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Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training

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Abstract

Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals’ willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n = 68) or the control group (n = 69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

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... One of the drivers of sexual minority stress appears to be stigma (Meyer, 2003) and studies have shown MAPs to be an extremely stigmatized group. Jahnke and colleagues recently conducted a series of studies investigating stigma against people with pedophilia (PWP; Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015;Jahnke, Schmidt, Geradt, & Hoyer, 2015). Among a community-based sample of the general public (N = 854), stigma ratings were higher for PWPs than for people with alcoholism, sexual sadism, or antisocial tendencies. ...
... An additional 9.5% were uncertain of their opinion (Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015). Stigmatizing attitudes extend to mental health professionals as well although to a much lesser extent (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015). ...
... Felt stigma in particular is associated with a reduced quality of life, psychological distress, social stress, and poor mental health outcomes (Mays & Cochran, 2001), particularly in the context of stigma-related violence (Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999). As noted above, MAPs grapple with enormous social stigma, regardless of whether or not they pose any actual danger to children (Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015;Jahnke, Schmidt, et al., 2015). In fact, it is reasonable to presume that MAPs encounter far greater stigma than do sexual minorities who are attracted to adults or age-peers. ...
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Elevated suicidal risk has been documented in adults who are sexually attracted to minors but the topic has not been adequately investigated, particularly outside the context of the criminal justice system. In this study, risk factors for chronic suicidal ideation were assessed in 333 community-based minor-attracted persons (95% male) via an online survey. Chronic suicidal ideation was endorsed by 38.1% of the participants but was associated neither to history of sexually engaging with a child nor to prior contact with the criminal justice system. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, significant unadjusted correlates included young age, less education, prior mental health treatment, weaker attraction to adult women, history of sexual abuse in the participants’ own childhood, and the psychosocial effect of perceived stigma against pedophilia. In multivariable analysis, all these factors except education were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation. These results identify meaningful clinical risk factors and treatment targets in this population.
... This is particularly severe for persons with sexual interests in children and adolescents below 1 3 the legal age of consent [in the following referred to as minorattracted persons (MAPs)]. It has been consistently shown that sexual interest in children is a societally highly despised psychological condition (for recent overviews see: Jahnke, 2018a;Lawrence & Willis, 2021) that is associated with increased psychological distress and stigmatization stress in MAPs (e.g., Jahnke et al., 2015aJahnke et al., , 2015bJahnke et al., , 2015c. Furthermore, experiencing high stigmatization stress negatively impacts MAPs' helpseeking behavior (e.g., Grady et al., 2019). ...
... Further evidence for considerable reluctance to work with MAPs was reported by Stiels-Glenn (2010) who found that 95% of psychotherapists they surveyed refused to work with "pedophiles". Jahnke et al., (2015b) showed that 20% of psychotherapists in training were not willing to treat someone with sexual interest in children who has never committed child sexual abuse, and 60% were unwilling to treat someone who has. Although preliminary experimental work showed that lacking accurate knowledge about MAPs and some stigmatizing attitudes were amenable to simple interventions among clinicians (Jahnke et al., 2015b;Levenson & Grady, 2019b), such efforts were not always successful (Walker et al., 2022). ...
... Jahnke et al., (2015b) showed that 20% of psychotherapists in training were not willing to treat someone with sexual interest in children who has never committed child sexual abuse, and 60% were unwilling to treat someone who has. Although preliminary experimental work showed that lacking accurate knowledge about MAPs and some stigmatizing attitudes were amenable to simple interventions among clinicians (Jahnke et al., 2015b;Levenson & Grady, 2019b), such efforts were not always successful (Walker et al., 2022). Therapists' perceived competence was associated with willingness to treat MAPs on a zero-order level but had to be removed due to collinearity in a multivariate model controlling for stigmatizing attitudes. ...
Article
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Minor-attracted persons (MAPs; i.e., people who are sexually interested in children and adolescents below the age threshold of legal consent for sexual activity) exhibit high psychological distress but report difficulties finding therapeutic help and are reluctant to start treatment due to fears of therapist stigmatization. This research sought to elucidate the link between outpatient therapists’ stigmatizing attitudes toward non-offending vs. offending MAPs and therapists’ willingness to treat MAPs as well as how stigmatization was related to treatment-relevant aspects such as perceived MAP treatment needs, treatment barriers, and specific MAP treatment skills. Results from a brief, anonymous online survey conducted among N = 427 Swiss outpatient therapists working in the primary healthcare system are reported. Although therapists were less stigmatizing than the general public, considerable individual differences in the stigmatization of non-offending MAPs emerged. Stigmatizing attitudes toward non-offending MAPs and a perceived lack of specific treatment competences were negatively related to therapists’ willingness to treat MAPs. A network analysis revealed direct links between subjectively perceived MAP treatment competence and treatment willingness and between treatment willingness and social distance attitudes. Other stigmatizing attitudes were only indirectly linked to treatment willingness through preferred social distance. It is a paradox that therapists believe that MAPs should greatly benefit from secondary prevention but many are unwilling to provide therapy (45% in case of non-offending MAPs vs. 63% in case of offending MAPs) or do not feel competent to provide MAPs with professional help (47% with and 88% of therapists without previous MAP treatment experience). Implications for increasing therapists’ treatment willingness are discussed.
... Research appears to indicate the largest changes in stigmatizing punitive attitudes result from interventions involving personal contact with members of the stigmatized group (Griffiths et al., 2014). Indeed, preliminary research challenging stigmatizing attitudes surrounding people with sexual interest in children has produced promising results using both informative and humanization narrative interventions targeting both affective and cognitive factors (Boardman & Bartels, 2018;Harper et al., 2018Harper et al., , 2021Heron et al., 2021;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015;Jara & Jeglic, 2021). Humanizing narratives, in particular, provide a platform in which labels and associated othering are challenged, enabling public consideration of these individuals as people who do not want or choose to have these sexual interests (Harper et al., 2018). ...
... Additionally, we hypothesized that both interventions would increase supportive attitudes and decrease negative affective responses toward people with sexual interest in children. In line with previous research findings from Jahnke, Philipp, et al. (2015), we expected the humanization narrative would produce greater reductions in negative affective responses than the informative intervention. ...
... This study builds upon existing research that public samples harbor punitive attitudes, and that both educational and humanizing antistigma interventions may be effective in challenging these attitudes. Previous research indicates that first-person narratives are more effective than informative interventions in reducing stigmatizing attitudes, by way of potentially reversing the process of dehumanization (Harper et al., 2018(Harper et al., , 2021Harper & Hogue, 2015;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015). However, the humanizing narrative intervention in this study was equally effective in increasing pity and reducing negative affective responses, as well as decreasing social distance, deviance, and increasing supportive attitudes as the informative intervention. ...
... The stress and stigma of minor-attraction is not surprising, given public opinions about people with pedophilic interest. Survey participants believe that MAPs are disgusting, dangerous, and immoral, which results in public fear and anger, and many respondents endorsed that MAPs would be "better off dead" even if they had not sexually molested a child (Jahnke, 2018;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015). Others described people with pedophilia as pathetic, perverted, and making a lifestyle choice, denying that pedophilia is a mental illness and opining "hang them . . . ...
... These societal responses are adopted by MAPs, infusing psychologically damaging beliefs into their own identity (Blagden, Mann, Webster, Lee, & Williams, 2017). Unfortunately, these stigmatizations extend to the views of psychotherapists (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015) When questioned about experiences with mental health professionals, MAPs report encountering contempt, disdain, breaches of confidentiality, lack of empathy, and lack of knowledge. Therapists sometimes reacted in ways that contributed to their shame by refusing to work with them, insinuating that they cannot be helped, or focusing exclusively on risk-related issues that precluded a holistic, collaborative, client-centered therapy approach (B4UAct, 2011a;Buckman et al., 2016;Houtepen et al., 2016;Levenson et al., 2017). ...
... Unable to find help, 3% to 4% of MAPs reported that they later acted upon their attractions and were convicted of a sexual crime (B4UAct, 2011a). Therefore, it is critical that sexual abuse prevention efforts include educating professionals about the mental health needs of MAPs, striving to alter stereotypical perceptions, reduce judgment, and improve ethical, competent, compassionate responses to this population (Jahnke, 2018;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015). ...
Article
Sexual abuse prevention efforts should ideally include counseling for people who have attractions to children before they offend. Due to a variety of factors, many therapists do not wish to work with this population. The aim of this pilot project was to create, implement, and evaluate a short training workshop to help prepare clinical therapists ( n = 94) to respond ethically and effectively to individuals seeking counseling for pedophilic interests. Data were collected at four different clinical-therapy professional conferences over the course of 14 months. The pretest/posttest design asked questions about six specific areas of knowledge related to pedophilia, mandatory reporting, treatment needs, and goals for this difficult-to-reach population. In addition, six questions were asked about attitudes toward working with minor-attracted persons and capacity to build a therapeutic relationship. Some significant changes were detected in knowledge and attitudes about clients with pedophilia after receiving training about the topic, indicating increased willingness to work with this population and improved feelings of competence in providing services. Implications for prevention are discussed.
... There is a growing body of research seeking to better understand and support individuals with a sexual attraction toward children (Cantor & McPhail, 2016;Grady et al., 2019;Houtepen et al., 2016;Jahnke et al., 2015aJahnke et al., , 2015bJahnke et al., , 2018Levenson & Grady, 2019b;Lievesley et al., 2020;Stevens & Wood, 2019). Minor-attracted persons (MAPs) express sexual attractions to children that can be classified into an age-graded theory of several chronophilic categories (Seto, 2017). ...
... The aim should therefore be to help service users to live healthy lives with their attractions (i.e., to gain self-acceptance), rather than subscribing to an assumption that all MAPs are likely to have compulsive thoughts or behaviors related to abusing children (Hocken, 2018). Such a focus on mental wellbeing is also consistent with empirically observed mental health deficits among MAPs, with higher-than-expected levels of loneliness (Elchuk et al., 2022;Jahnke et al., 2015aJahnke et al., , b, 2018 thought suppression (Lievesley et al., 2020), and lower-than-average levels of generalized mental wellbeing including suicidal ideation (Cohen et al., 2020;Konrad et al., 2017;Lievesley et al., 2020) being reported among MAPs. Addressing such mental wellbeing issues has been suggested as a potential indirect route to sexual abuse prevention Lievesley et al., 2020), given the associations between mental health issues, emotion regulation, and personality constructs with sexual offending among those with prior offense histories (Finkelhor, 1984;Gannon et al., 2012;Marshall, 2010;Ward & Beech, 2006;Ward & Siegert, 2002;Wielinga et al., 2021). ...
... In general, our sample rated mental health-related concerns as a treatment priority above targets related to controlling sexual attractions (including changing attraction patterns) or coping with social stigmatization. This is broadly consistent with how MAPs conceptualize their treatment needs in surveys conducted within the MAP community, with MAPs reporting social stigmatization as being a driver of poorer mental health in a range past work (B4U-ACT, 2011; Grady et al., 2019;Jahnke et al., 2015aJahnke et al., , b, 2018Levenson & Grady, 2019b;Levenson et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a desire and need among minor-attracted persons (MAPs) to access support within the community, and this often begins with an approach to healthcare providers working in general medical/mental health settings. However, little is known about the experiences of these non-specialist professionals in relation to their beliefs, knowledge, and decision-making processes when working with patients who disclose sexual attractions to children. Using an online survey, this study explored the knowledge, comfort, competence, and treatment willingness of 220 non-specialist healthcare providers when faced with patients who disclose sexual attractions to children. We investigated how often such disclosures were made, clinician stigma, treatment priorities, and professionals’ willingness to report MAPs to external agencies because of their sexual attractions. Some key differences were found when comparing primary medical vs. mental health professionals, including increased likelihood to view MAPs as dangerous, unable to control behaviors and that sexual attractions are an avoidable choice, in the former group. Both groups prioritized mental health treatment targets above controlling attractions and living with stigmatized attractions, although controlling or changing attractions were still relatively high priorities. Results indicated a need for further training, focusing on increasing comfort around working with MAPs, as this was associated with a greater willingness to work with this group. We identify current gaps in service provision for MAPs seeking professional support and discuss recommendations for professional training.
... Further evidence for considerable reluctance to work with MAPs was reported by Stiels-Glenn (2010) who found that 95% of psychotherapists they surveyed refused to work with "pedophiles". Jahnke, Philipp, and Hoyer (2015) showed that 20% of psychotherapists in training were not willing to treat someone with sexual interest in children who has never committed past child sexual abuse, and 60% were unwilling to treat someone who has. Although preliminary experimental work showed that lacking accurate knowledge about THERAPISTS' PERSPECTIVES ON MINOR-ATTRACTED PERSONS 11 MAPs and some stigmatizing attitudes were amenable to simple interventions among clinicians (Jahnke, Philipp et al., 2015;Levenson & Grady, 2019b), such efforts were not always successful (Walker et al., 2022). ...
... Jahnke, Philipp, and Hoyer (2015) showed that 20% of psychotherapists in training were not willing to treat someone with sexual interest in children who has never committed past child sexual abuse, and 60% were unwilling to treat someone who has. Although preliminary experimental work showed that lacking accurate knowledge about THERAPISTS' PERSPECTIVES ON MINOR-ATTRACTED PERSONS 11 MAPs and some stigmatizing attitudes were amenable to simple interventions among clinicians (Jahnke, Philipp et al., 2015;Levenson & Grady, 2019b), such efforts were not always successful (Walker et al., 2022). Therapists' perceived competence was associated with willingness to treat MAPs on a zero-order level but had to be removed due to collinearity in a multivariate model controlling for stigmatizing attitudes. ...
... Due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot draw inferences about the causality of the emerging network links but the data may suggest that the prior focus on anti-stigma THERAPISTS' PERSPECTIVES ON MINOR-ATTRACTED PERSONS 36 interventions in the literature (e.g., Jahnke, Philipp et al., 2015, Levenson & Grady, 2019bWalker et al., 2022) will likely be only partly successful in increasing therapists' willingness to treat MAPs. This is corroborated by the relatively weak direct link from the SDS to treatment willingness as opposed to the much stronger link to subjectively perceived specific MAP treatment skills (Figure 2). ...
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Minor-attracted persons (MAPs; i.e., people who are sexually interested in children and adolescents below the age threshold of legal consent for sexual activity) exhibit high psychological distress but report difficulties finding therapeutic help and are reluctant to start treatment due to fears of therapist stigmatization. This research sought to elucidate the link between outpatient therapists’ stigmatizing attitudes towards non-offending vs. offending MAPs and therapists’ willingness to treat MAPs as well as how stigmatization was related to treatment-relevant aspects such as perceived MAP treatment needs, treatment barriers, and specific MAP treatment skills. Results from a brief, anonymous online survey conducted among N = 427 Swiss outpatient therapists working in the primary healthcare system are reported. Although therapists were less stigmatizing than the general public, considerable individual differences in the stigmatization of non-offending MAPs emerged. Stigmatizing attitudes towards non-offending MAPs and a perceived lack of specific treatment competences were negatively related to therapists’ willingness to treat MAPs. A network analysis revealed direct links between subjectively perceived MAP treatment competence and treatment willingness and between treatment willingness and social distance attitudes. Other stigmatizing attitudes were only indirectly linked to treatment willingness through preferred social distance. It is a paradox that therapists believe that MAPs should greatly benefit from secondary prevention but many are unwilling to provide therapy (45% in case of non-offending MAPs vs. 63% in case of offending MAPs) or do not feel competent to provide MAPs with professional help (47% with and 88% of therapists without previous MAP treatment experience). Implications for increasing therapists’ treatment willingness are discussed.
... A different type of intervention uses psychoeducational texts, which are shorter in length than training and seminar-based interventions, cost-effective and can be administered online (Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015;Kleban & Jeglic, 2012). One study that made use of this intervention was designed by Holden et al. (2014). ...
... Another study by Jahnke, Philipp, et al. (2015) combined psychoeducational texts with a video. The participants were psychotherapists in training, and they were presented with short texts dispelling myths about paedophilia and a video of a young paedophile talking about his sexual attraction to children. ...
... However, due to the stigma directed at MAPs and negative public perception, there is little support for the development of such programmes (Shields & Feder, 2016). There is also some evidence that anti-stigma interventions may change attitudes toward MAPs (Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015;Kleban & Jeglic, 2012). The present study used psychoeducational texts as an intervention due to its increased accessibility and ability to be replicated. ...
Article
Child sexual abuse is a prevalent problem within our communities, yet policies that address it are mostly responsive rather than preventive. Given its impact on victims, it is important to move toward secondary prevention strategies, such as targeting individuals at higher risk for offending due to their sexual interest in minors, but who have yet to offend, and providing them with the resources needed to remain offense-free. This strategy is hindered by stigma, which prevents minor attracted persons (MAPs) from self-identifying. To dispel that stigma, the present study aimed to assess public attitudes toward MAPs and determine whether they could be changed by reading a psychoeducational text about MAPs. Analysis revealed that reading the text was associated with more negative attitudes. Findings are discussed as they pertain to the development of an anti-stigma intervention for MAPs.
... One group of individuals who experience significant stigma is minor-attracted persons (MAPs; Cantor & McPhail, 2016;Harper, Bartels, & Hogue, 2018;Houtepen, Sijtsema, & Bogaerts, 2016;Imhoff, 2015;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015). MAPs are individuals who describe themselves as being attracted to children or teens and might be more commonly known as pedophiles or hebephiles, though not all MAPs will meet criteria for a pedophilic disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Seto, 2012). ...
... However, it is important to note that pedophilic disorder is currently considered a mental health diagnosis and not a criminal act; pedophilia as a psychological category is not the same as having committed a sexual offense representing a legal category. By conflating these two labels, nonoffending MAPs experience significant levels of stigma (Houtepen et al., 2016;Imhoff, 2015;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015). The aim of this study was to learn from individuals who identify as MAPs about their perceived mental health needs and to explore the role stigma may play in their experiences of seeking help from professionals. ...
Article
Minor-attracted persons (MAPs; N = 293; 154 completed all questions) responded to 10 open-ended questions that were designed to capture in their own words their experiences of seeking treatment. We conducted a qualitative analysis of their responses using grounded theory, which is designed to allow themes to emerge from their responses without preconceived notions or expectations. Using this method, we coded answers and then calculated the total number of times that each theme was cited across the entirety of the survey. The most prominent theme that participants cited in their responses was the experience and/or fear of stigma (n = 87). Stigma plays a significant role in their willingness to engage in the treatment process. Some participants noted their concerns about how some attractions to minors should be viewed as “normal” and is unfairly stigmatized (“normalizing”; n = 63). Other prominent themes included shame (n = 50), which focused on internal views of themselves as a “bad person”; a perceived lack of understanding by professionals about MAPs (n = 50); and the importance of building a community with other nonoffending MAPs (either in person or online; n = 45). In addition, other identified themes included fear of being judged (n = 31), statements that they had never acted on their attractions (n = 31), and a fear of being reported (n = 31). Implications for practice and policy are discussed.
... Skepticism about professional views and behaviors in relation to MAPs may not be unfounded. Across multiple studies of social work students and mental health professionals we see a willingness to report MAPs to legal authorities due to explicit stigma and insecurities about professionals' levels of competence, alongside a reluctance among some professionals to work with MAPs therapeutically at all (Beggs Christofferson, 2019;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015;Levenson & Grady, 2019a;Parr & Pearson, 2019;Stephens et al., 2021;Walker et al., 2021). MAPs negative treatment encounters lead many to seek support in informal networks, such as via trusted friends and family, or online communities (Jones et al., 2020;Stevens & Wood, 2019). ...
... In this work we used self-report measures throughout, which may be seen as a limitation of our methods. Although the use of self-report methods is commonplace in social science research generally, and in work on professional views about support for MAPs (Beggs Christofferson, 2019;Goodier & Lievesley, 2018;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015;Levenson & Grady, 2019a;Parr & Pearson, 2019;Stephens et al., 2021;Walker et al., 2021), exploring actual behavior when working with this population would be an interesting future research approach. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a desire and need among minor attracted persons (MAPs) to access support within the community, and this often begins with an approach to healthcare providers working in general medical/mental health settings. However, little is known about the experiences of these non-specialist professionals in relation to their beliefs, knowledge, and decision-making processes when working with patients who disclose sexual attractions to children. Using an online survey, this study explored the knowledge, comfort, competence, and treatment willingness of 220 non-specialist healthcare providers when faced with patients who disclose sexual attractions to children. We investigated the prevalence of these disclosures, clinician stigma, treatment priorities, and professionals’ willingness to report MAPs to external agencies because of their sexual attractions. Some key differences were found when comparing primary medical vs mental health professionals, including increased likelihood to view MAPs as dangerous, unable to control behaviors and that sexual attractions are an avoidable choice, in the former group. Both groups prioritized mental health treatment targets above controlling attractions and living with stigmatized attractions, although controlling or changing attractions were still relatively high priorities. Results indicated a need for further training, focusing on increasing comfort around working with MAPs, as this was associated with a greater willingness to work with this group. We identify current gaps in service provision for MAPs seeking professional support and discuss recommendations for professional training.
... Selain itu, penelitian sebelumnya memperlihatkan bahwa Meditasi Raja Yoga dapat meningkatkan pemikiran positif dan membangun kebahagiaan (Ramesh dkk, 2013). Sehingga dengan menerapkan Meditasi Raja Yoga, diharapkan pelaku pedofilia mampu mengembangkan kontrol diri oleh superego serta pemikiran-pemikiran positif agar tidak menimbulkan kekerasan seksual pada anak-anak lagi (Jahnke, 2014). Berdasarkan latar belakang tersebut, penulis ingin mengangkat gagasan ilmiah yakni Meditasi Raja Yoga dalam mencegah dan meberi terapi pada pelaku pedofilia. ...
... Tidak ada penanganan pedofilia yang efektif terkecuali pelaku pedofil memiliki kemauan untuk ikutserta dalam terapi (Ryan dan Richard, 2007). Ego dyntonic membuat superego berfungsi dan menyebabkan tertekannya perilaku pedofilia tersebut (Jahnke, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pedofilia adalah kasus paling sering ditemukan dan banyak terjadi di Indonesia. Sehingga, kasus pedofilia ini menyebabkan Indonesia dalam kondisi Darurat Pedofilia. Berdasarkan data KPAI bahwa dari tahun 2010 hingga 2014, terjadi sebanyak 21.869.797 kasus pelanggaran hak anak dan sekitar 42-58 persen dari pelanggaran hak anak tersebut merupakan kejahatan seksual pedofilia. Kasus pedofilia baru sedikit yang terungkap dan masih banyak kasus-kasus yang belum diadukan oleh karena ketakutan korban untuk melapor serta pelaku pedofil yang tidak menunjukkan suatu karakteristik tertentu atau terlihat seperti orang normal. Anak yang pernah menjadi korban akan mengalami dampak psikologis seperti depresi, gangguan stress pascatrauma (PTSD), kegelisahan maupun cedera fisik. Selain itu, anak yang menjadi korban ini nantinya akan dapat menjadi pelaku pedofilia, hal ini disebut sebagai victim-to-abuser cycle. Hal terpenting dari terapi pada kasus penyimpangan seksual adalah untuk melawan ego syntonic yang dimiliki oleh pelaku. Tidak ada penanganan pedofilia yang efektif terkecuali pelaku pedofil memiliki kemauan untuk ikut serta dalam terapi. Dengan demikian, kunci dari keberhasilan terapi berasal dari dalam diri pelaku sendiri yakni ego dystonic. Sehingga diperlukan suatu kegiatan yang bisa membuat pelaku pedofil mampu mengubah jalan pikiran serta perilaku yang dimiliki. Kegiatan yang sekiranya dapat diterapkan sebagai solusi kasus pedofilia adalah melalui meditasi. Meditasi merupakan strategi yang sejak lama digunakan sebagai media pengatur dorongan libidinal (id) dan pengendalian diri oleh superego (self-regulatory) yang digunakan pada konseling kesehatan mental dan psikiatri karena dapat menurunkan nafsu atau gairah berlebihan dan kondisi kecemasan, depresi, dan ganguan perilaku. Meditasi yang digunakan dalam gagasan ilmiah untuk pelaku pedofilia adalah Meditasi Raja Yoga. Meditasi Raja Yoga telah diteliti selama bertahun-tahun dengan fungsinya yang dapat mengubah perilaku, pengendalian diri oleh superego, kepribadian, dan kemampuan berfikir serta gaya hidup yang dimiliki seseorang. Diharapkan gagasan ilmiah ini dapat sebagai media pencegahan, terapi, perenungan, dan pengendali diri perilaku oleh superego pada pelaku pedofilia, sebagaimana diketahui bahwa kunci keberhasilan terapi ada pada diri pelaku sendiri. Kata Kunci: Pedofilia, Meditasi Raja Yoga dan Psikoterapi.
... Owing to the widespread social condemnation and hostility directed towards people with pedophilic sexual interests, but the apparent effectiveness of secondary prevention schemes for reducing risk factors associated with sexual offending, it is important to establish methods to bring about changes in the responses of the general public towards this group in order to encourage people with such interests to seek help before committing a sexual offence. Previous studies have demonstrated how narrative humanization can improve the views of students (Harper et al., 2018) and clinical professionals (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015) by reversing the processes of dehumanization described previously (Harper & Hogue, 2015Viki et al., 2012). However, these participant groups may be naturally more receptive to progressive information about people with pedophilic sexual interests and the improvement of their treatment within society (possibly due to higher levels of openness, liberalism, professional experience, or general education; Harper, Hogue, & Bartels, 2017). ...
... Extending prior work, these significant effects were still present (though to a lesser degree) after four months. The persistence of these attitudinal improvements is consistent with data reported by Jahnke, Philipp, and Hoyer (2015), who found that narrative-based presentations led to long-term reductions in stigmatization among German psychotherapists in training. Inconsistent with Harper et al. (2018), there was no difference in these effects between the two experimental conditions, suggesting that both narrative and informative presentations are equally effective in reducing perceptions of pedophiles' dangerousness, and punitive attitudes toward them. ...
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The stigmatization of people with pedophilic sexual interests is the topic of growing academic and professional consideration, owing to its potential role in moderating pedophiles’ emotional wellbeing, and motivation and engagement in child abuse prevention schemes. Thus, improving attitudes and reducing stigmatization toward this group is of paramount importance. Prior research has suggested that narrative humanization – presenting personal stories of self-identified non-offending pedophiles – could be one route to doing this. However, this work has only been conducted with students or trainee psychotherapists, meaning the public generalizability of this method is still unknown. In this study, we tested whether narratives reduce stigma toward people with pedophilic interests more effectively than an informative alternative (scientific information about pedophilia). Using a longitudinal experimental design (initial N = 950; final N = 539), we found that narratives had consistently positive effects on all measured aspects of stigmatization (dangerousness, intentionality), whereas an informative alternative had mixed results, and actually increased perceptions of pedophiles’ levels of deviance. These effects were also still present four months after the initial presentation. We discuss these data in relation to ongoing debates about treating pedophilia as a public health issue requiring a broad societal approach to wellbeing and child abuse prevention.
... [14] By applying Raja Yoga Meditation, it is expected that pedophiles can develop self-regulatory by superego and positive thoughts in order not to cause sexual abuse in children again. 15 Given all the outstanding and up-to-date discoveries, the writer would like to discuss about the role Raja Yoga Meditation in preventing and giving therapy to pedophiles. ...
... This Raja Yoga meditation also improves the quality of the unconscious, sexual instincts by the libidinal can be suppressed by the superego. [11,15,41] This strategic can increase the positive thinking of pedophiles by giving a positive impact. The suppression of pedophilia is proven by the increase in superego as an agent of self-control. ...
Article
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Pedophilia is a frequent case in the world including Indonesia. This makes Indonesia a pedophilia emergency. The data on child abuse based on Commission Child Protection Indonesia (KPAI) in 2010-2014 was increased 42-58 percent of pedophilia. Besides, the victims will eventually become pedophiles that are called victim-to-abuser cycles. Recently, it needed the successful key to therapy against dystonic ego of a pedophilia abuser with Raja Yoga meditation. Meditation is a strategy that has been used to control libidinal (id) and self-regulatory (superego) used in mental health counseling and psychiatry because it can decrease arousal, anxiety, depression, and behavioral disorder. One type of meditation is Raja Yoga meditation that has been studied for years of ability to change behavior and self-regulatory. Supported by several studies, this meditation also can repair abnormalities in the limbic system. Raja Yoga meditation is effective therapy and prevention in pedophilia.
... There were several reasons for this lack of willingness. Aside from generalised negative attitudes towards MAPs (see Jahnke et al. (2015c) for a discussion), these psychotherapists did not feel they had the requisite skills or experiences to adequately work with MAPs. This is unsurprising, as core medical (e.g., General Medical Council, 2016) and psychotherapeutic (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013/2017) training curricula do not typically contain any information about 13 minor attraction (with the only mention of sexuality in syllabi being related to the need to sensitively work with people from diverse backgrounds). ...
... There is widespread social stigmatization directed towards MAPs (Harper et al., 2018;Jahnke & Hoyer, 2013;Jahnke et al., 2015aJahnke et al., , 2015bJahnke et al., , 2018aJahnke et al., , 2018b). This stigma is not only observed within general public samples, but also among the media , researchers who study 'paedophilia' using samples consisting only of individuals with sexual convictions (Feelgood & Hoyer, 2008), and health professionals (Jahnke et al., 2015c;Stiels-Glenn, 2010). This societal stigma can become internalized among MAPs (Jahnke et al., 2015b;Lievesley et al., 2020), in turn leading to barriers to help-seeking when support when it is desired . ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The prevention of sexual abuse among people with sexual attractions to minors is a field of study that is growing in both size and importance. While there is an increasing amount of research into this topic, particularly in relation to the stigmatisation of minor-attracted persons (MAPs) and the barriers to them seeking help, there is currently no theoretical framework within which to consider this prevention landscape. In this paper, we suggest that an extension of Göbbels, Ward, and Willis’ (2012) integrative theory of desistance from sexual offending could fill this gap in the literature. We explore what the aims of ‘prevention’ initiatives could, or perhaps should, be, before exploring how an extension and adaptation of the desistance framework could provide a framework for working with MAPs in their journey for sound mental health and, ultimately, the prevention of sexual offending.
... Further, and probably as a result of negative attitudes towards PWP, people hold beliefs about PWP, such as they should be "incarcerated" or even "better dead" (Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015a). These negative attitudes towards PWP have been shown to exist worldwide, such as in Germany (Imhoff, 2015;Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015a;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015b;Stiels-Glenn, 2010), the United States (Imhoff, 2015;Imhoff & Jahnke, 2018;Jahnke, 2018a;Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015a), the United Kingdom (Feldman & Crandall, 2007;Harper & Hogue, 2015), and Russia (Koops, Turner, Jahnke, Märker, & Briken, 2016). In light of those negative attitudes, it is not surprising that PWP have a hard time disclosing their attraction and feel discouraged from requesting help from professionals or family and friends (Kramer, 2011;Seto, 2012). ...
... Stigma research suggests that direct contact yields the strongest effects compared to other anti-stigma interventions (Corrigan et al., 2012). It has been shown that even indirect contact to a PWP (e.g., video material showing a PWP talking about pedophilia) was able to diminish punitive attitudes (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015b). Although the present pilot study did not compare different anti-stigma interventions, substantial differences between pre-and post-measures and large effect sizes were found. ...
Article
Full-text available
People with pedophilia (PWP) are highly stigmatized. Public opinion is strongly pre-consolidated – it is often assumed that every PWP commits child sex offenses. This presumption not only affects PWP negatively. Research suggests that this stigmatization may cohere with PWP actually committing child sex offenses. Various recent studies have investigated different kinds of anti-stigma interventions and their effectiveness. Direct contact to a PWP has not yet been investigated. The present pilot study aimed at finding out whether a dichotomous anti-stigma intervention can change psychology students’ attitudes towards PWP regarding perceived dangerousness, intentionality, deviance, and punitive attitudes. In a one sample pre-post design, we presented 162 students of the University of Groningen with both an educational lecture and direct contact to a PWP. Participants learned about child sex offending and pedophilia. Then, Gabriel, a PWP shared his experiences about growing up, coping, and living with pedophilia. Results of the one-sample Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly diminished negative attitudes towards PWP after the intervention. Students perceived PWP as less dangerous, having less intent, and being less psychologically deviant. Additionally, students’ punitive attitudes towards PWP diminished significantly. Also, a thematic analysis revealed that students were highly interested in the topic of pedophilia and greatly appreciative of Gabriel sharing his story. This pilot study was the first to provide evidence for the effectiveness of a combination of an educational lecture and direct contact to a PWP as an anti-stigma intervention.
... We think that a practical place to break this circle is the media coverage. Earlier studies have already shown that providing differentiated and evidence-based information can help reduce stigmata (e.g., Corrigan & Shapiro, 2010;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015). "Differentiated" here also means information on pedophilia which is not related to CSA. ...
... The fact that minor-attracted persons must expect rejection even in a professional context represents a further obstacle to seeking preventive treatment. Even a short (online) training for professionals can reduce stigmatizing attitudes and increase the willingness to work with minor-attracted persons (Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015;Levenson & Grady, 2019), which highlights how evidence-based reporting can reduce stigmata and in turn may lower the threshold to seek treatment, may reduce psychological distress in minor-attracted persons and therefore contributes to CSA prevention. ...
Article
The stigma against persons with pedophilic interests (minor-attracted persons) leads to serious consequences for those affected, adds to the development of a sexual preference disorder (which is a sexual preference for children accompanied by psychological distress and/or risk for direct and indirect sexual behavior against children) and increases their risk of becoming offenders. One-sided media coverage maintains and reinforces the existing stigma by continuously and inadequately conflating minor-attracted persons with sexually abusive behavior against children. To destigmatize pedophilia and support non- offending minor-attracted persons, journalists have a great responsibility to portray pedophilia appropriately. Until now, nothing is known on the journalists’ knowledge and personal attitude of minor-attracted people. Therefore, this paper addresses the question of how journalists deal with the topic of pedophilia, in detail what they know about pedophilia, what attitudes and emotions are associated with the topic and what thoughts about prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) journalists have. We conducted 11 qualitative interviews with journalists who had published at least one article on pedophilia or CSA within 2018. The transcripts were processed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the interviewees largely defined pedophilia as consistent with scientific evidence but overestimated the risk for minor-attracted persons of becoming an offender. At the same time, many respondents were aware that persons who are not attracted to minors also abuse children sexually. Strong or negative feelings toward minor-attracted persons were reported only occasionally. Rather, the interviewees talked about sympathy as long as minor-attracted persons did not offend children. The interviewed journalists were generally open to a differentiated, evidence-based reporting, which could be a first step toward destigmatizing pedophilia, making supportive services known and, as a consequence, preventing CSA.
... Owing to the widespread social condemnation and hostility directed towards people with pedophilic sexual interests, but the potential of mental health and abuse prevention schemes for reducing risk factors associated with sexual offending, it is important to establish methods to bring about changes in the responses of the general public towards this group in order to encourage people with such interests to seek help before committing a sexual offence. Previous studies have demonstrated how narrative humanization can improve the views of students and clinical professionals (Jahnke, Philipp et al., 2015) by reversing the processes of dehumanization described previously (Harper & Hogue, 2015, 2017Viki et al., 2012). However, these participant groups may be naturally more receptive to progressive information about people with pedophilic sexual interests and the improvement of their treatment within society (possibly due to higher levels of openness, liberalism, professional experience, or general education; . ...
... Extending prior work, these significant effects were still present (though to a lesser degree) after four months. The persistence of these attitudinal improvements is consistent with data reported by Jahnke, Philipp et al. (2015), who found that narrative-based presentations led to long-term reductions in stigmatization among German psychotherapists in training. Inconsistent with , there was no difference in these effects between the two experimental conditions, suggesting that both narrative and informative presentations are equally effective in reducing perceptions of pedophiles' dangerousness, and punitive attitudes toward them. ...
Article
Full-text available
The stigmatization of people with pedophilic sexual interests is the topic of growing academic and professional consideration, owing to its potential role in moderating pedophiles' emotional wellbeing, and motivation and engagement in child abuse prevention schemes. Thus, improving attitudes and reducing stigmatization toward this group is of paramount importance. Prior research has suggested that narrative humanization-presenting personal stories of self-identified non-offending pedophiles-could be one route to doing this. However, this work has only been conducted with students or trainee psychotherapists, meaning the public generalizability of this method is still unknown. In this study, we compared two stigma interventions to test whether narratives reduce stigma toward people with pedophilic interests more effectively than an informative alternative (scientific information about pedophilia). Using a longitudinal experimental design with a lack of non-intervention control (initial N = 950; final N = 539), we found that narratives had consistently positive effects on all measured aspects of stigmatization (dangerousness, intentionality), whereas an informative alternative had mixed results, and actually increased perceptions of pedophiles' levels of deviance. These effects were also still present four months after the initial presentation. We discuss these data in relation to ongoing debates about treating pedophilia as a public health issue requiring a broad societal approach to wellbeing and child abuse prevention.
... There were several reasons for this lack of willingness. Aside from generalised negative attitudes towards MAPs (see Jahnke et al. (2015c) for a discussion), these psychotherapists did not feel they had the requisite skills or experiences to adequately work with MAPs. This is unsurprising, as core medical (e.g., General Medical Council, 2016) and psychotherapeutic (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2013/2017) training curricula do not typically contain any information about 13 minor attraction (with the only mention of sexuality in syllabi being related to the need to sensitively work with people from diverse backgrounds). ...
... There is widespread social stigmatization directed towards MAPs (Harper et al., 2018;Jahnke & Hoyer, 2013;Jahnke et al., 2015aJahnke et al., , 2015bJahnke et al., , 2018aJahnke et al., , 2018b). This stigma is not only observed within general public samples, but also among the media , researchers who study 'paedophilia' using samples consisting only of individuals with sexual convictions (Feelgood & Hoyer, 2008), and health professionals (Jahnke et al., 2015c;Stiels-Glenn, 2010). This societal stigma can become internalized among MAPs (Jahnke et al., 2015b;Lievesley et al., 2020), in turn leading to barriers to help-seeking when support when it is desired . ...
Article
Full-text available
The prevention of sexual abuse among people with sexual attractions to minors is a field of study that is growing in both size and importance. While there is an increasing amount of research into this topic, particularly in relation to the stigmatisation of minor-attracted persons (MAPs) and the barriers to them seeking help, there is currently no theoretical framework within which to consider this prevention landscape. In this paper, we suggest that an extension of Göbbels, Ward, and Willis’ integrative theory of desistance from sexual offending could fill this gap in the literature. We explore what the aims of “prevention” initiatives could, or perhaps should, be, before exploring how an extension and adaptation of the desistance framework could provide a framework for working with MAPs in their journey for sound mental health and, ultimately, the prevention of sexual offending.
... This is because paraphilias and their treatment only play a subordinate role in both therapeutic and medical training. Furthermore, not every healthcare practitioner wants to offer treatment for people with a pedophilic disorder [46][47][48]. For this reason, we invited specialized healthcare practitioners (psychiatrists and psychotherapists) from the Berlin site of the Prevention Network "Don't offend" to participate in the present qualitative study. ...
Article
Full-text available
The fierce stigma associated with pedophilia may interfere with attempts to prevent sexual offending. Prior research on the effects of media reports about pedophilia mostly focused on their role in perpetuating stigma in the general population. In order to better understand potential benefits and risks of the media coverage on people with pedophilia and specialized prevention and treatment efforts, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 11 healthcare practitioners of the German Prevention Network “Don’t offend”. Healthcare practitioners described positive (e.g., raising awareness for prevention offers) as well as negative (e.g., perpetuating the existing public stigma) effects of the media coverage and estimated that only about one-third of media coverage portrays pedophilia realistically. To destigmatize pedophilia and benefit the prevention of child sexual abuse, a fact box for journalists was developed based on practitioners’ expert knowledge.
... Low willingness to treat is present regardless of offending history; for example, in a small sample of Russian sexologists (n = 26), over one quarter believed those with sexual inter est in children should be incarcerated, regardless of offence status (Koops et al., 2016). More promising results were reported by Jahnke, Philipp, and Hoyer (2015) who found that in a sample of psychotherapists in training, 80% were willing to treat non-offending individuals with sexual interest in children and held more positive attitudes toward this group, compared with previous studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined North American clinician stigma and willingness to treat those with sexual interest in children. Clinicians (N = 101) were randomly assigned to a vignette describing a referral of a client with a sexual interest in children and asked whether they would accept the client for treatment. Vignettes differed in what the client was seeking treatment for (low mood or managing sexual interest) and sexual offence history (no offence history or a contact offence against a child). Clinicians with lower stigma were more likely to accept a referral for a client with sexual interest in children and, in general, clinicians were least likely to accept a referral for a client with a sexual offence against a child looking to manage their sexual interest. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... As previous research indicates, such interventions can successfully reduce stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilic interests (Harper et al., 2016;Jahnke, Philipp, et al., 2015). Stigmatizing attitudes are likely to have a deleterious effect on the mental health of paraphilic men, as well as on the prevention of sexual offending and the rehabilitation of people who have sexually offended (Blagden et al., 2016;Harper et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Except for pedophilia, little is known about public attitudes towards paraphilias and psychological conditions that are considered risk factors for sexual offending. In the present study we sought to compare the stigma attached to pedophilia with attitudes towards sexual sadism and antisocial tendencies (Study 1, N = 720) and with attitudes towards necrophilia and zoophilia (Study 2, N = 210) in convenience samples of community individuals. When investigating social distance attitudes both studies explicitly referred to people with paraphilic sexual interests or antisocial tendencies who had not committed any crimes. In both studies, people with pedophilia emerged as highly stigmatized even though most participants showed awareness that pedophilic interests cannot be chosen or changed at will. The present studies solidify the evidence that pedophilia occupies a place in the public consciousness as less deserving of acceptance than most other sexual offending risk-relevant conditions, including ones that compare in terms of rarity.
... De-stigmatizing PWP (while still denouncing CSA), among healthcare professionals in particular, can contribute to the prevention of child sexual abuse by increasing the numbers of providers willing to provide service to this population. 62 The principles-based approach to ethics, as detailed by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress, is comprised of four principles; autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. 63 We would advocate that in the case of seeking to support and care for nonjustice involved PWP, who are desirous of support and care in order to not become offenders, harm reduction itself could be a relevant principle. ...
Article
Child sexual abuse is a global problem with significant emotional, psychological, and financial implications to victims, perpetrators, and society. Most child sexual abuse prevention programs target young children or those who have already engaged in abusive behavior, in order to prevent further offending. There are numerous secondary prevention programs targeting individuals at-risk of various health conditions in an effort to reduce the likelihood they will go on to experience a particular illness or disease. Considerable research exists regarding the risk factors for engaging in child sexual abuse and more specifically the factors contributing to reoffense. We argue that engaging in secondary prevention programs for people with pedophilia, in order to prevent child sexual abuse, is an ethically responsible and necessary practice. Secondary prevention programs with this focus are reviewed, along with the implications of mandatory reporting in doing this work.
... Sometimes there is simply no treatment available. Healthcare professionals sometimes reject or avoid working with paedophiles and sex offenders (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015;Killman, 2010). The story of the paedophile who received no adequate help in his youth when he explicitly requested it is very telling (Oliver, 2005). ...
Article
Child sexual abuse and paedophilia are ethically loaded public health issues. This paper looks at whether there are any specific moral duties related to paedophilia. I argue that the moral duty not to commit child sex abuse is universal and that the duty to reduce the individual risk of child sex abuse is specific to paedophiles. A paedophile is a person who is sexually attracted to children. Some paedophiles commit child sex abuse offences, but others are able to refrain from doing so and have the rational capacity to take adequate preventive measures. The risk of committing child sex abuse and the ability to reduce that risk are a moral duty pertaining specifically to paedophiles. I further argue that society has a moral duty to help paedophiles to fulfil that duty. Unfortunately, societies rarely provide such opportunities and hence fail in their moral duty towards paedophiles and children.
... Peranan peningkatan superego dalam mencegah terjadinya PTSD sangat efektif untuk menurunkan mekanisme kopingnya dikarenakan pelaku menjadi sadar akan akibat perilaku tersebut baik jasmani maupun rohani. [15,29] Potensi Meditasi Raja Yoga sebagai modalitas pencegahan dan terapi PTSD pada korban pascabencana alam secara ringkas tertera pada Gambar 1. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pendahuluan: Indonesia merupakan negara rawan bencana alam. Sekitar 30-40% korban bencana akan mengalami Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Hal terpenting dari terapi pada kasus PTSD adalah untuk menciptakan pikiran positif pada korban. Psikoterapi dan farmakoterapi belum dapat dijadikan sebagai penanganan optimal ke perubahan pikiran dan perilaku orang dengan PTSD. Meditasi Raja Yoga telah diteliti selama bertahun-tahun dengan fungsinya yang dapat mengubah perilaku, kepribadian, kemampuan berpikir, serta gaya hidup yang dimiliki seseorang termasuk pada penderita PTSD. Pembahasan: PTSD berkaitan dengan level kortisol dan glutamat yang tinggi. PTSD juga terjadi akibat menurunnya kontrol diri, rasionalitas, superego, dan kualitas mental para korban akibat meningkatnya ego, yang menyebabkan mekanisme koping atau pertahanan diri. Meditasi Raja Yoga terbukti meregulasi neurotransmiter serotonin dan dopamin yang mampu menekan progresivitas PTSD. Peningkatan superego akibat meditasi Raja Yoga dalam meregulasi diri juga dilibatkan untuk melunakkan mekanisme koping sehingga menurunkan perasaan cemas dan takut. Penerapan Meditasi Raja Yoga dapat meningkatkan ego distonik dan libidinal (id) seseorang sehingga menjadikannya lebih semangat dan bergairah yang dapat mencegah terjadinya PTSD. Analisis manfaat dari Meditasi Raja Yoga sebagai upaya pencegahan dan terapi pada PTSD yakni memiliki keunggulan mudah dilaksanakan, ekonomis, efisien, dan pelaksanaan latihan Meditasi Raja Yoga sangat aman. Pelaksanaan Meditasi Raja Yoga secara rutin berdasarkan hasil penelitian terbaru juga menunjukan efek yang signifikan dalam mencegah morbiditas dan progresivitas PTSD. Simpulan: Meditasi Raja Yoga secara efektif dan signifikan mencegah perkembangan menuju terjadinya manifestasi klinis dari PTSD serta menterapi orang dengan PTSD. Introduction: Indonesia prone to natural disasters. About 30-40% of victims will experience Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The most important thing about therapy in PTSD cases is to create positive thoughts in the sufferers. Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy can not be used as an optimal treatment yet to change the mind and behavior of people with PTSD. Raja Yoga Meditation has been researched for years with its function which can change the behavior, personality, thinking ability, and lifestyle of a person including PTSD sufferers. Discussion: PTSD is associated with high cortisol and glutamate level. PTSD also occur due to decreased self-control, rationality, superego, and mental qualities of the victims due to increase in ego, which causes coping or self defense mechanisms. Raja Yoga Meditation is proven to regulate the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine which are able to suppress the progression of PTSD. The increase in superego due to Raja Yoga meditation in self-regulation is also involved to soften the coping mechanism so as to reduce feelings of anxiety and fear. The application of Raja Yoga Meditation can also increase dystonic ego and libidinal (id) so that makes it more energetic and passionate which can prevent PTSD. Analysis of the benefits of Raja Yoga Meditation as a preventive and therapeutic effort in PTSD which has the advantage of being easy to implement, economical, efficient, and the implementation of Raja Yoga Meditation exercises is very safe. The routine implementation of Raja Yoga Meditation based on the latest research results also shows a significant effect in preventing PTSD morbidity and progression. Conclusion: Raja Yoga Meditation effectively and significantly prevents progression to the clinical manifestations of PTSD and treats people with PTSD.
... Auch kurze Informationsvermittlungsinterventionen haben in ersten Interventionsstudien gezeigt, dass sich die stigmatisierenden Einstellungen von Behandler(inne)n durchaus positiv beeinflussen lassen, was auf Informationsdefizite der Fachpersonen schliessen lässt (Jahnke, Philipp & Hoyer, 2015;. Allerdings scheinen sich deutliche Effekte insbesondere dann zu zeigen, wenn die Vermittlung mit Hilfe einer selbst betroffenen Person erfolgte, was wiederum gegen eine einfache Informationsvermittlung spricht und die Bedeutung der Einstellungsänderung unterstreicht (Harper, Bartels & Hogue, 2016). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report for the Swiss government on "Secondary prevention offers and their effectiveness for individuals with sexual interest in children". The report is written in German but contains extended summaries in English, French, and Italian languages. For more information refer to: https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-80366.html
... Auch kurze Informationsvermittlungsinterventionen haben in ersten Interventionsstudien gezeigt, dass sich die stigmatisierenden Einstellungen von Behandler(inne)n durchaus positiv beeinflussen lassen, was auf Informationsdefizite der Fachpersonen schliessen lässt (Jahnke, Philipp & Hoyer, 2015;. Allerdings scheinen sich deutliche Effekte insbesondere dann zu zeigen, wenn die Vermittlung mit Hilfe einer selbst betroffenen Person erfolgte, was wiederum gegen eine einfache Informationsvermittlung spricht und die Bedeutung der Einstellungsänderung unterstreicht (Harper, Bartels & Hogue, 2016). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report for the Swiss government on "Secondary prevention offers and their effectiveness for individuals with sexual interest in children". The report is written in German but contains extended summaries in English, French, and Italian languages. For more information refer to: https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-80366.html
... Auch kurze Informationsvermittlungsinterventionen haben in ersten Interventionsstudien gezeigt, dass sich die stigmatisierenden Einstellungen von Behandler(inne)n durchaus positiv beeinflussen lassen, was auf Informationsdefizite der Fachpersonen schliessen lässt (Jahnke, Philipp & Hoyer, 2015;. Allerdings scheinen sich deutliche Effekte insbesondere dann zu zeigen, wenn die Vermittlung mit Hilfe einer selbst betroffenen Person erfolgte, was wiederum gegen eine einfache Informationsvermittlung spricht und die Bedeutung der Einstellungsänderung unterstreicht (Harper, Bartels & Hogue, 2016). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report for the Swiss government on "Secondary prevention offers and their effectiveness for individuals with sexual interest in children". The report is written in German but contains extended summaries in English, French, and Italian languages. For more information refer to: https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-80366.html
... Auch kurze Informationsvermittlungsinterventionen haben in ersten Interventionsstudien gezeigt, dass sich die stigmatisierenden Einstellungen von Behandler(inne)n durchaus positiv beeinflussen lassen, was auf Informationsdefizite der Fachpersonen schliessen lässt (Jahnke, Philipp & Hoyer, 2015;. Allerdings scheinen sich deutliche Effekte insbesondere dann zu zeigen, wenn die Vermittlung mit Hilfe einer selbst betroffenen Person erfolgte, was wiederum gegen eine einfache Informationsvermittlung spricht und die Bedeutung der Einstellungsänderung unterstreicht (Harper, Bartels & Hogue, 2016). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Technical report for the Swiss government on "Secondary prevention offers and their effectiveness for individuals with sexual interest in children". The report is written in German but contains extended summaries in English, French, and Italian languages. For more information refer to: https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-80366.html
... In an attempt to decrease the number of sexual offenses against children, criminal justice policies are continuously expanding. The psychological treatment of people who have committed such offenses and/or suffer from pedophilia is considered by many to be a central aspect of such prevention strategies (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015). People who have been found guilty of committing a sexual offense are therefore obliged by law to receive treatment in many countries (Chudzik & Aschieri, 2013). ...
Article
The need for professionals working with people who have committed sexual offenses is increasingly recognized. Still, relatively little is known about the personal impact of work with this population. Most research in the field has aimed to determine treatment providers' level of work-related stress and hence focused on negative aspects of experience. Moreover, most of these studies have been conducted with questionnaires and yielded mixed results. In order to learn more about individual, contextual and dynamic aspects of therapists' personal experiences with these clients, we suggest to drawing from in-depth interview studies and Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). In the present study, four therapists working in Norway were interviewed. Surprisingly, the participants described their work as rewarding, despite the challenges they encountered. In fact, they considered their work to be rewarding precisely because of its challenging nature. The implications of these results for clinical practice and future research will be discussed.
... Eine Befragung unter Vertragspsychotherapeuten (n = 86) ergab eine geringe Bereitschaft, mit Sexualstraftätern zu arbeiten (12,8 %), und lediglich 4 der befragten Therapeuten erklärten sich bereit, pädophile Patienten in Behandlung zu nehmen (Stiels-Glenn 2010). Circa 60 % der an einer Studie teilnehmenden Psychotherapeuten in Ausbildung gaben an, sichnichtvorstellenzu können, mitpädophilen Menschen zu arbeiten, die bereits einen Übergriff begangen haben (Jahnke et al. 2015). ...
Article
Objective Sexual child abuse and indulgence in child pornography are widespread in Germany. Since May 2015 the Mainz preventive outpatient department provides counseling and treatment for patients with pedophilia within the framework of the national “Don’t offend” network. This article presents the diagnostic approach and clinical characterization of people who attended the clinic. Material and methods Based on the attendances from May 2015 to April 2018 the reasons for seeking help, sociodemographic and psychometric characteristics (sexual preference; sexual sexual offenses and psychopathology) are presented. Results A total of 276 patients contacted the outpatient prevention clinic, of which 92 came for an initial diagnostic interview and 30 participated in the treatment program. The most frequent concern was ongoing criminal proceedings or fear of losing control. Most showed a diverse disorder with pedophilic, hebephilic and teleiophilic (child-like, prepubertal and adult body schemes) sexual preferences. Approximately one half of the attendees had a comorbid disorder. Conclusion The implications for the clinical practice of psychotherapists with this specific group of patients, disorder-specific counseling and treatment concepts and further research are discussed.
... Researchers have begun to recognize the importance of educating practitioners about working with MAPs. Jahnke, Philipp, and Hoyer (2015) found in a German sample that with information, students studying psychotherapy lessened their stigma toward MAPs. Levenson and Grady (2019a) found that clinicians with an interest in learning about practice with MAPs were nonetheless often ill-informed about MAPs as a population, but were receptive to education. ...
Article
This study explores future mental health providers’ assumptions about minor-attracted people, using data from a survey of 200 students preparing for entry into social service professions at a public university in the state of Utah. Survey results show that more than half of the students believe clients who identify themselves as pedophiles must be automatically reported to the police, which has implications for providers’ understandings about the term “pedophile,” as well as their knowledge of guidelines for when clinicians may break client confidentiality. This belief was not significantly affected by taking ethics courses, nor courses that discussed mandated reporting guidelines. Despite this finding, 91% of students did not believe that they would need to report a client who had attractions to children, but who had never committed a sexual offense against a child. The majority of students indicated a willingness to work with minor-attracted clients, and commonly indicated in comments that they wanted more information about MAPs and when to break client confidentiality in their programs of study. Study results indicate a need for education among social service students about these issues.
... In addition, calling the perpetrator mentally disturbed stigmatizes people with mental illness. Psychotherapists who have a stigmatizing attitude towards people who have been diagnosed with pedophile disorder may be less willing to provide counseling and psychotherapy, which underlies sexual abuse and recidivism prevention (Jahnke et al., 2015). In addition, perpetrators are aware of stigmatization, which is why they manipulate children into silence, but also develop anonymous methods of exploiting children to alleviate the feeling of stigmatization (sex tourism, "online grooming") (Modly, 2006). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The main objective of this study was to determine how the newspapers present child sexual abuse (CSA) perpetrators. A longitudinal content analysis (2007–2016) of a random cluster sample of 1.159 CSA news printed in Croatian daily newspapers was conducted. Perpetrators are presented as single/individual, male, elderly perpetrator, usually a church figure or person in charge of childcare. They are a known person to the child or a complete stranger. Use of derogatory terms to describe the perpetrator is greater in episodic news dealing with criminal offenses that highlight background information on the perpetrator and victim. Also, perpetrators are often wrongly described as pedophiles, while a portion of the news still incorrectly describes perpetrators as mentally ill persons. Finally, the news prematurely reveals the identity of the perpetrators, and predictors of identity disclosure are emphasized. News reports still support common stereotypes regarding the perpetrators, making them difficult to detect and recognize.
... Further, evidence suggests that benefits of interpersonal contact may also be achievable through one-way communication with members of a stigmatized group. For instance, both Harper et al. (2016) and Jahnke et al. (2015) find that stigmatization decreased after reading first-person narratives written by individuals with sexual interests in children. Miner-Romanoff reports that videos of juveniles speaking about incarceration increase support for alternatives to incarceration among college students (2014), and that art by incarcerated juveniles can increase positive attitudes among the public (2016). ...
Article
We examine how public attitudes toward currently/formerly incarcerated people and their reentry into society are affected by consuming information about imprisoned people. Over 1,500 respondents from a national online survey were randomly assigned one of five sources of written information about currently and formerly incarcerated people (CFIP) (three informative pieces and two sets of incarceree poetry). They then reported their views toward them and support for reentry policies. While no differences in support for reentry initiatives across conditions were uncovered, those reading poetry with a humanizing theme applied the least amount of stigma toward currently/formerly incarcerated people.
... Although few CSOs are pedophiles, many people equate the two terms and conflate 'pedophilia' (dominant sexual interest in prepubescent children; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) with 'child sex offending' (as a behavior) (Harper, Bartels, & Hogue, 2018;Richards, 2018;Wurtele, 2018). Conflating pedophilia and CSOs is concerning, since people have especially negative emotional reactions (including fear, hatred, and disgust) to minor-attracted persons (MAPs) and also support harsher punishments (including castration and death), even toward non-offending MAPs (Imhoff & Jahnke, 2018;Jahnke, Imhoff, & Hoyer, 2015a;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015b;Kernsmith et al., 2009;Richards, 2018). Based on this research, Levenson, Grady, and Morin (2020) opined that "there is no criminal more reviled than child sex abusers, and perhaps no mental disorder more stigmatizing than pedophilia" (p. ...
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Assessing public attitudes toward child sex offenders is important since public opinions have affected judicial decision-making regarding sex offender management policies and laws. Study objectives were to assess university students’ perceptions of offenders before and after a Sex Crimes Against Children course, and examine the potential anti-stigmatizing effect of interacting directly with people who had committed sex crimes. Compared with a previous study where only indirect contact was available, students who had direct contact with offenders reported more positive affective responses, had more positive attitudes toward sex offender treatment and rehabilitation, along with lower support for post-sentencing policies. Findings support the humanizing impact of interacting with members of the stigmatized group. Better informed public opinion is essential to support evidence-based crime prevention policies and ultimately prevent CSA.
... Waldura et al. (2016) reported that individuals who participated in consensual sexual behaviours such as bondage, domination, submission, sadism, or masochism (which are not considered paraphilic disorders in ICD-11) were afraid to discuss their sexuality in health care settings and could sense disapproval from their clinicians. Although mental health professionals generally have more positive attitudes toward people with a mental illness, they may display negative attitudes toward individuals who engage in atypical sexual behaviours or who have paraphilic disorders and may be reluctant to assess and treat these patients (Jahnke et al., 2015b;Stiels-Glenn, 2010). ...
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Aim: This study aimed to identify whether clinicians' gender, clinical experience, and personal attitudes influenced their perception of criminality of specific sexual behaviours, their judgments about criminal liability if mentally disordered, and the need for treatment as part of criminal settings for those having ICD-11 paraphilic disorders. Method: In a secondary analysis of data only vignettes with the least (do not meet paraphilic disorder diagnostic requirements) and most extreme (met paraphilic disorder diagnostic requirements) descriptions of ICD-11 frotteuristic, coercive sexual sadism, and exhibitionistic arousal patterns and related behavior were randomly presented to participants. A total of 1,101 clinicians rated one to three vignettes (a total of 1,884) answering questions regarding diagnosis, criminal features, and their own attitudes. Results: The ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines were adequately used to distinguish paraphilic disorders from non-pathological arousal patterns. Vignette severity was the most important predictor for clinicians' determination that a crime was committed. Results showed an interaction of the classification of paraphilic disorders, clinicians' gender, and personal attitudes with judgments about concepts associated with criminality, criminal liability if a diagnosis was indicated, and the need for treatment in forensic settings. Conclusions: Increased formal education, clinical training about these disorders, and evidence-based treatment guidelines are required to avoid biases that may come from preconceived ideas and personal attitudes. Laws and policies that unnecessarily restrict the treatment of these patients in non-forensic settings-- for example, when the individual is distress about the arousal pattern but no crime has been committed-- should be examined. Objetivo: Se diseñó un estudio con el objetivo de identificar si el género, la experiencia clínica y las actitudes personales de los clínicos influyen en su percepción de la criminalidad de conductas sexuales concretas, sus juicios sobre la responsabilidad criminal en evaluaciones forenses en presencia de un trastorno mental y con la necesidad de tratamiento para aquellos que tienen un trastorno parafílico de la CIE-11. Método: En un análisis secundario de los datos, se presentaron al azar viñetas con una descripción mínima (no cumple con los requisitos diagnósticos para un trastorno parafílico) y una descripción completa (cumple con los requisitos diagnósticos para un trastorno parafílico) de los patrones de excitación froteurismo, sadismo sexual coercitivo, exhibicionismo y conductas relacionadas de la CIE-11. Un total de 1,101 clínicos calificaron de una a tres viñetas (un total de 1,884) respondiendo a preguntas sobre el diagnóstico, las características criminales y sus propias actitudes. Resultados: Las guías diagnósticas de la CIE-11 fueron adecuadamente utilizadas por los clínicos para distinguir los trastornos parafílicos de los patrones de excitación no patológicos. La gravedad de la viñeta fue el predictor más importante para la determinación de los clínicos de que se había cometido un delito. Los resultados mostraron una interacción de la clasificación de los trastornos parafílicos, el género de los clínicos y las actitudes personales con los juicios sobre conceptos asociados con la criminalidad, la responsabilidad criminal en presencia de un trastorno mental y la necesidad de tratamiento en contextos de evaluación forenses. Conclusiones: Se requiere mayor educación formal, entrenamiento clínico sobre estos trastornos y guías de tratamiento basadas en evidencia para evitar sesgos que puedan provenir de ideas preconcebidas y actitudes personales. Se deben revisar las leyes y políticas que restringen innecesariamente el tratamiento de estos pacientes en entornos no forenses— por ejemplo, cuando el individuo sufre un patrón de excitación, pero no ha cometido ningún delito.
... In these studies, first, the effect of each facade attributes in creating stigma has not been evaluated, and second, the evaluation of the respondents has been limited to predicting the inhabitant's income group. Stigma has three cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects (Fox, Earnshaw, Taverna, & Vogt, 2018;Garcia, Golay, Favrod, & Bonsack, 2017;Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015;Sheehan, Nieweglowski, & Corrigan, 2017), and it is necessary to measure emotions, preferences, and the tendencies of outsiders based on these three aspects. Although researchers have recommended several physical factors to reduce the LIH stigma, the effect of factors related to the facade are still unknown. ...
... Low willingness to treat is present regardless of offending history; for example, in a small sample of Russian sexologists (n = 26), over one quarter believed those with sexual interest in children should be incarcerated, regardless of offence status (Koops et al., 2016). More promising results were reported by Jahnke, Philipp, and Hoyer (2015) who found 80% of psychotherapists in training were willing to treat non-offending individuals with sexual interest in children and held more positive attitudes toward this group, compared with previous studies. ...
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The present study examined North American clinician stigma and willingness to treat those with sexual interest in children. Clinicians (N = 101) were randomly assigned to a vignette describing a referral of a client with a sexual interest in children and asked whether they would accept the client for treatment. Vignettes differed in what the client was seeking treatment for (low mood or managing sexual interest) and sexual offence history (no offence history or a contact offence against a child). Clinicians with lower stigma were more likely to accept a referral for a client with sexual interest in children and were least likely to refuse a referral for a client with a sexual offence against a child looking to manage their sexual interest. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... In addition, there are a lack of resources for help-seeking MAPs. Many professionals lack the clinical expertise to work with this population and hold stigmatizing attitudes meaning they are unwilling to begin a therapeutic relationship (Jahnke, Philipp, & Hoyer, 2015;Seto, 2012). This stigma is rooted in societal stereotyping of MAPs as dangerous, which persists for individuals who are committed to not offending (Jahnke, 2018), significantly limiting the availability of effective, unbiased therapy for this community (Beier et al., 2015;Jahnke, Schmidt, Geradt, & Hoyer, 2015). ...
Article
‘Non-offending pedophiles’ or ‘minor attracted persons’ are individuals who suppress an attraction to children. Previous analyses of this population’s mental illness employed overt self-report methods, limited by social desirability. Additionally, studies assessing the coping mechanisms employed to remain offense-free are underpowered; understanding of these would facilitate the rehabilitation of prior offenders. A thematic analysis of coping mechanisms and mental illness was conducted on 5,210 posts on the ‘Virtuous Pedophiles’ forum. Four themes emerged for coping mechanisms: Managing risk and attraction to children, Managing mood, Managing preferences prosocially and Friends, family and relationships, with 13 subthemes. Five themes emerged for mental ill-health, including: Addiction, Anxiety, Depression, Self-hatred/Self-harm/Suicide and Other. Self-hatred/Self-harm/Suicide accounted for almost a third of discussed mental ill-health. These results highlight the severity of mental ill-health amongst this population and the coping mechanisms employed to remain offense-free.
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Background. Social support for child-attracted persons (CAPs) may be important for increasing well-being and thereby reducing risk of committing child sexual abuse. Unfortunately, in-person social support may be difficult to obtain because of stigma (Imhoff, 2015; Jahnke, 2018). CAPs may instead turn to online forums for people who are sexually attracted to children. The present study looked at the emotional, informational, and tangible support CAPs offered and received through online forums. Method. We recruited 353 CAPs from Twitter and multiple online forums. The survey covered basic demographics, frequency of forum use, reasons for forum use, social support received or offered, helpfulness of forums, and their quality of offline support. Results. Most CAPs said they initially sought out forums to avoid feeling alone in their attraction; the quality of offline support was rated as moderate. Emotional and informational support were the most frequently endorsed forms of social support. CAPs who visited more forums reported forums to be less helpful. A Poisson regression predicting online support from quality of offline support and various demographic and forum use variables did not reveal any significant results. Implications. This is the first quantitative study to look at the benefits of forums for CAPs regarding specific types of social support. We consider if certain forums could be part of a repertoire of resources for CAPs who may be struggling, in addition to professional help.
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In this paper, we sought to build on existing stigmatisation research by examining the extent to which internalised stigmatisation among people with sexual interests in minors may impact upon help-seeking behaviours, and perceptions of their own risk of becoming sexual abusers. We adopted a cross-sectional anonymous survey design to recruit a sample of self-identified minor attracted persons (MAPs; N = 116) from prominent online forums. Examining our data, we found that increased levels of suppression were associated with lower levels of hope about the future, but higher levels of both shame and guilt about having a sexual interest in minors. We found no differences in levels of suppression among those who had vs. had not sought support for their sexual interests. However, those who felt that they needed more support than currently received did suppress more than those who felt they were receiving adequate levels of support. Finally, suppression was associated with higher levels of active avoidance of children, which we used as a proxy measure for self-perceptions of potential child abuse risk. We explore our findings in relation to the potential effects of widespread social stigmatisation of MAPs. We close by discussing the potential implications of our data for treating and supporting MAPs within the community, and for broader attempts to implement primary prevention schemes aimed at reducing the incidence of sexual offending.
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Would you feel prepared if a client in your clinical practice shared that he was sexually attracted to children? Mental health professionals come in contact with these individuals primarily through the child welfare or criminal justice systems. But it is now increasingly evident that a population exists of non-offending minor-attracted persons (MAPs) who have never molested a child and have no intention of doing so. By becoming familiar with their unique treatment needs, clinicians can develop competence to provide effective, ethical, and compassionate services for this stigmatized and hard-to-reach population, with a dual focus on sexual abuse prevention and client well-being. This article will first describe what is known about pedophilia and minor-attraction. Next, the legal and ethical questions that therapists may ask in relation to this work will be explored. This paper will review obstacles to help-seeking identified by MAPs and discuss their treatment needs. Finally, recommendations will be offered for engaging MAPs in an emotionally safe and non-shaming therapeutic encounter. In this way, clinical social workers can contribute to advancing child sexual abuse prevention efforts.
Article
Child sexual abuse is a significant public health concern that has long-lasting consequences for victims and their families and poses a significant financial cost to the public. Prevention efforts, including sex offender treatment programs, are intended to prevent further instances of sexual abuse. Most sexual offenses, however, are committed by individuals who are not yet known as sexual offenders, and therefore traditional sex offender treatment programs fall short of this goal. It is crucial to provide services to people who may be at risk for committing a sexual offense and those who have not offended, including those individuals who are attracted to children. While primary prevention programs such as Prevention Project Dunkelfeld and Talking for Change have begun to address this issue internationally, there are significant barriers to providing preventive services of this nature to non-offending minor attracted persons (NOMAPs) in the United States. Barriers include concerns about mandated reporting laws, stigmatization, and lack of knowledge by therapists about MAPs. This paper explores these barriers and provides solutions for practitioners to offer services to this population. This paper includes the development of specific programming for non-offenders and specialized training for clinicians who work with non-offenders as used by The Global Prevention Project.
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This study examined whether the attitudinal responses toward child sexual abuse (CSA) differ due to the person's relationship with the victim (intrafamilial vs. extrafamilial) and/or proximity to the victim (close vs. distant). An online sample of 292 participants completed a measure assessing pre-existing attitudes toward people who commit sexual offenses, before being randomly presented with a vignette describing a CSA case committed by a biological father, biological uncle, babysitter, stranger, or stepfather. Participants then rated the perpetrator's level of dangerousness and pedophilic interest, their own feelings of disgust, and their punitive judgments. Controlling for pre-existing attitudes, the extrafamilial cases (stranger and babysitter) were perceived to be more dangerous (large effects; ds > .50) and more pedophilic than the stepfather (large effects; ds > .60). Also, participants reported greater levels of disgust toward the stranger than both the babysitter and uncle (medium effects; ds > .30). The findings demonstrate the need to account for the established heterogeneity of men who commit CSA when studying the public's attitudinal responses. Methodological limitations and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
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The stigmatization of people with pedophilia was previously identified as a “blind spot” in stigma research. This systematic review updates and expands on Jahnke and Hoyer’s 2013 review to understand (1) factors contributing to stigma toward people with sexual interest in children, (2) experiences of stigma, and (3) how stigma can be challenged and reduced. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze data from 35 studies from the United Kingdom, United States, The Netherlands, Germany, Canada, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand. Overarching themes were (1) misperceptions and stereotypes, (2) negative affective responses, (3) discrimination, (4) mental distress, (5) internalized public stigma, (6) negative effects of disclosure, and (7 and 8) informative and humanizing interventions. Findings highlighted substantial prevalence of stigma toward and amongst people with sexual interest in children, and methodological limitations of extant research. An agenda for future research is discussed, emphasizing how stigma can be challenged.
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Zusammenfassung Es ist eine verbreitete Annahme, dass Pädophilie eine nahezu ausschließlich bei Männern vorkommende Störung der Sexualpräferenz darstellt. In diesem Artikel werden überblicksartig Befunde und Theorien zu Geschlechtsunterschieden bezüglich der Häufigkeit sexueller Fantasien und paraphiler Interessen (insbesondere Pädophilie) sowie zu sexuellem Kindesmissbrauch dargestellt und kritisch diskutiert, auch hinsichtlich forschungsmethodischer Artefakte. Im Anschluss werden drei Fallbeispiele nicht-männlicher Betroffener mit auf Kindern ausgerichteten sexuellen Fantasien aus dem Präventionsnetzwerk Kein Täter werden vorgestellt. Dabei identifizieren sich zwei der Personen als eindeutig weiblich, eine Person ordnet sich als Frau-zu-Mann-Transsexueller ein. Anhand dieser Beispiele werden Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede nicht-männlicher Personen mit pädophilen Fantasien erörtert und Implikationen für die praktische Arbeit mit weiblichen bzw. nicht-männlichen Betroffenen diskutiert. Schlüsselwörter: Pädophilie, Geschlechtsunterschiede, Frauen, Transsexualität, sexuelle Fantasien Abstract It is a widespread assumption that pedophilia is a sexual preference disorder that almost exclusively affects males. In this article, findings and theories on sex/gender differences regarding the frequency of sexual fantasies and paraphilic interests (especially pedophilia) as well as child sexual abuse are outlined and critically discussed, also with regard to artifacts of research methodology. Subsequently, we present three case studies of non-male participants with sexual fantasies directed at children who attended the prevention network. Two of the participants identify themselves as unambiguously female, one participant classifies himself as a female-to-male transsexual. Based on these examples, similarities and differences of non- male persons with pedophilic fantasies are elaborated and implications for practical work with female (or, more broadly, non-male) participants are drawn. Keywords: Pedophilia, Sex differences, Women, Transsexuality, Sexual fantasies https://www.kein-taeter-werden.de/uploads/2021-11-Sexuologie-10-Jahre-Praeventionsnetzwerk-Kein-Taeter-werden.pdf
Chapter
The treatment program BEDIT is based on three pillars representative of the biopsychosocial character of the preventative approach:
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Sexual attraction to children who are in the stages of physical development before the onset of puberty (Tanner stage I) or in an early stage of puberty (Tanner stages II and III) has increasingly become the focus of scientific research in recent years. Even if the etiology of these non-normative sexual particularities has not yet been sufficiently explained, their existence can nonetheless be verified both physiologically and neurobiologically (Freund et al. 1972; Banse et al. 2010; Ponseti et al. 2012). Meta-analytical studies were able to demonstrate the significance of a corresponding sexual preference in the prognosis and treatment of sex offenders (Hanson and Morton-Bourgon 2005).
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Minor attracted persons (MAPs) represent a highly stigmatized population. While robust literatures exist linking stigma-related stressors to negative psychological sequalae in other stigmatized populations, the research examining stigma processes in MAPs has only recently begun to develop. The present study expands this area of research by examining associations between stigma-related stressors (e.g., internalized pedonegativity, perceived support from close others, disclosing minor attraction), relational quality, loneliness, and psychological distress in an online sample of MAPs (n = 202). Results demonstrated expected associations between perceived lack of support from others, increased internalized pedonegativity, psychological distress, and suicidality. Mediation modelling suggest loneliness mediates the relationship between perceived support from family and mental health outcomes and partially mediates the relationship between internalized pedonegativity and psychological distress. Our findings also show that most MAPs had disclosed their minor attraction to someone in their life but disclosure itself was not associated with improved mental health; whether a disclosure was followed by support was associated with increased wellbeing. The results of this study improve our understanding of MAPs’ mental health and can help inform how clinicians provide support to this population.
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Maßnahmen zur Prävention lassen sich in drei Stufen unterteilen: Primäre Prävention bezeichnet politische und gesellschaftliche Aktivitäten, die das Ausmaß von Kindesmisshandlung senken, indem Umgebungen und gesellschaftliche Einstellungen gefördert werden, die die Entwicklung von Risikofaktoren für Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlässigung und sexuellen Missbrauch vermeiden, sekundäre Prävention zielt auf Maßnahmen, die die Auftretenswahrscheinlichkeit von Kindesmisshandlung oder Vernachlässigung durch die frühe Identifizierung von Risikofaktoren oder durch Interventionen in frühen Stadien von Misshandlung oder Vernachlässigung reduzieren und tertiäre Prävention bezeichnet die Behandlung und Rehabilitation nach bereits stattgefundener Kindesmisshandlung oder Vernachlässigung bzw. das Verhindern weiterer Gewalterfahrungen und der Entwicklung von sekundären Folgeschäden, insbesondere psychischer Störungen.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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Currently, data on sexual abuse and its consequences for the victims are scarce in Germany, especially for non-reported sexual abuse, the so-called "Dunkelfeld". This article presents a comprehensive research project, which started in 2011 and is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Family, Elderly, Women and Youth. This Project covers the frequency of sexual abuse, in comparison to other forms of abuse, of offences via the internet, consequences of sexual abuse for the victims, the prevalence of pedophilic interest, etiological hypotheses for pedophilic interest, and the relation between hands-on delinquency and use of child pornography. The described research project will be implemented by a collaboration of five national and international research groups during the following three years. The main goals are to generate more specific and detailed data on child sexual abuse in Germany and to develop suggestions for primary as well as secondary prevention.
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Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in non-clinical/non-forensic male populations. However, prevalences for community males’ self-reported sexual interest in children involving prepubescent children have been based on indiscriminate definitions including postpubescent individuals, age-restricted samples, and/or small convenience samples. The present research assessed males’ self-reported sexual interest in children (including child prostitution and child sex tourism) on community level and examined the link between strictly defined sexual fantasies and behaviors involving prepubescent children. In an online survey of 8,718 German males 4.1% reported sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children, 3.2% sexual offending against prepubescent children, and 0.1% a pedophilic sexual preference. Sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children were positively related to sexual offending against prepubescent children. Sexual interest in children was associated with subjectively perceived need for therapeutic help. In contrast to findings from forensic samples, men who exclusively reported child pornography use were identified as a subgroup differing from contact sexual offenders against prepubescent children and men who committed both child pornography and contact sexual offenses against prepubescent children. The empirical link between child-related sexual fantasies and sexual victimization of prepubescent children and high levels of subjective distress from this inclination underscore the importance of evidence-based child sexual abuse prevention approaches in the community. Findings are discussed in terms of their relation to pedophilic disorder.
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In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the “pedophilia” label or the descriptive term “sexual interest in (prepubescent) children” was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest.
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Introduction: Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). Aim: This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Methods: Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Main outcome measures: Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. Results: No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Conclusions: Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted.
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Stigmatization restricts people's opportunities in life and has severe consequences on mental health and psychological well-being. This article focuses on stigmatization research on pedophilia. Based on an extensive literature search, it reviews studies that have empirically determined lay theories, stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination against people with pedophilia, as well as the effect of stigma on this group. The review reveals a scarcity of empirical studies on the subject (11). Although the majority of studies give at least an indication that stigma against people with pedophilia is highly prevalent, we also identified severe methodological limitations and a lack of a unifying and systematic research agenda. We discuss the need for more theory-driven, rigorous, and representative empirical studies and propose perspectives and requirements for the scientific study of stigma against people with pedophilia.
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Despite productive research on stigma and its impact on people's lives in the past 20 years, stigmatization of people with pedophilia has received little attention. We conducted two surveys estimating public stigma and determining predictors of social distance from this group. In both studies, pedophilia was defined as a "dominant sexual interest in children." The survey was comprised of items measuring agreement with stereotypes, emotions, and social distance (among others). Responses were compared with identical items referring to either people who abuse alcohol (Study 1), sexual sadists or people with antisocial tendencies (Study 2). Study 1 was conducted in two German cities (N = 854) and Study 2 sampled 201 English-speaking online participants. Both studies revealed that nearly all reactions to people with pedophilia were more negative than those to the other groups, including social distance. Fourteen percent (Study 1) and 28 % (Study 2) of the participants agreed that people with pedophilia should better be dead, even if they never had committed criminal acts. The strongest predictors of social distance towards people with pedophilia were affective reactions to this group (anger and, inversely, associated, pity) and the political attitude of right-wing authoritarianism (Study 1). Results strongly indicate that people with pedophilia are a stigmatized group who risk being the target of fierce discrimination. We discuss this particular form of stigmatization with respect to social isolation of persons with pedophilia and indirect negative consequences for child abuse prevention.
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Prevention of child sexual abuse is complicated, challenging, and highly necessary as sexual abuse of children and youth represents an extensive problem across the world. This article reviews the existing preventive interventions targeting children, parents, and professionals. An alternative way of organizing the child sexual abuse prevention research literature is offered and applied with emphasis on three areas: (a) child sexual abuse prevention interventions, (b) meta-analyses of child sexual abuse prevention interventions, and (c) general theoretical models about prevention and the child. Based on an analysis of these areas, it was found that there was a lack of connection between theoretical models and concrete preventive interventions. An overview of current challenges and future possibilities in this area is provided.
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Recent research shows that the crucial factor determining the rejection of former mental patients is their behavior rather than their stigmantized status. The study reported here, based on a vignette experiment (with a design that varies patient status with the nature of behavior), challenges this conclusion. Like previous research, it indicates that a simple assessment of labelings shows little effect on a social distance scale. However, when a measure of perceived dangerousness of mental patients is introduced, strong labeling effects emerge. Specifically, the data reveal that the lable of "previous hospitalization" fosters high social distance among those who perceive mental patients to be dangerous and low social distance among those who do not see patients as a threat. It appears that past investigators have missed these effects because they have averaged excessively lenient responses with excessively rejecting ones. This suggests that labels play an important role in how former mental patients are p...
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The stigma of mental illness can be as harmful as the symptoms, leading to family discord, job discrimination, and social rejection. The existence of mental illness stigma has been well established, but stigma theory must go beyond demonstrations and mere descriptions. This article addresses which characteristics across mental disorders lead to stigmatization and social rejection. Participants (N=270) read case histories depicting individuals with 40 mental disorders, rated those individuals on 17 dimensions (e.g., dangerousness to others, treatability, social disruptiveness), and indicated how willing they were to reject these individuals on a social distance scale. This yielded a ranking of mental disorders by degree of stigmatization; most importantly it reveals the structure of mental illness stigmatization. Only three dimensions were essential in accounting for rejection: personal responsibility for the illness, dangerousness, and rarity of the illness. These dimensions provide an efficient and effective account of the causes of social rejection in mental illness (Multiple-R of .78, p <.0001).
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Objectives: Systematic reviews on prevalence estimates of child sexual abuse (CSA) worldwide included studies with adult participants referring on a period of abuse of about 50 years. Therefore we aimed to describe the current prevalence of CSA, taking into account geographical region, type of abuse, level of country development and research methods. Methods: We included studies published between 2002 and 2009 that reported CSA in children below 18 years. We performed a random effects meta-analysis and analyzed moderator variables by meta-regression. Results: Fifty-five studies from 24 countries were included. According to four predefined types of sexual abuse, prevalence estimates ranged from 8 to 31 % for girls and 3 to 17 % for boys. Nine girls and 3 boys out of 100 are victims of forced intercourse. Heterogeneity between primary studies was high in all analyses. Conclusions: Our results based on most recent data confirm results from previous reviews with adults. Surveys in children offer most recent estimates of CSA. Reducing heterogeneity between studies might be possible by standardized measures to make data more meaningful in international comparisons.
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Anliegen: Menschen mit psychischen Erkrankungen begegnen häufig öffentlichem Stigma und können unter Selbststigma leiden. Konzepte und Folgen von Stigma sollen diskutiert werden. Methode: Konzeptuell orientierte wissenschaftliche Literatur zum Stigma psychischer Erkrankung wurde gesichtet. Ergebnisse: Nach einem konzeptuellen Überblick werden Konsequenzen wie Selbststigma, Bewältigungsverhalten, Furcht vor Stigma als Behandlungshindernis und strukturelle Diskriminierung erläutert. Anti-Stigma-Strategien werden diskutiert. Schlussfolgerungen: Stigma kann sich negativ auf Verhalten und Behandlung auswirken. Dies kann durch Anti-Stigma-Initiativen gebessert werden.
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The Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld (PPD) aims to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by targeting men who fear they may sexually abuse children, and who seek help without being mandated to do so. This article aims to demonstrate that a pedophilic or hebephilic sexual preference is very common among these men, to show how these men can be reached, and to document their determination to find help. The target group was informed of the project and encouraged to respond via a media campaign. A telephone screening was conducted over the first 18 months. Of the 286 who completed the screening (60.1% of the respondents), 84.3% (N = 241) were interviewed by a clinician. Of the interviewees, 57.7% (N = 139) and 27.8% (N = 67) expressed a sexual preference for prepubescent and pubescent minors, respectively, and 10.8% (N = 26) for mature adults. The remaining 3.7% (N = 9) could not be reliably categorized. As (potential) child molesters with a respective sexual preference can be reached via a media campaign, efforts to prevent CSA ought to be expanded to target this group.
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Statistical procedures for missing data have vastly improved, yet misconception and unsound practice still abound. The authors frame the missing-data problem, review methods, offer advice, and raise issues that remain unresolved. They clear up common misunderstandings regarding the missing at random (MAR) concept. They summarize the evidence against older procedures and, with few exceptions, discourage their use. They present, in both technical and practical language, 2 general approaches that come highly recommended: maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian multiple imputation (MI). Newer developments are discussed, including some for dealing with missing data that are not MAR. Although not yet in the mainstream, these procedures may eventually extend the ML and MI methods that currently represent the state of the art. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the present study we analysed to what extent the categories used in empirical child molester research were sociolegal (based on offence types) or psychopathological (based on nomological systems of psychological types or mental disorders). Based on a systematic Medline and PsycInfo search, 714 empirical studies on child molesters from 1972 to 2004 were analysed with regard to the categories and diagnostic procedures used. The majority of studies used a grouping procedure based on an offence-orientated criterion (child molesters versus others), whereas only a few referred to diagnoses and, hence, to nomological systems utilized in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The results also indicated the presence of extensive classification pluralism and a dominance of publication in specialized forensic journals. Critical consequences of this research practice are discussed with regard to comparability of studies, heterogeneity of study groups, theory development and, particularly, the generalizability of child molester research. Finally, we propose a research strategy that is grounded more profoundly in methodological considerations and a more interdisciplinary orientation in sexual offender research.