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Partitioned Shopping Carts: Assortment Allocation Cues That Increase Fruit and Vegetable Purchases Partitioned Shopping Carts: Assortment Allocation Cues That Increase Fruit and Vegetable Purchases

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Abstract

Building on the notion of implied social norms, we propose that partitioning a shopping

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... A similar phenomenon can be applied in a grocery store. Researchers taped a yellow line in grocery carts designating the area for only fruits and vegetables (Wansink, Soman, Herbst, & Payne, 2012). The result: an increase in the purchases of fruits and vegetables. ...
... Thaler and Sunstein [51] report that employees asked to allocate retirement investments prefer to do it evenly over various categorical options, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate, when these separate categories are made identifiable. Wansink et al. [55] showed that partitioning of online order forms could alter the mix of products a person chooses to purchase. Tannenbaum et al. [48] found that partitioning of menu items affects the way individuals spend "attentional" resources towards them. ...
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Cognitive load is a significant challenge to users for being deliberative. Interface design has been used to mitigate this cognitive state. This paper surveys literature on the anchoring effect, partitioning effect and point-of-choice effect, based on which we propose three interface nudges, namely, the word-count anchor, partitioning text fields, and reply choice prompt. We then conducted a 2*2*2 factorial experiment with 80 participants (10 for each condition), testing how these nudges affect deliberativeness. The results showed a significant positive impact of the word-count anchor. There was also a significant positive impact of the partitioning text fields on the word count of response. The reply choice prompt showed a surprisingly negative affect on the quantity of response, hinting at the possibility that the reply choice prompt induces a fear of evaluation, which could in turn dampen the willingness to reply.
... Vereinfachter Zugang zu Bike-Sharing-Systemen ( Lathia, Ahmed, & Capra, 2012) ✓ ✓ ✓ UK Internetplattformen für Fahrgemeinschaften zur Arbeit ( Abrahamse & Keall, 2012) ✓ ✓ ✓ NZL Reduktion von privater PKW-Nutzung durch soziale Normen ( Kormos, Gifford, & Brown, 2014) ✓ ✓ ✓ CAN Bewusste Mobilitätsplanung ( Fujii & Taniguchi, 2005) ✓ ✓ ✓ JPN Smartphone-App für spritsparendes Fahren ( Tulusan, Staake, & Fleisch, 2012) ✓ ✓ ✓ CH Positionierung auf Speisekarten ( Dayan & Bar-Hillel, 2011) ✓ ✓ ✓ ISR Unterteilte Einkaufswagen ( Wansink, Soman, Herbst, & Payne, 2014) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ CAN Eigene Kasse für gesunde Lebensmittel ( Hanks, Just, Smith, & Wansink, 2012) ✓ ✓ ✓ USA Anordnung der Lebensmittelauslage ( Wansink & Hanks, 2013 ...
Technical Report
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Im vorliegenden Forschungsvorhaben wird das Potential von Nudges für den Bereich des nachhaltigen Konsums mit Schwerpunkt auf ökologischen Konsum untersucht. Nudges sind politische Instrumente und können als „Anstupser“ verstanden werden, die auf psychologischen und verhaltensökonomischen Erkenntnissen beruhen und Verhaltensänderungen bei den Steuerungsadressaten hervorrufen sollen. Im vorliegenden Bericht wird das Konzept zuerst definiert und hergeleitet. Danach werden Nudges in die ökologische Verbraucherpolitik eingeordnet. Anschließend werden in einer systemati- schen Literaturrecherche Anwendungsbeispiele dargestellt. Es folgt eine kriterienbasierte, schrittwei- se Auswahl von Nudges zum Zweck einer tieferen Analyse und potentiellen Anwendung. Selektionskri- terien sind hierbei das Kosten-Nutzen-Verhältnis der Maßnahme, die rechtliche Zulässigkeit in Deutschland, sowie die Akzeptanz bei Verbraucherinnen und Verbrauchern. Die schließlich fünf iden- tifizierten Good Practices entstammen den Konsumbereichen „Bauen und Wohnen“, „Mobilität“ und „Ernährung“. Auf der Grundlage von Diskussionen im Rahmen eines Multi-Stakeholder-Workshops werden diese verfeinert. Abschließend werden konkrete Umsetzungsszenarien vorgeschlagen und Handlungsempfehlungen für die Politik und Forschung abgeleitet. This research project analyses the potential of nudges in the area of sustainable consumption focusing on ecological consumption. Nudges are regulatory instruments based on insights from psychology and behavioral economics and are applied to achieve behavior change. In the present report, the concept is defined first. Then, nudges are contextualized in ecological consumer policy. Subsequently, examples are derived from a systematic literature review. This is followed by a criteria-based, stepwise selection of nudges aiming at a deeper analysis and potential application. The selection criteria are the cost- benefit ratio of the measure, the legal transferability to Germany, and the acceptance with consumers. The final five good practices belong to the application areas "building and living", "mobility", and "nutrition". Based on discussions at a multi-stakeholder workshop, these nudges are further refined. Fi- nally, concrete implementation scenarios are proposed and suggestions for further action for politics and research are derived.
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In order to establish the generalizability or cultural specificity of the factors that influence the ad libitum eating patterns of free-living humans, the eating behaviors of 26 French, 140 American, and 50 Dutch university students were measured with a diet diary technique. Marked cultural differences were present in the amounts, composition, diurnal rhythm, and pattern of intake. In comparison to the French and the Americans, the Dutch ate considerably more overall and ingested a large number of small meals separated by relatively short intervals. They ate with more other people present, for a longer duration at a slower rate, with larger deprivation ratios and smaller satiety ratios, and had more food remaining in their stomachs at the beginning of the meal. Even with these differences the univariate or multivariate correlations between meal size or the aftermeal interval with the time of day, the number of people present, the subjective state of hunger, the stomach contents, and the premeal interval were quite similar between nationalities. These relationships varied in magnitude especially when hunger self-ratings, the time of day, or the aftermeal interval were involved, but, the directions of the relationships were in all cases the same. These results suggest that, although cultural effects permeate the eating pattern, many of the social, psychological and physical variables that influence intake are similar across cultures.
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In a cross-over study, participants (n=59) were randomly assigned to receive either 100 kcal packs or standard size packages of snacks for 1 week. After a minimum of a 1-week washout period, participants received the other form of the snack for 1 week. Snack consumption was recorded by participants in a diary. Participants consumed an average of 186.9 fewer grams of snacks per week when receiving 100 kcal snack packs compared to standard size packages of snacks. Post hoc comparisons revealed the effect of package size depended on both randomization order and study week. Total grams of snacks consumed in week 1 differed significantly between the two randomized groups. In week 2, however, grams of snacks did not differ significantly between the two groups. This interaction was primarily due to a significantly lower consumption of snacks from standard size packages in the week following the portion-controlled packages. The results suggest that portion-controlled packaging reduce total intake from the provided snacks. Further, initial exposure to portion-controlled packages might have increased awareness of portion size such that less was consumed when larger packages were available.
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The impact of familiarity on consumer decision biases and heuristics is examined. Subjects at three different familiarity levels revealed interesting differences in perceptual category breadth, usage of functional and nonfunctional product dimensions, decision time, and confidence.
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The present study examined the concept of restrained eating as measured by the Restraint Scale and the restrained eating section of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The results showed that when answering questionnaires, subjects do not differentiate between items relating to attempts at dieting and actual restrictive behavior and that restrained eating can be conceptualized in terms of both successful and failed restraint. In addition, the results suggest that subjects who report high scores on both these measures of restraint represent a population of dieters prone to overeating behavior. The results are discussed in terms of the population selected by measures of restrained eating and in relation to the definition of restraint.
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The authors review the effect of the presence of others on food intake. In social facilitation studies, people tend to eat more in groups than when alone. In modeling studies, the presence of others may facilitate or inhibit intake, depending on how much these other people eat. Studies of impression management demonstrate that people tend to eat less in the presence of others than when alone. The authors attempt to reconcile these divergent literatures by reference to a model of inhibitory norms that govern eating. In the presence of palatable food, and in the absence of clear signals of satiety, people look outward to cues from the environment to determine when to stop eating. Socially derived inhibitory norms can account for either increased or decreased intake in the presence of others, depending on how much the others eat and the extent to which one is eager to impress them.
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Hunger and satiety have conventionally provided the framework for understanding eating and overeating. We argue that hunger and satiety play a relatively small role in everyday eating. The normative control of food intake refers to the fact that our eating is largely governed by the motive to avoid eating excessively. Dieters impose a restrictive intake norm on themselves, but often violate the norm. Personal norms are individualized rules that people develop to help themselves decide how much is appropriate to eat in a given situation. Situational norms are derived from the eating situation itself; examples include portion size and social influence, which exert powerful effects on intake. We discuss the implications of a normative approach to the analysis of eating and overeating.
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Despite a long tradition of effectiveness in laboratory tests, normative messages have had mixed success in changing behavior in field contexts, with some studies showing boomerang effects. To test a theoretical account of this inconsistency, we conducted a field experiment in which normative messages were used to promote household energy conservation. As predicted, a descriptive normative message detailing average neighborhood usage produced either desirable energy savings or the undesirable boomerang effect, depending on whether households were already consuming at a low or high rate. Also as predicted, adding an injunctive message (conveying social approval or disapproval) eliminated the boomerang effect. The results offer an explanation for the mixed success of persuasive appeals based on social norms and suggest how such appeals should be properly crafted.
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Psychological and economic market models generally mainly concentrate on single individuals rather than taking their social interactions into account. This study targets social interaction in one specific domain: everyday food products. The aim is to find out whether these products are all low in involvement (as assumed before) and if social influence is a factor that contributes to the purchase decision. This study has found considerable differences in involvement among different food products. The authors also discovered differences in the susceptibility to informative social influence as well as in the size of different networks. Both findings have consequences for modeling: Firstly, when modeling the interactions among consumers one has to take the product into account. Secondly, if one can find different degrees of involvement, chances are that involvement is not the only variable that influences consumer–consumer interaction. The results suggest a need for further research on the visibility of products.
Trends in the United States: Consumer Attitudes and the Supermarket
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