A number of authors have stressed that competitive advantage through knowledge management is realized through identifying the valuable representation, organization, acquisition, creation, usage, and evolution of knowledge in its many forms that the organization knows or could know now: skills and experience of people, archives, documents, relations with clients, suppliers, and other persons and ... [Show full abstract] materials often contained in electronic databases. In so doing, this chapter covers the various types of knowledge, the Learning Organization (LO), and Organizational Learning (OL). This chapter also covers the history and meaning of knowledge (management), LO, and OL in terms of how all three elements are interrelated. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between LO and OL. With that said, the chapter explains why the role of knowledge transfer and human resources management is a top down approach and not a bottom up approach.