Orientation programs, as part of organizational socialization, provide newcomers with information familiarizing them with a compay. In this study of a sample of 135 employees, orientation program content was perceived to influence current general job satisfaction, moderated by organizational size and tenure.
Cognitive ability (CA) or intelligence testing has been hailed "as the most practical contribution made to humanity by all of psychology" (Roberts, Markham, Matthews, & Zeidner, in press). Spearman's paper from 100 years ago, "General Intelligence, Objectively Determined and Measured," was the initial turning point in directing attention to the construct of CA. Fascinating, detailed historical reviews of CA testing may be found in Carroll (1993) and Roberts et al.
Sustainable competitive advantage has proved elusive for companies in the 1990s. While making enormous investments in technology, research, and state-of-the-art marketing, many of today's managers continue to ignore the single most important factor in achieving and maintaining competitive success: people. Yet all evidence indicates that the source of competitive advantage is shifting from technology, patents, or strategic position to how a company manages its employees. In this excerpt from his newly published book, Competitive Advantage through People, Jeffrey Pfeffer describes how successful companies have overcome the barriers to change and offers a solid framework—with specific actions—for implementing these changes in any industry.
Personality constructs have been demonstrated to be useful for explaining and predicting attitudes, behaviors, performance, and outcomes in organizational settings. Many professionally developed measures of personality constructs display useful levels of criterion-related validity for job performance and its facets. In this response to Morgeson et al. (2007), we comprehensively summarize previously published meta-analyses on (a) the optimal and unit-weighted multiple correlations between the Big Five personality dimensions and behaviors in organizations, including job performance; (b) generalizable bivariate relationships of Conscientiousness and its facets (e.g., achievement orientation, dependability, cautiousness) with job performance constructs; (c) the validity of compound personality measures; and (d) the incremental validity of personality measures over cognitive ability. Hundreds of primary studies and dozens of meta-analyses conducted and published since the mid 1980s indicate strong support for using personality measures in staffing decisions. Moreover, there is little evidence that response distortion among job applicants ruins the psychometric properties, including criterion-related validity, of personality measures. We also provide a brief evaluation of the merits of alternatives that have been offered in place of traditional self-report personality measures for organizational decision making. Given the cumulative data, writing off the whole domain of individual differences in personality or all self-report measures of personality from personnel selection and organizational decision making is counterproductive for the science and practice of I-O psychology.
This study used meta-analytic techniques to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and performance outcomes. A total of 69 independent studies were located that reported correlations between EI and performance or other variables such as general mental ability (GMA) and the Big Five factors of personality. Results indicated that, across criteria, EI had an operational validity of .23 (k=59, N=9522). Various moderating influences such as the EI measure used, dimensions of EI, scoring method and criterion were evaluated. EI correlated .22 with general mental ability (k=19, N=4158) and .23 (Agreeableness and Openness to Experience; k=14, N=3306) to .34 (Extraversion; k=19, N=3718) with the Big Five factors of personality. Results of various subgroup analyses are presented and implications and future directions are provided.
Emotional intelligence is a relatively new concept and little research to date has examined group differences in test scores. In this study a common measure of emotional intelligence (EI) was administered to 275 participants (216 female) to examine how different groups score on a test of EI. Differences were compared for gender, ethnicity and age. Results indicated that females scored slightly higher than males and EI scores tended to increase with age. Group differences existed for ethnicity but favored minority groups, mitigating potential adverse impact concerns. Full implications for test development and organizational use are discussed.