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Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Predicts Real-World Outcomes of Critical Thinking

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Abstract

Although educators and employers agree that it is important to assess the critical thinking skills of students and prospective employees, few assessments have been externally validated with real-world outcomes of critical thinking. The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (HCTA) is a reliable measure of critical thinking skills and has been validated with multiple populations and measures of academic success. This study explored whether scores on the HCTA predicted real-world outcomes in a wide range of domains, such as education, health, law, finance, and interpersonal relationships. Community adults (n = 50), state university students (n = 48), and community college students (n = 35) in the USA completed the HCTA and a behavioral inventory of life events. Overall, those with higher critical thinking scores reported fewer negative life events than those with lower critical thinking scores, r (131) = −.38, p < .001. Implications for education are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Critical thinking is perhaps the most valued and frequently discussed higher order skill and is considered to play a central role in logical thinking, decision making, and problem-solving (Butler, 2012;Halpern, 2003). It is used to persuade or defend an idea, and thus is a crucial skill for students to participate actively in a liberal society where a lot of social issues are often openly debated (Kuhn, 2019). ...
... It was believed that HCTA scores would be related to individual's performance in life. For example, Butler (2012) found that people with higher level of critical thinking would suffer from fewer negative events in life. The internal consistency Cronbach's α of HCTA was between .79 and .88. ...
... Understandably, authentic situations have better predictive power of students' actual performance (Bensley & Murtagh, 2012). Thus, for example, HCTA has 25 everyday scenarios that are all familiar to examinees, which was shown to predict real-world outcomes well for people from a variety of backgrounds, and reaffirmed the importance critical thinking played in our everyday life (Butler, 2012). In line with these studies, students in our Noah Kingdom had to complete several simulated tasks that were commonly found in daily life. ...
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Critical thinking is one of the important higher-order skills very much treasured in education, but hard to be measured using paper-pencil tests. In line with recent recommendation to measure high-order thinking skills with interactive tasks (vs. static one set of questions), in this study we developed an interactive and automated game-based assessment of critical thinking, using the Toulmin Model. In two real-life simulation stories, through interactive tasks in progressing scenes in the stories, students chose and rated evidence and conflicting reasons as supportive or non-supportive arguments in making the eventual decision. Critical thinking scores were awarded on choosing the appropriate evidence and reasons. The psychometric quality of the game was evaluated with 185 Chinese senior secondary students. Results showed that (i) reliabilities as measured by Cronbach’s α of the whole scale and subdomains were reasonable; (ii) parallel form reliability was high; (iii) its correlation and convergent validity with the popular Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment were comparable to those in other studies; (iv) it was generally not related to academic performance; and (v) the game was interesting and engaging. We also noted that students hesitated to query others and they were weak in applying critical thinking to problem-solving, which were in congruent with previous research showing students rarely used critical thinking to solve complex, real-world problems. In sum, we demonstrated successfully the use of interactive simulation tasks in measuring critical thinking. With the advancement of technology, our study suggested the possibility of assessing hard-to-measure important complex higher-order competence with dynamic games.
... Critical thinking plays an important role in the classroom and our everyday lives. Furthermore, it is a key factor in determining individual and collective success in the face of mounting complex global challenges (Butler, 2012;Clarke, Double, & MacCann, 2017;Griffin & Care, 2015;Kirschner, 2020). Policymakers and educators have argued that developing critical thinking is an important goal of 21 st Century education, and international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Partnership for 21 st Century Learning are currently developing new frameworks to support and assess students' critical thinking across countries and contexts (Rotherham & Willingham, 2010;Vincent-Lancrin et al., 2019; Partnership for 21 st Century Learning, 2019). ...
... Critical thinking is an important predictor of future success in a wide range of domains. Critical thinking predicts real world outcomes such as employment prospects, years in education, and fewer negative life events (Butler, 2012). It is also increasingly valuable in the labour market given the growing complexity of job roles (Clarke et al., 2017). ...
... Indeed, analytical thinking, complex problem solving, and critical thinking were identified as the three most sought-after postgraduate skills according to a survey of large corporations (World Economic Forum, 2018). Critical thinking is also important for an individual's personal and professional decision making (Butler, 2012;Park & Kwon, 2007). Furthermore, it is seen as an important 'intellectual virtue' providing a capacity for the individual to make rational ethical decisions (Bailin, Case, Coombs, & Daniels, 1999;Facione, Sanchez, Facione, & Gainen, 1995). ...
Research
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Critical thinking plays an important role both in the classroom and everyday life, including being a key factor for determining individual and collective success in the face of complex global challenges (Butler 2012; Clarke, Double and MacCann 2017; Griffin and Care 2015; Kirschner 2020). In broad terms, critical thinking refers to a person’s ability to analyse, synthesize and evaluate information (Halpern 2001). Given the importance of critical thinking for attaining valued outcomes, the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) has made developing critical thinking a central focus of its programme and approach. This study examined the effects of the DP on the critical thinking skills of students in Australia, England and Norway. Specifically, it investigated whether student participation in the DP contributed to higher levels of critical thinking, as measured by an established critical thinking assessment instrument. Researchers also examined DP curricular elements that may support critical thinking, and explored the perspectives of DP students and teachers.
... Efforts to index the breadth of judgment and decision-making tasks have acknowledged the multifarious nature of these tasks themselves . The Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) index (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007, 2012Del Missier, Mäntylä, & Bruine de Bruin, 2012;Parker, Bruine de Bruin, Fischhoff, & Weller, 2018;Parker & Fischhoff, 2005) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking (CART; Stanovich et al., 2016) are two instruments assessing a broad set of judgment and decisionmaking skills in adults. The Y-DMC was developed for youth (based on the A-DMC) and has shown a similar pattern of findings to the A-DMC (Weller et al., 2012;Weller, Moholy, Bossard, & Levin, 2015). ...
... We also examined a prospective naturalistic correlate of RCB performance, namely, academic achievement. There is evidence that decision-making competence predicts important outcomes in adult samples (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007;Butler, 2012;Butler et al., 2012;Parker et al., 2018;Stanovich, 2011;Toplak, West, & Stanovich, 2017) and in developmental samples (Weller et al., 2012(Weller et al., , 2015. For example, early delay of gratification in preschool children has been shown to predict academic achievement in adolescence (Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990;Watts, Duncan, & Quan, 2018). ...
Article
Cognitive failures on several reasoning and judgment tasks can be explained by miserly information processing tendencies. These tasks have been examined in child and youth samples, and we extend this work by examining the developmental trajectory of performance on these cognitive bias tasks and their association with other markers of cognitive sophistication. A longitudinal design was used to examine the development of resistance to cognitive biases in a sample of 204 typically developing children and youth. These youth were 8–14 years of age at first assessment and were assessed at three measurement occasions separated by 3 years. Resistance to cognitive biases as represented by performance on five reasoning and judgment tasks, including ratio bias, belief‐bias syllogisms, attribute framing problems, base‐rate sensitivity, and temporal discounting. The developmental trajectory of resistance to cognitive biases was examined. We also estimated associations between trajectories of resistance to cognitive biases and measures of cognitive abilities, actively open‐minded thinking, and superstitious thinking to examine how individual differences in other measures of cognitive sophistication were associated with the development of resistance to cognitive biases. Cognitive ability measures included intelligence (verbal and nonverbal) and executive function tasks (interference control and set‐shifting). Growth modeling results showed that resistance to cognitive biases increased linearly from 8 to 15 years of age, followed by a flat mean trajectory up to age 20. Cognitive ability, actively open‐minded thinking, and superstitious thinking predicted individual differences in resistance to cognitive biases, but not changes in resistance to cognitive biases. Performance on resistance to cognitive biases tasks was positively correlated with self‐ and parent‐reported academic achievement.
... From a portion of the opinions Table 1, the characteristic of CT is solving problems effectively and efficiently and being responsible for making decisions. Butler (2012) presumes that most scientists concur that CT attempting to accomplish wanted outcomes by deduction objectively in an objective arranged manner [51]. CT skills prepare students in the 21st century to manage social, logical and useful issues later on [52]. ...
... From a portion of the opinions Table 1, the characteristic of CT is solving problems effectively and efficiently and being responsible for making decisions. Butler (2012) presumes that most scientists concur that CT attempting to accomplish wanted outcomes by deduction objectively in an objective arranged manner [51]. CT skills prepare students in the 21st century to manage social, logical and useful issues later on [52]. ...
... Critical thinking (CT) is one of the most significant skills that students must acquire to solve problems and make correct judgments on a variety of aspects arising in this rapidly changing world (AAC&U, 2011;Butler, 2012). According to a series of studies conducted by researchers at Stanford University, countries that excelled on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a test used to measure 21 st -century skills, particularly critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, had a higher increase in GDP growth than the countries that did not perform well in PISA (Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, 2008). ...
... However, critical thinking skills (CTS) cannot be easily acquired only through technology; it requires more extensive guidance and instruction, through practical activities, from instructors or teachers in an actual class. Moreover, CTS has become an essential skill for meeting the needs of employers who are seeking solutions to the problems arising within a competitive global business market (Alazzi, 2008;Bataineh & Alazzi, 2009;Butler, 2012). In line with that change, the Cambodian Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) has extensively worked on formulating a curriculum framework reform for general and technical education in which the development of self-study, research, critical thinking, communication, and problem-solving skills is the primary purpose for all learners (MoEYS, 2015). ...
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I am delighted to celebrate the launch of the Cambodian Journal of Educational Development (CJED), a new multidisciplinary, peer-review journal that publishes original research in the field of education. On behalf of CJED, I am deeply pleased and honoured to extend a very warm welcome to the readership of CJED Volume 01, 2021. I would like to take this opportunity to express my grateful thanks to Hiroshima University and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICE) in Cambodia for their technical and financial support. And, I sincerely thank our authors, anonymous reviewers and especially, all editorial members who enthusiastically, willingly and voluntarily involve contribute to the success of the journal. The establishment of CJED aims to (1) document research articles of graduates and current students who are receiving and have received the Japanese government’s scholarships to study in Japan from various scholarship programs, including The Project for Human Resource Development Scholarship by Japanese Grant Aid (JDS), PEACE Student Exchange Program, SPIES, JICA Long-Term-Training, MEXT and so on, (2) promote research culture in Cambodia and (3) involve with the government of Cambodia in transforming Cambodia from an agriculture-based country to an industrial country through the implementation Industrial Development Policy 2015-2025. We hope that our regular publication will become the primary platform for researchers to share findings and discuss all aspects of current and future education issues that benefit education reform in Cambodia.
... financial and health decisions) benefit more from the application of critical thinking skills than other decisions (e.g. interpersonal decisions) [10]. Cognitive skills here that become the core of critical thinking include interpretation, analysis, evaluation, conclusions, explanations, and selfregulation [11], which are shown in Figure 1. ...
... In this instrument students are required to analyze and interpret, communicate with the pather, collaborate, and be creative and innovative to solve tea problems. This is also in accordance with research [10] where interpretation, analysis, evaluation, conclusions, explanations, and self-regulation capabilities are needed. Self regulation in this study is defined as how students look for solutions, time management, choice of tools and materials, selection of algorithms, and risk management of the resulting PLC programming. ...
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This study aimed at developing a test instrument to asses prospective vocational teachers’ critical thinking skills on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programming. This research and development study produced the test instrument that had been trialled to 68 Indonesian electrical engineering education prospective teachers at Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The method used was Research and Development by referring to the revised Bloom method and the adjusted Facione model. The instrument consisted of 40 items that were further analyzed using a classical test and item response approaches. Students' responses were analyzed using the computer program of a Test Analysis Program and ConQest. The item difficulty of classical test theory was represented by p value revealed based on prospective teachers’ correct answers. Parameter b referred to location parameter that conveyed the position of the item’s characteristic curve in relation to the ability scales. The benefit of this study was it can measure the level of critical skills, especially on the subject of PLC programming. The existing instruments only measure PLC programming skills in general but have not yet specifically reached the measurement of critical skills level.
... El pensamiento crítico ha sido definido como el conjunto de procesos que permiten tomar una decisión bien fundamentada en cuestiones o problemas conflictivos (Fisher, 2011). Como apunta Butler (2012), el pensamiento crítico es un constructo complejo y, como tal, difícil de evaluar. Con frecuencia se distingue entre destrezas de pensamiento crítico y disposición hacia el pensamiento crítico. ...
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Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible influence of disposition towards critical thinking, grade level and gender (as independent variables) on the quality level of secondary school students' beliefs about science (as a dependent variable). A total of 141 Spanish secondary school students, 75 boys and 66 girls. in grades 8, 9 and 11 took part in this study. A questionnaire on beliefs about science and a questionnaire that maps disposition towards critical thinking were administered to participants. From the Pearson product-moment correlation matrix of the study variables and from the backward stepwise regression analysis it can be concluded that: 1) academic training received and gender seem to have a negligible impact on beliefs about science; and 2) disposition towards critical thinking (that is to say, potential use of critical thinking skills) makes an outstanding contribution to those beliefs.
... This facility is very important for teaching and learning processes, such as tablets, computers or cell phones, which will make it easier for students to participate and listen to their teachers' explanations in the online teaching and learning process. Butler (2012) states that delivering materials in online learning is limited. It makes students feel bored and lack challenges in teaching and learning processes. ...
Conference Paper
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Academic achievement is one of the measures of student success when attending formal education level. Students who excel academically have their own pride because they have different opportunities compared to students who do not excel. These opportunities are in the form of opportunities in obtaining scholarships or opportunities for a career in a prestigious company. No wonder every student competes for better academic achievement. This study was conducted to look for factors that influence the success of students academically. Many other studies try to explore these factors, one of which is the motivational factor. With the presence of data in all the times including the world of education that tries to do the process of learning online with flatform digital. Of course, there is one factor that is still rarely studied by some researchers, namely the digital ability factor of students in the era of literary digitization today. The researchers tried to explore this factor by conducting a survey method study of 33 ELEMENT students. From data processing using SPSS, it was found that there is a significant influence between students' digitalization ability on academic achievement but the influence of willingness to progress has no effect on academic achievement
... La validez de constructo del hcta se ha evaluado en una serie de estudios que incluyen diseños experimentales pre-postest, en muestras que incluyen estudiantes de secundaria y universitarios, al igual que docentes en formación y en ejercicio de numerosos países. Las 25 situaciones incluyen escenarios cotidianos que permiten evidenciar un factor de pensamiento crítico general y la separación de las facetas de reconocimiento y recuerdo (Butler, 2012). Según Bañales et al. (2014), uno de los obstáculos para los estudiantes universitarios, que coincide con el grupo de último año de bachillerato, es entender que los tipos de tareas y preguntas de indagación vinculadas a la argumentación disciplinar requieren de un entendimiento de los tipos de preguntas controversiales formulados el ámbito disciplinar. ...
Article
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El propósito de este artículo de investigación es contribuir a los procesos de formación científica de estudiantes de enseñanza media a partir del desarrollo de la habilidad argumentativa, tomando algunos principios físicos como eje de referencia. Las habilidades argumentativas abordadas en una secuencia de aprendizaje (SEA) —que integra el enfoque CTS— evidencian la importancia de un proceso didáctico contextualizado que fomente el aprendizaje de aspectos fundamentales de la Naturaleza de la Ciencia (NdC); particularmente, las opiniones que formulan los estudiantes frente a cuestiones que involucran la sociología externa de la ciencia y la tecnología. Con la evaluación del proceso con un diseño de investigación cuasiexperimental —pretest-sea-postest—, se reconoció una mejora en la habilidad argumentativa de los estudiantes y su progreso respecto a la Ciencia y la Tecnología. Así, se ratifican algunas situaciones específicas gracias a cambios significativos en las respuestas de los estudiantes en el Test de Halpern y el Cuestionario de Opiniones sobre Ciencia y Tecnología.
... Learning at school must be able to train students to be ready to live life in the future. The ability of critical thinking is one of the high-level skills that is believed to play an important role in thinking logically, making decisions, and solving problems [2]. In 21 st century education, there are three core concepts in education, namely; 1) life and career skills, 2) learning and innovation skills, 3) Information, median and technology skills. ...
Article
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Indonesia ranks 6th from the bottom based on four annual studies Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2015. Based on the results of the TIMSS and PISA, it was said that Indonesian students only mastered low-level questions and lacked high-level questions (HOTS) which included requiring students to think analytically, creatively and critically. Therefore, this study aims to improve students critical thinking skills with the Problem Based Learning model using the education of sustainable development (ESD) context on the heat theory. This study used a one group pretest-posttest design with a sample of 31 students from one of junior high schools in Bandung city. The instrument used was a critical thinking ability test and sustainability awareness profile questionnaire. The acquisition of shows the ability to think critically: Provide a basic explanation of 0.72; build basic skills 0.69; concluded 0.69; make further explanation 0.47; and set the strategy and tactics 0.38. Obtaining sustainability awareness questionnaire 63.33% with the category “practice that are done” based on this, it can be concluded that the problem based learning model using ESD context can be used to improve students' critical thinking skills.
... Existe un gran inconveniente para evaluar el pensamiento crítico, debido a la dificultad de desarrollar herramientas que incorporen todas las habilidades y actitudes relacionadas, por lo tanto, se pretende encontrar uno que lo permita medir. Ya existe una serie de instrumentos relacionados en documentos de la Association of American Colleges and Universities (Butler, 2012), los cuales han sido criticados desde su confiabilidad, metodología e incluso el tipo de formato de pregunta ha sido duramente cuestionado. ...
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"El rendimiento académico está asociado a múltiples factores. Se observó que cuando se favorece el trabajo autónomo, se logran mejores resultados. Para esto es necesario planear estrategias innovadoras y cercanas a la realidad de los estudiantes para favorecer su desempeño. Es importante hacer uso de modelos adecuados que favorezcan la comprensión de los temas de la asignatura, que por su naturaleza se percibe como compleja".
... Existe un gran inconveniente para evaluar el pensamiento crítico, debido a la dificultad de desarrollar herramientas que incorporen todas las habilidades y actitudes relacionadas, por lo tanto, se pretende encontrar uno que lo permita medir. Ya existe una serie de instrumentos relacionados en documentos de la Association of American Colleges and Universities (Butler, 2012), los cuales han sido criticados desde su confiabilidad, metodología e incluso el tipo de formato de pregunta ha sido duramente cuestionado. ...
Book
Full-text available
"El rendimiento académico está asociado a múltiples factores. Se observó que cuando se favorece el trabajo autónomo, se logran mejores resultados. Para esto es necesario planear estrategias innovadoras y cercanas a la realidad de los estudiantes para favorecer su desempeño. Es importante hacer uso de modelos adecuados que favorezcan la comprensión de los temas de la asignatura, que por su naturaleza se percibe como compleja".
... In Indonesia, curriculum content which is oriented towards the development of a variety of thinking skills, especially critical thinking skills, has begun to be noticed with the implementation of the Curriculum-2013 (K-13) . In several other developing countries critical thinking is one of the high-level skills most often discussed and linked to educational goals, because it is believed to play a central role in logical thinking, problem solving, an in decision making (Butler, 2012). Various factors can contribute to achieving learning goals towards increasing critical thinking skills, one of which is the ability of teachers to carry out and utilize the critical thinking assessment process itself, because it can stimulate students to develop critical thinking skills (Herpiana & Rosidin, 2018). ...
Article
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This study aimed to develop a test instrument to measure students' critical thinking skills on fluid material. Characteristics of the instrument and its validity estimation are also described. This research and development study employed five stages of research, namely information collecting (literature review and preparation of the subject matter), planning (defining and formulating objectives), developing preliminary form of the test instrument, preliminary field testing (expert validation), and main product revision (in accordance with the recommendations in the preliminary field testing). The content and construct validity were estimated by expert validation. Results of the instrument validation showed average scores for each component (content validity index of 4.63 and construct validity of 4.75), both of which are in the very valid category. The final result of the instrument validation is 4.69 (very valid if: Va > 4.21), with 98.7% reliability. Description of the study result is presented further in this article.
... Critical Thinking (CTh) has been related to questioning, logical thinking, decision making, problem-solving, searching for evidence, looking for alternatives and deductive reasoning (Butler, 2012;Cano Garc ıa, 2004;S aen & Rivas, 2012). Nevertheless, there exist several definitions of the construct depending on the constructs as it takes time and effort, and they are rather intended for individual assessment. ...
Article
The primary aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the level of critical thinking of Danish and Spanish psychology students (N = 788) attending innately different bachelor-level courses; personality psychology and introductory statistics/research methods. Several instruments are available for the assessment of critical thinking (CTh), but most are, however, unsuitable for use in large surveys with many constructs, due to length or single-person administration formats. One brief and much-used scale is the CTh scale in the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), used in this study. To ensure unbiased comparisons across countries and courses, our secondary aim was to investigate the content validity, as well as the psychometric properties, of the CTh scale to ensure the most accurate and unbiased comparison. For this purpose, Rasch and graphical loglinear Rasch models were used. After reducing the number of items due to content validity issues, the CTh scale fitted Rasch models within each national sample, and was measurement invariant relative to age group, gender, course and university. In the cross-cultural item analysis, two items functioned differentially relative to nationality, and the scale fitted a graphical loglinear Rasch model. CTh scores related to introductory statistics/research methods courses differed significantly from scores related to personality psychology, for Danish students only.
... A shortcoming with almost all assessments of critical thinking as of the writing of this paper is that they are designed from traditional definitions of critical thinking; meaning that these assessments do not test for cognitive biases explicitly. For example, the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessments (Butler, 2012) measure five dimension of critical thinking premised on traditional conceptions of critical thinking (i.e., verbal reasoning, argument analysis, thinking as hypothesis testing, likelihood/ uncertainty, and decision making and problem solving) but not cognitive biases. Another popular critical thinking test is the Cornell Critical Thinking Level Test Z (Ennis and Millman, 2005) which measures induction, deduction, credibility, identification of assumptions, semantics, definitions, and prediction in planning experiments. ...
Article
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The objective of the present paper is to propose a refined conception of critical thinking in data-rich environments. The rationale for refining critical thinking stems from the need to identify specific information processes that direct the suspension of prior beliefs and activate broader interpretations of data. Established definitions of critical thinking, many of them originating in philosophy, do not include such processes. A refinement of critical thinking in the digital age is developed by integrating two of the most relevant areas of research for this purpose: First, the tripartite model of critical thinking is used to outline proactive and reactive information processes in data-rich environments. Second, a new assessment framework is used to illustrate how educational interventions and assessments can be used to incorporate processes outlined in the tripartite model, thus providing a defensible conceptual foundation for inferences about higher-level thinking in data-rich environments. Third, recommendations are provided for how a performance-based teaching and assessment module of critical thinking can be designed.
... Critical thinking is the use of cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome such as achieving a specific goal (Butler, 2012, Halpern, 2003. It does not relate to the development of claims, but about analyzing and verifying the claims ( (Moore & Parker, 2008). ...
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In this chapter, children from a 4th grade class at a rural primary school in Trinidad and Tobago participated in a three-week vacation camp with a curriculum based on design thinking. Design problems drawn from the lives of the children were used to stimulate deep thinking and engagement. The focus of the design problems allowed students to practice and build a variety of thinking abilities. They practiced both lateral thinking and vertical thinking at different parts of the design challenges. They applied critical thinking abilities of inquiry, analysis, inference, and argument. The students also practiced metacognition as they reflected on their design choices and decisions, and thought of strategies to be successful throughout the three weeks of the study. These results suggest that design-based education can play a role in developing critical thinking skills in an engaging way, even in an under-resourced context at elementary level.
... Even though critical thinking has been an area of interest since ancient Greek philosophers, it has not found its rightful place in practice for a long time. At present, however, critical thinking skills are accepted as the ultimate target of educational curricula, and original training programs are formed and measurement tools are developed in this regards (Akbıyık & Seferoğlu, 2006;Butler, 2012;Karalı, 2012;Liu et al., 2014). Critical thinking has been discussed by different disciplines in its historical development and explained in more detail. ...
... It is robust to be able to dissect abundant information in the world we are living in, also to evaluate its credibility, quality, relevancy, and rational expression (Butler, 2012). Facione ...
Research
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This journal article dissected the concept of critical thinking and mindfulness during COVID-19 pandemic. One study validated a positive relationship between critical thinking and mindfulness. On account to that, this study comes up. The main purpose of the current study is to define the meaning of critical thinking and mindfulness; to understand principles of critical thinking, practices of mindfulness, and their application during COVID-19 pandemic; and how to address COVID-19 pandemic through critical thinking and mindfulness. The research design of the current study is based on post positivism paradigm qualitative research. To gather data for the study, the researcher collected through narrative reports and logical analysis such as journal articles, course materials, books, videos and podcast. The findings suggest that mindfulness can enhance and facilitate effective critical thinking. In this time, antiviral vaccine or treatment is unavailable for novel corona virus. It implies that the current study may be beneficial to the current situation that the world is facing at this point in time. Seven principles of critical thinking were discussed which consists of understanding the context and contrary; thinking ourselves; thinking proactively; openness of mind; considering different perspectives; and questioning and challenging beliefs. Critical thinking together with mindfulness results achievement of proper understanding of things and issues; achieve, conceive and formulate clear ideas; make true and accurate judgments; arrive at valid arguments, acceptable justification and sound reason; and to achieve goals and purposes. Ergo, thinking critically and being mindful during a pandemic can help people think, act and heal as one. They can achieve freedom and liberation from ignorance, blind adherence and thoughtless conformism. Mindfulness facilitates critical thinking day-today. Be aware, attentive, anticipate, and act. People have to act properly and be prudent.
... Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: In this process, students discover hypothetical solutions to a problem and by processing those solutions they culminate in the most effective (Butler, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
In recent years institutions try to adapt their courses based on the students' needs. Research is focused on what data to extract from students and how to use them to provide personalized learning material. This article introduces the architecture of an Adaptive Blended Learning Platform that aims to help students develop 4Cs. The suggested platform is based on the principles of Bloom’s Taxonomy, the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles Model and Blended Learning. A simple interface is provided to the teacher to create and manage courses and classroom material. Additionally, through the platform personalized worksheets for a selected course are created. For the creation of such worksheets an algorithm acts as an assistant to the teacher that suggests which learning objects suit each student better. Finally, the materials available to students consist of digital and non-digital tools to make them more active and to stimulate their interest, such as activities, exercises and games that can be practiced both at classroom and at home
... O pensamento crítico integra uma série de atividades intelectuais e/ou o uso de 263 ferramentas que permitem atingir um pensamento de maior qualidade. De acordo com Butler (2012), este assume-se como um elemento central no pensamento lógico e desempenha um papel crucial na tomada de decisão, na inovação, no empreendedorismo e na resolução de problemas, sendo também, na perspetiva de Liu, Frankel & Roohr (2014), decisivo para o sucesso tanto académico como pessoal, sustentando uma forte responsabilidade social e de cidadania ativa e uma integração de sucesso no mercado do trabalho. ...
... Criticality has become a highly valued skill in modern society [38]. This is because in the modern era, where information technology is developing rapidly, skills are needed to analyze information, evaluate its credibility and apply information appropriately [39]. Of course, by developing criticality skills, the community will benefit more from the various information currently available [40]. ...
Article
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The massive circulation of hoaxes on social media is currently a fairly complex problem in society. One simple way that is considered effective to reduce the rate of hoaxes is to not disseminate information without prior verification. Verification efforts with the aim of minimizing the impact of this hoax can be referred to as criticality. The term criticality is basically still quite new when compared to the term critical thinking. Criticality refers to the concept of critical thinking accompanied by a commitment to act based on socio-cultural values. The purpose of this study was to develop a criticality scale related to hoaxes on social media. The method used is quantitative involving 400 students from state universities in Malang City. The results of this study indicate that the criticality scale related to hoaxes developed has met the criteria of good validity and reliability
... scientific thinking and critical thinking, profoundly influence the quality of decision making (e.g. Ashby, 2017;Butler, 2012;Butler et al., 2017;Cokely et al., 2012;Cokely et al., 2018;Ghazal et al., 2014;Jasper et al., 2017;Lehman & Nisbett, 1990;Leshowitz et al., 2002;Pertl et al., 2017;Peters et al., 2006;Reyna & Brainerd, 2008;Stanovich, 2016;Stanovich & West, 1998). ...
... Critical thinking is the subject of a great variety of definitions, but we can consider that it "is good thinking that is well reasoned and well supported with evidence" (Butler and Halpern, 2020, p. 152): to that, it is purposeful, reasoned, and goal-directed (Halpern, 1998). There is an agreement around conceptual key elements, like judgment, reasoning, reflective thinking, and metacognition (Fischer, 2001), which are mobilized to achieve the desired result by thinking rationally and in a goal-oriented fashion (Butler, 2012). ...
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Purpose. While training students to new literacy and critical thinking has been recognized for several decades, it seems even more crucial today as education is presented as a lever to fight against fake news. Preservice teachers, both so-called digital natives at the cutting edge of the social web and tomorrow’s educators, represent a useful object of study. Methodology. Using a quantitative methodology, this article is part of sequential mixed design research aiming to describe the level of preservice teachers’ (n = 245) critical thinking in three French-speaking nations: Wallonia, France, and Quebec. We aimed to see to what extent critical thinking skills (measured with a translated version of the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment; Halpern, 2016) can notably be influenced by metaliteracy self-efficacy. Metaliteracy is a concept that aims to join information, digital, and media literacy providing a comprehensive framework “for engaging with individuals and ideas in digital environments” (Mackey and Jacobson, 2011, p. 70). Findings. We establish the influence of individual determinants such as the feelings of self-efficacy in metaliteracy as well as the belief in the likelihood of becoming a teacher. We propose a model predicting the critical thinking skills based on self- efficacy in critical thinking and metaliteracy, the type of training, and the interaction between employment and the country of study. Originality. Considering contemporary information issues and infodemic phenomena, critical thinking skills should be developed among preservice teachers. There is a significant positive correlation between metaliteracy self-efficacy and critical thinking skills. Pre-service teachers’ country of study, as well as their training trajectory, seems to influence their critical thinking skills. Involvement in professional life also appears to promote critical thinking skills.
... Despite a strong emphasis on improving CT, the CT levels displayed by most community college students are often inadequate. A few small-scale studies in the United States found that community college students had lower CT cognitive skills than those in university [12,13]. Only one study reported CT cognitive skills in Asian students in community colleges [14]. ...
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The importance of fostering critical thinking (CT) in community college education has been recognized highly worldwide. However, limited studies have been conducted to investigate CT abilities among community college students in the Asian context. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 209 Chinese community college students to assess the levels of CT cognitive skills and CT dispositions and to identify the associated factors. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), and a questionnaire on the students’ socio-demographic and academic profiles were used. The results showed that the average level of CT cognitive skills was 17.82 ± 4.10, which was at the upper end of the moderate range. For CCTDI scores, the mean value was 278.81 ± 22.61 and positive disposition towards CT was shown in four subscales: open-mindedness, analyticity, confidence in reasoning, and inquisitiveness. From regression analysis, HKDSE total score (i.e., university entrance examination total score), CT subject grade level, CCTDI truth-seeking, and CCTDI analyticity were identified as the four significant factors associated with their CT cognitive skills. The findings provide significant implications when reviewing the program design and curriculum as well as the addition of CT elements in a separate course to promote students’ CT abilities for sustainable development.
Article
O pensamento crítico possui uma natureza eminentemente aplicada: pensa-se para atingir um fim, seja encontrar uma explicação, tomar uma decisão ou resolver um problema. Tal revela a sua relevância na resposta aos desafios do quotidiano, um tema por explorar devidamente. Neste artigo, examinamos as capacidades de pensamento crítico que são mais fundamentais para o funcionamento quotidiano dos indivíduos, para alcançarem o melhor bem-estar pessoal e social possível. Seguidamente, a nossa análise focar-se-á na intervenção a realizar para desenvolver tais capacidades. Esta análise da promoção do pensamento crítico será feita no contexto do Ensino Superior, com estudantes e com professores, apresentando-se recomendações sobre práticas possíveis. Se "a ação é filha do pensamento", é essencial que cada um desenvolva as suas competências de pensamento crítico, enquanto indivíduo e membro de uma comunidade, particularmente no cenário de pandemia que todos vivemos no momento.
Chapter
This chapter explains the overview of critical thinking (CT); the emerging trends of CT in the modern learning environments; CT in nursing education and health care; reflective judgment and CT; constructivist learning and CT; metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and CT; and the promotion of CT in the modern learning environments. The promotion of CT is essential for the learning organizations that seek to serve educators, increase educational performance, strengthen competitiveness, and achieve continuous success in the modern learning environments. Therefore, it is required for the learning organizations to promote their CT and develop a learning plan to regularly check their practical advancements toward satisfying educator requirements. The chapter argues that promoting CT has the potential to enhance organizational performance and reach strategic goals in the modern learning environments.
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The present investigation is an analysis of the innovative didactic strategies to improve the practices of the teachers in the reading comprehension in the third degree of primary basic education in the departmental educative institution Alberto Caballero De Monterrubio of the municipality of Sabanas de San Angel; Magdalena It shows the competences developed by teachers from six categories of study: planning of the class act, pedagogical act, didactic resources, innovation, classroom climate and evaluation of learning in a public order institution of the Magdalena Department. The study is approached with a mixed approach, a quantitative analysis supported by the SPSS, in a first part and a qualitative analysis supported by ATLASTI 0.7 in a second part. In a final instance, the results are shown by objectives and the triangulation of results. The project is part of a transversal macro-project led by Universidad Simón Bolívar. Among the most significant results, we find that there are difficulties in the adoption of innovative strategies for learning in general and little incorporation of specific teaching strategies in relation to reading skills, which hinders the development of the critical interpretation of reality from the language.
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En la formación universitaria de profesionales afines a la química ha existido la preocupación por el desarrollo de la habilidad de pensamiento crítico; sin embargo, es claro que durante el desempeño como profesionales se identifican algunas dificultades en valerse de esta habilidad al tratar de resolver situaciones propias de su quehacer profesional. Una explicación probable a esta problemática es que, a pesar del esfuerzo de los docentes por diseñar nuevas estrategias de enseñanza, estas no han sido del todo efectivas, y por otro lado, se identifica que aún persiste en algunos profesores la concepción tradicional de enseñanza basada en un proceso memorístico. A fin de aportar al análisis de la problemática expuesta, este artículo de investigación, tipo mixta, muestra los resultados de un estudio en el que se aplican actividades y estrategias en torno a la química de los alimentos. Se trabajó con un grupo de estudiantes registrados en la asignatura de Química Agroalimentaria de la Licenciatura en Química de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, ubicada en Bogotá (Colombia), quienes adelantaron algunos experimentos bajo contextos determinados. Como resultado, se observa un favorecimiento en el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento crítico, evidenciado mediante la evaluación de una serie de mini proyectos.
Article
Este artículo de investigación indaga por los efectos de la temática socioambiental en el desarrollo habilidades de pensamiento crítico en el futuro profesorado de primaria, a través del enfoque CTSA. Con un diseño cuasiexperimental pretest/postest, se utilizaron dos tipos de instrumentos: un instrumento de intervención didáctica que consistió en secuencias de enseñanza-aprendizaje; y el segundo instrumento se utilizó para la evaluación de habilidades del pensamiento crítico, este estuvo basado en el test de Diane Halpern y fue adaptado para situaciones socioambientales. El pretest mostró un bajo nivel de habilidades de pensamiento crítico. Después de la intervención didáctica, el análisis estadístico mostró cambios significativos muy favorables en dos de las habilidades evaluadas, a saber, el análisis de argumentos y la toma de decisiones y resolución de problemas. Además, con la intervención se logró que los estudiantes hicieran una reflexión crítica respecto a los aspectos positivos y negativos de la ciencia y la tecnología, las relaciones entre ellas y con la sociedad y el medio ambiente.
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One of the major issues related to critical thinking in higher education consists of how educators teach and inspire students to develop greater critical thinking skills. The current study was conducted to explore whether Decision-based Learning (DBL), an innovative teaching method, can enhance students’ critical thinking skills. This mixed methods ex-post facto study aimed to identify the areas of overlap between DBL and critical thinking components based on an empirically tested framework. The study was conducted at a large, private university in the western United States with two instructors and 89 undergraduate students. Data were collected via DBL publications, course midterm exam scores, and instructor interviews. Since this was an ex post facto study, the exam items were not initially written to target critical thinking skills as defined by the critical thinking framework we chose. An analysis was done on the cognitive processes elicited by the exam items after the fact, and it was found that they elicited three of the six skills described in this framework. In addition, participation in DBL activities related to statistically significant higher exam scores on these items after controlling for a standardized pre-test taken by both treatment and control groups prior to beginning the course. The effect sizes were large in favor of the DBL courses. In addition, two instructors reported their perspectives on the critical thinking skills exhibited by their students using DBL. The evidence collected across these three sources of information supports a connection between DBL and four of the six critical thinking components within the framework we selected.
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Mathematical learning needs to be given to all students starting from elementary school, so that students practice how to think in drawing conclusions and be able to express their opinions with the beliefs and honesty that comes from someone. But when learning mathematics the problem that often arises is a lack of motivation. Baroody (1993) says that reasoning is an important tool in learning mathematics to produce ideas so students can understand mathematical concepts correctly. Efforts made by teachers to improve thinking skills and motivation in learning mathematics are through the Adobe Flash CS 5.0 game which is expected to provide new and enjoyable experiences for teachers and students. In addition to more varied learning, students can be motivated to learn and enjoy what they learn.
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Uno de los propósitos centrales de la educación contemporánea, se orienta en la formación de pensamiento crítico entre las personas. De allí la importancia que este tipo de pensamiento se desarrolle y construya en las aulas de clase y que sea un objetivo alcanzable en los sistemas educativos, involucrando a directivos, maestros y estudiantes. Para ese propósito es necesario comprender y analizar las diferentes construcciones que se tejen cuando se orientan acciones que conllevan a formar pensadores críticos que potencien cambios en la sociedad actual. Desde este marco se ha diseñado una herramienta para el fortalecimiento del pensamiento crítico entre jóvenes escolarizados entre 14 y 18 años. Esta construcción se ha pensado desde los planteamientos de Toulmin, (2003), recogida a su vez por Erduran (2008), en el que se concibe el pensamiento crítico como la capacidad de comprender argumentos, justificar, conceptualizar, argumentar y contraargumentar. One of the central purposes of contemporary education is oriented to formation of critical thinking among people. Hence the importance that this type of thinking being developed and constucted in classrooms and that is an attainable objective in educational systems, involving managers, teachers and students. For that purpose, it is necessary to understand and analyze the different constructions that are woven when actions are oriented that lead to the formation of critical thinkers that foster changes in today’s society. From this framework, a tool has been designed to strengthen critical thinking among young schoolchildren between 14 and 18 years. This construction has been thought from the approaches of Toulmin, (2003), collected in turn by and Erduran (2008), in which critical thinking is conceived as the ability to understand arguments, justify, conceptualize, argue and counter-argue
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Group Reading Strategy (GRS), a collaborative reading activity, offers individual contributions to a shared goal using an active learning approach. This mixed-methods research examined the effect of GRS on the critical thinking skills of Thai EFL university learners and explored learners' perceptions of the GRS process. The critical thinking self-assessment questionnaire, a logbook, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The analysis of the quantitative findings revealed that GRS fostered critical thinking skills in Thai EFL university learners. The results also showed that some intrinsic characteristics of critical thinking skills were cultivated before others. Overall, the current study demonstrated an increase in critical thinking skills through the GRS learning process. The qualitative findings revealed that participants held positive opinions regarding the GRS approach to facilitate active learning environments. Specifically, Thai EFL university participants viewed GRS as peer-assisted learning and a collaborative learning approach, which could, in turn, lessen adverse learning factors. However, some factors, including culture, time-allocation for the GRS process, and types of assessment, also influenced the learning process of GRS activities. Overall, this study indicates that GRS could have an impact on Thai EFL university learners' critical thinking skills, at least to some extent. However, longitudinal studies are still required in future investigations.
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This chapter presents a sociocultural instructional model designed to raise L2 learners' awareness to the vital importance of developing their critical thinking competence, especially in global crisis times. For this purpose, a pilot study was launched to explore English learners' attitudinal factors based on their critical thinking responses to rhetoric passages with a high sociolinguistic content component. This study, part of a more extensive quasi-experimental UAM-TeLL project, was implemented in a high school of Cartagena with first-year baccalaureate students. This educational approach's structure allowed the researchers to measure the dynamic of participants' feelings and reflective attitudes. The study's analytical instruments included three dimensions pre- and post- questionnaires, specific tasks on judgment and inference, guided interviews, rubrics, and field observation. This chapter reports on the initial qualitative findings and confirm students' engagement and awareness of their critical thinking skills.
Article
El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la posible influencia de la disposición hacia el pensamiento crítico, el nivel académico y el género (variables independientes) sobre el desempeño en resolución de problemas de estudiantes de secundaria (variable dependiente). Han participado 114 estudiantes de educación secundaria españoles, 55 chicos y 59 chicas, de 3º y 4º de ESO y de 1º de Bachillerato (9º, 10º y 11º grado, respectivamente). A todos ellos se les ha administrado un cuestionario sobre disposición hacia el pensamiento crítico y una prueba de resolución de problemas (un problema de las pruebas PISA). De la matriz de correlaciones producto-momento de Pearson entre variables y del análisis de regresión backward stepwise efectuado se han derivado las siguientes conclusiones: 1) la disposición hacia el pensamiento crítico (esto es, el potencial uso del pensamiento crítico) y el género parecen tener un insignificante peso en el desempeño en la resolución de problemas; y 2) el nivel académico muestra una contribución muy destacada en el rendimiento en la resolución de problemas.
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As past studies showed mixed results, this meta-analysis determined game-based learning’s overall effect on students’ critical thinking and tested for moderators, using 21 effect sizes from 20 empirical studies of 1,947 participants. The results showed that game-based learning had a significant positive overall effect on students’ critical thinking ( g = 0.863, k = 21) and showed significant heterogeneity among effect sizes. Among game types, role-playing games yielded the largest mean effect size ( g = 1.828, k = 5). The effect size of game-based learning was larger for critical thinking disposition ( g = 1.774, k = 4) than critical thinking skill ( g = 0.661, k = 17). Game-based learning also had a larger effect on students in collectivistic countries ( g = 1.282, k = 10) than those in individualistic countries ( g = 0.432, k = 10). Furthermore, this effect size was larger in later publication years. Lastly, the effect size of game-based learning on critical thinking was larger for studies published in journal articles ( g = 1.154, k = 13) than theses ( g = 0.378, k = 8).
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Abstract This study investigated the impact of cooperative learning on Iranian high schoolEFL learners’ critical thinking and motivation. To this end, 142 EFL students were selected based on their performance on the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT), and divided into two heterogeneous experimental groups (EG) receiving treatment through STAD model of cooperative learning, and two control groups (CG) without any treatment. To recognize the entry behaviors of the participants, pretests were run. Then, the same educational content was taught to both groups during an educational term. Furthermore, in order to disclose the effect of treatment, a critical thinking post-test similar to the pretest but in rearranged order in options and items, and a motivation post-test were administered at the end of the instruction. The results obtained from the statistical analysis of the scores showed that cooperative learning has a significant effect on the critical thinking and motivation of the participants. The findings of the study are beneficial for EFL learners to improve their small group capabilities. Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Critical Thinking, Iranian EFL learners, STAD, motivation
Chapter
Correlations between real-world behaviors and judgment and decision-making paradigms are of great interest to developmentalists to inform our understanding of how to promote positive development and outcomes for our children and youth. There is relatively less research on these associations in child and youth samples relative to adult samples. Several real-world outcomes were examined in the longitudinal developmental study and correlated with judgment and decision-making performance. Youth reported positive outcomes were significantly correlated with judgment and decision-making paradigms and cognitive abilities at Time 2 and Time 3, when youth were 11–17 (Time 2) and 14–20 (Time 3) years of age. Some effect sizes were larger at Time 3 and significant correlations were also obtained with negative outcomes at Time 3. Positive outcome domains that displayed significant correlations were behaviors related to initiative and responsibility, grades, and academic conscientiousness. Negative outcome domains that displayed significant correlations were antisocial behavior and technology overuse. Parent reported real-world correlates at Time 2 displayed few significant correlations with judgment and decision-making paradigms.
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Transversal competences such as sustainability or critical thinking have become more important in the last decades in University teaching. The objective of this article is to assess the effectiveness of debate as a teaching method capable of fostering such competences in engineering students. To do this, a debate activity has been held facing two reasonable positions: Sustainable Development versus Degrowth. The research methodology consisted of performing this activity in the classroom (with 13 students in this particular case study), and conducting some tests before and after the debate that served as feedback to assess the effectiveness of the debate on the learning process. This feedback is composed of different documents, including a pre-post test, a specific survey about the debate, a pre-post knowledge survey and the Student Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ) survey. A methodology for the organization of the debate is proposed and the answers of the students to these feedback documents are analyzed. As it can be inferred from the different surveys, the debate has been an efficient learning tool to acquire knowledge and to develop sustainability and critical thinking competences.
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El tomo II de la obra Innovación educativa en contexto. Una mirada a la práctica docente desde la academia es un complemento en el abordaje de la práctica docente y la innovación educativa. Los capítulos 1, 2 3 y 5, presentan la caracterización de la práctica docente en 4 instituciones educativas del Departamento del Magdalena y los autores desarrollan unas propuestas para la innovación de las estrategias didácticas en las Áreas de Lengua Castellana, Inglés y Ciencias Sociales. Ampliando el abordaje de la innovación educativa y desde otros contextos, los siguientes capítulos tocan temáticas como las políticas públicas de envejecimiento en Colombia desde la perspectiva educativa, apuestas y reflexiones en cuanto a la Educación Rural. En relación a la educación superior, interesantes temáticas como el abordaje de la salud mental en universitarios víctimas del conflicto armado como reto para la educación y movilidad social, apuestas para el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico en este nivel y a nivel posgradual apuestas formativas con mediación TIC. Finalmente el capítulo 10, no por ser menos importante aborda un problema de la educación superior en Colombia y el mundo referido a la formación en la competencia de pensar críticamente en los estudiantes universitarios. Los autores plantean que es necesario comprender y analizar las diferentes construcciones que se tejen cuando se orientan acciones que conllevan a formar pensadores críticos que potencien cambios en la sociedad actual. Desde este marco diseñan una herramienta para el fortalecimiento del pensamiento crítico entre jóvenes escolarizados entre 14 y 18 años.
Chapter
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One of the central purposes of contemporary education is oriented to formation of critical thinking among people. Hence the importance that this type of thinking being developed and constucted in classrooms and that is an attainable objective in educational systems, involving managers, teachers and students. For that purpose, it is necessary to understand and analyze the different constructions that are woven when actions are oriented that lead to the formation of critical thinkers that foster changes in today’s society. From this framework, a tool has been designed to strengthen critical thinking among young schoolchildren between 14 and 18 years. This construction has been thought from the approaches of Toulmin, (2003), collected in turn by and Erduran (2008), in which critical thinking is conceived as the ability to understand arguments, justify, conceptualize, argue and counter-argue
Chapter
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Uno de los propósitos centrales de la educación contemporánea, se orienta en la formación de pensamiento crítico entre las personas. De allí la importancia que este tipo de pensamiento se desarrolle y construya en las aulas de clase y que sea un objetivo alcanzable en los sistemas educativos, involucrando a directivos, maestros y estudiantes. Para ese propósito es necesario comprender y analizar las diferentes construcciones que se tejen cuando se orientan acciones que conllevan a formar pensadores críticos que potencien cambios en la sociedad actual. Desde este marco se ha diseñado una herramienta para el fortalecimiento del pensamiento crítico entre jóvenes escolarizados entre 14 y 18 años. Esta construcción se ha pensado desde los planteamientos de Toulmin, (2003), recogida a su vez por Erduran (2008), en el que se concibe el pensamiento crítico como la capacidad de comprender argumentos, justificar, conceptualizar, argumentar y contraargumentar.
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El libro presenta diversas perspectivas investigativas en torno a las ciencias de la educación enmarcadas así mismo desde corrientes epistemológicas plurales. Destacan elementos asociados a la didáctica, al currículo, a las competencias como elemento integrador, a los estilos de aprendizaje. Así mismo se muestran experiencias investigativas de la maestría en educación y del doctorado en ciencias de la educación de la universidad Simón Bolívar.
Article
Given the psychometric limitations associated with many of the existing critical thinking assessments as well as the lack of these assessments utilising constructed-response items, there is a need for critical thinking assessments that are not only psychometrically sound but also allow test-takers to articulate their reasoning. Compared to selected-response items, in which test-takers are required to select the ‘correct’ answer from a list of alternatives, constructed-response items require test-takers to construct, or generate, their answer. This study had two aims: (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of a pilot critical thinking assessment tool that predominantly consists of constructed-response items, and (2) conduct an exploratory content analysis of higher education students’ responses, including a comparison between participants’ selected and constructed responses. A total of 95 undergraduate students were included in the study, with participants recruited from psychology, chiropractic and computer science programs. This study found preliminary evidence of inter-rater reliability for the constructed-response portion of the assessment tool yet mixed evidence regarding the validity of the tool. This study also found several discrepancies between participants’ selected and constructed responses, therefore raising concerns regarding the use of selected-response items in critical thinking assessments. These findings have important implications for the assessment of higher education students’ critical thinking skills based on the quality of their reasoning rather than merely their ability to ‘select’ the correct answer.
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Critical thinking (CT), or the ability to engage in purposeful, self-regulatory judgment, is widely recognized as an important, even essential, skill. This article describes an ongoing meta-analysis that summarizes the available empirical evidence on the impact of instruction on the development and enhancement of critical thinking skills and dispositions. We found 117 studies based on 20,698 participants, which yielded 161 effects with an average effect size (g+) of 0.341 and a standard deviation of 0.610. The distribution was highly heterogeneous (QT = 1,767.86, p < .001). There was, however, little variation due to research design, so we neither separated studies according to their methodological quality nor used any statistical adjustment for the corresponding effect sizes. Type of CT intervention and pedagogical grounding were substantially related to fluctuations in CT effects sizes, together accounting for 32% of the variance. These findings make it clear that improvement in students’ CT skills and dispositions cannot be a matter of implicit expectation. As important as the development of CT skills is considered to be, educators must take steps to make CT objectives explicit in courses and also to include them in both preservice and in-service training and faculty development.
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The following text is taken from the publisher's website: "This handbook focuses on the thinking processes necessary for learning. It provides descriptions and evaluations of 42 major frameworks including Bloom¿s taxonomy, de Bono¿s lateral and parallel thinking tools, Gardner¿s theory of multiple intelligences and Paul¿s model of critical thinking. Unique in its comprehensive coverage and interdisciplinary approach, it offers easy-to-grasp summary tables for each major theorist for speedy reference. The discussion of cognitive, emotional and social aspects of thinking and the nature of classification help the reader locate theories within a broader field of knowledge. Key concepts such as critical thinking, self-regulation and metacognition are examined from a range of perspectives. The handbook offers practical advice in the form of choices and recommendations for the use of frameworks in teaching, learning and assessment. A valuable tool for students needing to understand different ways of thinking it will also be an essential resource for teachers, curriculum developers, researchers and policy-makers. ¿ Uniquely comprehensive coverage of key frameworks for thinking with easy-to-use summary tables ¿ Multidisciplinary approach promotes critical thinking ¿ Practical approach and advice useful to students, teachers, curriculum developers and policy makers."
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The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a set of 7 behavioral decision-making tasks, measuring different aspects of the decision-making process. The tasks were administered to individuals from diverse populations. Participants showed relatively consistent performance within and across the 7 tasks, which were then aggregated into an Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) index that showed good reliability. The validity of the 7 tasks and of overall A-DMC emerges in significant relationships with measures of socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and decision-making styles. Participants who performed better on the A-DMC were less likely to report negative life events indicative of poor decision making, as measured by the Decision Outcomes Inventory. Significant predictive validity remains when controlling for demographic measures, measures of cognitive ability, and constructive decision-making styles. Thus, A-DMC appears to be a distinct construct relevant to adults' real-world decisions.
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In 7 different studies, the authors observed that a large number of thinking biases are uncorrelated with cognitive ability. These thinking biases include some of the most classic and well-studied biases in the heuristics and biases literature, including the conjunction effect, framing effects, anchoring effects, outcome bias, base-rate neglect, "less is more" effects, affect biases, omission bias, myside bias, sunk-cost effect, and certainty effects that violate the axioms of expected utility theory. In a further experiment, the authors nonetheless showed that cognitive ability does correlate with the tendency to avoid some rational thinking biases, specifically the tendency to display denominator neglect, probability matching rather than maximizing, belief bias, and matching bias on the 4-card selection task. The authors present a framework for predicting when cognitive ability will and will not correlate with a rational thinking tendency.
Chapter
In this book, distinguished theorists and researchers in psychology have explored the role of critical thinking in psychology. The conclusion I come to is that critical thinking is critical in and to psychology. In this final chapter, I summarize some of the “critical” lessons readers can learn from having read the book. Our parents socialize us into the importance of putting things in a positive and constructive way, and of saying things in the “right” way. These skills should be part of our socialization in psychology as well. For example, Halpern (Chapter 1, this volume) points out that although two questions – “Do you favor or oppose allowing students and parents to choose a private school to attend at public expense?” and “Do you favor or oppose allowing students and parents to choose any school, public or private, to attend using public funds?” – essentially ask the same thing, the percentages of respondents responding in favor of vouchers differed by 22%, depending on how the question was asked. Similarly, Schwarz (Chapter 4, this volume) shows that how survey questions are framed has an enormous impact on how they are answered. Even using a scale of −5 to +5 versus 0 to 10 had a large impact – a difference of 21% – in the way a question about success in life was answered.
Book
Good scientific research depends on critical thinking at least as much as factual knowledge; psychology is no exception to this rule. And yet, despite the importance of critical thinking, psychology students are rarely taught how to think critically about the theories, methods, and concepts they must use. This book shows students and researchers how to think critically about key topics such as experimental research, statistical inference, case studies, logical fallacies, and ethical judgments.
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Long-term benefits are possible when organizations obtain a big-picture understanding of the skills gap and what it means in today's global business environment.
Article
This book presents the findings and recommendations of the 2008 National Conference on Undergraduate Education in Psychology. For this conference, 80 psychologists and other academics charged with the task of designing the best possible future for undergraduate education in psychology spent a week at the University of Puget Sound during the summer of 2008. We met in working groups and plenary sessions in which ideas were debated and visions of quality programs in psychology were created. We envisioned a future for higher education in which change could be brought about in a sound, scientific way that would yield long-lasting positive benefits for all of the stakeholders. Conference participants were selected for their commitment to excellence in education in psychology, especially at the undergraduate level. We represented the full range of diversity in psychology, including participants from all levels of education, ranging from high school teachers to those who taught only graduate students. We were a racially diverse mix of early- and late-career psychologists from large and small institutions, including professional schools; from different areas of expertise within psychology; and including people with disabilities and knowledge about disabilities. We invite readers to respond to our call for action and to join with us in the redesign of undergraduate education in ways that can have positive and long-lasting effects on the millions of students worldwide who enroll in undergraduate psychology courses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although the development and transfer of critical thinking skills are recognized as primary goals for education, there is little empirical evidence to help educators decide how to teach in ways that enhance critical thinking. In two studies, we compared explicit and imbedded instructional modes and assessed critical thinking with the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment, which uses both constructed response and multiple-choice response formats with everyday situations. Participants were high school students in the United States attending low-performing high schools with large minority enrollment. In both studies, the students receiving explicit instruction showed much larger gains than those in the imbedded instruction group. Grade point average was significantly related to critical thinking scores, but as expected its relationship with critical thinking was much weaker than standardized test scores. These results provide robust evidence that explicit instruction is an effective method for teaching critical thinking skills to high school students.
Article
A number of theoretical positions in psychology—including variants of case-based reasoning, instance-based analogy, and connectionist models—maintain that abstract rules are not involved in human reasoning, or at best play a minor role. Other views hold that the use of abstract rules is a core aspect of human reasoning. We propose eight criteria for determining whether or not people use abstract rules in reasoning, and examine evidence relevant to each criterion for several rule systems. We argue that there is substantial evidence that several different inferential rules, including modus ponens, contractual rules, causal rules, and the law of large numbers, are used in solving everyday problems. We discuss the implications for various theoretical positions and consider hybrid mechanisms that combine aspects of instance and rule models.
Article
People possess an abstract inferential rule system that is an intuitive version of the law of large numbers. Because the rule system is not tied to any particular content domain, it is possible to improve it by formal teaching techniques. We present four experiments that support this view. In Experiments 1 and 2, we taught subjects about the formal properties of the law of large numbers in brief training sessions in the laboratory and found that this increased both the frequency and the quality of statistical reasoning for a wide variety of problems of an everyday nature. In addition, we taught subjects about the rule by a “guided induction” technique, showing them how to use the rule to solve problems in particular domains. Learning from the examples was abstracted to such an extent that subjects showed just as much improvement on domains where the rule was not taught as on domains where it was. In Experiment 3, the ability to analyze an everyday problem with reference to the law of large numbers was shown to be much greater for those who had several years of training in statistics than for those who had less. Experiment 4 demonstrated that the beneficial effects of formal training in statistics may hold even when subjects are tested completely outside of the context of training. In general, these four experiments support a rather “formalist” theory of reasoning: people reason using very abstract rules, and their reasoning about a wide variety of content domains can be affected by direct manipulation of these abstract rules.
Article
The current paper discusses ambiguities in critical thinking assessment. The paper first reviews the components of critical thinking. It then discusses the features and issues of commonly used critical thinking tests and to what extend they are made compatible to the conceptualization of critical thinking. The paper argues that critical thinking tests utilizing a single multiple-choice response format measures only recognition or level of knowledge, and do not adequately capture the dispositional characteristics of test-takers. Multiple-choice response format does not reveal test-takers’ underlying reasoning for choosing a particular answer, nor does it reflect test-takers’ ability to think critically under unprompted situations. Whereas measurement that allows for responses in both multiple-choice and open-ended format makes it possible to assess individuals’ spontaneous application of thinking skills on top of their ability to recognize a correct response. Assessment consists of multi-response format should be pursued for effective evaluation of students’ critical thinking performance.
It was modified to make it more relevant for college students. Three questions were removed, two questions were modified
  • Bruin
Note: This inventory was originally developed by de Bruin et al. (2007). It was modified to make it more relevant for college students. Three questions were removed, two questions were modified (denoted by +), and 20 questions were added (denoted by *).
Supplement to the test/manual entitled The Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test
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Ennis, R. H. (2005). Supplement to the test/manual entitled The Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. Urbana, IL: The Illinois Critical Thinking Project. Retrieved from http://faculty.ed.uiuc.edu/ rhennis/supplewmanual1105.htm
Bridging the skills gap: New factors compound the growing skills shortage. Retrieved from the American Society for Training and Development website SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update
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Galagan, P. (2010, February). Bridging the skills gap: New factors compound the growing skills shortage. Retrieved from the American Society for Training and Development website: http://www.astd.org/ TD/Archives/2010/Feb/Free/1002_BridgingSkillsGap.htm George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th edn). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. SCHUHFRIED (Vienna Test System): Moedling, Austria. http://www.schuhfried.com/ vienna-test-system-vts/all-tests-from-a-z/test/hcta-halpern-critical-thinking-assessment-1 Undergraduate education in psychology: A blueprint for the future of the discipline
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Halpern, D. F. (2010a). Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. SCHUHFRIED (Vienna Test System): Moedling, Austria. http://www.schuhfried.com/ vienna-test-system-vts/all-tests-from-a-z/test/hcta-halpern-critical-thinking-assessment-1/ Halpern, D. F. (Ed.). (2010b). Undergraduate education in psychology: A blueprint for the future of the discipline. Washington, DC: American Psy-chological Association.
Chinese and U.S. undergraduates' critical thinking skills: Academic and dispositional predictors
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Ku, K. Y. L., Ngai-Man, C., Miu-Chi Lun, V. Halpern, D. F., Marin-Burkhart, L., Hau, K.-T., & Ho, I. T. (2006). Chinese and U.S. undergraduates' critical thinking skills: Academic and dispositional predictors. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Education Research. San Francisco, CA.
Technical manual and user's guide. Retrieved from http Rules for reasoning
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Watson–Glaser II critical thinking appraisal: Technical manual and user's guide. Retrieved from http://www. talentlens.com/en/downloads/supportmaterials/WGII_Technical_Manual.pdf Nisbett, R. E. (1992). Rules for reasoning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Trends 2010: A decade of change in European higher education. Retrieved from the European University Association website: http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files A test of leadership: Charting the fu-ture of U.S. higher education
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Sursock, A., & Smidt, H. (2010). Trends 2010: A decade of change in European higher education. Retrieved from the European University Association website: http://www.eua.be/fileadmin/user_upload/files/ Publications/Trends_2010.pdf U. S. Department of Education. (2006). A test of leadership: Charting the fu-ture of U.S. higher education (DOE Publication No. ED-06-C0-0013). Retrieved from http://ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/reports/ final-report.pdf Real-world outcomes of critical thinking Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Appl. Cognit. Psychol. (2012)
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H. A. Butler Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Appl. Cognit. Psychol. (2012)
Chinese and United States students' critical thinking: Cross-cultural construct validation of a critical thinking assessment
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Hau, K., Halpern, D. F., Marin-Burkhart, L., Ho, I. T., Ku, K. Y. L., Chan, N., & Lun, V. M. (2006). Chinese and United States students' critical thinking: Cross-cultural construct validation of a critical thinking assessment. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.
Will we be smart enough? A cognitive analysis of the coming workforce
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Hunt, E. (1995). Will we be smart enough? A cognitive analysis of the coming workforce. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Critical thinking attribute tests. Manuals and assessment information. Retrieved from http://www.insightassessment. com/Products/Critical-Thinking-Attributes-Tests
  • Insight Assessment
  • Inc
Insight Assessment, Inc. (2011). Critical thinking attribute tests. Manuals and assessment information. Retrieved from http://www.insightassessment. com/Products/Critical-Thinking-Attributes-Tests
Watson–Glaser II critical thinking appraisal: Technical manual and user's guide. Retrieved from http Rules for reasoning
  • Ncs Pearson
NCS Pearson, Inc. (2009). Watson–Glaser II critical thinking appraisal: Technical manual and user's guide. Retrieved from http://www. talentlens.com/en/downloads/supportmaterials/WGII_Technical_Manual.pdf Nisbett, R. E. (1992). Rules for reasoning. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Raising the bar: Employers' views on college learning in the wake of the economic downturn
American Psychological Association. (2007). APA guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ed/precollege/about/psymajor-guidelines.pdf Association of American Colleges & Universities. (2010). Raising the bar: Employers' views on college learning in the wake of the economic downturn. Retrieved from the AAC&U website: http://www. aacu.org/leap Association of American Colleges & Universities. (n.d.). Critical thinking assessment. Retrieved from the AAC&U website: http://www.aacu.org/ resources/assessment/critical_thinking.cfm Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2010-2011). Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-2011 edition. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm
Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs
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Chance, P. (1986). Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Critical thinking attribute tests. Manuals and assessment information
Insight Assessment, Inc. (2011). Critical thinking attribute tests. Manuals and assessment information. Retrieved from http://www.insightassessment. com/Products/Critical-Thinking-Attributes-Tests
Watson-Glaser II critical thinking appraisal: Technical manual and user's guide
  • Ncs Pearson
  • Inc
NCS Pearson, Inc. (2009). Watson-Glaser II critical thinking appraisal: Technical manual and user's guide. Retrieved from http://www. talentlens.com/en/downloads/supportmaterials/WGII_Technical_Manual.pdf
Bologna beyond Europe
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Inc 2009 Watson-Glaser II critical thinking appraisal: Technical manual and user's guide
  • Ncs Pearson