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Jealousy in 6-Month-Old Infants

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Abstract

Thirty-two 6-month-old infants were exposed to their mothers attending, in turn, to a lifelike baby doll and a book. Infant negativity was greater when maternal attention was directed toward the social object, suggesting the presence of an early form of jealousy by 6 months of age.

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... These have compared 5-to 13-month-olds' responses during an experimental condition, in which mother's positive attention was directed preferentially toward a baby or a lifelike baby doll, versus a control condition, in which it was directed toward a nonsocial object or an adult. They have consistently found that infants demonstrated greater evidence of perturbation during the experimental condition (Draghi-Lorenz, Reddy, & Costall, 2001;Hart & Carrington, 2002;Mize & Jones, 2012;Mize, Pineda, Blau, Marsh, & Jones, 2014). The fact that maternal inattention toward her infant was held constant across conditions rules out the possibility that infants' greater negativity in the experimental condition could be attributed simply to being ignored. ...
... Nascent jealousy in human infants has been interpreted as an endogenously based feature of temperament on the basis of its early emergence during infancy despite limited experiences of competition or dethronement (Hart, 2010(Hart, , 2015. Without entertaining the role of an endogenous influence it is difficult to explain why infants as young as 5 to 6 months (Draghi-Lorenz et al., 2001;Hart & Carrington, 2002;Hart et al., 2004), including firstborns, are troubled by observing their mothers' direct positive attention toward a baby. Given that a smiling mother and a baby are benign stimuli when presented separately, there are few ways to account for an infant's negative response when these two stimuli appear together. ...
... Nascent jealousy is also notable for its course of unfolding during a period that spans the latter portion of the infant's first year. Whereas nonmobile 5-to 6-month-olds' expressions of nascent jealousy are limited to negative facial affect, approach postures, and heightened arousal (Draghi-Lorenz et al., 2001;Hart & Carrington, 2002;Hart et al., 2004), mobile 10-to 13month-olds exhibit acute caregiver-directed protests and bids for exclusive attention (Hart & Behrens, 2013;. These affective and behavioral presentations are interrelated with each other and with a pattern of neurological activity (Mize & Jones, 2012;Mize et al., 2014) that has been associated with jealousy in adults, yielding a constellation termed jealousy protest (Hart, 2015;. ...
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In this article, nascent jealousy’s ultimate foundation is theorized as an adapted psychological mechanism that evolved in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) to prepare 1-year-olds for defending against premature weaning upon the closely spaced birth of a sibling. This position rests on evidence that nascent jealousy is expressed through jealousy protest, a constellation of caregiver-directed protests and bids for exclusive attention, and evidence that its onset occurs at approximately 9 months of age. Given that the period of human gestation is 9 months, we propose that jealousy protest’s form and timing were compelled by the possibility that the end of an infant’s first year could be met by competition with a newborn sibling. That possibility placed infants at risk of malnutrition and mortality due to entailing the loss of exclusive access to mother’s milk, while infants were at an age when they were still heavily reliant on breast milk for survival. At this juncture, threat posed by the birth of a sibling was compounded by conditions of the EEA, where the sole viable source of breast milk was an infant’s mother, and her supply of milk was sufficient for sustaining only one child at a time. We conclude by offering suggestions for future research and discuss implications for the theory of parent–offspring conflict as a foundation of adaptations in children.
... Most research used a paradigm in which the parent was asked to refocus her or his attention away from the child either to a non-social object (e.g., a book), a social object (e.g., a doll), or another person (siblings, non-familiar adults, or children). Jealousy reactions were observed in children as young as 6 months old when mothers ignored their infants and were either reading a book or attending to a lifesize doll (Hart & Carrington, 2002). Infants seemed to show the same low level of positive affect and looked at the mother for the same amount of time during the two conditions. ...
... For this purpose, we examined toddlers in several jealousy-evoking situations (described in more detail below) involving both a social object (doll) and non-social object (paper-and pencil task such anagrams). Based on the research of Hart and colleagues (Hart & Carrington, 2002;Hart et al., 2004), we expected more jealous behavior and emotions in situations where toddlers were ignored because of a social object. ...
... In sum, jealousy in early childhood has been found in different experimental contexts: mother attending to a book, a doll, a same-age peer, a stranger, or mother/father playing with a sibling (Hart & Carrington, 2002;Masciuch & Kienapple, 1993;Miller et al., 2000;Volling et al., 2002), yet no studies have examined whether jealousy reactions vary based on both parents' presence. Moreover, most jealousy studies have focused on either infants or preschoolers with very few studies focusing on toddlers. ...
Article
Childhood jealousy has typically been examined in a limited number of jealousy-evoking contexts and mainly with the mother only, thus providing a narrow view on the manifestations of jealousy. The aim of the present article is to examine childhood jealousy within parent–child dyads and (mother–father–child) triads and across multiple contexts. The sample included 87 Dutch families with a toddler (38 girls, 49 boys, Mage: 23 months). Children were challenged in several jealousy-evoking situations using social and non-social objects as rivals during videotaped family play sessions. Children's jealous behavior (e.g., negativity, distraction) and jealous emotions (e.g., anger) were coded. We found the most jealous behavior in contexts including a doll as a rival and the least in the non-social object conditions. Children showed more jealous behavior toward mothers than fathers. Children showed elevated levels of anger in most jealousy situations.
... Accumulative evidence from developmental psychology suggests that in infants a primordial and much simpler form of jealousy may exist (for a review see Hart 2016). Several studies (Hart et al. 2004;Hart and Carrington 2002;Mize et al. 2014) have investigated infants' reactions when their mothers interacted with a potential social rival (a realistic-looking doll) compared to a non-social object (a book). They observed that especially with the doll, infants as young as 6 months displayed behaviors indicative of jealousy, including negative affect (angry and sad facial expressions, negative vocalizations), and seeking proximity to the mother (gaze, approach). ...
... The current study investigated whether cats, despite the unclear nature of their bonds with humans, show a primitive from of jealousy to their owners. Based on studies of infants (Hart et al. 1998;Hart and Carrington 2002) and dogs (Harris and Prouvost 2014;Prato-Previde et al. 2018a), we observed how domestic cats reacted when their owners petted a potential rival (i.e. a "social" object: soft-toy cat) and a non-social object (i.e. furry cushion). ...
... House cats looked significantly longer at the stuffed cat previously petted by their owner, although the owner probably also attracted attention. Similar preferential attention to the petted objects was included in a cluster of behaviors considered as a form of jealousy in human infants (Hart et al. 1998(Hart et al. , 2004Hart and Carrington 2002;Mize et al. 2014) and dogs (Abdai et al. 2018;Harris and Prouvost 2014) tested with a similar procedure. Interestingly, this jealousy-like type of reaction in cats might not have entirely due to the owner's petting action, as the stuffed cat merely near the owner also appeared attractive, although the effect was not significant. ...
Article
Jealousy is a second-order emotion, its main function being to protect a valued relationship from a rival. A basic form of jealousy has been described in human infants, and its presence in non-human animals has recently been investigated in domestic dogs. The current study assessed whether a primitive form of jealousy can be observed in domestic cats tested using similar procedures to those used with infants and dogs. Fifty-two cats were recruited from either Japanese households or cat cafés. The cats’ behaviors were recorded while they saw their owner petting a “social” object (i.e. potential rival: a realistic-looking soft-toy cat) and a non-social object (furry cushion). As jealousy should be expressed in the context of a valued relationship, cat behaviors were also recorded when an unknown experimenter petted the same two objects. Results indicated that cats -- especially household pets -- reacted more intensely toward the soft-toy cat previously petted by their owner. However, cats did not respond differentially toward the two human actors. The absence of other behaviors indicative of jealousy reported in infants and dogs precludes drawing firm conclusions about the existence of jealousy in domestic cats. We consider the existence of some cognitive bases for jealousy to emerge in cats, and the potential effect of cats’ living environment on the nature of their attachment to their owner. More ecologically valid procedures are required for further study of these issues.
... The theory that jealousy can take a primordial form finds support from the small but emerging body of research on human infant jealousy. Several studies [10][11][12] found that infants as young as 6-months of age show behaviors indicative of jealousy, for example, when their mothers interacted with what appeared to be another infant (but was actually a realistic looking doll). The infants did not display the same behaviors when their mothers attend to a nonsocial item (a book). ...
... To evaluate dogs' jealous behaviors, we modified a paradigm used to assess jealousy in 6-month-old infants [10][11][12]. Thirty-six dogs were individually tested and videotaped while their owners ignored them and interacted with a series of three different objects. In the jealousy condition, the owner treated a stuffed dog, which briefly barked and wagged its tail, as if it were a real dog (e.g., petting, talking sweetly). ...
... As discussed earlier, the proposed function of jealousy is to break-up a potentially threatening liaison and protect the primary relationship. This motivates several types of behaviors including approach actions such as attempts to get physically or psychologically between the attachment 3ure and the interloper, attending to the threatening interaction, seeking attention from the attachment figure, as well as indicators of negative emotion such as aggression, particularly toward the interloper [1][2]8,[10][11][12]19]. Across social species, we would expect to see similar types of behaviors that serve the function of this motivational state. ...
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It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.
... Thus, at least a primordial form of jealousy could arise in other animals in specific situations where a significant relationship is threatened. The best evidence that jealousy could have a primordial form derives from the literature on human infants, which shows that jealousy can be exhibited within the first two years of life in specific social situations (see [15,18] for reviews).There are several studies indicating that human infants aged from six to twelve months exhibited more protest behaviors, negative vocalizations and proximity seeking (approach and gaze) when their mother was holding an infant-like doll compared with when she held a book and when a stranger held the doll [19][20][21]. Taken together, these studies suggest that infants are sensitive to the loss of maternal attention, distinguish between social and non-social objects and do not show an undifferentiated general response to any person or object, but react to potential threats to the relationship with the attachment figure. ...
... Behaviors were recorded continuously in terms of duration and frequency of their occurrence according to the ethogram reported in Table 1. The ethogram was developed considering both the literature on human infants [20,21] and dogs [37,43] and was refined after a preliminary analysis of the videos to include other potentially interesting behaviors. The ethogram included behaviors directed towards the owner/stranger, the objects and environment and stress related behaviors. ...
Article
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While dog owners ascribe different emotions to their pets, including jealousy, research on secondary emotions in nonhuman animals is very limited and, so far, only one study has investigated jealousy in dogs (Canis familiaris). This work explores jealousy in dogs one step further. We conducted two studies adapting a procedure devised to assess jealousy in human infants. In each study 36 adult dogs were exposed to a situation in which their owner and a stranger ignored them while directing positive attention towards three different objects: a book, a puppet and a fake dog (Study 1: furry; Study 2: plastic). Overall, the results of both studies do not provide evidence that the behavioral responses of our dogs were triggered by jealousy: we did not find a clear indication that the fake dogs were perceived as real social rivals, neither the furry nor the plastic one. Indeed, dogs exhibited a higher interest (i.e. look at, interact with) towards the fake dogs, but differences in the behavior towards the fake dog and the puppet only emerged in Study 2. In addition, many of the behaviors (protest, stress, attention seeking, aggression) that are considered distinctive features of jealousy were not expressed or were expressed to a limited extent, revealing that dogs did not actively try to regain their owner's attention or interfere with the interaction between the owner and the faux rival. Finally, a differentiated response towards the attachment figure (the owner) and the unfamiliar person (the stranger) did not emerge. Differently from what reported in human infants, dogs' behavior towards the attachment figure and the stranger interacting with the potential competitor (in this case, the fake dog) did not significantly differ: in both studies dogs paid attention to the owner and the stranger manipulating the fake dog to the same extent. In conclusion, we do not exclude that dogs could possess a rudimentary form of jealousy, but we suggest that research on this topic should require the use of a real social interloper (conspecific or human) and more naturalistic procedures.
... The target children gazed at their mother, verbally and/or physically attempted to regain their mother's attention (e.g., crying and jumping up and down), and verbally and/or physically intervened in the interaction between their mother and a control child (e.g., climbing on the mother's lap). Negative reactivity and attentionseeking behaviors are indicative of children's attempts to regain a valued relationship (Mize and Jones 2012), and, more recently, even 6-month-old infants have been found to display similar behavioral responses in the presence of a perceived social rival (e.g., Hart and Carrington 2002). ...
... These findings suggest that it is possible to help young children acquire more complete understandings of jealousy through emotion trainings prior to the age children typically develop an understanding of jealousy. The emergence of jealous behaviors appears early in infancy (e.g., Hart and Carrington 2002;Masciuch and Kienapple 1993;Mize and Jones 2012), yet children typically lack an explicit understanding of the emotion until age 8 (e.g., Aldrich et al. 2011;Harris et al. 1987;Knowles and Nixon 1990). Failing to have a full-fledged understanding of the emotion may provide challenges for children in knowing how to cope with and manage their jealousy, leading to undesirable behavioral and social outcomes (e.g., Kolak and Volling 2011). ...
Article
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The present study investigated the effects of two emotion trainings on young children’s knowledge about jealousy. Participants were 53 kindergarten and first-grade children who were assigned to one of two experimental conditions or a control condition. Children in the first experimental condition (video condition) received discussions about the components of jealousy paired with the presentation of dynamic visual stimuli (i.e., animated video clips). Children in the second experimental condition (video and role-play condition) received role-play exercises along with the discussions and video clips. Children in the control condition participated in their typical school curriculum. After receiving three emotion-training sessions of 15 min each, children in both experimental conditions made significant gains in their knowledge of the situations and prosocial cognitive/behavioral responses related to jealousy when compared to children in the control condition. The two experimental conditions made similar gains, showing that both trainings were equally effective at helping children improve their knowledge about jealousy. Implications for supporting young children’s understanding of emotions are discussed.
... A given antecedent situation can lead to a "multiplicity of emotions" (Campos, Frankel, & Camras, 2004), but this need not always be the case. Hart and Carrington (2002), for example, showed that six-month-old infants reacted in a notably more negative way when the mother was attending to a doll than when she was attending to a book. ...
... The question is: do studies on jealousy suggest anything that could indicate hurt feelings? Hart and Carrington (2002) showed that already six-month-old babies reacted more negatively in a condition in which their mothers attended to a baby doll in contrast to situations in which she attended to a music book. In a follow-up study, Hart and colleagues (Hart, Carrington, Tronick, & Carroll, 2004) showed that, in the jealousy condition (baby doll), sixmonth-olds showed more approach (involving gaze toward the mother, approach posture and facial affect of interest) as well as more overall negativity in contrast to a face-to-face-play condition and a Still-Face condition. ...
Article
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When do hurt feelings develop? In this paper, we want to set the stage for empirical investigations that can answer this neglected question. Thus, we present an integrative theory of hurt feelings according to which hurt feelings in their narrow sense consist of (a) a primary appraisal of an illegitimate devaluation, (b) a secondary appraisal of low controllability, (c) an action tendency to withdraw, and (d) the communicative function to signal that one has been wronged, and is expecting reparation. We argue that sulking behavior can be used as an approach to studying hurt feelings in young children because the same appraisals are assumed to underlie sulking. Thus, we review what is known about pouting as a facial expression and sulking behavior. After discussing the ontogeny of two important eliciting situations of hurt feelings—abandonment and sibling favoritism, we preliminarily conclude that relevant behaviors are not present in jealousy experiments that involve a situation of discrimination and that hurt feelings seem not yet present in the Ainsworth Strange Situation at twelve months of age. Finally, we review empirical studies on shame, pride, guilt and social norms because they relate to the same motivational topic of legitimacy and social evaluation. In summary, this review suggests that it is likely that sulking behavior and thus hurt feelings in their narrow sense begin to develop at the end of the second year, together with other self-conscious emotions, but that empirical investigations are strongly needed.
... To induce jealousy, the baby doll has been wrapped in a receiving blanket and equipped with audio recordings of a real infant emitting utterances, such as "ma-ma." Research that compared infants' responses while mother's positive vocal affect was directed toward a lifelike baby doll versus a story book reported that infants displayed greater negativity when the object of maternal attention was a baby doll (Hart & Carrington, 2002;Mize & Jones, 2012;Mize, Pineda, Blau, & Jones, 2014). ...
... This depiction is compatible with notions of jealousy in adults as a blended emotion (Pfeiffer & Wong, 1989;Sharpsteen, 1991). Still, this does not rule out the possibility that these observable expressions of emotionality are driven by a more foundational temperamentally based sensitivity (Hart 2010a(Hart , 2010b(Hart , 2015Hart & Carrington, 2002) or an underlying emotion that is unique to jealousy (Harris, 2003;Harris & Darby, 2010). Such an emotion is conceptualized as motivated specifically by perceived threat to a valued relationship and operates by stimulating emotions that work in conjunction toward the goal of restoring or maintaining the relationship being challenged (Harris, 2003;Harris & Darby, 2010). ...
Article
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In this synthesis, we summarize studies that yielded evidence of jealousy in young infants. To shed light on this phenomenon, we present evidence that jealousy’s foundation rests on history of dyadic interactions with caregivers which engender infants’ expectations of exclusivity, and on maturation of sociocognitive capacities that enable infants to evaluate whether an exchange between their caregiver and another child represents a violation of that expectation. We conclude with a call for greater study of the antecedents and sequelae of both normative and atypical presentations of jealousy. In addition, we recommend approaches that address jealousy across a range of relationships, both within and beyond those which include attachment figures.
... Most children in previous studies report that they have indeed felt jealous of their sibling. It is readily apparent in infants (Hart & Carrington, 2002), easy to activate in toddlers (Volling, Miller, & McElwain, 2002), and reported as occurring fairly often by school-aged children . ...
... The systematic investigation of sibling jealousy has been limited. This is unfortunate considering the frequency, pervasiveness, and easy activation among young children (Hart & Carrington, 2002;Miller, Volling, & McElwain, 2000;Parrott, 1991;Volling, Miller, & McElwain, 2002) and even fifth-and sixth-grade children . ...
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The goal of the current study was to examine how parents' reported beliefs about children's emotions and parents' reactions to children's expression of negative emotions relate to children's implicit theories about relationships and sibling jealousy experience. Participants were 102 sixth-grade children from two local middle schools and one of their parents (n = 82). Children were interviewed about their implicit theories about relationships; their reasons for feeling sibling jealousy, frequency, duration; the intensity of their jealousy toward a sibling; and their coping strategies in response to a recalled sibling jealousy event. Parents completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs about children's emotions, their reactions to their own children's negative emotion expression, and their demographics. Parents' beliefs that negative emotions are good and parents' problem-focused and encouraging expression reactions were positively related to children's implicit theories about parents, and to the duration and intensity of sibling jealousy. Parents' encouraging reactions were negatively related to children's passive/avoidant coping with jealousy. Also, children's implicit theories about parents were positively related to children's duration and intensity of jealousy, behavioral action coping, and negatively related to children's passive/avoidant coping. Findings suggest that parent socialization is important in the development of children's implicit theories, as well as children's jealousy experiences and coping strategies.
... Hardecker and Haun (2020) reviewed contextual evidence on hurt feelings and sulking behavior and concluded that it is likely that hurt feelings in the narrow sense develop together with other self-conscious emotions from the end of the second year and during the third year of life. However, Draghi-Lorenz et al. (2001) convincingly argued that theory had led to substantial bias in the study of early emotional development, as they demonstrated, for instance, for the case of jealousy (see also Hart & Carrington, 2002;Hart et al., 2004). Thus, in this initial phase in the study of sulking behavior and hurt feelings, we began our research using an exploratory approach. ...
... We suggest that this question could be approached by investigating the sensitivity to social rejection. A similar approach has been used in the case of jealousy in which reactions to situations in which babies lost exclusive maternal attention have been studied (Hart & Carrington, 2002;Hart et al., 2004). Crucially, future work needs to conceptualize further the development of the underlying dimensions of hurt feelings regarding subjective fairness and approval/respect. ...
Article
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When do hurt feelings develop? The emotion of feeling hurt is vital for close relationships because it signals that one has been devalued illegitimately, potentially eliciting guilt and the motivation to repair in the partner. We approached the question of when hurt feelings develop by studying the emergence of sulking behavior as an indicator of hurt feelings. In an online-questionnaire study, parents and teachers hypothesized that children begin to sulk during the first 3 years (N = 125). In a cross-sectional event-based diary study, parents observed their 1-to 8-year-old children (N = 40). We found that the youngest child sulked at 20 months of age and that the probability of sulking was at 50% for a child at 25 months. Finally, we conducted a longitudinal event-based diary study where parents observed their children from 16 months on until they sulked for the first time and, at the longest, until their third birthday (N = 29). We found that the probability of sulking was at 25% at 21 months, at 50% for a child at 24-25 months, and at 75% at 28 months, thus, confirming and specifying the results of studies 1 and 2. These findings indicate that the emotion of hurt feelings emerges mainly during the end of the second and the third year. We discuss the limitations of our approach and why and how the development of hurt feelings in the sense of an appraisal needs to be addressed differently.
... Infants are disturbed by being subjected to differential treatment (DT) by a caregiver (Draghi-Lorenz, Reddy & Costall, 2001;Masciuch & Kienapple, 1993;Roth, Gewirtz & Markham, 1996). This was shown in research which revealed that when mothers directed positively valenced attention exclusively toward a toy baby (a lifelike doll treated like a real infant), their infants displayed negatively valenced affect (Hart, 2010a;Hart & Behrens, in press;Hart & Carrington, 2002;Mize & Jones, 2012;Nakano, 2011;Szabo, Dubas & van Aken, 2012a). Each of these investigators used the term "jealousy" to describe this instance of negativity in the infants because this term has been employed by emotion theorists in situations where "a person either fears losing or has already lost an important relationship with another person to a rival" (Parrott, 1991, p. 4). ...
... Animatedness toward rival. Mothers' handling of the toy baby was coded for vocal affect and motor behavior using two 4-point likert subscales (Hart & Carrington, 2002) which were then averaged to yield a final score. Vocal tone toward rival was scored: 1-infrequent speech, 2-infrequent speech with positive vocal tone or frequent flat speech, 3-frequent speech with positive vocal tone, and 4-very frequent speech with positive vocal tone or singing. ...
Article
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Emotion regulation strategies and variation in their presentation were explored toward understanding infants' responses during reunion with mother (Re) following baseline mother–infant interaction (Bl) and differential treatment (DT) episodes. Correlation analyses revealed cohesion among distress and mother-directed touch and proximity-seeking during DT and Re, mother-directed gaze during DT, and resistance during Re. The association between mother-directed gaze during DT and distress during Re suggests that visual inattention during DT serves as a regulatory strategy. Overall, these linkages yield expanded understanding of jealousy protest as a constellation of responses that endures beyond the eliciting condition and includes regulatory behaviors. Cross-context comparisons revealed that distress was lower during Re than during DT, but not as low as Bl, suggesting that DT poses challenge to interactive repair. Inquiry into individual variation revealed that distress during Re was augmented in laterborn males and with risk influences of dysregulated fear, and maternal insensitivity and hostility. Conversely, maternal depression was associated with less distress; later judgment as insecure, especially insecure-avoidance, was associated with less mother-directed behaviors. These findings suggest that dysregulation following DT is indicated by both resistance and passivity. In sum, the results highlight emotion regulation as a powerful framework for addressing recovery following DT.
... However, even 6-month-old infants have been shown to demonstrate jealousy-type behaviors to the loss of their mother's attention to a social-rival. When mothers attend to a social-rival versus a nonsocial item, infants have demonstrated heightened negative vocalizations (Hart & Carrington, 2002) often accompanied by increased approach behaviors (interest and gaze toward and closer proximity to mother-item; Hart, Carrington, Tronick, & Carroll, 2004). Recent research has sought to examine the neurological underpinnings of jealousy. ...
Article
Recent research has demonstrated a relationship between infants' tonic electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and approach-style jealousy responses (Mize & Jones, ). Although it has been found that adults exhibit approach-style neural activity during jealousy paradigms (Harmon-Jones, Peterson, and Harris, ), parallel research on neural activity during a jealousy paradigm in infants is lacking from the literature base. The purpose of the current research is to examine EEG patterns of 35 infants (Mean age = 8.92 months old) in a social-rival paradigm designed to elicit jealousy responses. Consistent with past research, infants demonstrated more approach-style, jealousy-related behaviors when their mothers attended to a social-rival than to a nonsocial rival. Additionally, infants demonstrated approach-style anterior EEG activity during the social-rival condition, a pattern that is associated with jealousy. The current findings suggest that the physiological underpinnings for the emotions that motivate the protection of important dyadic relationships are in place early in ontogeny. Therefore, jealousy-type behaviors and physiological responses begin to be observable as early as 9-months-old when maternal attention is lost to a social-rival.
... An analogous observation in humans has been that infants as young as 10 months exhibit angry behavior in response to viewing affectionate interchanges among family members which evoke pushingbehaviorin theattemptto eitherinterruptorgainentry into theaffectionateinterchange (Cummings,Zahn-Waxler,&Radke-Yarrow, 1981). Though there is little research on the developmental psychology of jealousy in humans, some initial studies appear provide evidence that it emerges in the first year (Hart & Carrington, 2002) and becomes quite strong in the second year (Masciuch & Kienapple, 1993). The extent to which young children are motivated specifically by sexual jealousy, as opposed to being jealous of the attention or affection that others receive has yet to be investigated. ...
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Scattered and not widely disseminated evidence from primatology, anthropology, and history of childhood sexuality support the hypothesis that throughout much of human behavioral evolution that human children have learned about sex through observing parental sexuality and then imitating it in sexual rehearsal play with peers. Contemporary theories of psychosexual development have not considered the possibility that young children are predisposed to learn about sex through observational learning and sexual rehearsal play during early childhood, a primate-wide trait that is conserved in humans but suppressed in contemporary contexts.
... 44). Jealousy emerges in the first year of life (Hart & Carrington, 2002) and is quite strong in the second year of life (Masciuch & Kienapple, 1993). Human infants as young as 10 months exhibit angry behavior in response to viewing affectionate interchanges among family members which evoke pushing behavior in the attempt to either interrupt or gain entry into the affectionate interchange (Cummings, Zahn-Waxler, & Radke-Yarrow, 1981). ...
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Tendencies toward non-monogamy and bisexual expression may constitute primate-wide predispositions that have been conserved in humans. This observation is supported by studies of sexual development and behavior in our primate relatives and sexually permissive premodern tribal cultures including hunter-gatherers. Nevertheless, even in sexually permissive societies, there may be considerable sexual possessiveness and jealousy as well as attempts at parental control of children's marital choices. This is associated with punitive revenge against unfaithful spouses and mate poaching rivals and parent/offspring conflict around marital choices. There is no paradise lost despite the greater sexual freedom. Humans may be adaptively designed to suppress each other's sexuality due to sexual jealousy and parental desires to control children's sexuality but also to surreptitiously evade those restrictions, though there is considerable cross-cultural variability in the level of sexual restrictiveness.
... That is, future research in development of infant's emotions could benefit from emotion coding software (e.g., Lewinski et al., 2014a), which can objectively code (based on objective datasets such as Olszanowski et al., 2015) large numbers of facial videos outperforming even human coders under certain circumstances (Lewinski, 2015a). Such software can help in saving substantial amount of coding time (Lewinski et al., 2014b;Lewinski, 2015b Colonnesi et al. (2013) replicated and extended Reddy (2000) findings to positive shyness; (ii) Hart and Carrington (2002) and Hart et al. (2004) provided new evidence on 6-month-old infants being jealous of mother's attention; (iii) Draghi-Lorenz et al. (2005) found that 2-to-4month-old infants "can be perceived as shy, coy, bashful or embarrassed" (p. 63). ...
... Research on jealousy shows that this emotions appears most intensely in the majority of children between approximately 13 to 25 months [34] and can be clearly observed around the third year of life [31]. Moreover, there are even reports of forms of jealousy in babies as young as 6 months old [40], further indicating that jealousy is a powerful emotion that develops extremely early in life. Another possibility is that greater responses to negative events are related to a more basic negativity bias which refers to the psychological phenomenon by which humans pay more attention to and give more weight to negative rather than positive information [41]. ...
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Human emotions are strongly shaped by the tendency to compare the relative state of oneself to others. Although social comparison based emotions such as jealousy and schadenfreude (pleasure in the other misfortune) are important social emotions, little is known about their developmental origins. To examine if schadenfreude develops as a response to inequity aversion, we assessed the reactions of children to the termination of unequal and equal triadic situations. We demonstrate that children as early as 24 months show signs of schadenfreude following the termination of an unequal situation. Although both conditions involved the same amount of gains, the children displayed greater positive expressions following the disruption of the unequal as compared to the equal condition, indicating that inequity aversion can be observed earlier than reported before. These results support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion and indicate that schadenfreude has evolved as a response to unfairness.
... More cognitively complex emotions are the last to be identifiable, given the cognitive, intra-and inter-psychic underpinnings that are prerequisites. Embarrassment, jealousy, pride, and guilt are recognizable via face, body, gaze, and vocal cues between 15 to 24 months (e.g., Kochanska et al. 2002;Lewis, Alessandri, and Sullivan 1992;Lewis et al. 1991;Masciuch and Kienapple 1993;Reissland and Harris 1991), although precursors of these emotions, which may be expressed more as anger, are being noted a bit earlier (Hart and Carrington 2002). Although rich and Brought to you by | North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries Authenticated | amy_halberstadt@ncsu.edu Download Date | 4/9/13 9:36 PM reliable measures of these expressions are available, consensus has not yet been achieved regarding which nonverbal cues are necessary or sufficient for these expressions to be labeled as such. ...
Chapter
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This review examines how nonverbal communication develops throughout the lifespan. The Affective Social Competence (ASC) model guides our review of research investigating how the abilities to receive and send both spontaneous and posed nonverbal messages develop throughout the lifespan, and across multiple channels. As part of this review, we attempt to illustrate how development of such skills from infancy to older adulthood is complex, multidynamic, contextual, and occasionally dependent upon other social cognitive milestones and motivations. Receiving and sending appear to be lifespan projects, with skills and styles developing well into adulthood, and few deficits occurring in later adulthood. Receiving and sending and their developmental processes appear to be related to temperament, gender, family socialization, and cultural values and norms. They also vary substantially by context and relationship, and predict a number of important socio-emotional outcomes. In addition to summarizing findings in the literature, we highlight gaps in our knowledge and generate areas for future research throughout the chapter.
... Let me introduce these studies: Sybil Hart and colleagues (Hart & Carrington 2002;Hart et al. 2004) placed mothers and their six-month-old infants facing each other in a laboratory. The mothers were asked to ignore their child and engage with a doll that looked like a real infant. ...
Article
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This paper critically assesses the widespread claim that jealousy is a response to infidelity. According to this claim, herewith called the entitlement theory (ET), jealousy is only an appropriate response to a relationship between a loved one and a rival if, by entertaining this relationship, the loved one does not treat the jealous person the way she is entitled to be treated. I reconstruct different versions of ET, each of them providing a different answer to the question why we should assume that jealousy is a response to infidelity. I show that even the most plausible versions enjoy less argumentative support than it seems at first sight. The positive aim of this paper is to present a more inclusive account of jealousy as an alternative to ET. According to this account, jealousy serves to disturb the rival relationship and to (re-)gain the attention and affection of the loved person. Jealousy so understood is not only an appropriate response to infidelity but has wider appropriateness conditions. However, it plays a role in the negotiation of norms concerning exclusivity in personal relationships. The inclusive account does justice to the continuity and commonalities between adult and infant protest against rival relationships.
... In a recent behavioral study where dog guardians ignored their dogs and attended to realistic toy dogs or other objects, the dogs exhibited significantly more behaviors such as going between the guardian and the target of their attention, or pushing/touching the guardian or the target, when the target was a realistic toy dog rather than an object (Harris & Prouvost 2014). Similarly, human infants showed more negative responses when a mother's attention was directed towards a life-like doll than an object like a book (Hart et al. 1998, Hart & Carrington 2002. ...
Article
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It is not possible to demonstrate that dogs (Canis familiaris) feel emotions, but the same is true for all other species, including our own. The issue must therefore be approached indirectly, using premises similar to those used with humans. Recent methodological advances in canine research reveal what dogs experience and what they derive from the emotions perceptible in others. Dogs attend to social cues, they respond appropriately to the valence of human and dog facial expressions and vocalizations of emotion, and their limbic reward regions respond to the odor of their caretakers. They behave differently according to the emotional situation, show emotionally driven expectations, have affective disorders, and exhibit some subcomponents of empathy. The canine brain includes a relatively large prefrontal cortex, and like primates, dogs have a brain area specialized for face perception. Dogs have many degrees of emotion, but the full extent of dog emotions remains unknown. Humans are a socially minded species; we readily impute mind and emotion to others, even to vegetables or rocks. Hence the experimental results need to be analyzed carefully, so the emotional lives of dogs are accurately estimated.
... Similarly, children's behavior and experiences are also relevant in determining the natural aspect of jealousy and compersion. Indeed, there is ample evidence for the presence of jealousy, even in infancy (Hart and Carrington 2002 ...
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Romantic love, our most complex emotion, includes various puzzles that impede the achievement of enduring, profound love. These related puzzles involve two opposing poles on a given continuum, yet both seem necessary for enduring, profound love. I discuss here a few of the major opposing poles, which I gather into three main groups: (a) Temporality: change-familiarity; consummation-perpetuation; (b) Freedom: freedom-bondage; belonging-possessing; (c) The good-fortune of the partner: jealousy-compersion. Coping with these conflicts requires several conceptual distinctions; the key ones discussed here are the distinction between romantic intensity and romantic profundity and the distinction between extrinsically and intrinsically valuable activities. While admitting the presence of the opposing poles, I argue that in profound love, these poles can coexist. Such coexistence has significant consequences for the nature of romantic relationships, for instance, admitting the presence of romantic ambivalence and indifference and acknowledging the value of brief, casual sexual encounters.
... Recent research shows that infants younger than one year display jealous behaviour when the mother focuses her attention to a social test partner, a realistic looking doll in most studies 1,8,[12][13][14] (but see 15,16 who used children as social test partners). Across studies researchers have suggested that infants and toddlers display behaviour and facial expressions that may be manifestations of jealousy 1,8,12-14 (for a review see 2 ). ...
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The function of jealous behaviour is to facilitate the maintenance of an important social relationship that is threatened by a third-party, a rival individual. Although jealous behaviour has an important function in gregarious species, it has been investigated almost exclusively in humans. Based on functional similarity between dog-owner and mother-infant attachments, we hypothesised that jealous behaviour can be evoked in dogs, similarly to children. In our study owners focused their attention solely on the test partner, while they ignored their dog. We deployed familiar and unfamiliar dogs as social test partners, and familiar and unfamiliar objects as non-social test partners; all subjects encountered all test partners. Dogs showed more jealous behaviour, i.e. owner-oriented behaviour and attempts to separate the owner and test partner in case of social compared to non-social test partners. Results suggest that jealous behaviour emerges in dogs, and it is functionally similar to that in children observed in similar situations. Alternative explanations like territoriality, dominance rank can be excluded.
... Romantic jealousy is a multidimensional faculty, including both trait and state dimensions. Jealousy has a genetic component (Lewis, Al-Shawaf, Janiak & Akunebu, 2018), it is manifested as early as in 6 months old infants (e.g., Hart & Carrington, 2002), and is relatively stable (Pfeiffer & Wong, 1989). Despite its baseline, the actual manifestation of jealousy can be triggered by external factors, such as attractive rivals (Pollet & Saxton, 2019). ...
Article
Jealousy is supposed to secure the relationship against a third party. Both partners face significant potential costs in case of the partner desertion caused by an extra-pair liaison. However, studies systematically find higher emotional and overall jealousy among women. Interestingly, sex differences in jealousy do not appear among non-heterosexual or consensually non-monogamous (CNM) individuals. We aimed to investigate effect of gender, sexual orientation and type of relationship on several measures of jealousy. A large Brazilian sample of 5,230 men and women (Mage = 28.3) responded to demographic questions, relationship status and type, Reactive Jealousy Scale, Sexual Jealousy Scale, Self-reported Jealousy, and the Kinsey Scale of Sexual Orientation. Participants were classified as singles (N = 2,253, 43%), those in monogamous (N = 2,578, 49%) and CNM relationships (N = 400, 8%). Women reported higher overall and emotional jealousy than men, but these sex differences did not apply to non-heterosexuals or CNM individuals. CNM individuals reported lower overall and sexual jealousy. This supports the notion that specific individual (e.g., gender, sexual orientation) and social (e.g., relationship status and type) factors influence the psychological trait of jealousy.
... In Sybil Hart's and Heather Carrington's study on the origin of jealousy, six-month-old infants were exposed to their mothers attending, in turn, to a lifelike baby doll and a book. Infant negativity was greater when maternal attention was directed toward the social object, suggesting the presence of an early form of jealousy by six months of age (Hart & Carrington 2002). Jealousy is also evident in the children of polyamorous parents. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, I discuss two major opposing emotions toward the beneficial romantic fortune of another person: jealousy, which negatively evaluates this fortune, and compersion, which positively evaluates it. The first section briefly discusses the group of emotions relating to the good fortune of others, while focusing on jealousy. The second section discusses the emotion of compersion, while arguing that it can be perceived as involving sexual and romantic generosity. The third section describes various forms of polyamory and examines major issues related to polyamory, such as the hierarchy between different partners, whether polyamory spreads love too thin and the overall quality of polyamorous relationships. The fourth section discusses the nature of jealousy and compersion in polyamory. Both emotions are present in polyamory—though more typically, a mild form of jealousy can be seen, while compersion takes a more enhanced form.
... This may be especially relevant for infants who are dependent on their mothers for nutrition and protection. Studies indicate that infants as young as 5-6 months show distress when their mother is positively interacting with another infant (Hart & Carrington, 2002;Hart et al., 2004) and by 10-12 months display distress and caregivingdirected bids for attention (Hart & Behrens, 2013). These behaviors characterize the outward manifestation of jealousy protest, "a constellation of caregiver-directed protests and attention-getting behaviors for protecting exclusive access to a caregiver" (Hart, 2016, p. 1). ...
Chapter
The image of mother and child as a harmonious unit with mother willing to sacrifice all for the well-being of her child is ubiquitous. At the same time, it is certainly not always accurate. From an evolutionary perspective, offspring are the vehicle of parental fitness and as such parent-child interactions can be highly cooperative, but they can also involve significant conflict. There may be agreement about the general goal of offspring fitness, however, conflict can occur over allocation of investment in one offspring versus another. Activities that advance the fitness of one offspring can potentially reduce the lifetime success of the mother and vice versa. In general, we would expect individuals to allocate their parental investment among their offspring in ways that optimize their own inclusive fitness. All other things being equal, parents are equally related to all their offspring. However, we would expect individual offspring to have a somewhat different perspective as they are more closely related to themselves than their siblings and as such might benefit from extracting more than their share of maternal resources. In this chapter, we will examine the zone of conflict between mothers and infants with a particular focus on maternal-fetal conflict and weaning conflict.
... Wenger et al. (2018) found that secure and dismissive attachment styles were unrelated to jealousy, whereas fearful attachment was associated with aggression, and preoccupied attachment was associated with non-assertive communication. One study noted that even infants can experience jealousy (Hart, 2002). ...
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This paper evaluates the effectiveness of 8-sessions of cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) for obsessive morbid jealousy (OMJ). The evaluation method was a mixed-methods A/B with follow-up single-case design. Ideographic jealousy measures were collected throughout baseline (2 sessions), treatment (6 sessions) and follow-up phases (one session) creating a 160-day time series. Nomothetic measures were completed at assessment, end of treatment and at follow-up. A structured qualitative interview was completed. Significant reductions to idiographic jealousy measures occurred during the treatment phase, with these gains maintained over follow-up. The intensity of the jealousy shifted from moderate to mild and this change was attributed to CAT. Methodological issues and future directions for the treatment of OMJ are discussed.
... Several studies show that human infants, starting from 6 months of age, become troubled and vocalize when their mother directs her attention and care to an infant-like doll or to a sibling, approach and gaze at her maintaining close proximity, and touch/push the social competitor (doll/sibling); in some cases, their response escalates to aggressive reactions directed either towards the social rival or towards the mother (Teti and Ablard 1989; Hart et al. 1998Hart et al. , 2004Miller et al. 2000;Hart and Carrington 2002;Volling et al. 2010). These behavioral responses are considered expressions of a primordial form of jealousy, as they combine both attention-seeking and protests reactions aimed at regaining the mother's attention (Mize et al. 2014;Hart 2016). ...
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Jealousy appears to have clear adaptive functions across species: it emerges when an important social relationship with a valued social partner is threatened by third-party that is perceived as a rival. Dyads of dogs living together and their owners were tested adapting a procedure devised to study jealousy in young human siblings. Owners at first ignored both dogs while reading a magazine (Control episode), and then petted and praised one of the dogs while ignoring the other, and vice versa (Experimental episodes). We found several differences in the dogs' behavior between the Experimental episodes and the Control episode, even though only monitoring (gazing at the owner) was exhibited for a significantly greater amount of time in the Experimental episodes. Remarkable individual behavioral differences emerged, suggesting that the dogs' reactions could be influenced by the relationships that they establish with their owner and the companion dog. Overall, current results do not clearly support our prediction that the ignored dogs would exhibit more behaviors aimed at regaining the owner's attention when their owner directed attention and care to a companion dog, compared to the control situation. The great intra- and inter-dyad behavioral variability and the choice to test cohabiting dogs could have prevented the emergence of a clear jealous reaction. These findings do not exclude that dogs may exhibit a primordial form of jealousy in a realistic situation, but an additional research is needed to fully gauge which situations, if any, could trigger jealousy in dogs and to rule out alternative explanations.
... However, this social behavior also manifests in other social relations. For example, human infant studies suggest that jealous behavior emerges early during development when the mother focuses her attention on a potential social rival (e.g., Hart and Carrington 2002;Mize and Jones 2012). ...
... A number of studies have found evidence that infants display behaviors that appear indicative of jealousy in social triangles involving their mothers and another infant (e.g., Hart, Carrington, Tronick, & Carroll, 2004;Hart, Field, Del Valle, & Letourneau, 1998;Legerstee, Ellenbogen, Nienhuis, & Marsh, 2010;see Hart 2016a, for a review of infant jealousy). For example, in one paradigm, mothers of 6-month-old infants ignored their babies while attending to what appeared to be another infant (but was a real-life-looking doll) or while reading a book (Hart & Carrington, 2002). These infants exhibited greater negative affect when their mothers interacted with a lifelike baby doll. ...
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We review the jealousy literature and present our Dynamic Functional Model of Jealousy (DFMJ), which argues that jealousy evolved and has its own unique motivational state aimed at preventing others from usurping important relationships. It has a core form that exists in infants and nonhuman animals and an elaborated form in humans that emerges as cognitive sophistication develops. The DFMJ proposes that jealousy is an unfolding process with early and late phases that can be differentially impacted by relationship and personality factors. It also notes the importance of looking at multiple concomitants of jealousy, including action tendencies. We discuss how jealousy fits with current emotion theories and suggest that theories of specific emotions need to be broadened.
Article
In this article, I consider the structure of interpersonal emotional relations. I argue that current cognitive-developmental theory has overestimated the role of conceptual thinking, and underestimated the role of intrinsic social-emotional organization, in the early development of such feelings as jealousy, shame, and concern. I suggest that human forms of social experience are shaped by a process through which one individual identifies with the bodily expressed attitudes of other people, and stress the diversity of self–other relational states. I draw on studies in developmental psychopathology, and specifically research in autism and borderline personality disorder, to illustrate some implications of this viewpoint.
Conference Paper
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Traditional studies on the developmental onset of jealousy, including classical studies on the developmental ontogeny of emotions (Bridges, 1932), studies of secondary emotions (Izard, 1977; Plutchik, 1980), emotions of self-awareness (Lewis; 1986), and studies of the first-born sibling’s triviality against later-born (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982) have all concluded that jealousy emerges around the second-birthday. However, recently, evidence from the “jealousy evocation” procedure, in which mothers attended exclusively toward a lifelike baby doll on their lap with positive emotions, while ignoring their infants (Hart & Carrington, 2002; Hart et al., 2004), have suggested that infants as young as 6-months express jealousy. Although the discovery of infant jealousy is significant, above studies have failed to consider two important issues: Firstly, because jealousy is an emotion related to triangular relationships (White & Mullen, 1989), the jealousy evocation situation should be comparable with similar triangular relationships. However, in the above studies, the jealousy evocation situation has been compared with dyadic mother-infant situations, such as the mother reading a book, or a still-face perturbation. Secondly, whereas jealousy may be expressed directly toward the immediate unfaithful behavior of the beloved, it may also carry over to later dyadic relationships with the same person. However, the carry-over effect was not considered in the above studies. Therefore, in this study, 12 seven- and ten-month-old infants and their mothers participated in a serial session consisting of four 3-minute situations: Mother-infant free-play (BL), Jealousy evocation (JE), Re-engagement during a second free-play (RE), and an Infant-mother-stranger situation (TR), in which mothers talked exclusively with a stranger, while ignoring the infants. Results from a cross-context comparison between infants’ reactions to JE and TR indicated that in JE infants in both age groups stared fixedly at the mothers’ behaviors, but they were characteristically absorbed in self-regulation behaviors during TR. This tendency was clearer in older infants. These findings suggest that the infants differently discriminated between the two types of exclusion contexts, depending on the degree of threat to the relationship between them and the mother. That is, self-regulation behavior in TR appeared to be a situational response to fit their behavior to the context. The carry-over effect of JE was also clearly observed in RE. All infants showed eye-aversion when mothers tried to resume interactions. These findings suggest that infant jealousy may be observed more clearly as a carry-over effect in RE than in JE itself. These findings should provide a new direction to studies on infant jealousy and lead to the re-consideration of the conclusions from recent studies suggesting that infant jealousy is differentiated by the expression of sadness in the jealousy evocation situation (Hart et al., 2004), as well as by the display of jealousy by infants between 3 and 6 months of age, when they were excluded in infant-mother-stranger triangular contexts (Legerstee et al., 2010).
Conference Paper
Cooperative spectrum sensing is widely known to collect sensing information from cooperative sensors to assist cognitive radio transmitter to better judge the transmission opportunities, with appearance of hidden primary system terminals. However, it is usually ignored that a successful transmission can go through by requiring not only the spectrum availability at cognitive radio transmitter, but also spectrum availability at cognitive radio receiver. Using this special observation, we use Poisson distributed nodes and Boolean random network model to analyze the geometric region allowing CR transmission with the help of cooperative sensors. Contrary to intuition, we find that cooperative sensing is not always helpful and the region allowing CR transmission is no longer circular anymore. Using this geometric property, we further find that transmission link can remain bidirectional only under certain geometric conditions. Due to these observations, we develop a complete methodology so that a secondary transmitter can select helpful cooperative sensors corresponding to different receivers.
Chapter
In this chapter, nascent jealousy is theorized as a psychological adaptation to the threat of usurpation by a newborn sibling that ancestral infants could have encountered by the age of 9 months. This nature of threat is explained in terms of ancestral infants’ dependence on their mothers as their sole sources of breast milk, which was required for survival. We discuss how the need for exclusive access to mother for breast milk coevolved with expectations of exclusivity in the infant-maternal relationship and with exquisite sensitivity to violations of those expectations that, over deep time, shaped nascent jealousy and its expression through jealousy protest as a mechanism for protecting against usurpation. Next, jealousy protest is discussed in relation to separation protest. Commonality between the two patterns of protest and the overlap in timing are interpreted as the basis for conceptualizing infant-maternal attachment as an adaptation to usurpation. Distinctions are informed in terms of the adaptive advantages of exclusive (vs. nonexclusive) proximal contact with mother. Finally, we address milestones in socioemotional, social cognitive, and motor development that occur at 9 months. We explain how jealousy protest was enabled, not only by attachment formation for its role in establishing a valued relationship but also by skills in cognition and locomotion that facilitated infants’ abilities to recognize and manage usurpation. We propose that these milestones originated in tandem at 9 months to help prepare infants for potential challenges of usurpation as they entered toddlerhood.
Article
هدفت هذه الد ا رسة إلى البحث في أثر إستخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي بكثرة على الحالة النفسية للطالب الجامعي العربي. بالتالي، أعدّ الباحثون استبياناً حول هذه المسألة، تواصلوا مع عدد من الجامعات في الدول العربية لتوسيع مجال الع ينة. بناءً على النتائج الأوّليّة، إستندوا على نتائج كل من البلدان التالية: الجمهوريّة اللبنانيّة، المملكة العربية السعودية، المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية، ودولة فلسطين. وبالتالي تكوّن مجتمع البحث من الشباب الجامعي في هذه البلدان، الذي تت ا روح أعماره بين 18 و 24 سنة وتكوّنت عيّنة عشوائية من 668 فرد اً. أظهرت النتائج وجود فروقات ذات دلالة إحصائية بين الخصائص البيئية للشباب الجامعي العربي وفق البلد بالنسبة للإشباعات المحقّقة عبر استخدام مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي. كذلك، تبيّن أنّ استخدام هذه المواقع يعزّز الإحساس بالحضور الإجتماعي. كما ظهر وجود علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية ما بين المعدّل اليومي لاستخدام مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي اولإدمان السيب ا رني، والغيرة والإحباط. أمّ ا بعض ممارسات الأصدقاء على مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي كالحجب، والخداع، والكذب، والشتيمة والتشهير فتدفع إلى شعور الشباب الجامعي العربي بالإحباط. الكلمات المفتاحية: مواقع التواصل الإجتماعي، الإدمان السيب ا رني، الحضور الإجتماعي، الإحباط
Article
This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants’ jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security. At 45 weeks, intensity of infants’distress and durations of mother- and stranger-directed behavioral responses, including gaze, touch, and proximity-seeking, were observed in the eliciting condition. We also assessed infants’positive emotionality (PE) and negative emotionality (NE) and maternal interaction styles of sensitivity and engagement. At 54 weeks, attachment security was measured in the Strange Situation Procedure. Findings revealed that distress differed with temperamental emotionality and maternal interaction style. Specifically, distress was greater in infants with lower PE and having mothers who displayed less sensitivity and engagement. Analyses on behavioral responses toward the experimenter revealed linkages with maternal interaction style. Specifically, experimenter-directed gaze and touch were greater among infants of mothers who demonstrated less sensitivity and engagement. Behavioral responses toward mother were found associated with quality of attachment. Specifically, mother-directed proximity and touch were highest among infants later judged insecure resistant and lowest among those later judged insecure/avoidant; with infants later judged secure displaying moderate durations of mother-directed proximal contact.
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To characterize infant reactions to jealousy evocation, 94 6-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped in an episode where the mothers directed positive attention toward a lifelike doll, and in 2 contrasting interactions: face-to-face play and a still-face perturbation. Cross-context comparisons of affects and behaviors revealed that jealousy evocation responses were distinguished by diminished joy and heightened anger and intensity of negative emotionality, comparable to levels displayed during the still-face episode; heightened sadness, with durations exceeding those displayed during still-face exposure; and an approach response consisting of interest, looks at mother, and diminished distancing, which was more pronounced than that demonstrated during play. Infants' heightened anger and sadness during jealousy evocation correlated with heightened maternal sensitivity and dyadic vocal turn-taking, respectively, during play; and infants' diminished joy and interest during jealousy evocation were associated with heightened maternal withdrawal and intrusiveness, respectively, during play. Both fear and mother-directed gaze were greater in girls. The discussion argues for interpreting the infant's mixed and agitated reaction to jealousy evocation as evidence of jealousy.
Chapter
Cats, along with dogs, are one of the most popular companion animals for humans. Across the world, increasing numbers of cats are being kept as pets. Despite their familiarity, cats’ cognition has long been shrouded in mystery, mainly because cats were considered largely unsuitable for psychological studies in laboratory settings. The “Cats Team” in Kazuo Fujita’s lab has developed several innovative and useful methods for studying cat cognition. In this chapter, I review findings from some of the team’s studies of cat cognition, including physical inference, use human social cues, incidental memory, cross-modal integration, jealousy, and third-party social evaluation. I also briefly describe some ongoing work on the relation between genes and personality, and suggest directions in which behavioral and cognitive studies of cats might go.
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Jealousy is a commonly experienced emotion which has been observed in infants as young as 5-6 months of age and across the lifespan of an individual. In its extreme form jealousy can be pathological, when the belief which may be a delusion, obsession or an overvalued idea, is held on inadequate grounds and is unaffected by rational discussion. Morbid jealousy differs from normal jealousy in its intensity or rationality. It can be thought of as hypersensitive jealousy since jealous reactions are experienced at a much lower threshold than in average individuals. Morbid jealousy is a disorder in which an individual believes that their partner is, or will be, sexually unfaithful. Morbid jealousy can occur when a partner is in fact being unfaithful, provided that the evidence for the infidelity is incorrect and there is an excessive or irrational response to such evidence. The preoccupation with the partner's infidelity is often triggered by vivid mental images of their partner's past or present relationships.
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Sexual disgust has been conceptualized in terms of drive theory and preoedipal dynamics. Sexual disgust can also be conceptualized from a relational perspective that draws on oedipal psychodynamics as well as recent research on disgust as a form of embodied moral cognition. From a subjective viewpoint, sexual disgust is self-affirming, as it preserves the purity, sanctity, and desirability of the self in the face of polluting sexual contact. Yet from an other-centered viewpoint, sexual disgust precludes empathic recognition when it shames the object of sexual disgust and rationalizes its mistreatment. This dialectic of assertion (i.e., refusal to submit to something sexually disgusting) and recognition (i.e., affirmation as an object of sexual desire) plays out in adult romantic relationships when one partner’s sexual delight is the other partner’s sexual disgust.
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Jealousy protests have been linked to the intrusion of social rivals challenging infants' exclusive access to maternal care and resources that typically accompany attachment. Previous studies revealed that the experimental presentation of social rivals evokes protest in as early as 6 months old infants. This study replicated research on jealousy protests in a novel language and sociocultural context with 10–20 months old infants. We compared protests of 45 children when their mothers attended to each of the rivals and controlled for attachment dimensions. As hypothesized, infants had a stronger jealousy protest to the social rival, and their response was associated with attachment avoidance. We concluded that our results contribute to evidence on jealousy protest as an evolutionary rooted phenomenon that favors the mother's attention in a social rivalry scenario over nonsocial stimuli. Attachment avoidance may be a precluding factor of jealousy when faced with a social rival scenario that deserves further research.
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the negative behaviors emitted by infants during conditions of divided maternal attention from a behavior-analytic perspective. Three infants (21-29 weeks of age) and their mothers participated. Seven conditions were run with the mother-infant dyads (i.e., Control, Neutral Face/Toy, Neutral Face/No Toy, Magazine/Toy, Magazine/No Toy, Doll/Toy, Doll/No Toy). Negative infant behaviors were measured to determine if they occurred more often when mothers did not fully engage with their infants (i.e., engaged in neutral stare, reading a magazine, or talking to a life-like, life-size infant doll) or when infants did not have stimuli with which to engage (i.e., toy). Negative behavior occurred more often in the absence of toys regardless of maternal behavior. This finding suggests that negative behaviors are perhaps more likely accounted for by the lack of interaction rather than infant jealousy.
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Researchers have identified a subset of children with behavioral and emotional problems who do not respond to empirically supported behavioral interventions. Although there is disagreement about the diagnosis, some professionals label these children with reactive attachment disorder. There is ongoing debate about whether the behavior problems in these children, which seem to be related to emotions and morality, are strictly due to complex learning histories or whether internal motives and emotions have a casual effect on those behaviors. Behaviorists claim that all behavior is explained by external stimuli and learning history whereas traditionalists consider the casual role of internal motivational and emotional forces. This makes a difference in terms of treatment recommendations and methods for promoting 'generalization' and 'internalization'. The authors in the issue that follows will represent various positions in this debate and offer suggestions for treatment accordingly.
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Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing resilient behaviors. In addition to describing family related issues and resilience, brief overviews of three interventions for ACOAs are presented.
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We investigated manifestations of jealousy in preschoolers (n=32) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a group of typically developing children (n=18) matched on mental age, verbal mental age, nonverbal mental age, and mother's education. Main results revealed explicit indices of jealousy in two thirds of the children with ASD compared with 94.5% in the typical group. In addition, different manifestations of this emotion emerged in the ASD group compared with the matched control group. Regarding mental and affective correlates of jealousy, expressions of jealousy correlated with IQ only for the children in the ASD group, and the ASD group revealed deficient emotional responsiveness (ER) capabilities. Significant correlations emerged between jealousy and ER in both the ASD and control groups. Discussion focuses on implications of these findings for understanding the core emotional deficit in autism.
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32 5-15 wk old infants were exposed to 1 of 4 experimental conditions that involved (a) the presentation of natural speech stimuli contingent on the infants' nonnutritive sucking, (b) the withdrawal of speech stimuli contingent on the infants' nonnutritive sucking, (c) the noncontingent presentation of speech stimuli, and (d) no speech stimuli. Only the presentation of speech stimulation contingent on the infants' nonnutritive sucking resulted in a significant change in the rate of such sucking compared to infants receiving no sound stimulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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According to most theorists, “nonbasic” emotions such as shame, guilt, pride, and jealousy do not emerge until the 2nd year of life, despite limited evidence for this proposition. Critical examination of the major theories of emotional development reveals that this belief stems from the assumption that young infants are incapable of interpersonal awareness and that this incapacity is invariably explained in terms of lack of representational skills. Only those theorists who credit infants with interpersonal awareness accept that infants might display “nonbasic” emotions, yet nearly all of these theorists also assume that such awareness is indirect and inevitably representation-mediated. Building upon the few exceptions, a relational alternative is also outlined which can account for the possibility of early “nonbasic” emotions while avoiding the logical problems of representationalist explanations.
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Twelve-month-old infants of (N=97) mothers reporting depressed and nondepressed symptoms were videotaped while their mothers and a stranger directed positive attention toward a book or a doll while they ignored the infant. During conditions of unresponsiveness in which the object of attention was a doll, infants of depressed versus nondepressed mothers demonstrated less protest behavior, less proximity to their mothers, less disturbed exploratory activity and greater proximity to a stranger.
Article
Children's expression of jealousy was studied in a cross-sectional sample of children. In the first study, 56 females and 56 males, ages 4.5 months to 4.5 years, were videotaped while their mother paid exclusive attention to another child in a social situation thought to evoke jealousy. In the second study, 10 girls and 10 boys, ages 4.9-7.3 years, were videotaped while their mother praised another child's drawing. We present indications that the emotional state of jealousy can be reliably and validly inferred from the children's behavior in these social settings. Jealousy emerged most intensely in the majority of children between approximately 1.1 and 2.3 years and at 3.5 years children distinguished between social situations which elicit jealousy. These findings are related to the cognitive developmental theories of Case et al. (1988) and Fischer et al. (1989).
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Examined the relations among (a) the quality of the sibling relationship, (b) maternal socialization techniques about infants' emotions and skills, (c) first-born's perspective-taking skills, and (d) first-born's caretaking behavior in 32 sibling pairs (14 months; 3–5 years) and their mothers, observed both at home and a modified lab, strange situation. First-borns' references to second-borns about feelings and skills were positively associated with perspective-taking and friendly sibling relations during mothers' presence at home and when alone in the lab, indicating consistency interaction across settings. Maternal references to first-borns about second-borns were positively associated with friendly sibling relations in mothers' presence, whereas maternal interaction was negatively associated with friendly sibling relations in both settings. Results are discussed in light of previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Twelve-month old infants (N = 76) experienced 4 situations of unresponsiveness in which their mothers and a stranger directed positive attention toward a doll or a picture book while they ignored the infant. Infants demonstrated more protest, negative vocalizations and inhibited play during the doll condition, particularly if the doll was held by the mother. Infant contacts with the mother were more frequent when the mother held the doll. Infants’ distress during the mother/doll condition was interpreted as jealousy.
Article
This study asked how parental support influences firstborns' adjustment to and involvement with a new sibling. Fifty families with firstborn daughters (26–55 months old) were visited at home 6 to 10 weeks after the sibling's birth. During both visits, the mother reported on her firstborn's adjustement. Firstborn's involvement with the sibling was observed during the infant's bathtime. Mothers and fathers were also interviewed 4 to 8 weeks before and 3 weeks after the birth to report on the support they gave to their firstborn. Prenatal maternal support interacted with firstborns' level of prenatal distress to predict postnatal distress: Prenatally high-distress firstborns whose mothers provided little prenatal or postnatal support were the most distressed firstborns after the sibling's birth. Prenatal paternal support did not predict firstborns' postnatal distress, but postnatal paternal support did. Prenatally low-distressed firstborns who received high support were at least distressed. Thus, firstborns' postnatal distress was related to support from mothers before and to support from fathers after the sibling's birth. Moreover, parent support prenatally was most effective in reducing postnatal distress in prenatally high-distress firstborns, whereas parent support given postnatally was most effective in containing postnatal distress particularly for prenatally low-distress firstborns. Firstborns' involvement with the infant was associated with corresponding types of parental support, particularly that provided during the postnatal period. The results suggest that parenta support has a differential effect on distress and involvement. In some cases, parental support appears to promote adjustment and, in other cases, parental support appears to be shaped by the firstborn's needs.
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The interactions of working-class mothers and their firstborn children were studied in a playroom situation shortly before, as well as shortly after, the mother delivered a new baby. Both mothers and children exhibited less warmth and increased neutral affect subsequent to the birth of the new baby. Thus, in the sample, the analytic view that birth of a sibling has a major effect on the mother-child relationship was confirmed.
Article
Discriminiationi of synthetic speech sounds was studied in 1- and 4-month-old infants. The speech sounds varied along an acoustic dimension previously shown to cue phonemic distinctions among the voiced and voiceless stop consonants in adults. Discriminability was measured by an increase in conditioned response rate to a second speech sound after habituation to the first speech sound. Recovery from habituation was greater for a given acoustic difference when the two stimuli were from different adult phonemic categories than when they were from the same category. The discontinuity in discrimination at the region of the adult phonemic boundary was taken as evidence for categorical perception.
The firstborn's adjustment to the arrival of a sibling: A longitudinal assessment
  • Stewart