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Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Workplace Incivility and the Impact of Hierarchical Status

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Abstract

Using appraisal theory, this research examined targets' emotional responses to workplace incivility, and how these responses impact targets' behavioral responses. Targets who reported greater incivility reported greater anger, fear, and sadness. Targets' anger was associated with more direct aggression against the instigators; targets' fear was associated with indirect aggression against instigators, absenteeism, and exit; and targets' sadness was associated with absenteeism. Status moderated the effects of fear and sadness. Our results underscore the need for organizations to manage civility so that they and their employees can avoid substantial direct and indirect costs associated with workplace incivility. At a broader level, our results suggest the importance of developing greater awareness about the harmful effects of fear and sadness in the workplace.

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... In particular, scant evidence exists concerning processes that elicit these reactions [2]. To date, studies of incivility have focused either on distinct consequences of workplace incivility, [3] or independently, on a variety of precursors to incivility [4]. However, the role of such precursors in all-inclusive incivility processes has been mostly neglected [2]. ...
... exit) response [1]. In their studies, withdrawal reactions were noted to include reduced engagement, [14], absenteeism [15], turnover intentions [16], and turnover [3,17], or negative impacts on job performance, both in-role and innovative [18]. Other reactions centered on expressions of active deviancy, namely neglect toward the organization [19] or towards colleagues [4]. ...
... More specifically, various studies have established positive relationships between experiences of workplace incivility and negative emotions [23], and in particular anger, sadness, and fear [3]. Schilpzand et al. [1], for example, cited higher levels of exhaustion [15], depression [24], burnout [17], and stress [25] in response to incivility. ...
Article
Background: Interrelations between incivility and its precursors or consequences, as well as the role of these interrelations in employees' reactions to incivility are still poorly understood. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess different reactions to workplace incivility while identifying specific and individual-based appraisals and emotions associated with these reactions. Method: A qualitative research approach using semi-structured in-depth interviews, with a sample of 42 employees in a beverage manufacturing corporation in Israel to capture employees' voices regarding their incivility experiences. Results: Analysis of the interviews indicated four reaction-categories: (1) Exit; (2) Voice; (3) Loyalty; and (4) Neglect, in line with the theoretical EVLN model for describing reactions to stressful conditions. In particular, the interviews revealed a dynamic reaction process and suggested that intentionality of reaction provides a third, new dimension. Additionally, an underlying emotional process rooted in appraisals and aroused emotions was evident in each of the reactions. Conclusions: Organizations that wish to reduce incivility events may wish to examine the emotions of targets of incivility, explore the underlying appraisals associated with these emotions, and be mindful of the dynamic and highly individual reaction processes involved.
... So far, empirical research has been scarce in this area. This is because researchers have adopted a myriad of theoretical approaches which produced a set of detached theories such as, power theories (Miner-Rubino & Cortina, 2004), group identity theories (Kern & Grandey, 2009), social exchange theory (Cameron & Webster, 2011), appraisal theory (Porath & Pearson, 2012), emotion-centered model of work behaviour (Sakurai & Jex, 2012), the Dollard-Miller model of aggression (Taylor & Kluemper, 2012), and cognitive-motivational-relational theory (Bunk & Magley, 2013). ...
... For example, in a recent survey of 303 white collar Australian employees in small to medium size enterprises, Loh & Loi (2018) found that employees who experienced workplace incivility retaliated towards their perpetrators. Similarly, Porath and Pearson (2012) surveyed 137 employed MBA students and found that targets who reported greater incivility also reported greater anger, fear, and sadness. Importantly, targets who experienced anger tended to retaliate with direct aggression towards their perpetrators. ...
... H4: Job Satisfaction is negatively associated with work withdrawal Past research has identified the existence of a reciprocal social process between targets and perpetrators in what is known as known as an uncivil spiral effect of workplace incivility (Andersson & Pearson, 1999;Loh & Loi, 2018;Porath & Pearson, 2012). However, J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f this relationship may be moderated by emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
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Incivility in the workplace is a growing problem in many workplaces that can detrimentally affect employees and organisations. Despite this increasing problem, the current literature on incivility lacks an integrated theoretical model to explain engaged and retaliated incivility in the workplace. To address this gap, we tested a model which incorporated both Spiral Theory of Incivility with Conservation of Resource Theory to explain the underlying processes involve in the relationship between engaged and retaliatory workplace incivility. Specifically, retaliatory incivility was hypothesised as an influencing factor, work withdrawal and job dissatisfaction as consequences, and emotional exhaustion as a moderator. A total of 875 employees in multinational organisations across three countries were panel surveyed. The overall result from the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated that the fit indices for the proposed model fulfilled all recommended levels. Importantly, emotional exhaustion was found to be the trigger point in the negative spiral of workplace incivility. Theoretical implications and practical considerations were discussed.
... Differentiating among specific negative emotions is crucial because different emotions lead to specific behaviours. For example, Porath and Pearson (2012) showed that anger was most strongly related to aggressive behaviours, whereas sadness led to withdrawal. In addition, and based on Smith and Lazarus (1990), experiencing and observing incivility are negative events that are likely to trigger different affective reactions. ...
... In addition, and based on Smith and Lazarus (1990), experiencing and observing incivility are negative events that are likely to trigger different affective reactions. Extending previous research that examined specific affective reactions among targets of incivility (Bunk & Magley, 2013;Porath & Pearson, 2012), the current study aims to examine targets' specific and short-term affective reactions to incivility. ...
... Such misbehaviours may thwart employees' basic psychological needs like the need to be respected and appreciated and to belong to a significant group, and thus may lead to poor psychological well-being such as negative mood. Whereas most studies have focused on general negative mood, some have considered its multidimensionality and shown that anger was the most common reaction to experienced incivility (Bunk & Magley, 2013;Porath & Pearson, 2012). Interestingly, targets only rarely reported feelings of sadness in a study where participants described their feelings regarding an uncivil event that bothered them the most in the last year (Bunk & Magley, 2013). ...
Article
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Research on workplace incivility principally has focused on targets’ reactions to uncivil behaviours. Moreover, incivility’s consequences have been separately investigated for targets and observers. In the present diary study (N = 164), we examined the short-term effects of experienced incivility on targets’ angry mood, depressive mood, and self-esteem. Also, we investigated the interplay between experienced and observed incivility in predicting targets’ well-being. Specifically, we expected daily observed incivility to buffer the detrimental effects of experienced incivility on depressive mood and self-esteem. Findings revealed that daily experienced incivility positively predicted targets’ angry and depressive mood. Moreover, observed incivility did moderate experienced incivility’s effects at the between-person level. In line with our assumption, the effects of experienced incivility on depressive mood and self-esteem were weaker for targets who observed frequent incivility. In general, our findings confirmed the detrimental effects of experienced incivility on well-being and support the buffering role of observed incivility.
... Negative work behavior is a serious problem in contemporary workplaces that causes harm for involved targets (Verkuil et al., 2015;Van Steijn et al., 2019) and incurs costs for companies (Porath and Pearson, 2012) and society (Carlson et al., 2011;Nielsen et al., 2017). Negative work behavior (NWB) was defined as an "exposure to ongoing negative and unwanted behavior by superiors or colleagues" (Glambek et al., 2020 p. 509), which is harmful to employees and the organization (Cooper et al., 2004;Pearson et al., 2005;Spector and Fox, 2005;Hogh et al., 2012). ...
... The occurrence patterns were A6. systematic behaviors, e.g., repetitive (Sexton and Brodsky, 1977;Einarsen, 2000), A7. duration (Martin and Hine, 2005;Hershcovis and Reich, 2013), A8. escalating behaviors, from mild into more severe forms (Leymann, 1996;Zapf and Gross, 2001), and A9.visibility, such as overt (Jensen et al., 2014) and covert NWB (Porath and Pearson, 2012). In Table 2, we coded positive labels of NWB. ...
... At time four, the NWB causes the loss of team-sprit, production, and absenteeism among team members, subsequently causing financial harm for the team (Harris and Ogbonna, 2006;Nielsen and Einarsen, 2018). At time five, HRM solves the problem through an intervention, e.g., a mediator, lawyer, organizational advice, or exit, causing financial harm to the organization (Porath and Pearson, 2012). This means that NWB from various actors in a network causes different harm at different times, whether direct or delayed in time (Beus et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The objective of this systematic review was to identify the overlapping and unique aspects of the operationalizations of negative work behaviors (NWBs) to specify a new integrative definition of NWB. More specifically, we examined (1) how many operationalizations and conceptualizations of NWB can be identified, (2) whether these operationalizations can be categorized into facets, i. e., the nature of NWB, harm, actor types, and roles, with subcategories, (3) what the meaningful overlap in these operationalizations was, (4) whether the operationalizations tapped unique and meaningful elements, i.e., positive labels and dynamic processes, and (5) how the overlapping and unique elements of the operationalizations could be integrated into a new theory-based research model for NWB for future research. In the literature search based on the Prisma framework, Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, we identified k = 489 studies that met the inclusion criteria of our review. The results of these studies revealed 16 frequently studied NWB labels, e.g., bullying and aggression. Many of these could be categorized in the same way, namely, in terms of the type of behavior, type of harm, and type of actor involved in the NWB. In our new definition of NWB, we integrated the content of the overlapping and meaningful unique elements of the 16 labels.
... Based on estimation in [15], cognitive distraction from work and project delays caused by workers being subjected to incivility lead to an annual cost of $14,000 per employee. In addition, employees who are the target of uncivil behavior in the workplace have to bear considerable human costs, such as emotional exhaustion [16], depression [17], and increased fear, sadness, and anger [18]. Moreover, lower organizational citizenship behavior [19], higher withdrawal behavior [5], turnover intention [20], and organizational exit [18] can all be behavior outcomes of employees who experience workplace incivility. ...
... In addition, employees who are the target of uncivil behavior in the workplace have to bear considerable human costs, such as emotional exhaustion [16], depression [17], and increased fear, sadness, and anger [18]. Moreover, lower organizational citizenship behavior [19], higher withdrawal behavior [5], turnover intention [20], and organizational exit [18] can all be behavior outcomes of employees who experience workplace incivility. Some studies also considered mediator or moderator variables in the relationship between perception of workplace incivility and turnover intention. ...
... An accumulation of unhealthy emotions in employees caused by workplace incivility may further lead to aggression and even trigger severe interpersonal conflicts [12]. This vicious cycle has the capacity to lead to serious negative effects on individuals and organizations [10,18,43]. Empirical evidence demonstrates that rudeness and uncivil behavior have negative effects on how individuals function at work, their creativity, work engagement, and their task performance ability [44,45]. ...
Article
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Incivility has been identified as a prevalent and crucial issue in workplaces and one that may be associated with detrimental effects on employees and organizational outcomes, such as turnover intention. Many studies have been published regarding the effects of incivility, but there is a lack of integrative reviews and meta-analyses. The aim of the present study is to conduct an early meta-analysis of the relationship between employees’ perceptions of workplace incivility and their turnover intentions. Six databases, including ISI Web of Science, PsychInfo, Scopus, Emerald, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, and Soc Index, were searched to identify empirical articles for this meta-analytical paper. The results of statistical meta-analyses and meta-regression suggest that there is a positive relationship between perceived incivility and turnover intentions in employees and that relationship is consistent across different sources of workplace incivility. However, we did observe a possible interaction effect of “supervisor” and “coworker incivility”. The results also suggest that the relationship between workplace incivility and turnover intention is stronger in the academic sector than in other industries and stronger in the United States than in other countries.
... Existing literature highlights the effects of undesirable acts of workplace deviance (mistreatment, deviance, incivility) on psychological perceptions and affective outcomes for individuals (e.g. Moon et al., 2018;Porath and Pearson, 2012) and workplace related outcomes (e.g., Barnes et al., 2015;Hershcovis and Barling, 2010;Oore et al., 2010;Laschinger et al., 2009). As such, we have focused on these two categories of outcomes in the present studies: a) psychological perception and affective outcomes (acceptability and discomfort of deviant behaviors) and b) workplace related outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions). ...
... Moon et al., 2018). However, it is important to note the limitation to only that emotion because other emotions such as embarrassment, anger, fear and sadness may also be experienced when faced with deviant behaviors in organizational context (e.g., Hershcovis et al., 2017;Porath and Pearson, 2012). Also, the relationship between individuals' normative reactions and organizational outcomes remains to be investigated in future research. ...
Article
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To examine the role of deviant status (lower vs. higher rank) and organizational structure (vertical vs. horizontal) on individuals’ responses to workplace deviance. Design/methodology/approach: Two studies (N = 472) were designed to examine the role of deviant status and organizational structure in responses to workplace deviance. Study 1 (N = 272) manipulated deviant status and organizational structure. Study 2 (N = 200) also manipulated deviant status but focused on participants’ subjective evaluations of the organizational structure of their workplace. Study 1 found that participants reported lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and higher turnover intentions when they imagined being confronted with deviant behaviors displayed by a manager (vs. by a subordinate), regardless of the type of organizational structure. Study 2 extended this finding by showing that the indirect effect of organizational structure (vertical vs. horizontal) on turnover intention via job satisfaction and organizational commitment was moderated by deviant status: when the deviant’s status was higher, working in a vertical (vs. horizontal) organization was associated with decreased job satisfaction and commitment, which in turn was associated with a higher level of turnover intentions.The findings broaden our understanding of how individuals respond to deviance at the workplace, by simultaneously considering the effects of organizational structure (vertical vs. horizontal) and deviant status (upward vs. downward directions of deviance).
... Studies find that targets of incivility experience greater psychological distress (Cortina et al., 2001) and reduced mental health (Lim et al., 2008), while organizations may suffer high financial costs due to incivility (Pearson & Porath, 2009). Additionally, targets of workplace incivility often experience negative emotions such as anger, fear, and sadness (Miner & Eischeid, 2012), which can lead to aggression and absenteeism (Porath & Pearson, 2012). ...
... While past studies acknowledge the importance of emotions in understanding how targets (e.g. Porath & Pearson, 2012) and observers (e.g., Miner & Eischeid, 2012) respond to incivility, to the best of our knowledge, only one study, focusing solely on instigator anger (Meier & Semmer, 2013), has examined how emotions influence incivility instigation. Given that emotions are recognized as having immense motivational power over behaviors (Rolls, 2000), we argue that a more comprehensive examination of the emotional antecedents of instigated incivility is needed. ...
Article
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While much is known about the prevalence and impact of incivility in the workplace, relatively less is known about those who instigate workplace incivility. This research aims to investigate incivility instigation through a moral lens by examining the roles of other-condemning moral emotions (contempt, disgust, and anger) and appraisals of coworkers’ morality as predictors of this behavior at work. In Study 1, we used structural equation modeling to analyze two waves of self-report data collected from a sample of 447 full-time United States (U.S.) working adults. Findings from this study indicate that appraising coworkers as low in morality elicited feelings of contempt, disgust, and anger. However, only contempt predicted incivility instigation and mediated the relationship between appraising coworkers as low in morality and instigating incivility. In Study 2, we collected self-report data from a sample of 309 full-time U.S. workers using a critical incident technique. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results from Study 2 replicated the association between low morality appraisals and contempt, anger, and disgust found in Study 1. However, anger predicted incivility instigation and mediated the relationship between appraising coworkers as low in morality and instigating incivility. Additionally, contempt and perceived civility norms had an interactive effect on instigated incivility. These studies provide insight into the roles of contempt, disgust, and anger in predicting incivility instigation, suggesting that employees may engage in incivility to condemn others who engage in moral transgressions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Many factors are reported to be caused by workplace incivility (Irum et al., 2020). Among these factors are the discomfort between the subordinate and the superior, primarily due to violations of the workplace rules (Meier & Semmer, 2013;Porath & Pearson;2012;Torkelson, Holm, Bäckström & Schad, 2016). In addition, it is observed that it reveals the workplace discomfort due to factors such as the difference in corporate policies, the way of management, the way of working, and the characteristics of people (Irum et al., 2020;Pearson, 2010;Torkelson et al., 2016). ...
... Many factors are reported to be caused by workplace incivility (Irum et al., 2020). Among these factors are the discomfort between the subordinate and the superior, primarily due to violations of the workplace rules (Meier & Semmer, 2013;Porath & Pearson;2012;Torkelson, Holm, Bäckström & Schad, 2016). In addition, it is observed that it reveals the workplace discomfort due to factors such as the difference in corporate policies, the way of management, the way of working, and the characteristics of people (Irum et al., 2020;Pearson, 2010;Torkelson et al., 2016). ...
... (Spence Laschinger et al., 2009) Stated that workplace incivility is the intensity of deviant behavior that aims to hurt the target and violate workplace norms. In a study conducted by (Porath & Pearson, 2012), 96-99% of survey respondents experienced or had witnessed workplace incivility. ...
... Inactivity can be interpreted as lowintensity behavior, which does not have a clear intention to harm, but still violates social norms and harms the emotions of the target employee. In other words, demeaning other people at work can be verbal communication, even though it seems trivial but still violates the norm (Porath & Pearson, 2012). The form of workplace incivility can be covert and overt. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the effect of Workplace Incivility and Job Burnout and Work Engagement their influence on employee turnover intention. The data analyzed is primary data with a sample of 119 permanent employees of heavy equipment operator PT Kaltim Prima Coal. The analytical method used is a regression with path analysis and using SPSS software. Findings. The results of this study indicate that: (1) Workplace incivility and job burnout partially have a direct and significant effect on employee turnover intention, while work engagement on employee turnover intention has no direct and significant effect. (2) Path analysis shows that work engagement is not able to mediate the effect of workplace incivility on employee turnover intention. Likewise, the effect of job burnout through work engagement on employee turnover intention is not significant. Originality. This study explores the direct and indirect effects of Workplace Incivility and Job Burnout on ta Work Engagement on Turnover Intention. Research object field employees or heavy equipment operator PT Kaltim Prima Coal KEYWORD: Workplace incivility, job burnout, work engagement, and turnover intention.
... For example, Clark (2012) studied bullying and incivility exhibited toward minority nurses and other health professionals in nursing schools, hospitals, and private practices to unpack how healing from such experiences can be brought to life in these organizational contexts. Porath and Pearson (2012) examined the emotional and behavioral response to incivility at work and called attention to the role of organizations in developing greater awareness about the harmful effects of fear and sadness caused by incivility in the workplace. De Maria (2010) studied how organizations attempt to recover from scandals after public exposure and identified three different types of responses (e.g., 'redemptive', 'tread water' and 'rogue') that organizations adopt. ...
... Second, our work seeks to expand the scope of research that tends to focus on the healing of individuals or suffering within organizations. In contrast to prior work on organizational healing that focuses on healing in response to harm experienced within organizational boundaries (Porath and Pearson 2012;Powley 2013;Powley and Piderit 2008), our paper seeks to expand attention to address organizational opportunity and responsibility for attending to harm experienced outside the boundaries of the organization. The typology we advance invites management scholars and practitioners to re-imagine for whom organizations are responsible. ...
Article
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Historic inequities exacerbated by COVID-19 and spotlighted by social justice movements like Black Lives Matter have reinforced the necessity and urgency for societies and organizations to bring healing into focus. However, few integrated models exist within management and organization scholarship to guide practice. In response, our focus aims to unpack how organizations can become healing spaces. This paper offers a holistic definition of healing as the foundation for a new conceptual model of organizations as healing spaces. Drawing upon literature from clinical psychology, social psychology, and political science, we identify four perspectives that address healing in organizational contexts: (1) restorative justice, (2) posttraumatic growth, (3) relational cultural theory, and (4) dignity. These healing modalities represent prominent views of how healing can be achieved at the individual, dyadic, organizational, and societal levels. Synthesizing and building on these perspectives, we develop a typology that illustrates three ways organizations can function as healing spaces — Emergent, Endeavoring, and Exemplifying — representing a range of opportunities for how organizations can better respond to suffering. These spaces of healing are differentiated across seven dimensions, including source of harm, recipients of healing, facilitators of healing, focus of healing, length and strength of organizational attention, process of healing, and activators or enablers of healing. This research contributes to organizational healing research and to nascent social justice discussions in the management literature by exploring a range of opportunities for how organizations can better respond to suffering and substantively contribute to remedying harm from systematic bias against marginalized groups via healing.
... INTERNATIONAL BLACK SEA COASTLINE COUNTRIES SYMPOSIUMçalışanların memnuniyet düzeyini düşürdüğü bulunmuştur(Kern ve Grandey, 2009;Cameron ve Webster, 2011;Lim ve Lee, 2011;Ferguson, 2012;Porath ve Pearson, 2012). İşyeri nezaketsizliğinin bireysel açıdan olumsuz sonuçlar yaratmakla birlikte örgütlerin etkinlik ve verimliliğini düşürdüğü de tespit edilmiştir. ...
Conference Paper
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İşyeri nezaketsizliği, işyerinde karşılıklı saygı kurallarının ihlal edilmesiyle düşük yoğunluklu olarak oluşan, niyeti tam olarak belli olmayan ancak hedefteki kişiye zarar veren sapkın bir davranış olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Çalışanlar hakkında küçümseyici yorumlar yapmak, çalışanları dinlememek ve görmezden gelmek, çalışma arkadaşları hakkında söylentiler yaymak işyerinde sergilenen nezaketsiz davranışlardan sadece bazılarıdır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı banka çalışanlarının işyeri nezaketsizliğini etkileyen demografik nitelikleri belirlemeye yöneliktir. Bu kapsamda ortaya çıkan sonuçlar literatüre katkı sağlamanın yanı sıra banka çalışanlarının iş yeri nezaketsizliğine maruz kalmalarının demografik açıdan değerlendirilmesine olanak sağlamaktadır. Araştırmanın evrenini Bingöl ilinde faaliyet gösteren banka çalışanları oluşturmaktadır. Veriler basit tesadüfi örneklem yöntemi ile belirlenen 105 banka çalışanından alınmıştır. Elde edilen veriler SPSS programından faydalanılarak teorik ve uygulama perspektiflerinden değerlendirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda işyeri nezaketsizliğinin cinsiyet, eğitim ve çalışma süresi açısından anlamlı bir farklılık gösterdiği bulunurken, yaş, medeni durum, statü ve gelir düzeyi değişkenleri açısından anlamlı bir farklılık bulunamamıştır. Alanyazın incelendiğinde işyeri nezaketsizliği ile demografik özelliklerin incelendiği araştırma sayısı yabancı literatürde fazla iken, yerli literatürde sınırlı sayıda olduğu görülmektedir. Bu bağlamda araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bilgilerin araştırmacılara ve literatüre katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
... Literature shows that employees who experience incivility may involve in negative 'emotional responses' to the situation. For instance, Bibi et al. (2013) found positive relations between incivility and production deviance, absenteeism (Porath & Pearson, 2012), burnout (Welbourne et al., 2015), reduced creativity (Porath & Erez, 2009), and 'turnover intention' (Laschinger et al., 2009). That results in a $50,000 loss to organizations per employee quit from a job in the USA (Sanchez & Levine, 2000). ...
Article
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Though workplace incivility is a negative behavioral phenomenon that has infiltrated almost every sector, yet, less investigated in the healthcare sector. The healthcare sector is the backbone for economic and well-being for any nation and mainly composed of nurses. Turnover among nurses is a serious challenge to public healthcare facilities in terms of management, financing, and service quality. Based on the COR theory, this study capitalizes investigation on the effects of incivility on turnover intention through burnout and occupational stress. Simple random sampling was deployed on a sample of 265 nurses from 24 public hospitals of Sindh in Pakistan. Data analysis through partial least square and results revealed that workplace incivility has insignificant relation with turnover intention. Whereas, incivility has a significant indirect relationship with turnover intention through burnout and occupational stress. This study suggests that emotional and occupational depletion in public healthcare is high due to incivility at the workplace. Thus, HR managers must devise policies to practice civil behavior to curtail turnover intention problem among nurses. Besides practical benefits, some limitations with potential future research directions are discussed in the end.
... In fact, the risks of ignoring negative emotions are even greater as negative emotions are associated with organizational losses and events that impede the accomplishment of goals, which in turn, can increase the occurrence of workplace deviance (Pearson, 2017). Indeed, past investigations have demonstrated that these negative feelings are related to poor organizational performance, turnover issues, employee withdrawal and sabotage (Porath & Pearson, 2012). One potentially important, yet virtually ignored emotion deserving attention in organizational behavior research, is the experience of envy (Duffy & Shaw, 2000). ...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to link envy at the workplace to social loafing and to examine the role of self-esteem in moderating this relationship. Data was collected via a survey questionnaire from 393 employees working in public and private organizations in Malaysia. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. The results show that the higher the degree of workplace envy encountered, the higher the inclination for members to exert less effort while working in a team (social loafing), and this relationship is moderated by self-esteem. In addition, it is found that the relationship is better for low self-esteem workers relative to those high in self-esteem. In terms of workplace envy and avoidance of social loafing, the research provides important implications. Organizations should etablish a supportive workplace that encourages employees to be more involved and practice openness and give continued support. In a team culture especially, managers must play an active role by paying attention and being more sensitive towards circumstances that induce feelings of envy at work. By implementing a proper system and control, tendency towards workplace envy and social loafing can be mimimized.
... A modortalanság egyfajta érzelemtelített beszédmód, pillanatnyi hangulatok lenyomata, szituatív válasz egy ingerre (vö. Porath-Pearson, 2012). Másként fogalmazva: ilyenkor a megszólaló nem gondolkodik azon, hogy mit csinál, mit mond, nem számol a következményekkel, egyszerűen felszakad benne valami, kiereszti a gőzt (Lane, 2017: 80.). ...
Article
A tanulmány a modortalanság és a politikai kommunikáció kapcsolatát vizsgálja. Célunk azon alapok lefektetése, amelyek a jövőbeli vizsgálatokat támogatják, és a modortalanság kapcsán születő politikatudományi empirikus elemzések kereteit kijelölik. Először áttekintjük a téma legfontosabb nemzetközi és hazai szakirodalmát, melynek során kitérünk a politikatudomány, a szociológia, a nyelvészet, a pszichológia és a kommunikációtudomány területeire. A modortalanság relevanciáját számos magyar példával támasztjuk alá, majd néhány kritikai észrevételt fogalmazunk meg a normasértés-paradigma kapcsán. Végül a modortalanság politikai kommunikációs eszközökkel történő vizsgálatának lehetőségeit járjuk körbe. Legfőbb állításunk, hogy a modortalanság tartalmi meghatározásának nehézségeiből adódóan a normasértésre épülő, normatív megközelítést bővíteni szükséges. Ezen konceptuális megújulás érdekében a jövőbeli kutatások számára három irányt vázolunk: a pszichológiai aspektusoknak, a modortalanság stratégiai és a lingvisztikai gyakorlatainak fi gyelembe vétele. A modortalanság megértéséhez elengedhetetlennek tartjuk a multimodális kutatási irányokat: a képi, a verbális és a hanganyagok vizsgálatának bevonását.
... It is also easy to speculate that the lack of EI among the leadership of the schools might cause most of the teachers to worry about various incidents that may occur in their schools. As indicated by Pearson and Porath (2012), the lack of EI in schools often leads to a decline in teacher performance, loss of work time due to unpleasant incidents in the schools, wasted time tiring to avoid an offender and wane in employee commitment as well as teacher attrition. The occurrence in most public schools coupled with the surge in the number of teacher attrition cases in Ghanaian schools annually seems to buttress the argument that most of the leaders in public schools lack EI. ...
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The study employed the explanatory sequential mixed methods design where quantitative and qualitative data sets were collected to address the research problem. Two hundred and sixty-two (262) headteachers were sampled randomly from the Central and Greater Accra regions of Ghana for the quantitative phase of the study whilst eight (8) headteachers were subsequently sampled purposively for the qualitative phase of the study. The quantitative data were analyzed using means and standards deviations whilst the qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The study found that the emotional intelligence of the headteachers was low. The study further established that the academic qualification of the headteachers was not a significant predictor of their Emotional Intelligence (EI). However, the gender and age of the headteachers predicted their EI significantly. It was concluded the EI level of the headteachers may affect how they lead and manage their respective schools. It is recommended that periodic pragmatic and purposeful in-service and workshops in EI should be provided for headteachers in the study area by the Metro Directorate of Education. Furthermore, the Circuit Supervisors, Metro Directors and the Ghana Education Service should liaise with the Ghana Psychological Council to provide psychological support for the headteachers in the Senior High Schools within the study area. Finally, the Ministry of Education through the Ghana Tertiary Education Commission should ensure that teacher education programmes that are offered in the institutions of higher learning in Ghana have contents in the area of emotional intelligence and educational leadership to equip headteacher in the management of their schools.
... The recipient of WPI will reduce the level of work input to the organization and team (Pearson et al., 2000), which may also reduce the working time to reduce the frequency of encountering WPI, and will also try to reduce the communication with the implementer of WPI. Research by Porath and Pearson (2012) pointed out that WPI may reduce employees' work quality. Guan (2014) ...
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Drawing upon the job demand–resource model and the theory of existence, relatedness, and growth needs, we established and checked a model that connects workplace incivility to employee work engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication, and absorption) through job insecurity. Furthermore, we propose and test self‐perceived employability as the boundary condition of this connection. The conclusions of two substudies with time‐delay design provided evidence to support theoretical models. Specifically, the conclusions of both studies show that workplace incivility has negative impacts on work engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication, and absorption) through job insecurity. The results of Study 2 show that self‐perceived employability not only weakens the negative influences of job insecurity on work engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication, and absorption) but also moderates the mediating roles of job insecurity in the relationships between workplace incivility and work engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication, and absorption). The theoretical and practical implications and limitations are discussed based on the conclusions of the two substudies.
... Uncivil behavior might take various forms such as ignoring, exclusion, demeaning, hostile looks [3], eye-rolling, interruptions, gossiping [4], disrespecting and insulting [5], etc. Such acts may look like a drama scene that takes place behind a closed door or just in front of an employee audience. ...
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Uncivil behavior at work can have numerous consequences for individuals and the organization. This paper examines the interplay of personality traits and organizational culture as antecedents of workplace incivility. Empirical research on a sample of 251 employees has shown that the perceptions and occurrence of workplace incivility can be significantly related to personality traits and features of organizational culture. When looking at the combined effect of personality and organizational culture, culture determines one’s perception and experience of incivility stronger than personality traits alone. The research showed that personality trait agreeableness and emphasizing values related to clan, market or adhocracy culture could reduce the odds of workplace incivility.
... Many people worry incivility is the new normal. Indeed, incivility has numerous negative effects, including decreased motivation, effort, performance, productivity, creativity, and prosociality, as well as increased aggressive behavior and negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger, and sadness; Porath, 2016;Porath & Pearson, 2012. Partisan politics and culture wars over controversial issues (such as sexuality, gender, and religion) have only exacerbated this upsurge of incivility. ...
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We are living in the most culturally diverse but perhaps least interculturally civil time in modern history, and the field of psychology is not immune. Over recent decades, our field has often engaged in divisive and uncivil dialogue, as people with diverse perspectives have criticized, derogated, or even demonized one another. This article explores how civility and cultural humility can help remedy such situations. We focus on the controversial intersection of religion/spirituality and sexuality/gender. Bringing together a diverse group of coauthors, we discuss how cultural humility and civility can help navigate controversy within the arenas of public policy, multicultural training, X Edward B. Davis, School of Psychology, Counseling , and Family Therapy,
... The findings of the study were congruent with affective events theory [53], which states that the prevalence of workplace incivility creates emotions in the employee that contribute to their behavior and attitude. In other words, victims of uncivil behavior develop an emotional response before a behavioral response [87]. Furthermore, [88] highlighted that negative emotions are difficult to manage, as they can lead to counterproductive knowledge behavior. ...
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This study aims to examine the influence of workplace incivility on knowledge-hiding behavior. The study also examines the moderating role of an individual’s need for achievement between the two constructs. The data was collected from 331 individuals through convenience sampling from the public sector in the unstable economy of Fiji. The proposed model was tested through structural equation modeling. While the average variance extracted and composite reliability exceeded the recommended threshold of 0.5 and 0.7, the Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.88 to 0.91. Thus, the measurement constructs were found to be suitable and sound for the research. The findings of the study show a significant positive relationship between workplace incivility and knowledge-hiding behavior accepted. Furthermore, the individual’s need for achievement significantly moderates the relationship between workplace incivility and knowledge-hiding behavior. While the extant literature implicitly regards workplace incivility as a negative phenomenon with a great tendency for knowledge-hiding behavior, this research shows that the deleterious effect of workplace incivility on knowledge-hiding can be moderated through an individual’s need for achievement. The findings further suggest that individuals with a need for achievement have a greater propensity to change the negative phenomenon into a positive challenge. This will be our major contribution to the extant literature. It is also proposed that the organization invest more in emotional management training, leadership training, empowering workers, and creating awareness of the importance of civil behavior at work. Finally, the implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Workplace incivility causes tremendous amounts of mental stress among employees (Cortina and Magley, 2009) despite it being the most insignificant form of workplace deviance (Porath and Pearson, 2012). Cascading incivility is the root cause of severe job attitude-related concerns (Lim and Cortina, 2005), deteriorating physiological health (Lim et al., 2008), and challenges to mental health (Miner et al., 2012). ...
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Objectives: Knowledge hiding is inappropriate behavior of employees at the workplace that makes the entire organization suffer a subtle yet significant loss. Lack of sharing makes the journey of learning an arduous process. This, in turn, gives rise to a series of uncivil behaviors, hence resulting in a decrease of functional interdependence (FI). The cascading result toll is a turnover intention (TI), resting only after turnover—an actual separation from the employer. Statistical analysis of the empirical data collected depicts the intensity of influence of FI and TI as a result of the knowledge-hiding behavior. Methods: Three hundred sixty-three executives employed in three public and two private manufacturing organizations in eastern India were the respondents in our study. To analyze the difference in variables of the study, a t -test was carried out. The statistical findings suggest no significant difference among study variables. This specifies that, despite a considerable difference in levels of management, there was no significant difference in perceiving workplace incivility, knowledge-hiding behavior, FI, and TI items of our instruments. Results: Correlation findings show a negative association between workplace incivility and functional interdependence ( r = −0.37 when the value of p is <0.01) and a positive association among workplace incivility and turnover intention ( r = 0.32 when the value of p is <0.01). The condensed effect of workplace incivility (β = −0.59 when the value of p is <0.001) along with an important presence of knowledge-hiding behavior (β = −0.68 when the value of p is <0.01) when the dependent variable is FI indicates that knowledge-hiding behavior is mediating a partial association among workplace incivility and FI. Similarly, the effect of workplace incivility (β = 0.43 when the value of p is <0.01) is decreased when the impact of knowledge-hiding behavior (β = 0.66 when the value of p is <0.001) was sizeable with TI being the dependent variable. Conclusion: The effect of knowledge hiding is inversely proportional to FI, whereas sharing has a direct relation with TI. An exhaustive data sample and a rigorous statistical analysis may give a clear picture of the amount of impact of TI and FI due to the lack of knowledge sharing and/or knowledge hiding.
... The third set of hypotheses is related to the triangular set of affective states, affect-driven behavior, and attitude. The impacts of affective states on the attitudes and affect-driven behaviors have grabbed the attention of many social science researchers (Porath and Pearson 2012). In this context, it is interesting to refer to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) that is as an affect-driven behavior which comes from positive emotions and feelings promoted by favorable characteristics of the work environment features such as positive reinforcement, autonomy, support, and the philosophy of servant leaders (Rosa-Díaz et al. 2019). ...
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This study aims at testing a few tenets of affective events theory (AET) from a predictive perspective in the context of Malaysian private higher education sector. Specifically, we examined the impact of workload and autonomy on academics’ job satisfaction through interpersonal conflict and affective states. Additionally, the impact of affective states on job satisfaction via job performance was considered. We gathered data from 325 academics and analyzed them through partial least squares methodology. Our findings corroborated AET tenets considerably. The importance of the joint consideration of workload and autonomy in positively contributing to job satisfaction was highlighted. In addition, positive affect was identified as a stronger predictor of job satisfaction (as an attitude) and job performance (as an affect-driven behavior), comparing with negative affect. Specifically, positive affect was the strongest construct in increasing academics’ job satisfaction in our theoretical model. The findings indicated policy relevance at both the macro and institutional levels and had managerial and practical implications for future research direction in human resource management in the private higher education sector.
... Incivility research explores the characteristics and behaviors of instigators as well as how the target experiences these acts and the associated psychological, behavioral, and organizational outcomes (e.g., Bunk & Magley, 2013;Pearson et al., 2001;Porath and Pearson, 2012). Incivility is a negative and depleting affective experience, which according to affective events theory (Weiss and Cropanzano, 1996) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), contributes negatively to and/or detracts from a range of attitudes and behaviors (Schilpzand, De Pater, & Erez, 2016). ...
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Persistent and pervasive rudeness and lack of respect are unfortunately common in workplaces today. The deleterious effects of this incivility at work may be even worse than previously demonstrated, impacting not only employee victims but also trickling down to those who employees contact. However, we propose that leaders who prioritize their followers’ needs above their own, also known as servant leaders, may be a critical preventative mechanism to reduce group-level incivility through promoting a virtuous climate. Applying social learning theory and social information processing theory, we argue that servant leaders role model virtuous character that contributes to a virtuous climate that influences group members to reduce incivility and, in turn, treat others well. We utilize the healthcare setting (1,485 nurses in 71 hospital units) to support this hypothesized process across multi-source measures of incivility from coworkers and team supervisors and three indicators of quality of patient care. Specific findings and implications for managers in healthcare settings and beyond are discussed.
... Notwithstanding the salience of this research, we observe the following gaps within the existing body of literature on workplace incivility. First, we note that while scholars have thoroughly documented the adverse impact of experienced workplace incivility on personal and work outcomes (Al-Hawari et al., 2019;Lim et al., 2008;Liu et al., 2019;Porath & Pearson, 2012), relatively limited research has explored the antecedents of uncivil employee behavior in organizations (Gallus et al., 2014;Meier & Semmer, 2013;Roberts et al., 2011;Rosen et al., 2016;Sharma et al., 2020;Torkelson et al., 2016). Furthermore, the limited studies examining the antecedents of workplace incivility have placed an exclusive emphasis on workplace-related factors (such as high job demands, experienced workplace incivility, lack of reciprocity, unfavorable social comparisons, and job insecurity, amongst others) in eliciting uncivil employee behaviors. ...
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Extant research has documented the role of workplace-related factors in eliciting uncivil employee behaviors in the workplace, while the role of family-related variables has been largely overlooked. Drawing on the work-home resources model and the conservation of resources theory, the present study attempts to bridge this gap in the literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and instigation of incivility towards subordinates in the workplace. In addition, this study examines the intervening role of family emotional exhaustion and the buffering role of mindfulness and LMX within the proposed relationship. Results based on time-lagged survey data collected from 282 supervisor-subordinate dyads indicate that family emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between family incivility and instigated workplace incivility. Results also indicate that mindfulness weakens the impact of family incivility on family emotional exhaustion, while LMX dampens the impact of family emotional exhaustion on instigated workplace incivility. Further, results suggest that mindfulness and LMX together mitigate the overall impact of family incivility on instigated workplace incivility through family emotional exhaustion. This study is an attempt to explore the spillover effects of family-related variables on uncivil employee behaviors in the workplace. Additionally, this study offers new insights with respect to the boundary conditions that may help to alleviate the ramifications of family incivility in the workplace. The results of this study may be utilized by managers in developing appropriate measures to prevent the incidence of uncivil behavior in the workplace.
... In numerous work settings, women are more likely than men to experience uncivil behaviors such as rude and discourteous comments, and men are the primary perpetrators of workplace incivility [16,20,21]. Examples of uncivil behaviors in the workplace include receiving a commendation for others' endeavors, peddling unverified reports about coworkers, nonchalant attitude towards collective tasks, sending unwanted emails to colleagues [19,22]. ...
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Background Exposure to workplace gender-based violence (GBV) can affect women's mental and physical health and work productivity in higher educational settings. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of GBV (workplace incivility, bullying, sexual harassment), and associated factors among Nigerian university women. Methods The study was an institutional-based cross-sectional survey. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 339 female staff from public and private universities in Enugu, south-east Nigeria. Data was collected using the Workplace Incivility Scale (WIS), Modified Workplace Incivility Scale (MWIS), Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R), and Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ). Descriptive statistics, independent samples t -test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, univariate ANOVA, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted at 0.05 level of significance. Results The prevalence of workplace incivility, bullying, and sexual harassment (SH) was 63.8%, 53.5%, and 40.5%. The 12-month experience of the supervisor, coworker, and instigated incivilities was 67.4%, 58.8%, and 52.8%, respectively. Also, 47.5% of the participants initiated personal bullying, 62.5% experienced work-related bullying, and 42.2% experienced physical bullying. The 12-month experience of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion were 36.5%, 25.6%, and 26.6%, respectively. Being aged 35–49 years (AOR 0.15; 95% CI (0.06, 0.40), and ≥ 50 years (AOR 0.04; 95% CI (0.01, 0.14) were associated with workplace incivility among female staff. Having a temporary appointment (AOR 7.79, 95% CI (2.26, 26.91) and casual/contract employment status (AOR 29.93, 95% CI (4.57, 192.2) were reported to be associated with workplace bullying. Having a doctoral degree (AOR 3.57, 95% CI (1.24, 10.34), temporary appointment (AOR 91.26, 95% CI (14.27, 583.4) and casual/contract employment status (AOR 73.81, 95% CI (7.26, 750.78) were associated with workplace SH. Conclusions The prevalence of GBV was high. There is an urgent need for workplace interventions to eliminate different forms of GBV and address associated factors to reduce the adverse mental, physical, and social health outcomes among university women.
... To be addressed by the governor as "the other one" suggests a level of ignorance and a lack of consideration for individuality and preoccupation of identification through social group membership (Cortina, 2008) as a gay woman. Workplace incivility is not an objective phenomenon, but rather a reflection of people's interpretations of how their actions made them feel (Porath & Pearson, 2012). Multiple interpretations generate a sense of ambiguity as to the motivations behind the behavior; in this instance, it was not perceived to be threatening, just grossly inconsiderate, a poor choice of language (Di Marco et al., 2018) and arguably homophobic. ...
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Female correctional staff face multiple challenges when working in a male prison environment. Perceptions of competence and gendered divisions of labor are prevalent in the negotiated order of a prison. Sexuality is a dynamic that is irrelevant to the demands of a correctional officer yet a significant identity to be managed and negotiated in interactions with both colleagues and prisoners. This study adopts an auto ethnographic approach to highlight discrimination in prison officer occupational culture. Drawing upon personal narratives whilst working in an adult male prison in England, lived experiences of homophobia and sexism are presented to identify the challenges faced as a gay female prison officer. Themes of sexual objectification, homophobia and workplace incivility identify failings within the English prison service in supporting workplace diversity and inclusivity.
... Bunk and Magley (2013) found that negative emotional responses (i.e., state anger, guilt, fear/anxiety, disgust) mediated the relationships between experienced incivility and reciprocation. Moreover, Porath and Pearson (2012) found that perceived rudeness was related to negative emotions, which in turn affected behavioral responses including aggression against instigators and others in the organization. Actually, Park and Martinez (2021) found sizable meta-analytical correlations between instigated incivility and job stress (ρ = .30) ...
Article
The present study proposes and examines a theoretical Dual Path Model of Experienced Workplace Incivility using meta-analytic relationships (k = 246; N = 145, 008) between experienced incivility and frequent correlates. The stress-induced mechanism was supported with perceived stress mediating the meta-analytical relationship between experienced incivility and occupational health (i.e., emotional exhaustion and somatic complaints). The commitment-induced mechanism was also supported with affective commitment to the organization mediating the relationship between experienced incivility and organizational correlates (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions). However, these paths were not able to explain the strong relationship between experienced and enacted workplace incivility. Moderating analysis revealed that the experienced-enactment link is stronger between coworkers, in comparison to incivility experienced from supervisors; experienced incivility is more strongly related to organizational correlates, when incivility is enacted by supervisors in comparison to coworkers, and in human service samples when compared to samples comprised of mixed occupations. We discuss theoretical and practical implications as well as directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... In line with the core characteristics of workplace incivility as outlined in Pearson et al. (2001), bias incidents are generally considered low-level or subtle violations of social norms that are carried out with ambiguous intentions (Montgomery et al., 2004). Also like other types of incivility Estes & Wang, 2008;Lim et al., 2008;Pearson & Porath, 2005;Porath & Pearson, 2012), bias incidents can result in strong emotional reactions, including anxiety and fear (Flanders, 2015;Wang et al., 2011), suggesting that bias incidents, like other forms of incivility, are interpreted through a threat lens. ...
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Purpose: Bystander intervention mitigates the negative impact of bias incidents in the workplace. However, intervention tends to be viewed as binary: intervention occurred or it did not. Consequently, research has focused on conditions under which witnesses of bias incidents choose to intervene, and less is known about how witnesses may intervene. This paper elucidates the intervention behavior choices available to witnesses of bias incidents and develops a bystander intervention behavior (BIB) scale. Design: To develop our scale, we used the three-phased Act Frequency Methodology (AFM). In Phase I, we surveyed faculty who had both witnessed a bias incident and seen someone intervene to address it. We asked these faculty to list the observed bystander intervention behaviors they had personally observed. In Phase II, different survey respondents and subject matter experts assessed the prototypicality of each of the behaviors in relation to the concept of bystander intervention. In Phase III, we tested the validity and reliability of the resulting 18-item scale and assessed the ability of bystander intervention behavior to mitigate the negative impact of bias incidents on the academic workplace. Findings: The BIB scale consists of two theoretically derived, empirically validated, and reliable dimensions; it can be used as a summary score to evaluate the extent to which colleagues intervene indirectly and directly when a bias incident occurs in the academic workplace. Originality/Value: This scale is valuable in advancing efforts to mitigate the negative effect of bias in the workplace and training colleagues to intervene in various ways when bias occurs.
... If the flow of incivility is top-down, then the victim's reaction is very cold, for such behaviors are considered appropriate for status "superior" even if it is against workplace norms of mutual respect. Further, Porath and Pearson (2012) reported the moderating effects of status difference between the targets and perpetrators on the relationship of incivility perception of the targets and their emotional and behavioral responses. It has been found that individuals in high power distance Asian countries find insult and other forms of workplace mistreatments from high-ranked perpetrators more acceptable than Western countries with low power distance (Power et al., 2013;Moon et al., 2018;Moon and Sanchez-Rodriguez, 2021;Loh et al., 2021). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to present an empirical account of the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of workplace incivility (experienced and instigated) in the Indian workplace. Design/methodology/approach The study sample consisted of 1,133 employees working in service organizations mainly banks, hotels, academic institutions and information technology firms. The authors tested the proposed model on the same set of respondents in two different studies. The phenomenon of instigated incivility and its determinants were examined in Study 1, while Study 2 looked at experienced incivility and its antecedents. The data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical operations in SPSS 24. Findings The results of both studies revealed that employees’ age, gender, educational qualification, position, nature of the organization, type of the organization and duration of working hours significantly predict the onset of workplace incivility. Nevertheless, marital status and tenure failed to predict the manifestation of uncivil behaviors in the organization. Research limitations/implications The scope of this study was restricted to the Indian service sector with a focus on only two types of workplace incivility (instigated and experienced). Practical implications The managers are advised to be mindful of employees’ socio-demographic differences while devising interventions to tackle the issues of uncivil acts at work. Originality/value This study is one of the pioneer attempts to explore the impact of socio-demographic factors on employees’ tendency to instigate and experience incivility at work in India. In doing so, the study enriches the scant literature on workplace incivility by establishing the role of individual differences in determining the occurrence of incivility in the workplace.
... Women are more likely to experience uncivil behaviors such as rude and discourteous comments, and men are the primary perpetrators of workplace incivility (Andersson, 1999;Loi,2015;Chui & Dietz, 2014). Uncivil behaviors at the workplace include receiving a commendation for others' endeavors, peddling unverified reports about coworkers, nonchalant attitude towards collective tasks, sending unwanted emails to colleagues (Pearson et al., 2005: Porath & Pearson, 2012. ...
Article
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The present publication was prepared by the Transport Division of ESCAP under the overall guidance of Ms. Azhar Jaimurzina Ducrest, Transport Connectivity and Logistics Section Chief and led by Mr. Edouard Chong, Economic Affairs Officer, Transport Division. The publication research team was headed by Prof (Dr.) Lalith Edirisinghe, Dean, Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, CINEC Campus, Sri Lanka; with the following authors: Ms. Viraji Waidyasekara, Ms. Lakshmi Ranwala, Mr. Sampath Siriwardena, Ms. Avanthi Medawattage, Ms. Dudulie De Silva and Ms. Wajira Rathnayake The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) serves as the United Nations regional hub promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development.
... A positive relationship can be seen between incivility and counterproductive work behaviors like damage, theft, turnover, abuse, and low productivity (Bibi et al., 2013;Ullah, Alam, Khan, Joseph, Farooq, and Noreen, 2022). Other studies also related the workplace incivility with the increased level of aggression, fear, and sadness (Porath& Pearson, 2012), burnout and dissatisfaction from the job (Welbourne et al., 2015;Kim et al., 2013), increased level of workplace stress (Beattie & Griffin, 2014;Khan, Ullah, Usman, Malik, Khan, (2020) reduced willingness of retaining with the organization (Lim et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Workplace incivility has gained much popularity in the past few years since people at their jobs are more stressed out and may intentionally or unintentionally display rudeness towards others. This negative behavior is damaging the whole work environment and makes an organization to be less productive. To curtail incivility at the organizational level, human resource development professionals have to decide on various training programs. So, this study creates a base knowledge by categorizing variables as antecedents of job stress and then how job stress can lead to uncivil behaviors. This research aims to investigate the level of instigated incivility in the banking sector of Pakistan. A quantitative research approach was used by employ a field survey in different banks. A questionnaire as an instrument was used to conduct the research. The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS, the 22 nd version. It was found that workaholism, job demands, and social support were significant predictors of job stress while job stress was found as a significant mediator between these variables and workplace incivility.
... Workplace incivility has been identified as an influential cause that negatively affects work related outcomes (e.g., job performance, job satisfaction, work disengagement) and nonwork related outcomes (e.g., stress, emotional exhaustion, work-life imbalance) (see Irum et al., 2020 for a review). Porath and Pearson (2012) showed that experiencing incivility in the workplace can induce negative feelings for individuals. Specifically, Estes and Wang (2008) found that individuals who encountered high levels of workplace incivility experienced psychological issues associated with depression and anxiety. ...
Article
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There has been an abundance of research on narcissism in the workplace. However, most research has focused on the overt (grandiosity) form of narcissism, as well as the effect of narcissism on uncivil behaviors of employees; research focusing directly on the effect of covert (vulnerability) narcissism on the employees’ experience of workplace incivility is lacking. The present research examined whether the personality trait (covert narcissism) of employees affects their experience of incivility considering two potential explanatory variables: self-esteem and perceived norms for respect. A total of 150 participants completed an online questionnaire, which consisted of four well-known measures: the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Perceived Norms for Respect, and the Workplace Incivility Scale. The results showed that employees with higher levels of covert narcissism are likely to have greater experiences of workplace incivility through the mediating role of perceived norms for respect. Although the relationship was not explained through the mediating role of self-esteem, it was instead observed that self-esteem and perceived norms for respect jointly affect employees’ experience of incivility at work. These findings broaden our understanding of workplace incivility by simultaneously considering the influences of personality traits, self-esteem, and workplace norms.
... Bunk and Magley (2013) found that negative emotional responses (i.e., state anger, guilt, fear/anxiety, disgust) mediated the relationships between experienced incivility and reciprocation. Moreover, Porath and Pearson (2012) found that perceived rudeness was related to negative emotions, which in turn affected behavioural responses including aggression against instigators and others in the organization. Actually, Park and Martinez (2021) found sizable meta-analytical correlations between instigated incivility and job stress (ρ = .30) ...
Preprint
The present study proposes and examines a theoretical Dual Path Model of Experienced Workplace Incivility using meta-analytic relationships (k = 246; N = 145, 008) between experienced incivility and frequent correlates. The stress-induced mechanism was supported with perceived stress mediating the meta-analytical relationship between experienced incivility and occupational health (i.e., emotional exhaustion and somatic complaints). The commitment-induced mechanism was also supported with affective commitment to the organization mediating the relationship between experienced incivility and organizational correlates (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions). However, these paths were not able to explain the strong relationship between experienced and enacted workplace incivility. Moderating analysis revealed that the experienced-enactment link is stronger between coworkers, in comparison to incivility experienced from supervisors; experienced incivility is more strongly related to organizational correlates, when incivility is enacted by supervisors in comparison to coworkers, and in human service samples when compared to samples comprised of mixed occupations. We discuss theoretical and practical implications as well as directions for future research.
... Research supports that experiencing incivility, from any source, is associated with affective outcomes such as increased negative emotions (e.g., Giumetti et al., 2013;Kabat-Farr et al., 2018;Kim & Shapiro, 2008;Porath & Pearson, 2012;Sakurai & Jex, 2012;Torres et al., 2017) and decreased positive emotions (e.g., Bunk & Magley, 2013;Guimetti et al., 2013;Reich & Hershcovis, 2015). In line with theory and research that argues for the finite nature of resources and cost of dealing with affective demands (Job Demands Resources Model, Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Conservation of Resources Theory, Hobfoll, 1989, we contend that experiences of incivility siphon resources otherwise allocated for general demands or future investments. ...
Article
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Workplace incivility, characterized by low-intensity, ambiguous, and rude interpersonal interactions, is typically conceptualized with an events-based perspective (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). Research suggests, however, that both experienced and enacted incivility may be more pervasive and occur consistently or repeatedly, and this cumulative strain experience may impact future enacted incivility. Here, we examine negative emotions and compassion fatigue as mechanisms that explain experienced and enacted incivility between nurses in a high-stake hospital setting and their patients. Data were collected once per week for 4 weeks, enabling us to examine how these relationships unfold over time. Results from the four-wave survey indicate that experienced patient incivility is positively related to negative emotions and to compassion fatigue and that perceived patient acuity can exacerbate these detrimental relationships. Lastly, experienced patient incivility is related to increased future enacted incivility towards patients indirectly through increased negative emotions and compassion fatigue. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to incivility leads to both poor well-being outcomes for the target of incivility and to future enacted incivility. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Controlled variables. Prior research suggests that demographic variables such as age, gender, education level and working years influence employee behavior and judgments [60]. Different ages, gender, and education level of employees may lead to differences in physical ability and energy, which will directly affect the likelihood of spreading workplace gossip [61]. ...
Article
The development of electronic information technology has made workplace gossip more ubiquitous. As a part of interpersonal communication on informal occasions, positive workplace gossip affects individuals’ mood, cogni-tion, and behaviors. In light of this and based on the Social Interdependence Theory, the study proposed that positive workplace gossip has a negative effect on employee silence, and psychological safety mediates this rela-tionship. In addition, the promotion-focused moderates the relationship between psychological safety and employee silence. Based on a two-wave sampling design from 311 innovative enterprises employees, the results of Structural Equation Model by AMOS 22.0 and Mplus 7.0 supported all the hypotheses. Results revealed that positive workplace gossip can decrease the employee silence through the mediating role of psychological safety and moderating role of promotion-focused. These findings provided theoretical implications and practical sugges-tions for enterprise managers to create positive communication climate to reduce employee silence.
... Second, based on affective events theory (AET; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), we propose that negative emotions will mediate the relationship between daily email incivility and cyberloafing. Face-to-face workplace incivility as a negative affective event (Porath & Pearson, 2012) has been previously linked to negative emotions in both between-person (e.g., Sakurai & Jex, 2012) and within-person (e.g., Tremmel & Sonnentag, 2018;Zhou et al., 2015) designs. Thus, despite being communicated via email instead of face-to-face, email incivility is also likely to be perceived as a negative work event that can elicit negative emotions because, similarly to face-to-face incivility, email incivility also violates the norm of mutual respect (Lim & Teo, 2009). ...
Article
The increasing prevalence of information communication technologies (e.g., computers, smartphones, and the internet) has made the experience of email incivility and the engagement in cyberloafing more common in the workplace. In this present study, we examined how experiencing email incivility at work can positively predict employees' cyberloafing. Based on affective events theory, we examined negative emotions as a mediator and trait prevention focus and daily workload as moderators. With daily diary data collected twice per day over 10 workdays from 113 full-time employees, we found that morning passive email incivility positively predicted afternoon cyberloafing via midday negative emotions while morning active email incivility did not. Further, trait prevention focus significantly moderated the relationship between active email incivility and negative emotions while daily workload significantly moderated the relationship between passive email incivility and negative emotions. The findings of the present study contribute to a deeper understanding of how employees' negative experiences affect their deviant behaviors in the virtual world. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Nevertheless, what is the medium to release the frustration caused by incivility, it has negative consequences for victims, and it triggers negative emotions among them (Porath and Pearson, 2012), such state filled with negative emotions motivates employees to showcase different self-defensive behaviors in the future to cope the poisonous effects of workplace incivility (Sears and Humiston, 2015). ...
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Workplace incivility is under investigation for the last three decades, and it holds a central position in organizational behavior literature. However, despite the extensive investigations in the past, there exists a missing link between workplace incivility and knowledge hiding in academia. This study aims to tap this missing link for which data were collected from the universities staff. Data were collected in two waves to reduce the common method biases. In the first wave, questions were asked from the respondents regarding their demographic characteristics and exposure to workplace incivility. At this stage, 400 questionnaires were floated and 355 completely filled responses were received back, while in the second wave, those respondents were approached for data collection who have completely filled questionnaires in the first wave. The time interval between the two waves was 1 month. In the second wave, questions related to distrust and knowledge hiding behavior were asked from the respondents. At this stage, 323 questionnaires were received back out of which 290 were filled and these were considered for final data analysis. Collected data were analyzed by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) through SmartPLS. Results indicated that employees tend to hide knowledge when they experience incivility at workplace. Moreover, they develop a sense of distrust in response to workplace incivility which further triggers them to hide knowledge. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.
... For example, conflicts with supervisors were found to have a positive impact on negative emotions such as anger [23]. In addition, the supervisors' social disturbance had a positive effect on negative emotions, and the experience of injustice in an organization raises anger [24]. ...
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This study investigated the effects of supervisors’ incivility regarding employees’ deviant behavior, the mediating effect of anger, and the moderating role of moral identity in the relationship between incivility and deviant behavior. To test our hypotheses, we collected data from supervisor–employee dyads in South Korean military units, applying a time-lagged design, hierarchical regression, and SPSS macro. The results elicited three relevant findings. First, supervisors’ incivility was found to positively influence employees’ deviant behavior. Second, employees’ anger was confirmed to have a mediating effect between supervisors’ incivility and employees’ deviant behavior. Third, the analysis demonstrated that moral identity moderates the relationship between anger and deviant behavior, and incivility through anger has an indirect effect on deviant behavior. These findings imply that supervisors’ incivility, which is readily observed within the organization, is a harmful behavior that increases anger and deviant behavior. These findings suggest that negative leadership should be minimized and employees with high moral identity should be selected to reduce deviant behavior that harms the organization.
... Academic incivility is characterized by low-intensity negative or uncivil behavior, including belittling, degrading, condescending, or disparaging behavior (Porath and Pearson 2012). It is gendered ( Johnson-Bailey 2015), making women perceive their workplace as sexist and biased (Settles and O'Connor 2014). ...
... Workplace incivility has many important individual-and organization-level outcomes. Workplace incivility may elicit emotional responses such as fear, anger, or sadness (Porath & Pearson, 2012). Reio and Ghosh (2009) also found that workplace incivility led to lower job satisfaction, higher psychological distress, and higher intent to turn over. ...
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Despite the growing use of virtual communication technology and flexible work sites allowing for remote teamwork, little research has been done to systematically review workplace incivility within this context. The literature on workplace incivility has primarily been through the lens of Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology, focusing on antecedents and correlational organizational outcomes. Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) strategies may provide additional insight for developing sustainable interventions for workplace incivility. The current paper discusses how OBM can supplement the I/O Psychological incivility literature and may provide additional insight into environmental context and prevention tactics for virtual workplace incivility. Specifically, we (a) identify contextual events that predict civil or uncivil behaviors by assessing antecedents, consequences, and interlocking contingencies, (b) consider value-enhancing or -abating motivating operations, (c) describe a functional assessment for pinpointing problem behaviors, and (d) suggest several potential interventions for mitigating virtual incivility.
... These managers may not trust themselves or their employees and are more likely to use uncivil language in their electronic communication to compensate for their lack of self-confidence. (Porath & Pearson, 2012) found that being targeted by incivility is strongly related with being with angry and fearful. Anger and fear are indicators of managers who have low self-confidence and are more likely to engage in micromanagement potentially leading to uncivil CWPI. ...
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Although workplace incivility has received increasing attention in organizational research over the past two decades, there have been recurring questions about its construct validity, especially vis-à-vis other forms of workplace mistreatment. Also, the antecedents of experienced incivility remain understudied, leaving an incomplete understanding of its nomological network. In this meta-analysis using Schmidt and Hunter's [Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (3rd ed.), Sage] random-effect meta-analytic methods, we validate the construct of incivility by testing its reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, as well as its incremental predictive validity over other forms of mistreatment. We also extend its nomological network by drawing on the perpetrator predation framework to systematically study the antecedents of experienced incivility. Based on 105 independent samples and 51,008 participants, we find extensive support for incivility's construct validity. Besides, we demonstrate that demographic characteristics (gender, race, rank, and tenure), personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, negative affectivity, and self-esteem), and contextual factors (perceived uncivil climate and socially supportive climate) are important antecedents of experienced incivility, with contextual factors displaying a stronger association with incivility. In a supplementary primary study with 457 participants, we find further support for the construct validity of incivility. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this study. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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Background: Interactions with clients have been identified as a key potential stressor within veterinary practice. However, there is a lack of research investigating the experience, and impact, of specific behaviours, such as incivility. The current study aimed to address this literature gap by investigating veterinarian perceptions of client rudeness. Method: Telephone interviews (n = 18) were used to gather qualitative data regarding veterinarian perceptions of client rudeness. This encompassed description of an uncivil interaction, potential causes of incivility, the impact on the veterinarian and coping strategies. Results: The results indicate that veterinarians are exposed to a range of rude behaviours from clients, with suggested causal attributions spanning financial concerns, stress and worry. Adverse consequences associated with uncivil interactions included increased stress, mental health impacts and withdrawal from clients. Responses to incivility encompassed proactive pre-planning, empathy and clear communication. Support from colleagues was important to enable reflection and coping, alongside individual strategies, such as self-care. Conclusion: Client incivility has the potential to adversely impact veterinarians. Appraisal of potential external causes for rudeness could facilitate constructive responses to client incivility and support coping. This should be combined with emotional support from colleagues to mitigate any negative consequences following uncivil client interactions.
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Aim: The aim was to explore 1) the relationship between nursing faculty attributes and their experiences with workplace incivility and 2) the impact of experiences with workplace incivility on the physical and psychological health of nursing faculty. Background: Qualitative evidence suggests that workplace incivility impacts the physical and psychological health of nursing faculty. This has not been explored in a quantitative manner. Method: A cross-sectional, correlational survey was distributed to nursing faculty teaching in the southeastern United States. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and hierarchical multivariate multiple regression. Results: Faculty age, full-time status, highest degree earned, orientation programs, and program type were significantly related to experiences with workplace incivility. Workplace incivility was significantly related to an increase in headaches, sleep disturbances, and digestive problems and a decrease in subjective well-being. Conclusion: Workplace incivility significantly impacts the physical and psychological health of nursing faculty.
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Workplace relational aggression incurs substantial costs to organizations in the form of reduced employee effectiveness and can exact a personal toll on the targets of the aggression. The extant literature contains limited studies related to physiological variables in predicting the perpetration of workplace relational aggression. Using survey data from a large US military sample (N = 2290), this research tested a hypothesized indirect effects model of sleep and relational aggression against unit members. Results suggest that subjective sleep duration and discontinuity are associated indirectly with perpetrating relational aggression against unit members through higher levels of poor mental health symptoms. Moreover, this association was more robust at higher versus lower levels of trait anger. This research is among the first to examine sleep disturbance or mental health as potential upstream factors associated with instigating relational aggression in the workplace. This is also among the first scientific studies on perpetrating relational aggression against unit members in the US military.
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The negative workplace behaviors are relevant to understand qualified nurses' job satisfaction and their advance level roles. The focus of this study is to reveal the impact of role conflict and workload on job satisfaction of degree holder nurses and moderating role of perceived organizational support. The data collected through adopted questionnaire from clinical degree holder nurses and nurse educators of public hospitals and nursing colleges and both are degree holder nurses working in clinical setting and academia. The questionnaires were 350 in numbers but only 300 were responded. SPSS software used to analyze the respondents' feedback. The results showed that workload and role conflict are negatively significantly correlated with job satisfaction. The study findings also provide the evidence that perceived organizational support moderates the negative impact of role conflict on job satisfaction of degree holder nurses. The strength of this study is to provide implications for medical and nursing leadership to enhance organizational support and to promote the advance roles such as Advance Nurse Practitioner (ANP) for qualified nurses in health sector.
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Workplace incivility has many negative effects, but its impact on personal initiative and related mechanisms are still unclear. Drawing from conservation of resource theory, we tested the relationship between workplace incivility, emotional exhaustion, meaningful work, and personal initiative. The results from three-wave lagged and multisource data ( N = 229) indicated that workplace incivility was negatively correlated with personal initiative, and this relationship was mediated by emotional exhaustion. In addition, meaningful work attenuated the relationship between workplace incivility and personal initiative. The findings reveal that workplace incivility hurts employees’ personal initiative in the organizational context by depleting individuals’ emotional resources, leading to emotional exhaustion, while meaningful work is a critical cognitive resource that can buffer this relationship. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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This study aims to improve the understanding of perceived managerial decency by developing an initial set of items for its measurement scale. Based on the social exchange theory and driven by the strong need for instilling more decency and civility in managerial discourse, this study makes a comprehensive overview of the scope and domain of perceived managerial decency and extracts the potential decency dimensions. After conducting a literature review, 50 collected interview responses on typical examples of managerial decency, as perceived by employees, served as a basis for further analysis. Using the content analysis tools, we generated a set of initial items and dimensions of decency. Those were further refined by 21 experts (5 from academia and 16 from the target audience) using the means of qualitative and quantitative assessment. as a result, we define the perceived managerial decency construct and outline its six potential dimensions: (1) respectful interactions, (2) treatment with good manners, (3) employee development, (4) mutual trust, (5) decent feedback, and (6) providing insight into a bigger picture, as well as generate a set of 75 valid items that reflect the decency construct. We further discuss the research implications for theory and practice.
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Many workers are subjected to incidents of rudeness and ignorance at work. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to such incivility has an immediate impact on people’s daily well-being and commitment. In this article we contribute to this nascent area of enquiry by investigating the role of discrete emotions in explaining how exposure to incivility translates into detrimental daily consequences, and by examining whether the role of emotions varies depending on whether incivilities occur during face-to-face versus online interactions. In a diary study of 69 workers, we find that face-to-face incivility has a pronounced daily impact on workers’ exhaustion and turnover intention, and that this impact is mediated by increased feelings of sadness and anger, but not fear. In contrast, cyber incivility only affects workers’ emotional exhaustion as a result of increases in sadness. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of daily effects of workplace incivility and the divergent daily effects of face-to-face versus cyber incivility.
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The current study bridges literatures on sexual harassment, person-environment systems, and stress and appraisal processes. Conventional wisdom equates severity of sexual harassment with type of harassment. We test this notion empirically and posit a more comprehensive model that examines both person- and situation-level variables. Data came from 13,743 U.S. Armed Forces women responding to survey questions about a significant experience of sexual harassment. Multiple regression results indicate that pervasiveness of sexual harassment relates outcomes better than does type of sexual harassment. Pervasiveness and type interact to predict subjective appraisal of harassment. Additionally, according to multiple-group structural equation models, appraisal mediates relations between pervasiveness and outcomes. Results further suggest that relations among sexual-harassment antecedents and outcomes are consistent, regardless of the type of sexual harassment. These findings highlight the importance of examining both persons and situations when assessing sexual harassment severity.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recent models of unethical behavior have begun to examine the combination of characteristics of individuals, issues, and organizations. We extend this examination by addressing a largely ignored perspective that focuses on the relationships among actors. Drawing on social network analysis, we generate propositions concerning types of relationships (strength, multiplexity, asymmetry, and status) and the structure of relationships (structural holes, centrality, and density). We also consider the combination of the type and structure of relationships and how this embeddedness perspective relates to social contagion and conspiracies.
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Contrary to the impression generated by an increasing number of news reports in the past several years, the occurrence of workplace violence—extreme acts of aggression involving direct physical assault—represents a relatively rare event in work settings. However, workplace aggression—efforts by individuals to harm others with whom they work or have worked—are much more prevalent and may prove extremely damaging to individuals and organizations. This paper presents empirical evidence on the varied forms of workplace aggression and their relative frequency of occurrence in work settings. We offer a theoretical framework for understanding this phenomenon—one based on contemporary theories of human aggression—and demonstrate how principles associated with this framework may be applied to the management and prevention of all forms of aggressions in workplaces.
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This study contrasts community violence and an organization's procedural justice climate (or lack thereof) as explanations for employee-instigated workplace aggression in the geographically dispersed plants of a nationwide organization. The findings showed that violent crime rates in the community where a plant resided predicted workplace aggression in that plant, whereas the plant's procedural justice climate did not.
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Contrary to the impression generated by an increasing number of news reports in the past several years, the occurrence of workplace violencemextreme acts of aggression involving direct physical assault represents a relatively rare event in work settings. However, workplace aggression--efforts by individuals to harm others with whom they work or have worked---are much more prevalent and may prove extremely damaging to individuals and organizations. This paper presents empirical evidence on the varied forms of workplace aggression and their relative frequency of occurrence in work settings. We offer a theoretical framework for understanding this phenomenon---one based on contemporary theories of human aggression----and demonstrate how principles associated with this framework may be applied to the management and prevention of all forms of aggression in workplaces.
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This article advances a theory of incivility as a veiled manifestation of sexism and racism in organizations. To support this argument, I draw from social psychological research on modern discrimination. The result is a multilevel model of selective incivility, with determinants at the level of the person, organization, and society. Selective incivility could be one mechanism by which gender and racial disparities persist in American organizations, despite concerted efforts to eradicate bias. I dis- cuss scientific and practical implications.
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This study integrates findings from the Latin cultural literature and past sexual harassment re- search into a culturally relevant model of the sexual harassment process, framed by cognitive theories of stress and appraisal. Specifically, within a community sample of 184 harassed Latinas, we assessed both universal and culturally salient factors related to targets, perpetrators, harassing behaviors, and organizational contexts. Path analyses then suggested relations be- tween these factors and Latinas' phenomenological experiences of sexual harassment. Further, the more experientially severe the sexual harassment, the more that Latinas reported job dissat- isfaction, organizational withdrawal, psychosomatic symptoms, and life dissatisfaction. In sum, this project contextualized the sexual harassment process by identifying sociocultural de- terminants of its impact on Latina working women. Before one can begin to understand and address the phenom- enon of violence against women—in all its various forms—one must understand the context in which that phe- nomenon is allowed to occur. (APA Taskforce on Male Vio- lence Against Women, 1994, p. 3)
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This paper examines how unexpected neighborhood changes influence fear of crime. It focuses on the roles of population composition, signs of incivility, and unsupervised peer teen groups. Survey, physical assessment, and census data for 1, 622 residents in 66 Baltimore city neighborhoods form the basis of contextual models of daytime and nighttime fear levels. Fear was high in neighborhoods experiencing unexpected increases in minority and youth populations. Unexpected ecological change does not by itself set in motion a broad array of consequences undermining neighborhood viability. Rather, ecological change influences racial composition; other structural dynamics, independent of these ecological changes, subsequently determine the specific consequences of neighborhood racial composition.
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This study investigated the relationships between blame, victim and offender status, and the pursuit of revenge or reconciliation after a personal offense. Results from a sample of 141 government agency employees showed that blame is positively related to revenge and negatively related to reconciliation. In addition, victim-offender relative status moderated the relation between blame and revenge such that victims who blamed sought revenge more often when the offender's status was lower than their own. The victims' own absolute hierarchical status also moderated this relation such that lower, not higher, status employees who blamed sought revenge more often.
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Recent news reports have focused attention on dramatic instances of workplace violence—extreme acts of aggression in work settings. It is suggested here that such actions, while both tragic and frightening, are only a small part of a much larger problem of workplace aggression—efforts by individuals to harm others with whom they work or the organizations in which they are employed. The present study investigated two major hypotheses with respect to such aggression: 1) contrary to what media reports suggest, most aggression occurring in work settings is verbal, indirect, and passive rather than physical, direct, and active; 2) recent changes in many organizations (e.g., downsizing, increased workforce diversity) have generated conditions that may contribute to the occurrence of workplace aggression. A survey of 178 employed persons provided partial support for both predictions. Verbal and passive forms of aggression were rated as more frequent by participants than physical and active forms of aggression. In addition, the greater the extent to which several changes had occurred recently in participants' organizations, the greater the incidence of workplace aggression they reported. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Evidence is reviewed which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Subjects are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes.
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In this article we introduce the concept of workplace incivility and explain how incivility can potentially spiral into increasingly intense aggressive behaviors. To gain an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie an "incivility spiral," we examine what happens at key points: the starting and tipping points. Furthermore, we describe several factors that can facilitate the occurrence and escalation of an incivility spiral and the secondary spirals that can result. We offer research propositions and discuss implications of workplace incivility for researchers and practitioners.
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Research into the role that emotions play in organizational settings has only recently been revived, following publication in 1983 of Hochschild's The Managed Heart. Since then, and especially over the last five years, the tempo of research in this field has stepped up, with various initiatives such as conferences and e-mail discussion lists playing significant roles. This Special Issue is another initiative in this genre. The six papers in the Special Issue were selected from forty submissions, and cover a wide range of contemporary research issues. The papers deal with the relationship of mood to job characteristics and to job satisfaction, manifestation of anger in dyadic relationships, perceptions and effects of emotional labor, emotional intelligence in selection interviews, and the effects of displays of sadness and anger by leaders. In this introduction, we broadly introduce the topic of emotions in workplace settings, summarize the six papers, and present some directions for future research. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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Three vignette studies examined stereotypes of the emotions associated with high- and low-status group members. In Study 1a, participants believed that in negative situations, high-status people feel more angry than sad or guilty and that low-status people feel more sad and guilty than angry. Study 1b showed that in response to positive outcomes, high-status people are expected to feel more pride and low-status people are expected to feel more appreciation. Study 2 showed that people also infer status from emotions: Angry and proud people are thought of as high status, whereas sad, guilty, and appreciative people are considered low status. The authors argue that these emotion stereotypes are due to differences in the inferred abilities of people in high and low positions. These perceptions lead to expectations about agency appraisals and emotions related to agency appraisals. In Study 3, the authors found support for this process by manipulating perceptions of skill and finding the same differences in emotion expectations.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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Research now indicates that mothers' experiences of employment are more predictive of children's behavior than is mothers' employment status. A four-stage model of how mothers' interrole conflict and satisfaction with the role of employed mother affect children's behavior was developed and tested by using path analysis. In a sample of 147 employed mothers, the model provided an excellent fit to the data. The relationship between maternal employment role experiences (interrole conflict and satisfaction with maternal employment) and children's behavior (attention/immaturity, conduct disorder, and anxiety/withdrawal) was mediated by personal strain (cognitive difficulties and negative mood) and parenting behavior (punishment and rejection).
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A relatively new and promising area of research is the effect of mood in the workplace. In an effort to extend existing literature on the subject, we examined the impact of two mood dimensions (positive affect and negative affect) on employees’ withdrawal behavior—specifically, on their absenteeism and turnover from an organization. A longitudinal study of 129 employees of a division of an electronics firm revealed that positive affect reduced absenteeism, while negative affect increased absenteeism and turnover. Job satisfaction moderated the relationship between positive affect and absenteeism. These results point to the importance of considering both job attitudes and emotions in efforts to predict and manage employee withdrawal behavior.
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These studies addressed expectancies concerning the emotion-eliciting conditions experienced by individuals of differing status, the emotions experienced and displayed by these individuals, and the norms dictating their display of emotions. As expected, participants in Study 1 judged low-status relative to high-status individuals as (1) more likely to experience elicitors of anger, disgust, sadness, and fear, (2) less likely to experience elicitors of happiness, and (3) generally equally likely to experience elicitors of love. In agreement with Study 1, participants in Study 2 perceived low-status relative to high-status individuals as experiencing (1) more anger, sadness, and fear,(2) less happiness, and (3) similar levels of love. Participants in Study 2 also perceived low-status relative to high-status individuals as displaying less anger and disgust, more sadness and fear, less happiness, and similar levels of love. Findings of Study 3 indicate that the perceived discrepancy between experience and display for both anger and disgust in Study 2 reflects people's beliefs regarding norms of emotional expression.
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Although research shows wide agreement that emotions are responsive to social incentives and environmental outcomes, there is little agreement about how to characterize the social environment productively in order to predict emotions. I review here several approaches, selecting a model of social relations in two dimensions, called here power and status, that is well supported in the research literature across diverse domains as well as cross cultures. I use a theory of emotions based on power-status outcomes of social relations to 'predict' a set of 162 emotions reported by respondents in the eight-nation study of emotions by Scherer, Wallbott, and Summerfield (1986). Hypotheses about four emotions-fear, anger, sadness, and joy-are supported in two studies. Finally, I discussed the interpretative issues in the method used here.
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We present a model that captures processes leading to aggressive behaviors in the workplace. Starting with trigger events, the model outlines the development of aggressive behaviors via three processing routes that vary in their level of deliberate, mindful processing. The model outlines how repeated exposure to trigger events can lead to the escalation of workplace aggression while also highlighting the moderating role of such factors as an individual's level of self-control and attitude toward revenge.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.