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Crude aqueous bark extract of Cinnamon loureiroi. was evaluated for anti-emetic potential. Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate and fresh aqueous extract of Brassica compestris to male chicks of fifteen days age. The anti-emetic activity was determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of control. Cinnamon (3 and 6 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when compared with standard drugs Chlorpromazine , Domperidone and Metoclopramide. Both the extracts, showed the antiemetic activity, highest (79.22% inhibition) and the lowest (58. 94 % inhibition) in copper sulphate induced emesis and highest (81.91%) and the lowest(59.57%) in Brassica compestris induced emesis .
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Can J App Sci; Issue 1; Vol. 4: 26-32; January, 2014
Imran et. al., 2014
26
Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences. 1(4): 26-32; January, 2014
ISSN 1925-7430; Available online http://www.canajas.ca
Original Research Article
EVALUATION OF ANTIEMETIC POTENTIAL OF AQUEOUS BARK EXTRACT
OF CINNAMON LOUREIROI
Imran Ahmad Khan1*, Abdul Aziz1, Hafiz Shoaib Sarwar1, Shaukat Hussain
Munawar2, Zahid Manzoor2, Haseeb Anwar3
1. Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan,
2. Faculty of Medicine and Allied Medical sciences, Isra university, Islamabad,
Pakistan
3. Faculty of Science and Technology, G.C university, Faisalabad, Pakistan
ABSTRACT
Crude aqueous bark extract of Cinnamon loureiroi. was evaluated for anti-emetic potential.
Emesis was induced by the oral administration of copper sulphate and fresh aqueous extract
of Brassica compestris to male chicks of fifteen days age. The anti-emetic activity was
determined by calculating the mean decrease in number of retching in contrast with those of
control. Cinnamon (3 and 6 mg / kg body weight orally) showed anti-emetic activity when
compared with standard drugs Chlorpromazine , Domperidone and Metoclopramide. Both the
extracts, showed the antiemetic activity, highest (79.22% inhibition) and the lowest (58. 94 %
inhibition) in copper sulphate induced emesis and highest (81.91% ) and the lowest( 59.57%)
in Brassica compestris induced emesis .
Keywords: Antiemetic, Cinnamons loureiroi, chi-ck emesis model, Domperidone,
Metoclopramide, Chlorpromazine
Corresponding Author: Imran Ahmad Khan* Faculty of Pharmacy, Baha Uddin Zakariya
University, Multan, Pakistan. T.; +923143005013; E.: imranahmadkhadurrani@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Nausea and vomiting induced by several cancer chemotherapy agents is often the most
distressing side effect of treatment. The mechanisms are quite complex. The vomiting center
in the reticular formation can be stimulated by either afferent stimuli from the gastrointestinal
tract or by the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ). The latter is probably the primary site for
emetic activity of most cancer chemotherapeutic agents and is accessible to drugs that do not
cross the blood-brain barrier. It is quite possible that several agents have different receptors.
The wide spectrum of antiemetics is in contrast to the often observed lack of effectiveness.
Cinnamon loureiroi use as medicine is thousand years old mentioned in several books of
the Bible and in the histories of ancient Rome and Egypt as well as medieval Europe [1].
Ayurvadic and folklorik uses are,wound healing, flatulance, erectile sysfuction, conjectivitis,
leukorrhea, vaginitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, aphrodiasic, anti allergy, antifungal, insecticidal
[2]. Antipyretic, analgesic,ani ulserant, nematocidal [3]. Its historical uses were, antidiabetic
[4] [5]. Anticancer [6]. Antimicrobial [7]. Anti inflammatory [8]. Blood pressure lowering
[9]. Cholesterol lowering [10]. Antidirrheal, cough, sore throat, indigestion, vomiting, chest
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Imran et. al., 2014
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congestion, abdominal pain, headache [11]. Tooth ache [12]. Medication resistan yeast
infections [13]. Smelling of cinnamon enhanceses cognitive function and memory [14].
Prevention of cardiovascular diseases, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis [15].
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of Plant Material
Indigenous medicinal plant Cinnamon loureiroi. known by a local name of “Dal chinni”. The
plant were collected from the local market of Multan, Pakistan. The plant material was
authenticated by expert taxonomist, Professor Dr. Altaf Dasti at the Institute of Pure and
Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
Crude extract
The plant material was made free from foreign adulterants and vegetative debris by hand
picking. Special electrical herbal Grinder was used to form coarse powder. Uniform dark
brown powder was obtained with characteristic smell. Powdered cinnamon dissolved in
disstiled water, fluid obtained was filtered through Whattman-1 Filter paper [16].
Chemicals
Copper sulfate was purchased from Scharlau Chem-ie S.A. Barcelona, Spain. Dimethyl
sulfoxide (DMSO), Polyoxy-ethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) Darm-stadt,
Germany. Chlorpromazine, Metoclopramide. and Domperidone were purchased from
Hinoon pharmaceuticals (Pvt) Ltd. Lahore, Pakistan.
Animals and housing conditions
Young male chicks, 15 days of age, weighing from 140-168 gm were obtained from Al
Manara poultry Traders Multan. After 24 hrs fasting, the antiemetic activity was evaluated.
All chicks were kept under laboratory conditions at room temperature with 12 hrs light and
dark cycles. All animal experiments were carried out in accordance with the acts of the
Animal Ethical Committee of Baha-uddin zakariya university, Multan, Pakistan.
Antiemetic activity
The anti emetic activity was evaluated with slight modification by using chick emesis model
[17]. Each chick was placed in a large beaker and left to settle for 10 minutes. Aqueous
extracts of cinnamon loureiroi. bark was prepared as a dose of 3 and 6 mg/kg body weight in
a volume of 10 ml/kg in 0.9% saline containing 5% DMSO and 1% Tween 80. The dose was
administered orally. The control group received only saline 0.9%. After 10 minutes, copper
sulfate was administered orally at 50 mg/kg b.w. and the number of retches was observed
during the next 10 minutes. chlorpromazine, domperidone and metoclopramide were used as
standard antiemetic drugs (150, 100, 50 mg/kg body weight respectively). Same procedure
were adopted for aqeous extract of Brassica induced emesis. The percent inhibition was
calculated by the following formula:
Inhibition (%) = (A-B/A) x 100
Where, A = Frequency of retching in control group; and B = Frequency of retching in test
group.
Phytochemical Study
The crude plant extracts were initially screened qualitatively with different organic solvents
and reagents to detect the presence of some phytochemicals classes [18].
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Toxicity Study
Cinnamon is used as a spice in food material in Asia so its safety is quite obvious. Budavari
et al. have reported acute toxicity of Cinnamon in the animals is very low i.e. Benzaldehyde
(LD50 orally, 1300 mg/kg rat), cinnamaldehyde (LD50 orally, 2220 mg/kg rat), linalool
(LD50 orally, 2790 mg/kg rat), and salicylaldehyde (LD50 orally, 520 mg/kg rat) [19] .
Statistical analysis
Value for antiemetic potential was expressed as mean S.E.M. The statistical significance of
the difference is determined by an unpaired Student’s t-test. P values of < 0.05 were
considered significant and < 0.01 were highly significant.
RESULTS
Preliminary phytochemical screening detected presence of tannins, phenols, saponins
alkaloid, anthraquinones and coumarins as constituents of the crude aqueous bark extract of
Cinnamon loureiroi. (Cl.Cr).
Table 1: Pytochemical analysis of Cinnamon loureiroi (bark) crude extracts (Cl.Cr).
Sr.no
Test
Observations
Result
1
ppt
Positive
2 Saponins 1cm froth Positive
3
Tannins
Light purple
Positive
4 Anthraquinones Pink Positive
5 Coumarins Yellow fluorescence
Positive
6 Phenols Light purple Positive
7 Flavanoid Light yellow colour Positive
Figure 1. Antiemetic effect, Group-I: Control (Normal saline solution); Group-II:
Standered drugs (Chlorpromazine, Metoclopramide and Domperidone); Group-III;
Cinnamon L. (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg).
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Table 2. Antiemetic activity of aqueous bark extracts of Cinnamon l. On copper
sulphate induced emesis. S.E.M.= Standard Error of Mean, *P <0.1 and **P<0.005 vs.
control showing significant and most significant values using unpaired Student’s t-test
Table 3. Antiemetic activity of aqueous bark extracts of Cinnamon l. On fresh water
extract of Brassica induced emesis. S.E.M.= Standard Error of Mean, *P <0.1 and
**P<0.005 vs. control showing significant and most significant values using unpaired
Student’s t-test
Figure 2. Antiemetic effect, Group-I: Control (Normal saline solution); Group-II:
Standered drugs (Chlorpromazine, Metoclopramide and Domperidone); Group-III;
Cinnamon l. (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg).
Results of the antiemetic activity of aqueous extracts of Cinnamon loureiroi bark at various
concentrations are given in Table 2. Both the extracts inhibited emesis to an extent greater
than chlorpromazine at a dose of 150 mg/kg. At test dose of 3 mg/kg Cinnamon loureiroi
showed more antiemetic activity as reference drug chlorpromazine and slightly less than
metoclopramide and domperidone. At test dose of 6mg/kg Cinnamon loureiroi showed
Groups Mean number of retches ±
S.E.M Inhibition (%) of emesis
Control 10ml/kg 68 ± 1.66
Chlorpramazine 150mg/kg 47.11 ± 3.12 30.88% *
Domperidone
100mg/kg
14.9 ± 1.21
78.08% **
Metoclopramide 50mg/kg 13 ± 1.89 80.88% **
Cinnamon 3 mg/kg 32 ± 2.31 52.94% *
Cinnamon 6 mg/kg 14 ± 1.09 79.41% **
Groups Mean number of retches ±
S.E.M Inhibition (%) of emesis
Control 10ml/kg
94.66 ± 0.45
Chlorpramazine 150mg/kg 53.33 ± 1.12 43.61% *
Domperidone 100mg/kg 23 ± 1.09 75.53% **
Metoclopramide 50mg/kg 16.66 ± 1.59 86.18% **
Cinnamon 3 mg/kg 38.33 ± 2.31 59.57% *
Cinnamon 6 mg/kg
17.23 ± 1.09
81.91% **
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Imran et. al., 2014
30
almost same antiemetic activity as metoclopramid and domperidone reference drugs used.
Highest antiemetic activity showed by Cinnamon loureiroi. (79.22 % inhibition) and the
lowest antiemetic activity showed (58.94 % inhibition) in copper sulphate emesis model.
From Table 3, it is clear that all tested extracts concentrations of aqueous bark extract of
Cinnamon loureiroi having antiemetic potential which are comparable to refrence drugs
chlorpromazine, metoclopramide and domperidone in Brassica emesis model with highest
(81.91 % inhibition) and lowest (59.57 % inhibition) somewhat similliar fashion to copper
sulphate emesis model.
DISCUSSION
On the basis of these results it may be concluded that both the extracts have anti-emetic
potential against both ematogens and are comparable with that of chlorpromazine,
metoclopramide and domperidone (the reference drugs). Ematogenic respoce of Brassica was
more prompt than copper sulfate to positive control as well as to test material. Although the
results are significant but the mode of action is not exactly known. However, proposed and
claimed mechanisms are, as the oral copper sulphate induces emesis by peripheral action [20]
and the extracts were able to effectively prevent its effect, it could be implied that these
extracts have a peripheral anti-emetic action, Cinnamon loureiroi. contains flavonoids and
terpenes [21]. which are reported as active principles against emesis in chick emesis model
[22]. Claims of alkaloidal responsibility as antiemetic constituent [23] is may be the cause as
Cinnamon loureiroi is rich in alkaloidal constituent [24]. Campher has been claimed as the
antiemetic constituent of Cinnamon loureiroi bark [25]. Further studies are required
regarding the exact mechanism of action responsible for antiemetic activity of Cinnamon
loureiroi.
Brasica induceses emesis by the toxic effect of its phytoconstituent isothiocynate and
betaphenylisothiocynate [26] [27] by causing irritation in the gastrointestinal mucosa.This
irritation cause release of histamine and serotonin as vomiting center rich in H1-histamine
receptors [28]. While in other way input to the vomiting center are generated by vagus and
spinal nerves of the gastric mucosa which are rich in 5HT3 receptors. This potentiates
ematogenic stimuli in the brain by stimulating vagus afferent input to the voming center.
Cinnamon loureiroi posses antiematic activity which may be increase of peristaltic
movement by its anticholinergic activity as it is anti dirrheal agent [11] as anticholinergics are
good choice of antemetic medications [29].
CONCLUSION
From the present investigation it was clear that the Cinnamon loureiroi. Aqueous bark extract
posse’s excellent antiemetic activity. Factors such as the age, sex and type of stimuli did not
affected the degree of antiemetic activity.
CKNOWLEDGEMENT
Authors are thankful to Abdul Mannan and Ali Niazi Assistant pharmacists for their help
throughout the experiement.
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... Same procedure was adopted for fresh aqueous extract of Brasica compestris induced emesis as described by Imran et al. (2014). Chicks were divided into 6 groups, 3 chicks in each group. ...
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