduction
(p<0.05) of sperm motility from 80% to 47.5% and live dead ratio from 90.75% to 32.5%.
This result indicates that fertilization capacity and livability of spermatozoa were negatively
affected. But no significant difference in values of body parameters. Thus Euphorbia hirta
was not recommended for medicinal purpose in male animals.[40]
Genototoxic effect
Kwan Yuet Ping et al., 2012 investigated genotoxic effect of methanol extract of Euphorbia
hirta using Allium cepa assay. The extracts 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml were tested on root
meristems of Allium cepa. Ethylmethane sulfonate and distilled water served as positive
control and negative control. A decreased mitotic index and a increased chromosome
aberrations were observed as the concentrations of Euphorbia hirta extract increased. Some
abnormalities like stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes were also
observed. At interphase stage, micronucleated cells also observed.This result confirmed that
Euphorbia hirta methanol extract (1000 µg/ml) exerted a significant genotoxic and
mitodepressive effect.[41]
Synergistic activity
Michel Adikwu et al.,2010 illustrated in vitro Combined effects of erythromycin and
Euphorbia hirta leaves methanol extract against staphylococcus aureus using checker board
technique. The results indicate that some combination of Euphorbia hirta leaf and
erythromycin at a given ratio 9:1, 8:2, 6:4, 3:7, 2:8, 1:9 Showed synergistic activity, while
other ratios 5:5, 4:6 showed indifference.[42]
Effect on CNS
Lanhers et al., 1996 evaluated lyophilized aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Eh) for
benzodiazepine-like properties, hypnotic, neuroleptic and antidepressant properties. The
result showed that aqueous extract does not seem to possess benzodiazepine like properties
hypnotic, neuroleptic effect. The plant extract caused a direct action on central nervous
system and a slight depressant effect.[43]
Effect on asthuma
Pretorius et al., 2007 made a comparative ultrastrctural analysis of platelets and fibrin
networks using murine Balb/c asthma model. Ultrastrcture of fibrin networks and platelets of
controlmice compared with asthmatic mice, treated with two concentrations of
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hydrocortisone and one concentration of plant material. Control mice possess major, thick
fibers and minor, thin fibres and tight round platelet aggregates with pseudopodia formation.
Asthmatic mice have major fibers covered with a net like minor fibers and a loosely
connected, granular aggregates of platelets. Hydrocortisone of both concentrations made the
fibrin more fragile and more granular platelet aggregate, where as Euphorbia hirta have no
impact on fragility of fibrin and prevented the minor fibers to form a dense netlike layer over
the major fibers.[44]
Toxicity
Sandeep et al., 2011 determined LC50 using shrimp lethality assay. Extracts of Euphorbia
hirta Linn and Euphorbia nerifolia Linn were selected for brine shrimp lethality activity.
LC50 of ethylacetate, acetone extract of Euphorbia hirta and methanol extract of Euphorbia
nerifolia Linn were found to be 71.15, 92.15 and 49.55µg/ml respectively. Among these two
plants, the most active extract was methanol extract of Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.[45] Ram P.
Yadav et al., 2011 studied the efficacy of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta
latex powder with other active compounds like rutin, ellagic acids, teraxerol and betulin.
Toxic effect of Euphorbia hirta latex and active compounds were evaluated against fresh
water snails Lymnaea (Radux) acuminate and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. Along with
snails, fresh water fish channa punctatus (Bloch) was also lethal to high dose, while LC90
does not have apparent killing properties in fish populations.[46]
Antiviral activity
In vitro antiretroviral activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta were
compared against SIVmac251, HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses on MT4 human T lymphocyte cell line.
A dose dependent inhibition of RT activity was determined. 50% methanol extract exerted a
high antiretroviral effect than aqueous extract. The 50% MeOH extract subjected to liquid -
liquid partition with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. The remaining aqueous phase
with tannin exhibited significant viral replication inhibitory effect (antiviral activity), while,
all other lipophilic extracts were inactive. From the result it was confirmed that high
antiretroviral activity of Euphorbia hirta extract was mainly due to the presence of active
compound tannin.[47]
Antihelminthic and Immunoprophylactive activity
Pratheepa et al., 2012 investigated enzymatic and survival effect of Pseudomonas fluroescens
pathogen infected cyprinus carpio (fish). About 50 days, different concentrations of leaf
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extract of Euphorbia hirta (0,5,10,20,25 and 50g/kg) was administered with feed. Leaf
extract (50g/kg) fed through feed continuously increased acid phosphatase, alkaline
phosphatase, serum peroxidase activity and pathogen clearance through blood and kidney.
Results showed at higher concentrations 50g/kg of Euphorbia hirta, a improved survival rate
of pseudomonas fluorescencs infected fish with a effective elimination of pathogen, from
cyprinus carpio, fish. These results agree that Euphorbia hirta can be used as an
immunoprophylatic.[48]
Antihelmintic efficacy of aqueous Euphorbia hirta extract in 20 nigerian dogs were studied
by Adeolu Alex Adedapo et al., 2005. Nigerian dogs naturally infected with nematodes.
Group A (untreated), Group B ( mebendazole treated), Group C and Group D served as
treated (aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta, intramusucular and oral route administration).
After two weeks, blood and faecal samples were collected. Results showed a significant
increase in PCV, RBC, Hb conc, TWBC and lymphocyte counts. Also encountered a reduced
faecal egg counts. Oral route pronounced more effect on faecal egg count than intramusucular
administration.phenolic compound in aqueous extract was responsible for reduction in worm
load. Thus aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta could serve as anthelmintic agent.[49]
Anti-malarial activity
Neetu arya et al., 2011 isolated mosquito larvicidal bioactive saponin from indigenous plant,
Euphorbia hirta. The isolated bioactive saponin was tested against culex quiquefasciatus.
IInd and IV instar larvae of mosquito was exposed to four different concentration of bioactive
saponin. 24hrs LC50 and LC90 values were determined using probit analysis method.
Obtained result suggest that bioactive compound of Euphorbia hirta were more susceptile to
IVth instar larvae than II instar larvae.[50]
Modupe Ogunlesi et al., 2009 extracted essential oil from dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta.
Both major and minor components were identified on oil analysis. Major components
identified includes 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl -2-hexadecon-1-ol, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-
pentadecanone, hexadecanal, phytol and n-hexadecanoic acid. Identified minor components
includes 2-butoxyethanol, tetradacane, phthalic acid, butyl tetradecyl ester , oleic acid, 13-
heptadecyn-1-ol, 2-methyl-1-hexadecanol and 1-2 benzene dicarboxylic acid diisooctylester.
The role of components in treatment of asthma and other diseases were also discussed. The
oil has potential repellent function against anopheles mosquito species due to presence of
6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone and thus it can be useful for malaria control.[51]
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Tona et al., 2004 made a comparative study among seven African medicinal plants, used in
Democratic Republic of Congo, for malaria treatment. The ethanol extract (IC50<3µg/ml)
and petroleum ether fractions (IC50<3µg/ml) of cassia occidentalis leaves, Euphobia hirta
whole plant, Garcinia Kola stem back and phyllanthus niruri whole plant were most active.
The ethanol extract of venonia amygdalina leaves, Tetracera poggei leaves, morinda
morindoides leaves showed less active while petroleum ether fractions exhibited a
pronounced antiplasmodial activity (IC50<3µg/ml). Isoamyl alcohol fractions from
Euphorbia hirta, phyllanthus niruri and vernonia amygdalina showed IC50 values less than
3µg/ml and from cassia occidentalis, Garcinia kola, Morinda morindoides and Tetracera
poggei IC50 value was between 10 and 50µg/ml. These antiplasmodial activity may be due to
presence of terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones and
anthraquinones.[52]
Anti-bacterial / Anti-fungal activity
Chinwe et al., 2012 isolated Gram-positive staphylococcus aureus, and Gram negative
Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhi, from degenerated wound, stool and a high vaginal swab.
Total dehydrogenase activity assayed using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride(TTC),
ethanolic Euphorbia hyssopifolia and Euphorbia hirta inhibitory activity compared with
standard antibiotics ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. A dose -depended inhibition was
observed. Euphorbia hyssopifolia effective against gram-positive staphylococcus aureus,
than gram-negative salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Euphorbia hirta effective against
Gram-negative salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli, but not effective against
staphylococcus aureus. Hence, Euphorbia hirta can be implicated against typhoid fever and
urinary tract infections.[53]
Kareem Kehinde Titilope et al., 2012 reported the antibacterial activity of dry and fresh leaf
extracts (ethanol and water ) against some pathogens, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus
influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
Staphylococcus aureus, Slamonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae. Antibacterial sensitivity
test indicated that Euphorbia hirta extracts had little or no zone of inhibition against
Haemophilus influenzae. Hence, dry extract produced highest zone of inhibition on all
pathogens than fresh extracts.[54]
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Qualitative and quantitative, antibacterial activity of ethanolic, aqueous extracts of Sida acuta
and Euphorbia hirta was carried out by Ibrahim et al., 2012. The phytochemical analysis
showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponin, reducing compounds, flavonoids,
terpenoids, phenolic compounds and glycosides in moderate amounts. The antibacterial
activity was determined against isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Among the tested
isolates Escherichia coli , Streptococcus faecalis were most susceptile while Klebsiella
pneumonia was most resistant to extract.[55]
Shanmuga priya perumal et al., 2012 evaluated antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of various
extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, ethanol) of Euphorbia hirta. Gram-negative
species, Enterobacter aerogens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis,
Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and
Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Ethanol extract exhibited
strongest antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi with MIC value 0.031mg/ml.
Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts had moderate activity with MIC value 1-
0.5mg/ml. Hexane extract appeared to have least activity. All the extracts had no cytotoxic
effect against vero ell line. The result confirmed that Euphorbia hirta extract possess only
antimicrobial property and no cytotoxic effect.[56]
Rajendran Darling Anpin Raja et al., 2011 screened antimicrobial potential of three plants,
Chassalia curviflora Thw (c.curviflora), Cyclea peltata Hook. F and Thomson (c.peltata) and
Euphorbia hirta against human bacterial pathogens. Pathogens were Escherichia coli (E.coli)
(ATCC 35218), Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) (ATCC 6538), Salmonella typhi (S.typhi)
(MTCC733), Proteus vulgaris (P.vulgaris), Proteus mirabilis (P. Mirabilis) and
Streptococcus pyogenes (S.pyogenes). Methanol extract of C.peltata showed antibacterial
activity against three pathogens, S.pyrogenes, P.vulgaris and E.coli. The hexane extract of
C.Peltata was active against P.vulgaris and P.mirabilis. The methanol and hexane extracts of
C.curviflora exhibited antibacterial activity against P.vulgaris and S.typhi each respectively.
The ethanol and hexane extract of Euphorbia hirta showed antibacterial activity against only
one bacterium S.pyogenes. A maximum degree of antibacterial activity was observed in
C.peltata , followed by C.curviflora and a low degree of activity by Euphorbia hirta. The
results revealed that C.curviflora, C.peltata and Euphorbia hirta had potential antibacterial
activity.[57]
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Singh et al., 2011 carried out a study on taxonomy ethnobotany and antimicrobial activity of
three plants, Croton bonplandianum, Euphorbia hirta and Phyllanthus fraternus etc. Extracts
tested were three different solvents -water, methanol and petroleum ether. Four bacteria
(Bacillcs macerans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas striata)
and one fungal species (Aspergillus niger) were used. Agar well diffusion method adopted to
evaluate antimicrobial activity. Among the three plant studied, methanol extract of Euphorbia
hirta found to possess potent antimicrobial activity against gowth of bacterial strains. It also
found, none of the three plants provided antifungal activity.[58]
Aniel kumar et al., 2010 examined antibacterial acvtivity of snake weed, Euphorbia hirta
Linn. Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and Aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, root and whole plant
were used for antibactecial activity. Gram positive (Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus
aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus Vulgaris)
assayed by agar-well diffusion method. Aqueous and chloroform extracts of stem and root
had no inhibitory activity. Ethanol and methanol extracts of leaf and whole plant were more
effective and significant than aqueous and chloroform extracts. Phytochemical screening
revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides and saponins.[59]
EI-Mahmood Muhammad Abubakar 2009 discussed the antibacterial activity of three
different extracts of Euphorbia hirta. Methanol, hexane and distilled water were employed
against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella typhi and
Proteus mirabilis, cause enteric infections in humans. Phytochemical screening revealed the
presence of tannins, saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthroquinones and
alkaloids.Growth of bacteria especially Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi more
susceptible to plant material. The herb Euphorbia hirta used as a oral drugs to fight bacterial
infections.[60]
Mohammad Abu Basma Rajah et al., 2010 reported antimicrobial activity of methanol
extracts of Euphorbia hirta L leaves, flowers, stems and roots against some medically
important bacteria and yeast using the agar disc diffusion method. Four gram positive
bacterias (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus sp, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus
thuriengenesis) four gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia
,Salmonella typhi and Proteus mirabilis) and one yeast (Candida albicans) species were
screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The inhibition zone of leaves extract had
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greater growth inhibition than flowers. The root extract displayed high zone of inhibition
compared to stem extract. LC50 value of all extracts of Euphorbia hirta were determined in
Artemia salina cysts (brine shrimp eggs 0.1g). The LC50 value of stems, leaves, roots and
flowers were 0.71, 0.66, 0.41 and 0.03mg/ml. Thus, the LC50 value was found to be less than
1mg/ml.[61]
Ahmad Zorin sahalan et al., 2007 screened two species of plants, Andrographis paniculata
and Euphorbia hirta for antibacterial activity against three Gram positives (Staphylococcus
aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus epidemidis) and three gram negatives (Escherichia
coli klebsiella pneumonia and pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The leaves from both
plants were extracted by methanol extraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value
of Andrographis paniculata ethanol extract for both gram positive and gram negative bacteria
ranges between 1.56mg/ml to 12.5mg/ml and for Euphorbia hirta 3.13mg/ml to 12.5mg/ml.
Gram negative bacteria showed higher MIC value than gram positive bacteria due to presence
of cell wall.[62]
Shanmugaraju et al., 2007 reported and isolated a compound for antibacterial activity.
Ethanol and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia hirta tested against E.Coli, Klebsiella pneumonia,
Proteus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus species. For Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus species, pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus ethanol extract alone exhibited antibacterial activity.
A maximum antibacterial activity was achieved by aqueous extract on protease and
salmonella typi. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts inhibited growth of E.Coli. Thus, ethanol
extract posses more antibacterial activity than aqueous extract. Gas chromatography analysis
of ethanol extract of plant showed the presence of citronellal, a compound responsible for
antibacterial activity of Euphorbia hirta.[63]
Sudhakar et al., 2006 compared the antimicrobial activity among three plants. Dry fruits of
caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta, flowers of Asystasia gangeticum
were tested against Escherichia coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Rizopous
oligosporus. Ethanolic extracts of all plants exhibited significant antimicrobial activity
against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus
aureus. Caesalpinia pulcherrima only exhibited significant antifungal activity against
Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus.[64]
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Emele et al.,1998 cultivated fungi on sapientum glucose agar medium and sabouraud glucose
agar, a standard medium. Sporulation and pigment formation of mycelium was stronger on
sapientum glucose agar medium than other medium. Euphorbia hirta leaves and musa
sapientum fruit extract added to mycological medium. Addition of Euphorbia hirta extract
remarkably enhanced fungal growth and suppressed bacterial growth as like as antibiotics.
The result suggest that Euphorbia sapientum glucose agar could be used as a cheap and
efficient medium for fungal isolation in clinical and general mycological studies.[65]
Vijaya et al., 1995 studied antibacterial activity of compounds theaflavin, polyphenon 60
from camellia sinensis L. and methanol extract of Euhorbia hirta L. against shigella spp, a
dysentery causing organism, using vero cell line. Cytotoxicity study and antibacterial study
were tested using cell line and pathogen. The compounds and extract were found to be non-
cytotoxic and effective anti-bacterial agents.[66]
Anti-molluscicidal activity
Potent molluscicidal activity of plant Euphorbia hirta was studied by Sunil kumar singh et
al., 2005. The aqueous stem, bark, and leaf extracts were choosen for study. Vector snail
Lymnaea acuminate were exposed to sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC50). A significant
(p<0.05) altered levels of total protein, total free aminoacid, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
and activity of enzyme protease, acid and alkaline phosphatase in various tissues was
obtained. Euphorbia hirta showed a time and dose dependent mollusicicidal activity.[67]
Molluscicidal activity of Euphorbia pulcherima and Euphorbia hirta was discussed by Sunil
kumar Singh et al., 2003. LC50 40 and 80% of aqueous and partially purified (chloroform,
carbon tetrachloride, acetone, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate) ;latex extracts of both plants
significantly altered the levels of total protein, total free aminoacid, nucleic acid (DNA and
RNA), protease enzyme, acid and alkaline phosphatase in snail Lymnaea accuminata.[68]
Larvicidal activity
Karthikeyan Agalya priyadarshini et al., 2012 synthesised sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs)
Euphorbia hirta leaf extract concentration range of AgNps (3.125, 6.25, 12.5,25 and 50PPm)
and methanol crude extract (50,100,150, 200 and 250PPm) were tested against malarial
vector Anopheles stephensi. The synthesized AgNps exhibited a highest larval mortality
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against first to fourth instar larvae and pupae. Methanol extract exhibited a lowest larval
mortality than the synthesized silver nanoparticles can be potential mosquito larvicidal
agents.[69]
Larvicidal property of Amaranthus oleracea and Euphorbia hirta extract against third instar
larvae of Anopheles stephensi, malaria vector was studied by Preeti Sharma et al., 2009.
LC50 value of both plant extracts, carbon tetrachloride extract, methanol extract, petroleum
ether extract after 24 and 48h of exposure showed a potential larvicidal property. Among the
extracts, petroleum ether extract fractions were more potent compared to other crude
forms.[70]
Herbicidal activity
Martha Leema Rose et al., 2012 studied the effect of leaf, stem and root extracts of
Euphorbia hirta L. on germination and seedling growth of groundnut. Higher concentration
significantly inhibited germination than lower concentration. Root extract caused more
inhibition than the stem and leaf extracts. A significant decrease in root length and shoot
length of groundnut was also found in Euphorbia hirta infested soil.[71]
Corrosive activity
Anozie et al., 2011 discussed the corrosion inhibition effect of plants. A gravimetric
technique (300c and 600c) was used to study. The leaf extract of euphorbia hirta and dialum
guineense on aluminium alloy (AA8011) in 0.5M HCl solution. Based on physical adsorption
phenomenon, both extracts acted as good inhibitors and also inhibited corrosion process in
medium. [72]
Other activities
Arya et al., 2009 compared TLC of ethanol extract of plants, Euhorbia hirta L.
(Euhorbiaceae) and Gomphrena celosioides Mart. (Amaranthaceae) individually and
combination Euphorbia hirta + Gomphrena celosioides 4:1) with homeopathic drugs
(Aesculus, Aloes, Arnica, Hamamelis, Nuxvomica, Lycopodium, Pulsatilla) for piles.
Comparative chemoprofiling showed that homeopathic drugs major components were also
found in Euphorbia hirta , Gomphera celosioides and incombination form. This report
suggest that Euphorbia hirta and Gomphera celosioides acts as a folk remedy for piles. On
microscopical identification, Euhorbia hirta showed the presence of various types of simple,
multicellular, uniseriate , warty and smooth trichomes and latifers in traverse section (TS) of
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root, stem and leaves. G.celosides showed the presence of long mulitcellular simple
trichomes, anamalous secondary growth and pith in traverse section (TS) of root.[73]
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... hirta) is a common herb that belongs to Euphorbia genus of Euphorbiaceae family. Euphorbia hirta L. is found in pan-tropic, partly sub-tropic areas and worldwide including Australia, Western Australia, Northern Australia, Queensland, New south wales, Central America, Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, China and India [158]. In Vietnam, Euphorbia hirta L. is commonly distributed in many provinces of the southern area ( Figure 17). ...
... In Vietnam, Euphorbia hirta L. is commonly distributed in many provinces of the southern area ( Figure 17). Euphorbia hirta L. was used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes for a long time ago [158][159][160][161]. ...
... In vivo tests also had the same result. [158][159][160]. The presence of various bioactive compounds, especially in chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated the ability in the treatment of diabetes by inhibition of enzymes involving in the metabolism of saccharides such as α-amylase [161]. ...
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Natural products, including organisms (plants, animals, or microorganisms) have been shown to possess health benefits for animals and humans. According to the estimation of the World Health Organization, in developing countries, 80% of the population has still depended on traditional medicines or folk medicines which are mostly prepared from the plant for prevention or treatment diseases. Traditional medicine from plant extracts has proved to be more affordable, clinically effective and relatively less adverse effects than modern drugs. Literature shows that the attention on the application of phytochemical constituents of medicinal plants in the pharmaceutical industry has increased significantly. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are small molecules or macromolecules biosynthesized in plants including steroids, alkaloids, phenolic, lignans, carbohydrates and glycosides, etc. that possess a diversity of biological properties beneficial to humans, such as their antiallergic, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease result of metabolic disorders in pancreas β-cells that have hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be caused by a deficiency of insulin production by pancreatic (Type 1 diabetes mellitus) or insufficiency of insulin production in the face of insulin resistance (Type 2 diabetes mellitus). The current medications of diabetes mellitus focus on controlling and lowering blood glucose levels in the vessel to a normal level. However, most modern drugs have many side effects causing some serious medical problems during a period of treating. Therefore, traditional medicines have been used for a long time and play an important role as alternative medicines. Moreover, during the past few years, some of the new bioactive drugs isolated from plants showed antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than oral hypoglycemic agents used in clinical therapy. Traditional medicine performed a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. World Health Organization has pointed out this prevention of diabetes and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to be attained. Therefore, this paper briefly reviews active compounds, and pharmacological effects of some popular plants which have been widely used in diabetic treatment. Morphological data from V-herb database of each species was also included for plant identification.
... The infusion of the plant is using the indigenous communities of the Philippines for the treatment of dengue fever [4] . Studies have shown that this plant has various other pharmacological properties including, antimicrobial and antiviral activities [3,5,6] . The antiviral activity of the plant is probably due to the presence of high tannin content in the plant [7] . ...
... The antiviral activity of the plant is probably due to the presence of high tannin content in the plant [7] . This plant is a source of various chemicals such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, essential oils, tannins, acids and other compounds such as alkaloids, saponins, amino acids and minerals [6] . Huang et al. in 2012 [3] and Kausar et al. in 2016 [8] reviewed the phytochemistry and pharmacology of the plant. ...
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Anti-Dengue Leads from Euphorbia hirta L. Dengue is a vector-borne viral disease caused by Dengue virus. Current treatment and medicine are inadequate to eradicate the vector mosquitoes or to prevent the disease. Traditional healers have remedies for almost all ailments using natural products and plants. The well-known medicinal plant Euphorbia hirta L. is one of the herbs conventionally used for anti-dengue treatment even if the active compound responsible for the exact activity of the plant against the disease is not known. The plant is a rich source of various secondary metabolites. In silico screening of 76 small molecules of drug-value belongs to alkaloids, polyphenols and terpenes derived from the plant against dengue virus non-structural protein-5 Mtaseand human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase-II determined 16 biologically active compounds with possible activity to fight against dengue virus. Based on the therapeutic importance and drug-likeness parameters, two best leads, 2-beta, 16-alpha, 19-trihydroxy-ent-kaurane and kaempferol were selected as promising candidates for developing anti-dengue drugs.
... Phytochemicals are the bioactive, natural chemical compounds, found in plants. Euphorbia hirta contains flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, essential oil and other compounds [2] . ...
... Other compounds:-Alkaloids, saponins, amino acid and mineral. Two new compounds nbutyl-1-0-Lrhamno pyranoside and n-butyl-1-0-L-rhamnopyranoside [2] . ...
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Euphorbia hirta L. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae which is frequently seen occupying open waste spaces and grasslands, road sides, and pathways in many parts of the world. The aim of the present study investigation was carried out to compile the medicinal properties of different plant parts of E. hirta L. and to compare their traditional uses with scientific evidences. The leaves of E. hirta are found to contain flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, sterols, alkaloids, glycosides and triterpenoides. The plant has a reputation for increasing milk flow in women because of its milky latex and is used for other female complaints as well as diseases like bronchitis, asthma, eczema, dysentery. It is used as antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anticancer, antimalarial, antiamoebic, antibacterial and antihelmentic etc.
... Nhiều nghiên cứu cho thấy dịch chiết từ các bộ phận khác nhau của cỏ sữa có hoạt tính chống oxi hóa (Basma et al., 2011;Asha et al., 2014). Dịch chiết cỏ sữa từ lá, hoa, thân và rễ cây cỏ sữa có hoạt tính kháng khuẩn, kháng nấm cao (Rajeh et al., 2010;Perumala et al., 2012). ...
... Kết quả cho thấy, mẫu xử lý cỏ sữa 14,08 µg/mL và 625 µg/mL thể hiện rõ rệt trong việc ức chế sự hình thành sản phẩm oxy hóa lipid sơ cấp trong thời gian bảo quản lạnh. Dịch chiết từ cây cỏ sữa thể hiện hoạt tính chống oxi hóa trong quá trình bảo quản cá (Basma et al., 2011;Asha et al., 2014). Kết quả nghiên cứu này cũng tương đồng với kết quả của Hashemia et al. (2012). ...
... Plant parts find various uses, here the leaves are been used for the treatment of warts and skin diseases 1 . Euphorbia hirta is a kind of weed usually called as asthma plant which has its origin in India. ...
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em>Euphorbia hirta is a a medicinal plant which is been widely used from olden days as a herbal medicine for various purposes for mankind. Our country is known for its medical and Ayurvedic treatments. Various parts of the plant is been used for various uses, and here the leaves are been used for the treatment of warts and skin diseases. Questionnaire was prepared and the feedback was collected before the usage of this medicinal plant. The latex or the sap of the plant was collected from Euphorbia hirta and it has been used for the treatment. After the completion of the treatment again questionnaire was given and the feedback was collected for the group of people. This research describes about the medicinal properties, the days of treatment, the feedback and the other important aspects of Euphorbia hirta . The research enlightens on how efficient the leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta totally irradiated the warts and the fungal diseases totally without any pain and side effects. Moreover, the availability of the leaves are abundant and easily available, hence economical. There are many medicinal plants around us like this each having its own chemical composition which can be used in our daily life without any side effects instead of going for synthetic drugs.
... E. hirta has also been named 'asthma-plant' because of the traditional use of preparations from the leaf against asthma, bronchitis, and hay fever [250]. Preparations from various parts of the plant are, furthermore, traditionally used for treating, among others, gastrointestinal disorders; worm infestations; hypertension; genito-urinary conditions including kidney stones; diabetes mellitus; lactation insufficiency; conjunctivitis; several skin diseases as well as swellings and boils; and as a gargle for oral thrush [155,251,252]. In Suriname, E. hirta is used, in addition, as an essential ingredient of vaginal steam baths, in herbal baths to make child delivery proceed smoothly, and as an ingredient of cleansing baths to protect against evil forces [155]. ...
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Fungi are unicellular or multicellular thick-walled eukaryotic organisms that are not capable of photosynthesis and are placed in a biological kingdom of their own. They are ubiquitous in our environment, and include tens of thousands, perhaps even millions of species of yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms. Together with bacteria, fungi are the principal decomposers of plant materials such as cellulose and lignin, fulfilling vital ecological functions in all terrestrial habitats. Some species of fungi are also of major importance in households (for instance, as foods such as edible mushrooms), medicine (for instance, as producers of antibiotics such as penicillin), and industry (for instance, for making bread, wine, and cheese). About 300 fungal species cause infections in humans, varying from relatively harmless skin complaints such as pityriasis versicolor to potentially life-threatening systemic syndromes such as candidiasis. Fortunately, a broad armamentarium of efficacious antifungal drugs has been developed, ranging from topical nystatin to parenteral amphotericin B. In addition, most, if not all traditional medical systems throughout the world have identified a large assortment of plant-based remedies for treating these infections. This also holds true for the multi-ethnic and multicultural Republic of Suriname (South America), where plant-based traditional medicines are abundantly used, either alone or in conjunction with allopathic medications. This monograph extensively addresses nine plants that are traditionally used for treating fungal infections in Suriname, and explains the phytochemical and pharmacological rationales for these applications. These sections are preceded by some general observations about the Fungal Kingdom; a few words about the characteristics of fungi, their taxonomy, and their significance to humans; information about fungal infections as well as the available forms of treatment; and some details about Suriname including health aspects, the health care structure, and the main fungal infections in the country. The monograph is concluded with an evaluation of the status of the Surinamese herbal antifungal substances and the previsions of developing them into mainstream antifungal formulations.
... The plant is characterized by its creepy appearance almost flattened on the ground with the presence of milky latex and inflorescence as cyathium [2]. The plant has been reported to have different medicinal properties such as worm infestations, antibacterial, antifungal, antiurolithiatic, analgesic, antimalarial and antiviral [3][4]. The current study reveals the medicinal worth of E. hirta and its role in the health care system. ...
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Introduction: Euphorbia hirta L. is a common weed plant belongs to family Euphorbiaceae. The present study brings out the importance of weed plants like E. hirta in medicine and health the care system. Material and Methods: Plant E. hirta has been collected from the garden of Department of Botany, University of Delhi and plant leaves were extracted in ethanol by the soxhlet method. Antibacterial screening has been done by disc-diffusion method. The antioxidant potential has been determined by TPC, TFC, FRAP, Total antioxidants through phosphomolybdate assay and by DPPH radical scavenging activity. FTIR and GCMS analysis have been done for characterization. Result and Discussions: Plant E. hirta showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with maximum ZOI diameter 19± 0.5 mm against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa both. Plant E. hirta L. showed significant antioxidant potential with 196.32 mg/g, 39.7133 mg/g, 595.99 mg/g, 525.84 mg/g values for TPC, TFC, FRAP activity and total antioxidants through phosphomolybdate assay respectively. Plant E. hirta also showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH free radical with a maximum % inhibition 68.505% at 1000μg/ml concentration. FTIR and GCMS of plant E. hirta have confirmed the presence of various active functional groups and compounds. Conclusion: The current study justifies the importance of E. hirta L. a common weed as a source of natural antioxidants having antibacterial potential and its role in herbal medicines. © 2022 iGlobal Research and Publishing Foundation. All rights reserved.
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In the past two decades, concurrently with the renewed interest in drugs of plant origin as novel sources of bioactive compounds, extensive scientific research have been addressed on the properties of traditional plant against several diseases, as anthelmintic ,digestive, laxative and many others. Weeds are unwanted plants, but all unwanted plants may not be weeds.Generally weeds have been neglected and their use for medicinal purpose has not been considered on a large scale. Weeds flora of Bhandara District is very rich. The different phytochemicals like Alkaloids, Cellulose, Carbohydrates, Flavonoides, Glycosides, Phenols, Quinons, Saponins, Tannins, Terepenoids, Steroids and many others screen out in the plants are key reservoirs of many new essential drugs. Some important medicinal weeds studied in the present investigation were carried out they are Euphorbia hirta, Tridax procumbens, Parthenium Hysterophorus, Cassia tora, Achyranthus aspera. The present investigation is an attempt to analyze the crude drug of the whole plant. Such type of work can be utilized for identification and authenticity of the drug required for the standerdisation of the plant.
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OYEYEMI, M. O.; OLUKOLE, S. G.; TAIWO, BOLANLE & ADENIJI, D. A. Sperm motility and viability in west african dwarf rams treated with Euphorbia hirta. Int. J. Morphol., 27(2):459-462, 2009. SUMMARY: Four adult sexually matured and clinically healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams aged between 24 and 30 months were used for the study. The rams were first used as control and later as experimental animals upon being orally dosed with Euphorbia hirta extract at 400mg/kg body weight for 14 days. Semen samples were collected from the rams a day after the administration of the plant extra and seven days after. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Euphorbia hirta on the semen picture of WAD rams. There were significantly differences (P <0.05) in the semen picture as reflected in a reduction of sperm motility from 80% to 47.5% and live-dead ratio from 90.75% to 32.5% in the control and post-experimental stages of the study respectively. This indicates that the fertilization capacity and livability of spermatozoa were negatively affected. There were no significant differences in the values of body parameters measured across the stages of the study. The plant is therefore not recommended for medicinal purpose in male animals.
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The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied in 20 Nigerian dogs that were naturally infected with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, A, B, C and D. Groups A and B each comprised 4 dogs while groups C and D comprised 6 dogs each. Group A animals were untreated, while those in group B were treated with proprietary anthelmintic (Mebendazole). Groups C and D animals were treated with aqueous crude extracts of E. hirta using intramuscular and oral routes, respectively. Two weeks after treatment, blood and faecal samples were collected to evaluate haematological values and faecal egg counts, respectively. The procedure was repeated two weeks later. Results of this study show that the aqueous crude extracts of E. hirta after its administration into local dogs produced a significant increase (P< 0.05) in PCV, RBC, Hb conc., TWBC and lymphocyte counts. The faecal egg counts also showed a remarkable and significant reduction in the levels of the identified helminths. The reduction in faecal egg counts was more pronounced with the extract administered through the oral route when compared with the intramuscular route. The effects of the plant extracts were broad spectrum in action. The phenol compound present in the plant extract could have caused reduction in worm load through this same mechanism that culminates in exhaustion and death of worms. Since the aqueous crude extract of E. hirta significantly reduced the faecal egg count of the helminths, it could serve as an anthelmintic agent.
Conference Paper
Microbial α-amylases with extensive commercial applications in various sectors occupy a quarter of the world enzyme market. Studies were carried out with a bacterial strain producing extracellular α-amylase isolated from rhizospheric soil of Euphorbia hirta. The isolate was gram positive motile rod with terminal spore. It exhibited >98% similarity with the reference strains in the GenBank. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that it clustered with the closest members of Bacillus subtilis and identified as Bacillus subtilis KC3. Furthermore, the effect of incubation period, temperature, pH and different carbon and nitrogen sources of the medium was optimized. The maximum enzyme production was found after 48 h (22.92 U/ml) at 40°C and pH 7. The optimal temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 50°C and 6.5 respectively. Barley starch (27.27 U/ml) was observed to be the best inducer followed by corn starch (24.30 U/ml) and maltose (19.10 U/ml). The addition of glucose to the culture medium greatly reduced the synthesis of α-amylase (5.45 U/ml) which demonstrates that a classical glucose effect is operative in this organism. These properties of Bacillus subtilis KC3, suggest that this is a promising isolate which merits further investigations for potential application in various biotechnological processes.
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease caused by inherited and acquired deficiency in production of insulin by the pancreas, or by ineffectiveness of insulin produced, such a deficiency results in increased concentration of glucose in the blood, which in turn damages many of the body's systems in particular the blood vessels and nerves. Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn using various animal screening models. The ethanolic extract of Euphorbia hirta showed a significant hypoglycemic effect in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This laid the foundation to study the active compounds of such anti-diabetic plants that are responsible for the hypoglycemic activities.