Article

New-particle formation events in a continental boundary layer: First results from the SATURN experiment

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS (Impact Factor: 5.05). 09/2003; 3(5). DOI: 10.5194/acpd-3-1693-2003
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT

During the SATURN experiment, which took place from 27 May to 14 June 2002, new particle formation in the continental boundary layer was investigated. Simultaneous ground-based and tethered-balloon-borne measurements were performed, including meteorological parameters, particle number concentrations and size distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations and SODAR and LIDAR observations.

Newly formed particles were observed inside the residual layer, before the break-up process of the nocturnal inversion, and inside the mixing layer throughout the break-up of the nocturnal inversion and during the evolution of the planetary boundary layer.

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    • "Consequently, measurements of vertical profiles are required in order to better understand the effect of aerosols on climate (Corrigan et al., 2008; Ramana et al., 2007; Podgorny and Ramanathan, 2001). These data can be obtained by direct and indirect methods such as tethered balloons (Ferrero et al., 2007, 2010; McKendry et al., 2004; Stratmann et al., 2003; Maletto et al., 2003), aircraft (Taubman et al., 2006), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) (Corrigan et al., 2008; Ramana et al., 2007), lidars (Kim et al., 2007; Amiridis et al., 2007; Eresmaa et al., 2006) or sunphotometers (Schuster et al., 2005). Direct methods enable the aerosol's physical–chemical and optical (scattering and absorption) properties to be measured at the same time, and of such methods, only balloons and UAVs can be used to collect long-term measurements at a reasonable cost (Ferrero et al., 2010; Corrigan et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vertical profiles of aerosol number-size distribution and black carbon (BC) concentration were measured between ground-level and 500m AGL over Milan. A tethered balloon was fitted with an instrumentation package consisting of the newly-developed micro-Aethalometer (microAeth® Model AE51, Magee Scientific, USA), an optical particle counter, and a portable meteorological station. At the same time, PM2.5 samples were collected both at ground-level and at a high altitude sampling site, enabling particle chemical composition to be determined. Vertical profiles and PM2.5 data were collected both within and above the mixing layer. Absorption coefficient (babs) profiles were calculated from the Aethalometer data: in order to do so, an optical enhancement factor (C), accounting for multiple light-scattering within the filter of the new microAeth® Model AE51, was determined for the first time. The value of this parameter C (2.05±0.03 at λ=880nm) was calculated by comparing the Aethalometer attenuation coefficient and aerosol optical properties determined from OPC data along vertical profiles. Mie calculations were applied to the OPC number-size distribution data, and the aerosol refractive index was calculated using the effective medium approximation applied to aerosol chemical composition. The results compare well with AERONET data.The BC and babs profiles showed a sharp decrease at the mixing height (MH), and fairly constant values of babs and BC were found above the MH, representing 17±2% of those values measured within the mixing layer. The BC fraction of aerosol volume was found to be lower above the MH: 48±8% of the corresponding ground-level values.A statistical mean profile was calculated, both for BC and babs, to better describe their behaviour; the model enabled us to compute their average behaviour as a function of height, thus laying the foundations for valid parametrizations of vertical profile data which can be useful in both remote sensing and climatic studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are known to significantly influence ecosystems, to change air quality and to exert negative health effects. Atmospheric aerosols influence climate through cooling of the atmosphere and the underlying surface by scattering of sunlight, through warming of the atmosphere by absorbing sun light and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth surface and through their acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Depending on their size, they can be transported over significant distances, while undergoing considerable changes in their composition and physical properties. Their lifetime in the atmosphere varies from a few hours to a week. New particle formation is a result of gas-to-particle conversion. Once formed, atmospheric aerosol particles may grow due to condensation or coagulation, or be removed by deposition processes. In this thesis we describe analyses of air masses, meteorological parameters and synoptic situations to reveal conditions favourable for new particle formation in the atmosphere. We studied the concentration of ultrafine particles in different types of air masses, and the role of atmospheric fronts and cloudiness in the formation of atmospheric aerosol particles. The dominant role of Arctic and Polar air masses causing new particle formation was clearly observed at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, during all seasons, as well as at other measurement stations in Scandinavia. In all seasons and on multi-year average, Arctic and North Atlantic areas were the sources of nucleation mode particles. In contrast, concentrations of accumulation mode particles and condensation sink values in Hyytiälä were highest in continental air masses, arriving at Hyytiälä from Eastern Europe and Central Russia. The most favourable situation for new particle formation during all seasons was cold air advection after cold-front passages. Such a period could last a few days until the next front reached Hyytiälä. The frequency of aerosol particle formation relates to the frequency of low-cloud-amount days in Hyytiälä. Cloudiness of less than 5 octas is one of the factors favouring new particle formation. Cloudiness above 4 octas appears to be an important factor that prevents particle growth, due to the decrease of solar radiation, which is one of the important meteorological parameters in atmospheric particle formation and growth. Keywords: Atmospheric aerosols, particle formation, air mass, atmospheric front, cloudiness Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are known to significantly influence ecosystems, to change air quality and to exert negative health effects. Atmospheric aerosols influence climate through cooling of the atmosphere and the underlying surface by scattering of sunlight, through warming of the atmosphere by absorbing sun light and thermal radiation emitted by the Earth surface and through their acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Depending on their size, they can be transported over significant distances, while undergoing considerable changes in their composition and physical properties. Their lifetime in the atmosphere varies from a few hours to a week. New particle formation is a result of gas-to-particle conversion. Once formed, atmospheric aerosol particles may grow due to condensation or coagulation, or be removed by deposition processes. In this thesis we describe analyses of air masses, meteorological parameters and synoptic situations to reveal conditions favourable for new particle formation in the atmosphere. We studied the concentration of ultrafine particles in different types of air masses, and the role of atmospheric fronts and cloudiness in the formation of atmospheric aerosol particles. The dominant role of Arctic and Polar air masses causing new particle formation was clearly observed at Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, during all seasons, as well as at other measurement stations in Scandinavia. In all seasons and on multi-year average, Arctic and North Atlantic areas were the sources of nucleation mode particles. In contrast, concentrations of accumulation mode particles and condensation sink values in Hyytiälä were highest in continental air masses, arriving at Hyytiälä from Eastern Europe and Central Russia. The most favourable situation for new particle formation during all seasons was cold air advection after cold-front passages. Such a period could last a few days until the next front reached Hyytiälä. The frequency of aerosol particle formation relates to the frequency of low-cloud-amount days in Hyytiälä. Cloudiness of less than 5 octas is one of the factors favouring new particle formation. Cloudiness above 4 octas appears to be an important factor that prevents particle growth, due to the decrease of solar radiation, which is one of the important meteorological parameters in atmospheric particle formation and growth. Keywords: Atmospheric aerosols, particle formation, air mass, atmospheric front, cloudiness
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