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Reverse Mentoring at Work: Fostering Cross-Generational Learning and Developing Millennial Leaders

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Abstract

Reverse mentoring is an innovative way to encourage learning and facilitate cross-generational relationships. It involves the pairing of a younger, junior employee acting as mentor to share expertise with an older, senior colleague as mentee. The purpose is knowledge sharing, with the mentee focused on learning from the mentor's updated subject or technological expertise and generational perspective. In addition, there is an emphasis on the leadership development of the mentors. Reverse mentoring is situated in the mentoring literature as an alternative form of mentoring, with unique characteristics and support functions exchanged that distinguish it from other developmental relationships. A model is developed that focuses on key variables to consider and how reverse mentoring may benefit individuals and organizations. Generational differences are also presented, and the ways in which reverse mentoring capitalizes on millennial capabilities and preferences are highlighted throughout. Finally, theoretical and practical contributions are discussed, including essential components for creating a reverse mentoring program. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... Engaging and retaining Millennials is increasingly crucial for organizational success (Brant & Castro, 2019;Omilion-Hodges & Sugg, 2019). Yet, engaging and retaining Millennials seems to be a challenge for organizations as they are known to demonstrate unique work values, attitudes and behaviours in the workplace (Hui et al, 2020;Murphy, 2012;Njoroge et al., 2021;Schullery, 2013;Stewart et al., 2017). They rarely seem to attach themselves to the organizations that they work for and prioritize their personal goals above those of the organization (Chou et al., 2021;Mahmoud et al., 2020;Polat & Yılmaz, 2020;Seemiller & Grace, 2018). ...
... Millennials grew up amid globalization, 9/11 attacks and its aftermath, the war on terror, increased demographic diversity, concerns about global warming, the Great Recession, the Internet, social media and the rise of the Big Tech, that is, Microsoft, Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon (Murphy, 2012;Ng et al., 2010). Millennials are deemed to be digital natives compared to the preceding generations, considering the fact that Baby Boomers and majority of the Generation X did not have access to the Internet during their formative years (DeVaney, 2015;Milkman, 2017). ...
... The majority of employees in contemporary workforces represent three generations including the Baby Boomers, Generation X and Millennials (Lu & Gursoy, 2016;Twenge et al., 2010). With the youngest members of the Baby Boomers generation nearing retirement age, Millennials are becoming the majority generation in workforces worldwide, resulting in what some authors consider to be a paradigm shift in the workforce demographics as Millennials demonstrate unique work values, traits, attitudes and behaviours in the workplace (Chou et al., 2021;Hui et al, 2020;Murphy, 2012;Naim & Lenka 2018;Njoroge et al., 2021;Schullery, 2013;Stewart et al., 2017). ...
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Organizational engagement has only recently gained traction in research literature despite engagement being considered as a multidimensional construct encompassing engagement with the work, job or the organization. Organizational engagement of Millennials is crucial for organizational success today given that Millennials are the largest generational cohort in contemporary workforces and they are expected to lead the transformation of organizations at the onset of Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0. Novel theoretical approaches that are applied in the case of employee or work engagement, such as the social identity perspective, appear to have been ignored in the case of organizational engagement. This article aims to present a narrative review of extant research literature on organizational engagement of Millennials relating to the theories and frameworks of engagement, and thereby to identify knowledge gaps and recommend future research directions and theoretical perspectives that may help fill these gaps. The literature review was conducted using Google Scholar, Emerald Insight, Research Gate and JSTOR and considered published empirical studies incorporating quantitative methods.
... One mentoring program model that has gained popularity in recent years, primarily among large companies, is the Reverse Mentoring (RM) model. In the traditional mentoring approach [3][4][5][6][7][8][9], older, more experienced employee mentors, act as role models, and demonstrate commitment and high standards to junior employees who are considered the "novice" learners [3-5, 10,11]. However, in the RM model, the traditional mentoring relationship is flipped, and the juniors play an active role in providing valuable knowledge to their senior counterparts. ...
... This interaction infuses the organization with up-to-date perspectives, ideas, and technology to promote innovation. It also helps the organization adapt its strategy to the evolving business and technological environment with lower cost and effort [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. However, it appears that the RM model is mostly implemented by large companies and not by small and medium enterprises (SMEs), even though the latter could benefit from it. ...
... The seniors benefitted by learning from the mentor's up-to-date knowledge, technological expertise, and generational perspective. This improved their technological capabilities and ability to understand current and future trends, and fostered in them a feeling of greater relevance [7,9,10,[13][14][15]. ...
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In recent years, the Reverse Mentoring (RM) model has gained popularity in large companies. Although the prevailing RM model—junior employees mentoring senior employees—benefits both groups and promotes innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) do not implement it due to lack of economies of scale, organizational capacities, and skilled junior employees. We devise a new RM model for SMEs that overcomes these disadvantages. First, the intervention of an intermediate, trusted professional entity initiates and supports the program for several companies; second, the mentors are not junior employees, but external graduate students with education in innovation. A pilot experiment was tested in the state of Ceara, Brazil. The preliminary findings support the new model’s feasibility and efficacy for SMEs. The intervention stimulated significant innovative ideas and resulted in out-of-the-box thinking, identification of potentials for innovation opportunities, and adaptation of an open innovation approach, which is important for SMEs with limited financial and non-financial resources. This study contributes to the literature on SMEs and RM by offering a new model that can overcome existing market failures experienced by SMEs. Empirical testing demonstrates its feasibility.
... 1 Reverse mentoring (RM) is a cross-generational approach that assigns talented and willing young employees as mentors to older senior employees, supported by the organisational vision to bridge the technology divide between the two generations and develop future leaders. 2 Overcoming challenges of intergenerational learning through RM approach would be a suitable strategy for the nursing profession both in practice and academia. ...
... RM ensures continuous organisational learning by meeting specific needs collectively and efficiently through creating role models and offering carrier-related and psychological support, along with target-oriented education ensuring career development for leaders and the success of both individuals and organisations. 2,16 Interpersonal comfort, trust and mutual respect between employees and employers are emphasised. ...
... It also ensures continuous organisational learning with respect to cultural differences by meeting specific identified needs collectively and efficiently. 2,11,15 The success of RM depends on the degree of mentor/ mentee relationship, their level of engagement and the type and amount of organisational support; in this regard, the engagement of higher officers and a conducive organisational culture are the main organisational support needed for the successful accomplishment of RM. 11 Clarke et al. recommended certain essential attributes and behaviours for both mentees and mentors to ensure successful RM [ Table 1]. 17 ...
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Covid -19 pandemic urged technical competency and knowledge sharing among the diverse multigenerational workforce. Reverse mentoring is where a technically competent younger employee mentors the senior experienced employee and reciprocally exchanges the work culture and soft skills. Diverse intergenerational learning spurs innovation through sharing knowledge, skills, competencies, norms, and values. The ever-changing nursing practice and education with a multigenerational workforce demand a reverse mentoring approach for intergenerational knowledge sharing to enhance technical competency. Reverse mentoring is known to have benefits on quality of education, better practice outcomes, and employee development. A reverse mentoring strategy is proposed as a sustainable cost-effective intergenerational knowledge-sharing tool in the current era of economic crisis due to the Covid -19 pandemic. This paper aimed to discuss the scope of reverse mentoring and intergenerational learning in nursing. This paper provides an overview of reverse mentoring characteristics, significance, benefits, conceptual framework, implementation strategy, and application in nursing. Keywords: Mentoring; Covid-19; Cultural Diversity; Learning; Nursing; Preceptorship; Intergenerational learning; Multigenerational Workforce.
... Reverse mentoring (RM) is described as a partnership of a younger, junior employee who serves as a mentor to share the experience with an older, senior colleague as the mentee (Gerpott et al., 2017). Former CEO of General Electric, Jack Welch, is widely credited with initiating a structured RM scheme in 1999 when he directed 500 of his top executives to identify new workers who could educate them over the Internet (Murphy, 2012). For organizations, a simple advantage of RM is tapping into the knowledge and technical abilities of young workers (Sesodia and Agarwal, 2020). ...
... RM, though, also carries the opportunity to develop the leadership pool, cultivate stronger intergenerational partnerships, strengthen diversity programs, and accelerate creativity (Dunham and Ross, 2016). RM is an incentive for all partners to learn and an innovative means of influencing young workers and individuals (Murphy, 2012). ...
... Furthermore, a new analysis has found that the use of generational identifiers, including the "Baby Boomer" mark, creates derogatory stereotypes and encourages sexism in the workforce (Cox et al., 2019). To avoid these worries, we, in the current research, use the terms "Older" and "Younger" workers to differentiate the two groups, in line with conceptualizing RM (Murphy, 2012). ...
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Article Info Abstract Article History Reverse mentoring has been appeared as a significant area of research in the field of management and psychology. Grounded on reverse mentoring theory, we empirically explored the psychological processes that enhance skill development through a mechanism where knowledge is transmitted from youngers to senior individuals. To test the moderated mediation models, we select a sample of older learners (n = 345) and younger mentors (n = 310). Using a quasi-experimental research design, we collected the data from respondents at three different waves with a one-month gap between each interval. We found that extrinsic motivation is the primary driver of skills development in younger mentors, while intrinsic motivation plays a vital role in seeking technological skills among older learners. Moreover, individual personal factors like efficacy, positive affect, knowledge sharing, and trust can serve as personal resources. We concluded that organizations should strive to practice reverse mentoring initiatives to promote intergenerational knowledge transfer that simultaneously benefits youngers in improving mentoring skills and older to enhance tech-related skills. Implications for practice and theoretical contributions are also discussed.
... to subject-matter advances, new technological developments, or more pressing global and diversity issues (Chaudhuri, 2019;Chaudhuri & Ghosh, 2012;Chaudhuri et al., 2021;Murphy, 2012). ...
... Besides technology, reverse mentoring has found its application in several areas, including subject matter advances, workplace diversity and inclusion issues, social media, work-life balance, communication, leadership development, engagement, and global perspectives (Chaudhuri, 2019;Chaudhuri & Ghosh, 2012;Kaše et al., 2019;Murphy, 2012). For instance, management trainees can be mentors of regional managers and vice presidents to incorporate new ideas, information, and perspectives in designing HR systems, processes, and practices for younger generations in the banking sector (Tayşır & Ülgen, 2017). ...
Article
There is dearth of studies exploring the likelihood of reverse mentoring practices being accepted or resisted in diverse organizational contexts. Moreover, prior studies on reverse mentoring have focused on the formal programmatic implementations instead of exploring the informal instances where senior employees learn from their junior colleagues in organizations. To address these gaps, we pose the question: What are the factors necessary for formal and informal reverse mentoring to succeed? We utilized a qualitative methodology based on in‐depth semi‐structured interviews with 10 globally located learning and development professionals from Asia, Europe, and the Americas who are often tasked with executing mentoring initiatives in their respective organizations. Our findings indicate that reverse mentoring can be successfully practiced both formally and informally if such practices are aligned with the cultural preferences of the context.
... Another model of mentoring is reverse mentoring, which is a unique form of mentoring and derives from the Information Technology-related industries in the United States, in which a less experienced person serves as a mentor (junior mentor) for a more experienced person (senior mentee) to share the latest skills and knowledge in technology (Kato, 2019). Reverse mentoring also promises to build the leadership pipeline, foster better intergenerational relationships, enhance diversity initiatives, and drive innovation (Murphy, 2012). ...
... This is also echoed in this current study; therefore, it can be understood that this collegial relationship between the mentor and mentee is crucial in enhancing productivity and effectiveness. This type of positive collaborative relationship refers to reverse mentoring (Kato, 2019;Murphy, 2012), where the more experienced learn from the less experienced. It is understandable from the findings of this study is that a minor group of teachers favor reverse mentoring in terms of coconstructing the knowledge, although most of the literature (Adams, 2012;Bird & Hudson, 2015;Hobson et al., 2009;Nguyen, 2017;Noe, 1988;Othman & Senom, 2020;Tawalbeh, 2020) supports the idea of an experienced teacher mentoring a novice teacher. ...
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This study aims to investigate pre-and in-service EFL teachers' definitions, expectations, and experiences concerning teacher mentoring. The study sample included EFL teachers from 41 countries: 49 pre-service and 187 in-service EFL teachers teaching at various levels from kindergarten to university. A qualitative research design was employed throughout the study. Data were collected via a questionnaire-based survey and semi-structured interviews. For the analysis of this qualitative data, an in-depth thematic analysis was conducted. Overall, the findings suggest that most of the participants found their mentoring experiences positive. In addition, the participants defined teacher mentoring as a master-apprentice relationship, problem-solving, assisting teachers, and collaboration among them. The study also points out that teachers have different expectations about the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes from teacher mentoring. The study's findings have important implications for teacher mentors in EFL teacher training. Implications include, among others, that designing teacher mentoring based on context and needs instead of a master apprenticeship would promote their professional development. Apart from that, the active participation of the stakeholders, such as school directors, would better facilitate the teacher-mentoring process.
... Reverse mentoring can also help develop leadership skills, improve intergenerational relationships, enhance diversity and drive innovation which in turn ensures the smooth running and expansion of an organisation. [1][2][3][4] In addition, it can build social capital within the workplace by providing a two-way learning process in which both the individuals learn from each other. Reverse mentoring arises from learning and social theory. ...
... Given millennial employees have a desire to have their voices heard and do not view social distinctions in hierarchy like previous generations a new method is needed for this. 3 They are motivated by purpose and thrive on personalised opportunities to instigate change hence the potential use of a reverse mentoring scheme. 13 Within medical school, reverse mentoring has been shown to improve the awareness of senior staff to the challenges faced by under-represented medical students. ...
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Objective To assess the risks and benefits of reverse mentoring of consultants by junior doctors. Design A feasibility study divided into two phases: first a semistructured interview where performance of participating consultants was assessed by junior doctors and then a second phase allowing for feedback to be given on a one-to-one basis. Data collected through questionnaires with free text questions and Likert scores. Setting Tertiary teaching hospital in the UK. Participants Six junior doctors (66.6% male, age range 31–40 years) and five consultants (80% male, age range 35–65 years and consultants for 5–20 years). Intervention Reverse mentoring session. Main outcome measure The concerns and/or benefits of the process of reverse mentoring. Confidence was assessed in 7 domains: clinical practice, approach to juniors, approachability, use of technology, time management, strengths and areas for improvement using Likert scales giving a total out of 35. Results The most common concerns cited were overcoming the hierarchical difference and a selection bias in both mentors and mentees. However, no participant experienced this hierarchical difference through the reverse mentoring process and no relationships were negatively affected. Mentors became more confident in feeding back to seniors (23 vs 29 out of 35, p=0.04) most evident in clinical practice and areas to improve (3 vs 4 out of 5, p=0.041 and 3 vs 5 out of 5, p=0.041, respectively). Conclusion We present the first study of reverse mentoring in an NHS clinical setting. Initial concerns with regard to damaged relationships and hierarchical gradients were not experienced and all participants perceived that they benefited from the process. Reverse mentoring can play a role in engaging and training future leaders at junior stages and provide a means for consultants to receive valuable feedback from junior colleagues.
... Reverse mentoring is a new form of mentoring used by organisations globally to develop their employees and expand their opportunities (Chen 2013;Kram 1983). According to a growing body of research, it is mostly employed in the workplace (Morris 2017) and is frequently used to engage younger, newer employees (Marcinkus Murphy 2012). Reverse mentoring is different since it focuses on developing a shared understanding between mentor and mentee, rather than passing down information from the senior party to their junior. ...
... The relation is characterised by mutual trust and courtesy'. Having been previously used in a professional environment, one of its core strengths is the expansion of opportunities for structural change and enhancement of employees' professional experiences within organisations (Chen 2013;Marcinkus Murphy 2012). Traditionally, mentoring schemes can be regarded as hierarchical and unidimensional (Morris 2017). ...
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The following article presents the findings of a Reverse Mentoring evaluation project conducted at a modern university in northwest England, which has a high proportion of students from non-traditional educational backgrounds. Using a reverse mentoring framework, the traditional mentor–mentee relationship was flipped with students serving as senior partners and their tutors as junior partners. The purpose of this study was to investigate how staff–student relations could be strengthened by gaining a better understanding of one another’s perspectives. The concept of institutional habitus provided a theoretical framework within which to examine disparities in mentor–mentee cultural understanding. Using a mixed approach to data collection, composite narratives were constructed. They revealed subtle cultural mismatches between the positions of mentor and mentee. The study speculates that by gaining a better understanding and appreciation of students’ habitus, more inclusive teaching practises can be developed to ensure the inclusion of all students.
... Millennial faculty have come of age in this environment, and it has inevitably shaped their expectations for the workplace. Some academic leaders have been quick to assert best practices in leading and mentoring Millennial faculty (Gardner, 2016;Kelly, 2009;Mallard & Singleton, 2007;Marcinkus Murphy, 2012). Administrators from academic deans to department chairs have been encouraged to rethink how they engage with Millennial faculty who are settling into their tenure-track positions. ...
... Their generation sees collaboration as a tool for success, especially at institutions like state and community colleges where resources are limited and competition for these resources is high. Marcinkus Murphy (2012) suggests institutions engage in "reverse mentoring" that values and leverages the knowledges and experiences of Millennial faculty for the benefit of their older generation colleagues, and focuses on knowledgesharing, leadership development, and mutual support. We've seen this approach at our institution as Millennial faculty take on roles like faculty fellows that provide professional development for all faculty, a process that is surely shaped by Millennial values. ...
Chapter
When we as junior faculty at four-year public institutions take a look at our work calendar, it’s not unusual to see the following: “community partner meeting,” “community gardening project,” “digital storytelling workshop,” “civic engagement conference,” “research team meeting,” “neighborhood association meeting,” and “voter registration.” Often a far cry from what we were taught to expect in our academic positions, namely teach students, read books, and write books, the dynamism of our work is both surprising and invigorating. We are Millennial faculty, born in the early 1980’s, and we embrace many of the elements associated with the Millennial generation, particularly a commitment to collaboration, inclusion, and social justice. It’s clear from our daily work schedules that we think about our jobs in unique ways compared to our Generation X, Baby Boomer, and Silent Generation counterparts, particularly when it comes to our scholarly pursuits. For many of us, scholarship doesn’t happen in the solitary confines of our offices, but in the streets of our own communities.
... In the Nigerian context, traditional mentoring"s ethos between an older (mentor) and younger (mentee/protégé) employee although holds conceptual and procedural salience for mentoring, does not fully reflect the nature of MRs in Nigeria. It may be reverse mentoring (Murphy, 2012) where the younger employee is the mentor and the older employee is the protégé. To this end, Okurame (2011, p.39) defines mentoring as "a close, developmental relationship between two people in which a partner willingly avails him/herself of the full range of superior experience, knowledge, skills or status of the other partner in all spheres of human endeavour." ...
... the next three items, how would you rate the following in relation to ROLE MODELLING based on the following indices on a six likert scale from Very High (VH)-Very Low (VL) the next three items, how would you rate the following in relation to PEDAGOGY (TRAINING) based on the following indices on a six likert scale from Very High (VH)-Very Low (VL) the next three items, how would you rate the following in relation to CONTINUOUS ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING based on the following indices on a six likert scale from Very High (VH)-Very Low (VL) For the next two items please indicate your level of agreement with each statement by selecting the appropriate number listed.SECTION C: EMPLOYEE COMMITMENTHow would you rate the following in relation to your EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT towards your organization based on the following indices on a six likert scale from Very High (VH)34. Exertion of efforts beyond expectations 35. ...
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The paper aims to elucidate the relationship between mentoring dimensions and organizational commitment of academic staff in Nigerian private universities. It proposes that effective mentorship aids employee retention by enhancing organizational commitment. Using the responses of 315 academic staff and in-depth interviews of professors and junior lecturers of six selected private universities in SouthWest Nigeria, this study added to literature by exploring mentoring as an emerging leadership development program and its concomitant relationship with organisational commitment for human capacity building in Nigerian universities. The paper opted for a cross-sectional survey research design and using the open-ended approach of grounded theory, including 12 in-depth interviews with academic staff representing professors ©Author(s) Licensed under Creative Common Page 824 as mentors and junior lecturers as mentees having experienced either formal or informal mentoring. The paper provides empirical insights and results revealed that mentoring dimensions had a significant weak positive relationship with employee's organizational commitment (r=0.121, 0.150, 0.159, 0.188, 0.203, p< 0.05, N=315). The qualitative findings indicated that mentoring to a large extent positively affects employees' organizational commitment. The paper includes implications for the development of effective mentoring programs and that every university should put in place structures that would support mentoring and align it with faculty's knowledge development and promotion.
... Leadership coaching takes place in most organizations to fulfill the purpose of preparing future leaders and successors of the organization (Smolter, 2011;Murphy, 2012). Usually, coach come from a different generation than the coachee (Bickel & Brown, 2005;Chen & Krauskopf, 2013) and this does not necessarily depend on age (Harvey et al., 2009). ...
... Therefore, the utmost priority is to ensure a structured and sustainable youth leadership development to be empowered, so that the process of producing new leadership talents among youths can be implemented according to plan, in the most effective way. Dynamic management and youth resource development may continue the leadership legacy (Murphy, 2012) to ensure that the country's future development agenda is led by high-caliber leaders. ...
... Variants of mentoring that go beyond its traditional form include lateral or peer mentoring (McDaugall and Beattie, 1997) where there is no hierarchical difference between the two parties, and reverse mentoring (Murphy, 2012) where it is the junior member who assumes the role of mentor. The prevalence of these forms has increased substantially in the past three decades, as result of changes in organizational structures along with the acceleration in the pace with which new knowledge emerges and is incorporated into work and business practices (Baruch and Bozionelos, 2011). ...
... The prevalence of these forms has increased substantially in the past three decades, as result of changes in organizational structures along with the acceleration in the pace with which new knowledge emerges and is incorporated into work and business practices (Baruch and Bozionelos, 2011). For example, rapid technological and societal change may render the technical knowledge of established organizational members obsolete thus creating the need to be mentored by juniors who are more knowledgeable and experienced in particular domains (Morris, 2017;Murphy, 2012). Notwithstanding the substantial incidence of other forms of mentoring, however, traditional mentoring still corresponds to the archetypal notion of the concept. ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on mentorship and developmental networks within the context of careers. The various forms of mentoring are considered, along with the reasons that developmental networks have received attention as supplement rather than replacement of traditional mentoring. The chapter reviews empirical evidence demonstrating that mentoring and developmental networks are linked with career outcomes, and discusses the relative contribution of traditional mentoring relationships and the rest of developmental ties on career success. The two candidate mechanisms for the link between mentoring and career success, the performance and the political route, are presented and evidence for each is reviewed. Furthermore, factors that increase the probabilities of individuals’ involvement in mentoring relationships and of participation in developmental networks are discussed. Though the literature has paid nearly exclusive attention to their positive aspects, the chapter also looks at the darker sides of mentorship and developmental networks. These are not limited to negative mentoring experiences, but they extend to evidence in favour of the political route for the link of mentoring with career success along with the possibility that mentoring may serve as a means of transmitting and perpetuating unethical mentalities. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research.
... But while the importance given to the interac�on between professionals belonging to different genera�ons is patent, the a�en�on has been focused on the contribu�on that professionals related to older genera�ons can make to those affiliated with younger ones (Geeraerts, Vanhoof, & Van den Bossche, 2016). Much less a�en�on has been paid in the specialized literature to the contribu�on that the la�er can make to the former in the workplace (Murphy, 2012). The influence, therefore, on the collabora�ve professional development could be bidirec�onal. ...
... • Ac�vi�es demanding the par�cipants' inquiry and reflec-�on in rela�on to relevant problems in the professional prac�ce (Lieberman & Miller, 2014;Loughran, 2010). • Ac�vi�es in which the asymmetry between knowledge and experience is more pronounced (Huizing, 2012;Murphy, 2012;Yip & Kram, 2016). In this regard, it would be appropriate to consider the possibility of exploring other forms of collabora�on in which the asymmetry related to the experience is the opposite of the one expected, and even those in which said symmetry is less pronounced or prac�cally non-existent. ...
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Objective: This contribution aims to introduce a conceptual framework on generational diversity of teachers in order to analyze and understand its influence on the processes and results of professional interaction in schools. Methodology: In this conceptual piece, first, the relevance of generational diversity among teachers in their workplace is examined and justified, emphasizing the increasing aging of teaching staff. Next, generational diversity is explored by analyzing the concept of generation and the attributes used to distinguishing generations (particularly, age). Furthermore, evidence is considered regarding the impact on the construction of teacher relationships, paying particular attention to the context of collaborative relationships between teachers belonging to different generations and its effects on teacher learning and identity. Findings: Conclusions are drawn as to the potentialities of intergenerational learning. Value added: Despite representing a clear challenge for the educational organizations, generational diversity and intergenerational collaboration among teachers and school leaders have been scarcely studied so far. Recommendations: Conclusions are drawn as to the potentialities of intergenerational learning and implications for professional induction and collegial professional development are presented as well.
... Since the mid-1970s, mentoring research has focused primarily within the areas of education, the workplace (Merriam, 1983;Kram, 1985), youth and psychology (Jacobi, 1991;Eby et al., 2008). Consequently, a variety of ways to think about mentorship have emerged, which include, but are not limited to: peer-mentoring, e-mentoring (Ragins and Kram, 2007), multiple mentoring (Patel, 2017), reverse mentoring (Murphy, 2012), formal (structured, organizational or institutional) and informal (organically formed, personal) mentoring (Izner and Crawford, 2005). ...
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Este artículo es un estudio de caso que analiza cómo los estudiantes de grado (latinos y no latinos) desarrollan trabajos de investigación en los estudios conducentes a la obtención del Community Interpreting Certificate de la Universidad de Viterbo. Los estudiantes trabajaron en grupos pequeños para desarrollar una variedad de destrezas y nuevos conocimientos (personales y profesionales) en el campo de la interpretación, a través del diseño y realización de proyectos de investigación-acción dentro de sus propias comunidades rurales en el estado de Wisconsin. A través del análisis de las encuestas distribuidas al principio y al final de los proyectos de investigación, este artículo examina las percepciones y las dificultades a los que los estudiantes se enfrentan durante el proceso de su investigación-acción así como los resultados que presentan. Las conclusiones destacan como el proceso de mentoría durante la investigación-acción es una práctica de alto impacto (High-Impact Practice) exitosa para empoderar y fomentar el compromiso de los estudiantes con sus comunidades locales.
... Previous studies into methods for developing digital competence have highlighted reverse mentoring, and variations on it, as a way of sharing knowledge and expertise [11] A literature review by Chaudhuri et al. (2021) suggests that reverse mentoring can be successfully used to transfer intergenerational knowledge, including digital competence [11]. Reverse mentoring has been shown to have positive results for an organization: for instance it improves competence in human resource management such as managing diversity, narrows digital gaps in the workplace, and enhances organizational learning [12]. Clarke et al. (2019) suggest that, during reverse mentoring, mentors benefit by gaining new professionals skills, including teaching skills, and mentees gain new knowledge about the latest research and technology [13]. ...
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Due to the rapid digitalization of healthcare, it is important to strengthen professionals’ digital competence, particularly to support older professionals to stay in work until retirement age. People of different ages have different digital competencies. Younger generations are ‘digital natives’ who have learned to use digital devices fluently from a young age, while older generations have had to learn to use them in adulthood. The increasing number of new technologies causes in some cases stress, especially for more older healthcare workers. Intergenerational learning methods for developing digital competence may offer a way to narrow digital competence gaps in healthcare. The aim of this scoping review was to identify current evidence regarding intergenerational learning methods for developing digital competence, and their outcomes. The results can be used to help develop methods for intergenerational digital competence development and improve healthcare professionals’ digital competence. A scoping review was conducted across four databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, ProQuest) without time limits. The search produced 2905 references, of which 23 studies are included in the review. Thematic analysis was used to analyze these studies’ results. The results showed that a key method for intergenerational digital competence development is reverse mentoring, where a less experienced person serves as a mentor to a more experienced one. Intergenerational digital competence development methods can be done one-on-one or in groups, in classes or on digital platforms. The outcomes of these methods illustrated that they promote mutual learning, increase the digital competence of older adults and the work life skills of young mentors, and narrow the gap between generations. Using such methods, it is possible to make better use of each generation’s expertise. Intergenerational learning could suggest ways of narrowing the digital gap and enhancing intergenerational communication. Healthcare could benefit from implementing intergenerational learning methods for developing digital competence, increasing the digital competence of healthcare professionals, and narrowing the gap between generations.
... La mentoría, que tradicionalmente nació como una relación de apoyo profesional uno a uno (one to one) caracterizada por una disparidad de experiencia y/o "status" entre mentor y mentee (Terrion & Leonard, 2007;Chen, 2013), se ha desarrollado posteriormente en múltiples direcciones, dando lugar a una pluralidad de formas relacionales. La literatura destaca dinámicas de mentoría entre pares (peer mentoring) -entre individuos considerados pares a nivel profesional -(Le Cornu, 2005;Kram & Isabella, 1985), de mentoría múltiple/colectivo/de equipo -relación entre varios mentores y varios mentees - (de Janasz & Sullivan, 2004, Sorcinelli & Yun, 2007Chesler & Chesler, 2002;Baugh & Scandura, 1999, Higgins, 2000, o mentoría inversa (reverse mentoring) -en el que una persona considerada "junior" en el entorno laboral asesora a un colega senior - (Chen, 2013;Murphy, 2012). En cualquier caso, la superación de la versión asimétrica tradicional uno a uno conduce a reforzar la perspectiva de la reciprocidad de la relación y sigue manteniendo las características y competencias específicas del mentor y del mentee, que siguen actuando con roles diferentes. ...
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This contribution, starting from a reflection on the role, functions and competences of mentors in universities, explores a faculty mentoring experience proposed at the Politecnico di Torino (Italy). The project presented, named "Mentoring Polito Project" (M2P), contemplates an initial training phase about how to give professional support to colleagues through peer mentoring dynamics. The training activities are followed by practical actions aimed at the empowerment of mentoring skills for more effective teaching-learning processes. More specifically, the course envisages an initial theoretical-practical training phase on mentoring and the role of mentor and mentee, a second phase of experimentation of the mentoring process through peer observation and comparison, followed by individual and group supervision, and a final phase of evaluation of the experience and design of the intervention within the University. The training is conducted by experienced trainers and is essential in order to be able to carry out the mentoring relationship consciously and competently. Specifically, the initial theoretical-practical training phase realized in the first edition of M2P (2021/22), and its assessment by the participants, will be presented in this paper. We will focus on the initial motivations and expectations of the participants, and on the assessment of the initial training activities. Esta contribución, a partir de una reflexión sobre el papel, las funciones y las competencias de la figura del mentor en la universidad, profundiza una experiencia de faculty mentoring propuesta en el en el Politécnico de Turín (Italia). En concreto, el proyecto presentado, denominado "Mentoring Polito Project " (M2P), prevé una fase de formación de los participantes en el apoyo profesional de los compañeros a través de dinámicas de peer mentoring, seguida de una experiencia destinada a potenciar las habilidades de acompañamiento didáctico de los compañeros para una enseñanza-aprendizaje más eficaz. En concreto, el proyecto incluye una primera fase de formación teórico-práctica al mentoring y a los roles de mentor y mentee, una segunda fase de experimentación del proceso de acompañamiento a través de la peer observation y la comparación entre pares, seguida de una supervisión individual y grupal y una última fase de evaluación de la experiencia y diseño de la intervención dentro de la Universidad. La formación está a cargo de formadores experimentados y es fundamental para poder llevar a cabo de forma consciente y competente la relación de mentoring. En concreto, se presentará aquí el recorrido realizado y los resultados alcanzados tras la experiencia formativa en la primera edición de M2P, recuperando las motivaciones iniciales, las expectativas de los participantes y su evaluación respecto a las actividades realizadas y las competencias adquiridas.
... The initial premise behind introducing the concept of reverse mentoring was to teach technology to older people, first in organizations and then in the community (Chaudhuri & Ghosh, 2012). In addition to technical skills, younger people have taught their older colleagues new concepts and trends, issues of workplace diversity, work-life balance, and global and generational perspectives (Chaudhuri & Ghosh, 2012;Murphy, 2012). Madison (2019) describes the use of reverse mentoring in a public middle school setting where a newly graduated young professional helps schoolteachers teach a course that has recently come under political debate. ...
Chapter
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Intergenerational learning (IGL) is an emerging form of lifelong learning. IGL means that representatives of two or more generations are involved in the common activity, and knowledge, skills, and experiences are shared. Intergenerational practice is one of the few solutions to combat ageism and respond to demographic challenges in societies and organizations. Rapid changes in society have resulted in the need to create new learning opportunities for diverse age groups on a largest scale from children to the oldest old. From the perspective of generations, the solution limited to formal training courses would not work, but one of the answers can be provided by professionally performed IGL. IGL projects that are well-considered and compliant with the theoretical bases have achieved positive results. At the same time, the misunderstanding that bringing together representatives of different generations is sufficient for initiating intergenerational practice and “instant intergenerational magic” occurs is widespread. In addition to the traditional direction of the flow of knowledge between participants in IGL from the older generation to the younger, new forms of IGL have also been developed like reverse mentoring or service-learning approach in which young people are seen as a source of new skills. The current chapter provides an overview of the definition of IGL, the demand, and benefits of IGL as well as initiatives, forms, and qualitative core dimensions of sustainable intergenerational programs. The final part of the chapter offers critical considerations and future perspectives of IGL.
... Ters mentorluk; yeni teknolojileri takip etmekte ve kullanmakta zorlanan üst düzey yöneticiler icin teknoloji, sosyal medya ve güncel eğilimler gibi konularda rehberlik sağlamaktadır (Kişi, 2018). Tersine mentorluk, öğrenmeyi teşvik eden ve kuşaklar arası ilişkileri kolaylaştıran yenilikçi bir mentorluk türüdür (Marcinkus Murphy, 2012). Milenyum jenerasyonu, gelişmiş teknoloji ile birlikte büyüdükleri için hızlı değişimi kucaklamaktadırlar. ...
... Developing the reciprocal reverse mentoring model A reverse mentoring programme has been developed and tested at a number of NHS organisations (Raza and Onyesoh, 2020), based on the original framework developed in Nottingham, known as the reverse mentoring for equality diversity and inclusion model (Johnson, 2018). Reverse mentoring can be simply defined as 'a situation in which a worker in a senior position is mentored by someone more junior than themselves' (Murphy, 2012). However, staff at the authors' trust challenged this hierarchical approach, arguing that it enforces some notions that prevent openness and inclusion. ...
Article
The NHS is the largest employer of Black, Asian and minority ethnic staff in the UK. However, 15% of staff from these ethnic backgrounds have reported experiencing discrimination at work. Reverse mentoring programmes have been trialed as way of raising awareness and understanding of issues relating to equality, diversity and inclusion, particularly among senior management. However, these programmes have drawn some criticism. Instead, a programme based on reciprocal mentoring could be a more effective means of creating a more inclusive NHS culture. This article explores how such an approach could work in practice, with discussion of a pilot reciprocal mentoring programme that was implemented at Chelsea and Westminster Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust from September 2020 to May 2021.
... It is therefore not surprising why India's young generation naturally gravitate towards startups and global technology services providers that have a flexible, free-spirited atmosphere (Pandit, 2018). In addition, generational differences (Marcinkus Murphy, 2012) between senior management (primarily Gen X, born between 1961(primarily Gen X, born between -1980 and lower to middle management (Millennials) need to be addressed immediately for better innovation outcomes. ...
Thesis
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To navigate the increasingly uncertain business environment, human-centric design and innovation is becoming a necessity. The ability to think creatively and come up with new solutions is needed to thrive in the future. This requires a shift of mindset from scalable efficiency of the industrial age to sustainable creativity of the digital age for corporate India. While change is hard, it need not be painful. What if there was a more intrinsically motivating and nourishing way to deal with change? This thesis explores the potential of play as a catalyst of co-creation for design-led innovation in organizations struggling to accelerate transformation. First, through the qualitative, interpretative research method, the practical implications of infusing play into work for serious organizational outcomes are discussed using four single case studies that cover empathy, vulnerability, divergent thinking, and creative agility – four integral skills for managers and leaders to rehumanize business, build creative confidence and accelerate change using the human-centric design process. Second, through the cross-case content analysis, this paper quantitatively identifies key micro-behavioral patterns discovered in the co-creation of play-enabled, design-led innovative solutions from six case studies, that result in building design thinking mindsets. Lastly, the within-case and cross-case analysis are compiled and structured to build a conceptual model of skills, behaviors and mindsets resulting from play-infused co-creation, and key implications are provided for organizations struggling to shift mindset and accelerate innovation in the post-pandemic world. Keywords: play, serious play, creativity, creative thinking, co-creation, design thinking, design, innovation, innovation management, transformation, leadership, psychology, empathy, vulnerability, divergent thinking, agility, organization development, organization culture, organization change, organization behavior, learning and development.
... Intergenerational programs providing technology mentoring often follow a reversementoring model [20] wherein younger adults guide older adults by providing support and knowledge [32]. One example is a college student teaching an older adult how to use social media. ...
Article
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Social isolation and loneliness can create negative health outcomes for older adults. Informed by social capital and intergroup contact theories, our goal was to reduce these social problems using an intergenerational reverse-mentoring program. During fall 2020, we implemented an adapted, fully online version of Cyber-Seniors that encouraged undergraduate students to provide technology mentoring to local older adults in a seven-county area in rural Appalachia. We recruited gerontology students through the university and local older adults through local aging organizations. We collected data through pre-and post-tests that included validated measures (Lubben Social Network Scale-6 and UCLA 3-item loneliness scale) and open-ended questions about the program. Thirty-one students and nine older adults completed the pre-survey; twenty students and eight older adults completed the post-survey. We made comparisons using t-tests and considered p < 0.20 to indicate meaningful differences given the anticipated small sample size in this pilot project. Isolation did not change among older adults but increased among students in the family domain (p = 0.14) between baseline and follow-up. Loneliness improved between the pre- and post-tests among older adults (mean: 5.6 (SD = 2.2) to 4.1 (SD = 1.3), p = 0.17) but not among students (mean: 5.0 (SD = 1.5) to 5.2 (SD = 1.7), p = 0.73). In open-ended responses, older adults described learning new ways to interact with friends and family as a result of the program. This program was acceptable and suggested effectiveness in an important health-related domain (loneliness). While larger studies are needed to fully test the program’s impact, this pilot evaluation suggests that reverse mentoring programs can be implemented virtually and may improve social outcomes.
... Teknolojinin geli mesi ve küresel meselelere ve zorluklara kar ı (Craig, 2001) geleneksel mentorluk türlerinin yeterli olmadı ı noktada çözüm olarak kar ımıza çıkan ters mentorluk, genç ve daha az deneyimli bir ki inin daha ya lı ve kıdemli olan bir akıl hocasına, meslekta ına kendi bilgi ve teknoloji kullanma yetene ini ö retti i bir süreç olarak ilerlemektedir (Baily, 2009;Biss ve DuFrene, 2006;Murphy, 2012). ...
... As such, the programme created a form of 'reverse mentoring' (Murphy, 2012), where the mentor also learned from the mentee. At the same time, John, a mentor, described a certain tension between the 'enthusiastic and unexperienced youngsters' and the 'experienced old guard who know how things are done around here' when trying to address various matters. ...
Article
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This article explores the position of organisational ambidexterity in a Norwegian mentor programme for young leaders in sport. It examines to what degree it enabled participants to reflect on two main themes in theories of organisational ambidexterity: to sense the possibility for, and/or seise, actual change opportunities within their own sport organisations. Drawing upon 22 in-depth interviews (14 mentees, split into 10 males and 4 females), six mentors (3 males and 3 females), and two female programme organisers, two key findings emerged. First, the mentor programme provided a useful arena for improving the mentees’ self-awareness of the type of leaders they would like to become. Second, the programme fell short of addressing the educational preconditions for ambidextrous leadership as the ability to solve work-life challenges requires insight into the contextual factors that influence leadership practices in sports. The article introduces Time, Agency and Change as conceptual additions to the theory and application of ‘organisational ambidexterity’ in sport management work. These additions improve the analytical usefulness of organisational ambidexterity in studies of sport organisations and itemise its applicability to further mentor programme developments. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
... One of the most valued aspects by the mentors in both modalities was the support provided by the TRT during the activities: "I think that the TRT members gave adequate support for the optimal development of the programme" (24). In this sense [55] emphasises the importance of training and support to the mentor, as both aspects are important for the development of mentoring. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to analyse the satisfaction levels of participants (mentees, mentors, and technical-research team) of a university mentoring programme. The GuíaMe-AC-UMA is aimed at gifted high school students. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the IX edition was carried out in an online format. The results were compared to those of the in-person edition (VII edition) to assess whether there were differences between the editions. For this purpose, three versions (one for each participant type) of a Likert-type questionnaire were distributed among the participants of the 22 workshops offered by the GuíaMe-AC-UMA Programme. A total of 224 responses were received: 21 from the mentors, 181 from the mentees and 22 from the technical-research team. The results indicate a high level of satisfaction with the development of the workshops by all participants. While the mentees preferred the in-person edition, the rest of the participants showed no difference in satisfaction levels between editions. A similar result was observed when correcting for the subject area of the workshop. The in-person edition was valued higher than the online version by all. The overall level of satisfaction shown by all participants and the support for continuation of the programme suggest that this type of educational offer is beneficial and satisfactory for all involved, in accordance with previous research on mentoring programmes. These results indicate that programmes focused on young pre-university students with high abilities are valued; these results encourage us to continue the programme.
... The problem being investigated is a perceived generational misunderstanding of Millennial employees within the case specific Hotel Group in South Africa. In this regard research like that of Murphy (2012) stated that the hospitality industry needs to adapt to a management-leadership style which will primarily focus on flexible work conditions for the Millennial and providing critical analytical feedback on their performance. This generation has a lower level of work engagement than the previous generation and they require physical, psychological and emotional resources to remain engaged -should these be absent their intention to leave the company increases significantly (Park & Gursoy, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Studies on coopetition have gained research interest over the last three decades. Coopetition refers to a complex structure of firms' interdependence where cooperation and competition are simultaneously present and intertwined, also defined as simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms. The tourism industry consists of diversified categories of SMEs that operate in close proximity and are interdependent due to limited resources; competing and cooperating becomes ineludible. This paradox has led researchers to explore the drivers or motivations, as well as outcomes of coopetition. Drivers are classified under external drivers relating to industry factors, relation-specific and internal drivers. There are inevitable tensions generated by the coopetition phenomena. Paradoxes emerging from inter-organizational relationships surface from competing goals and demands, hence the tension. This paper determined drivers and outcomes of coopetition at the inter-organizational level among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism industry at Lüderitz through in-depth interviews and ethnographic methodology. External drivers such as geographic proximity, customer preferences or needs and credibility, and, relation-specific drivers such as location, trust and commitment were the dominant determinants of coopetition. The outcomes of coopetition include customer satisfaction, enhanced destination image, cost saving, information sharing, enhanced innovation, access to required resources and firm growth. A main challenge uncovered is the lack of joint marketing of Lüderitz as a destination which impede the long-term competitiveness and success of the destination. There is a dominant cooperative culture of coopetitive relationships which alludes to coopetition capability of businesses to maintain moderate levels of tension for best alliance performance.
... Reverse mentorship programs offer one concrete example of a way in which those from diverse backgrounds may be able to meaningfully influence agency culture (Marcinkus Murphy, 2012;Penaluna et al., 2017). In these programs, youth train seasoned employees on new skills and approaches in the field, while empowering junior employees in the process. ...
Article
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Amid a time of unprecedented social‐ecological change, professionals within and outside of the US wildlife conservation community have called for transformation of existing processes and structures to ensure that the benefits of wildlife conservation can be realized well into the future. Current momentum behind an initiative to help increase conservation relevancy among population segments that have historically been underserved by the conservation community is underway. Sustainable institutional change will not be realized, however, without attending to internal cultural change within the conservation community itself. Although elements of an ideal institution have been suggested, specific interventions related to institutional culture need deeper exploration. State fish and wildlife agencies—a primary organizational actor within the conservation community—play a central role in institutional transformation. Using a systems framework, this essay describes key leverage points for cultural change for which interventions could result in sustainable culture shifts. Five possible interventions are introduced to stimulate conversation among conservation practitioners seeking to initiate transformational change within their specific cultural contexts. Amid a time of unprecedented social change, professionals within and outside of the US wildlife conservation community have called for transformation to ensure its ability to provide benefits to society. State fish and wildlife agencies—a primary organizational actor within the conservation community—are a major focal point for needed change. Using a systems framework, this essay describes key leverage points for cultural change for which interventions could result in sustainable culture shifts. Five possible interventions are introduced to stimulate conversation among conservation practitioners seeking to initiate transformational change within their specific cultural contexts.
... Likewise, Porras et al. (2018) affirm that the relationship between in-service elementary school teachers and student-teachers in a reverse mentoring experience was strengthened because the attitude of both sides was open and collaborative. This concept is coherent with Murphy's (2012), who points out that mentoring facilitates reciprocal gains for those involved in terms of learning, growth, and development Therefore, these aspects are clearly related to changes in assumptions and participants' preconceived notions of themselves as mentors and mentees. Preconceived ideas can constrain knowledge building since they are rooted in belief systems closely linked to efficiency, productivity, and personal and professional performance. ...
Article
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This qualitative research study delves into elementary school teachers' beliefs and the potential contribution of reverse mentoring to improve English language teaching for children. The purpose was to explore how elementary in-service teachers' beliefs could be transformed after participating in a reverse mentoring experience. A group of in-service teachers from two public elementary schools and a group of student-teachers from Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia) were the research participants. Data were gathered through a questionnaire, interviews, and classroom observations. Findings showed that reverse mentoring played an important role in transforming in-service teachers' beliefs about teaching English to children regarding the difficulties of language learning, communicative strategies, motivation and expectations, foreign language aptitude, and the nature of language learning. Este estudio exploratorio indagó cómo las creencias de profesores en ejercicio sobre la enseñanza del inglés a niños eran transformadas después de participar en una experiencia de mentoría inversa. Participaron un grupo de profesores de dos escuelas públicas de primaria y un grupo de practicantes de la Universidad de Córdoba (Colombia). La información se recolectó mediante un cuestionario, entrevistas, notas de diarios de campo y observaciones de clase. Los resultados mostraron que la mentoría inversa jugó un papel importante en la transformación de las creencias de los profesores sobre la enseñanza del inglés, con respecto a dificultades en el aprendizaje, las estrategias comunicativas, la motivación y expectativas, la aptitud hacia la lengua extranjera y la naturaleza del aprendizaje de lenguas. Palabras clave: creencias, enseñanza del inglés, mentoría inversa, practicantes, profesores en ejercicio 1 Liliana Valle  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6088-988X ·
... It is therefore not surprising why the young generation naturally gravitate towards startups and global technology services providers that have a flexible, free-spirited atmosphere (Pandit, 2018). In addition, generational differences (Marcinkus Murphy, 2012) between senior management (primarily Gen X, born between 1961(primarily Gen X, born between -1980 and lower to middle management (Millennials) need to be addressed immediately for better innovation outcomes. Corporate India needs a better way to empower employees with necessary mindsets and behaviours in order to drive transformation and innovation in today's uncertain, post-pandemic business environment. ...
Conference Paper
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To navigate the increasingly uncertain business environment, human-centric design and innovation is becoming a necessity. The ability to think creatively and come up with new solutions is needed to thrive in the future. This requires a shift of mindset from scalable efficiency of the industrial age to sustainable creativity of the digital age for corporate India. While change is hard, it need not be painful. What if there was a more intrinsically motivating and nourishing way to deal with change? This research paper explores the potential of play as a catalyst of creativity for design-led innovation in organizations struggling to accelerate transformation. The practical implications of infusing play into work for serious organizational outcomes are discussed using three case studies that cover creative empathy, divergent thinking and creative agility-three integral concepts of the human-centric design process.
... In the case of expatriates, this reverse peer mentoring can help in the development of cross-cultural adjustment skills and facilitate crosscultural transitions, thereby ultimately supporting expatriate performance. Assigning HCN mentors to expatriates fits the greater emphasis that is being placed on less traditional types of mentoring relationships such as peer mentoring and reverse mentoring (Murphy, 2012). Thus, from these perspectives of reciprocal mentoring and social exchange theory, we would expect that a fuller conceptualization of international mentoring would include involvement of HCNs as both mentors and mentees. ...
Article
Purpose To enlarge the focus on international mentoring beyond traditional company-assigned expatriates, this conceptual paper examines important contexts and dynamics of intercultural mentoring involving traditional expatriates and host country nationals (HCNs), with both as mentors and mentees. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual paper explores how intercultural mentoring in different contexts can guide the individual professional development of expatriates and HCNs, and in doing so, contributes to MNC knowledge management and organization development. Findings Major contributions of this paper include increased attention to the role of culture in mentoring, and an illumination of important intercultural mentoring opportunities and imperatives involving traditional company-assigned expatriates and HCNs, who are key global talent players in MNC knowledge management and overall operations performance. This paper also provides practical recommendations on how organizations can facilitate mentoring within a global context, as well as suggestions for viable avenues for future research, including further extending the global talent reach of international mentoring. Originality/value This paper emphasizes the importance of taking the intercultural context into account when planning and managing mentoring in MNCs and outlines how culture can affect mentoring relationships involving traditional company-assigned expatriates and HCNs. This contextual aspect has often been neglected in the extant literature, yet can be crucial for the success of mentoring relationships that cross cultural borders. With its inclusion of HCNs, this paper also expands the picture of international mentoring beyond the traditional focus on company-assigned expatriates.
... Without active learning opportunities, students do not internalize skills, which makes it more difficult, if the methodology for developing leadership competences is lacking, to train them in skills (Sobral and Furtado, 2019). In this dual context of a demand for learning skills and a change in leadership paradigms, gamification is the ideal response to a learning environment that seeks to be active, visual, and playful, in line with the profile of millennials (Marcinkus Murphy, 2012;Roberts et al., 2012). In brief, there exists a need for active resources for training adults and future leaders in communication, with the metaanalysis literature recommending research into gamification use with adults and people over 30 so as to learn whether it can work (Klock et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Adult learners demand teaching innovations that are ever more rapid and attractive. As a response to these demands and the challenges of skills training, this article presents a conceptual analysis that introduces competitive debate as an impact training model. The aim is to learn whether debate can be considered to fall within the frame of gamification, so that the full potential of debate as gamification can be exploited. There is a significant research gap regarding competitive debate as a game, with the training mechanics for adult learners remaining practically unexplored. Through a conceptual analysis of game, game experience, and gamification, and their respective characteristics, we conclude that competitive debate is an ideal instrument for gamification.
... Relatedly, our findings could also be interesting for scholars studying reverse mentoring (i.e. older employees seeking to learn from younger employees), as the literature has thus far largely remained silent concerning the antecedents that motivate older employees to develop knowledge-seeking relationships (Chaudhuri & Ghosh, 2012;Garg, Murphy, & Singh, 2021;Marcinkus Murphy, 2012). In that regard, we adopt a 'mentee' perspective by identifying the factors that contribute to reverse mentoring and knowledge acquisition from the older mentee perspective. ...
Article
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Knowledge-related interactions between older and younger employees are crucial for business success. Although research has contributed much to understanding of why older employees share knowledge with younger colleagues, little is known about older employees’ motivation to seek knowledge. In this study, we answer the question of how age-inclusive HR practices can foster older employees’ knowledge seeking from younger colleagues. Drawing on social learning theory that conceptualises learning-oriented behaviour (i.e., knowledge seeking) as being inextricably linked to social context and person-related factors, we develop a dual pathway relation–opportunity model outlining how age-inclusive HR practices foster older employees’ development striving, which in turn promotes knowledge seeking from younger colleagues. On the one hand, we propose a relation-based pathway that identifies contact quality with younger colleagues as a socio-emotional mechanism linking age-inclusive HR practices with knowledge seeking via development striving. On the other hand, we suggest an opportunity-based pathway that identifies older employees’ future time perspective as a person-related mechanism. We find support for our hypotheses in a sample of 502 older employees who participated in a three-wave survey. We discuss theoretical implications and encourage scholars to further shift the conversation towards an inclusive perspective that overcomes stereotypical views of older employees.
... Leadership mentoring takes place in most organizations to fulfill the purpose of preparing future leaders and successors of the organization (Smolter, 2011;Murphy, 2012). Usually, mentors come from a different generation than the protégé (Chen & Krauskopf, 2013) and this does not necessarily depend on age (Harvey et al., 2009). ...
Article
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What role peers play in individuals’ decisions to become entrepreneurs and to what extent peer effects play a role in influencing behaviours at the various stages of business venturing are important questions for scholars and policymakers. This systematic review takes stock of the recent additions to the literature around the phenomenon of peer influence in entrepreneurship. The review identified 2894 documents which were then narrowed down through three consecutive filtering stages. We thematically analysed the final sample of 27 empirical studies that shed light on how individual peers influence the process and outcomes of these individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions and behaviour, allowing for critical analysis. We propose a conceptual schema of social influence that occurs in interactions among entrepreneurial individuals within business venturing and across the three stages of pre‐formation, formation and growth. Our framework reconciles the conceptual classification around discovering, evaluating and exploiting entrepreneurial opportunities with the mechanisms of social influence affecting entrepreneurial behaviours. Grounded in the findings of the literature review, this framework synthesizes peer influence in entrepreneurship with the tripartite distinction of the behavioural motives recognized in contemporary theories of social influence. We suggest promising directions for further research on how interactions with peers might affect individuals’ entrepreneurial behaviours.
Article
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The experiences of neophyte teachers are characterized by difficulties due to lack of expertise on the job, numerous studies here and abroad reveal. However, their findings remain inconclusive. They clamor to undergo a formal mentoring program. The key players in the mentoring program are the mentors. This case study with a phenomenological slant used focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews in soliciting the mentor’s perspectives in managing a mentoring program. The same to be viable it should be formal and institutionalized. It is important that systems on program duration, mentee’s preferred schedule, subject time allotment and mentors’ remuneration should be in place. From the constant problems met by the mentees, mentors gathered cues on how to implement a mentoring program to include areas on classroom management, student assessment and evaluation, teaching strategies and research and orientation to local school policies. The above mentoring program cues can be applied in teaching universities in the Philippines and in the Asian context.
Article
Reverse mentoring, which refers to the relationship between a young employee in the role of the mentor and a more senior and experienced employee in the role of the mentee, is gaining popularity in the business world. This study aims to discuss the relationship between research assistants, who are just starting at the academy and are thought to have traces of reverse mentoring, and advisors with more experience in the academy, in the context of the functions and sub-functions of reverse mentoring. In this exploratory study, in which a qualitative research method was adopted, data was obtained as a result of semi-structured interviews with 17 research assistants working in different faculties and departments at a state university in Turkey. The data obtained after the interviews with the research assistants was analysed using content analysis. The findings of the research suggested that the career, psycho-social, and role model functions of reverse mentoring in the relationship between research assistants and their advisors have sub-functions of knowledge sharing, challenging ideas, networking, friendship, and new perspectives. It was also concluded that other functions were at a limited level or non-existent.
Article
What motivates individuals to engage in role-incongruent knowledge transfer? Drawing on role congruity theory, we characterize role-incongruent (“reverse”) knowledge transfer as being based on an incongruity of the functional and social roles of the actors. Further integrating status characteristics theory and relational demography, we propose affect- and cognition-based trust as well as age as determinants of individuals’ engaging in such reverse knowledge transfer. In so doing, we distinguish between the social roles of trainers and apprentices, as these social roles carry implications for which behaviors are regarded as role-congruent or -incongruent. We test the resulting conceptual framework based on individual-level data from 442 participants (338 apprentices and 104 trainers) in multiple organizations within the context of vocational education training. The results largely support our hypotheses: For trainers, affect-based trust in apprentices and own age are positively associated with role-incongruent knowledge seeking, and the latter relationship is positively moderated by apprentice age. For apprentices, affect based trust is positively and cognition-based trust is negatively related to their role-incongruent knowledge sharing, but age has no significant effect. Finally, supplementary analyses document that the antecedents of reverse knowledge transfer differ from those factors that are significantly related to role-congruent knowledge exchange.
Article
This study looks at cross-cultural mentoring relationships among a group of librarians from the United States to explore the programmatic and interpersonal factors associated with positive mentoring experiences. Through a survey and follow-up conversations with several respondents, the authors were able to identify common themes that mentors and mentees described as important in their relationships, particularly when the mentoring partners did not share the same racial or ethnic identities. The authors conclude with recommendations for mentoring program design and participation that reflect more inclusive practices.
Article
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A mentoria tem papel fundamental na transmissão de conhecimento, apresentando inúmeras vantagens, como otimização do tempo de aula, envolvimento dos acadêmicos, interação entre educador e educando. Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica de estudos desenvolvidos no período de 1990 a 2020, utilizando os seguintes descritores “mentoria” OR “inter-relações” AND “perfil do mentor” AND “aprendizagem, foram encontradas 1170 referências. Após a leitura e a aplicação de todos os critérios de elegibilidade, 16 estudos foram incluídos na síntese qualitativa. Procedeu-se a leitura do título e resumo dos estudos e destes 06 foram selecionados. O levantamento dos estudos, constatou que a mentoria é um método que vem se disseminando rapidamente como forma de compartilhamento de conhecimentos de um indivíduo para outro por meio de uma relação adjunta e de vivências práticas, principalmente em organizações empresariais e instituições de ensino superior. Concluiu-se que, ao exceder o conhecimento técnico no desenvolvimento de competências e habilidades, a mentoria passa a ser não apenas parte da organização/instituição, mas das próprias pessoas que vivenciam o processo e de suas histórias de vida.
Chapter
This chapter examines the biblical concept of endurance and its implications for organizational leaders. The overall arching theme of (a) endurance in Hebrews 12:1–15 centers on the recurring subthemes of (b) suffering; (c) persecution; (d) discipline; (e) collective identity; (f) holiness; and (g) righteousness. Organizational leaders exhibiting the biblical virtue of endurance through tribulation and persecution will not only affirm their identity as followers of Christ (Hebrews 12:8) sharing in His holiness (Hebrews 12:10), but they will also bear the fruit of righteousness (Hebrews 12:11) causing them to reflect Christ’s level of endurance as an act of commitment, worship, obedience, holiness, and evangelization that all men would come to know Christ.
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This research paper on the topic: "Knowledge of modern environments for the development of WEB services with reference to the SOAP protocol and Angular in fourth grade students web designer and media technician" will explore: what is the purpose of the SOAP protocol, the shortcomings of the SOAP protocol, whether there are security vulnerabilities within the SOAP protocol and security options. In addition to the research part, the paper will also use a scientific method of content analysis based on which certain definitions of WEB services will be given, such as: (1) XML, (2) AJAX, (3) SOAP and (4) REST. The research will be conducted with respondents (sample) belonging to the group of fourth grade students: (1) web designers and (2) media technicians (in terms of collecting relevant information). Also, in theory, the following will be explained in detail: (1) web services and (2) protocols such as: (1) AJAX protocols, (2) SOAP protocols, and (3) REST state transfers. In addition to the mentioned protocols and XML as an extensible language for tagging data and documents, formats such as: (1) HTML 5.3 and (2) JSON open standard for formatting data when transferring between applications are also an indispensable part of the web service. In addition, the results of the e-survey will be presented.
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The interaction processes of culturally homogeneous and culturally diverse groups were studied for 17 weeks. Initially, homogeneous groups scored higher on both process and performance effectiveness. Over time, both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed improvement on process and performance, and between-group differences converged. By week 17, there were no differences in process or overall performance, but the heterogeneous groups scored higher on two task performance measures. Implications for management and future research are given.
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Linkages between a global measure of mentoring experiences, gender, and four outcome variables were investigated. Also, the moderating effects of gender were examined to determine whether mentoring is differentially associated with career outcomes for men and women. Business school graduates (147 women and 173 men) provided information about their backgrounds, companies, positions, mentoring practices, compensation, and compensation satisfaction. Individuals experiencing extensive mentoring relationships reported receiving more promotions, had higher incomes, and were more satisfied with their pay and benefits than individuals experiencing less extensive mentoring relationships. There were no gender differences with regard to the frequency of mentoring activities, and gender did not moderate mentoring-outcome relationships. The results are discussed within the context of a $7,990 income difference between men and women.
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The interaction process and performance of culturally homogeneous and culturally diverse groups were studied for 17 weeks. Initially, homogeneous groups scored higher on both process and performance effectiveness. Over time, both types of group showed improvement on process and performance, and the between-group differences converged. By week 17, there were no differences in process or overall performance, but the heterogeneous groups scored higher on two task measures, Implications for management and future research are given.
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We introduce social networks theory and methods as a way of understanding mentoring in the current career context. We first introduce a typology of "developmental networks" using core concepts from social networks theory-network diversity and tie strength-to view mentoring as a multiple relationship phenomenon. We then propose a framework illustrating factors that shape developmental network structures and offer propositions focusing on the developmental consequences for individuals having different types of developmental networks in their careers. We conclude with strategies both for testing our propositions and for researching multiple developmental relationships further.
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The present study focused on mentorship effectiveness from the perspective of the mentor. Specifically, factors related to relationship quality and learning were investigated. Mentors in relationships with others perceived to be similar reported the mentorship to be of higher quality and greater learning than did mentors in relationships with less similar others. Results also indicated that mentorship type (formal vs. informal) did not have a direct relationship with mentorship effectiveness, but did interact with mentorship duration. Additional results and implications are discussed.
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We investigated differences in the costs and benefits associated with being a mentor in a matched sample of 80 male and 80 female executives. Women were as likely as men to be mentors and reported outcomes and intentions for future mentoring similar to men's. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.
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This study examines how women's and men's career referents---the people they see as having similar careers---affect career expectations. We raise two questions. First, what is the relative effect of the gender composition and comparison level of career referents on such expectations? Second, what happens to career expectations when women and men identify career referents at the same comparison level? Current research suggests that women have lower career expectations than men because they compare themselves with women who hold lower-level positions than the career referents identified by men. Thus, if women and men identify with career referents at a similar level, their career expectations should be equal. However, this chain of reasoning has not been tested. Using data collected from a large organization, we identify both the specific individuals that women and men perceive as having similar careers and these referents' career levels, defined as their hierarchical level in the firm. The results show that the level of career referents is more important than their gender composition in explaining individuals' career expectations. In contrast to extant explanations, the results show that even when women identify career referents at the same levels as men do, they still exhibit significantly lower career expectations. Drawing on social comparison theory, we speculate that this occurs because men's expectations are bolstered by extreme upward comparisons, whereas women's expectations are dampened, perhaps because they see high-achieving others as representing a less probable goal.
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Employing a national sample of 1,162 employees, we examined the relationship be-tween joh and career attitudes and the presence of a mentor, the mentor's type (formal or informal), the quality ofthe mentoring relationship, and the perceived effectiveness and design of a formal mentoring program. Satisfaction with a mentoring relationship had a stronger impact on attitudes than the presence of a mentor, whether the rela-tionship was formal or informal, or the design of a formal mentoring program. Mentoring has been the focus of much research and discussion over the past decade. Comparisons of nonmentored and mentored individuals yield consistent results: compared to nonmentored indi-viduals, individuals with informal mentors report greater career satisfaction (Fagenson, 1989), career commitment (Colarelli & Bishop, 1990), and career mobility (Scandura, 1992). Informal proteges also report more positive job attitudes than nonmen-tored individuals (cf.. Many organizations have attempted to replicate the benefits of informal mentoring by developing formal mentoring programs (Burke & McKeen, 1989). Formal mentoring relationships develop with organizational assistance or intervention, which is usually in the form of matching mentors and proteges. A third of the nation's major compa-nies apparently have formal mentoring programs (Bragg, 1989), and formal mentoring has been iden-tified as an emerging trend in the new millennium (Tyler, 1998). Three questions come to mind when viewing these emerging trends. First, are all mentoring re-lationships created equal? Existing studies imply this assumption by comparing mentored and non-This study was supported by a 1991 grant from the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor. We would like to thank the editor and the three anonymous reviewers for their excellent feedback and help with our manuscript: this was reviewing at its best.
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The authors examine the doctoral student–faculty advisor dyad as a developmental relationship and investigate how gender, race, and perceived similarity are related to doctoral student perceptions of mentoring received. They hypothesized that the relationship of similarity with mentoring received would be moderated by duration of the relationship. Specifically, they expected that gender and race dissimilarity would lead to less mentoring early in the relationship but that such effects would dissipate later in the relationship. Furthermore, the authors predicted that perceived similarity, conceptualized as underlying similarity of attitudes, values, and beliefs, would be more strongly related to outcomes for longer duration versus shorter duration dyads. They found that, in general, duration of the relationship moderated the effects of gender similarity and perceived similarity on mentoring received, although the pattern of means was more complex than originally hypothesized.
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n his classic study of the career development of men, mentoring others was cited by Levinson (1978) as a key developmental task for individuals in midcareer. Other career development researchers recognized that mentoring relationships were beneficial to both the mentor and to the protégé (Clawson, 1980; Dalton, Thompson, & Price, 1977; Hunt & Michael, 1983). Kram's (1985) groundbreaking research concerning developmental mentoring relationships at work emphasized the mutuality and reciprocity of mentoring relationships. As such, it is surprising that historically, the majority of empirical research has focused on the protégé, with much less attention concentrated on the mentor. However, during the past decade, this oversight has started to be addressed as research from the mentor's perspective has begun to flourish. Research dedicated to understanding mentorship dynamics from the focal point of the mentor is important for both theoretical and practical reasons. A mentoring relationship is an inherently dyadic and complex process, with the mentor and the protégé each enacting different roles and responsibilities in the relationship. The success of any mentorship is contingent on the behaviors of both the mentor and the protégé. Accordingly, neglect of the issues unique to the role of the mentor leaves a critical gap in our understanding of the overall mentorship process and hampers theoretical development of the field. From a practice perspective, mentors play a key role in organizations as they ensure the transfer and continuation of knowledge and help prepare junior colleagues for further organizational responsi- bility (Kram & Hall, 1996). Moreover, high-quality and committed mentors are
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As a new generation of workers enters the workforce and the realms of leadership and management, headlines in the business and popular press are encouraging managers to deal with generational differences that appear to be affecting employees, particularly those in the leadership ranks. This article describes generational cohort theory and summarizes research on the impact of generational differences on work processes. It then explores what differences are occurring among managers in different cohorts in terms of attributes they value in leaders and their actual behaviors as leaders (as perceived by self, boss, and subordinates) using data obtained from 2 large databases, including managers across the country spanning 4 generations. Results of the 1st study demonstrate that managers and professionals in different generational cohorts do value different attributes in leaders. Results of the 2nd study find that managers in different generational cohorts also report behaving differently. Although the differences in both studies are not as drastic as predicted in the press, they are large and broad enough to suggest that organizations do need to pay attention to these differences. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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Ensuring construct comparability is a prerequisite for testing cross-group differences, yet this assumption is rarely tested in mentoring research. More studies testing for factorial invariance are needed for the construct validation of mentoring. Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to investigate the factorial stability of the Mentoring Functions Questionnaire (MFQ-9) across two groups: protégéswho are satisfied with their mentor and those who are not. CFA results supported a three-factor structure for the MFQ-9 composed of the dimensions of vocational support, psychosocial support, and role modeling. However, tests of invariance demonstrated nonequivalence for five item-pair measurements. Overall, the MFQ-9 demonstrated excellent psychometric properties with unsatisfied protégés; however, the instrument may need further development for use with satisfied protégés.
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This article reports the results of our study of electronic mentoring (e‐mentoring) in a population of business students. As career paths have become more fluid and less predictable, a growing number of educational and business organizations have implemented traditional and, more recently, e‐mentoring programs. But practice is ahead of evaluation when it comes to e‐mentoring. We attempted to fill this gap by looking more closely at strengths and weaknesses associated with this type of mentoring. Building on research in traditional mentoring and integrating literature in computer‐mediated communication, education and management, we developed a model of e‐mentoring’s antecedents and outcomes. We tested our hypotheses using a sample of business students (protégés) who were mentored by practicing managers. It was found that perceived similarity in terms of attitudes and values is positively related to effective e‐mentoring, while demographic similarity (gender, race) is not. Moreover, effective e‐mentoring may lead to protégés’ enhanced academic performance, professional network and job opportunities. We conclude with implications of our findings and a discussion of opportunities for future research.
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Cutting across the fields of psychology, management, education, counseling, social work, and sociology, The Blackwell Handbook of Mentoring reveals an innovative, multi-disciplinary approach to the practice and theory of mentoring.
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We examined the effect of type of mentoring relationship and its gender composition on mentoring functions and outcomes. Proteges with informal mentors viewed their mentors as more effective and received greater compensation than proteges with formal mentors. Gender composition had direct and moderating effects on mentoring functions/outcomes.
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This experiment explored the effects of several protege and mentor characteristics, on mentor reactions. Key findings were that (1) protege's past performance significantly affected mentors' reactions; (2) male mentors reacted more favorably to female proteges; (3) mentors' reactions differed as a function of the protege's marital status.
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Cutting across the fields of psychology, management, education, counseling, social work, and sociology, The Blackwell Handbook of Mentoring reveals an innovative, multi-disciplinary approach to the practice and theory of mentoring. Provides a complete, multi-disciplinary look at the practice and theory of mentoring and demonstrates its advantages. Brings together, for the first time, expert researchers from the three primary areas of mentoring: workplace, academy, and community. Leading scholars provide critical analysis on important literature concerning theoretical approaches and methodological issues in the field. Final section presents an integrated perspective on mentoring relationships and projects a future agenda for the field
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At the marketplace, interpersonal behavior has been traditionally conceptualized as exchange of resources. In a barter society commodities were literally exchanged for one another. Later on, one commodity—money—became standardized and widely accepted; the money-merchandise exchange was then born, and to this day it has maintained the pride of place in economic practice and thinking. But money is also exchanged with services when we pay the plumber for repairing the pipes and the gardener for improving the landscape. Information is exchanged with money when we buy a newspaper or register for a course. Only recently, economists have turned their attention to the exchange of money with services and with information. However, these areas of investigation are still regarded with suspicion, since they fail to lend themselves easily to the elegant formulations of the money—commodities exchange.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
This article introduces technology training designed for university professors who work with preservice and emergency teachers at a College of Education of a state university. The technology training was delivered in multiple ways: (a) large group workshops, (b) small group meetings, (c) individual mentoring, and (d) just-in-time training. Service learning and reverse mentoring were the highlights of the project; they were used in individual training during which graduate students in the Instructional Technology (IT) program served as mentors to the university professors. Formative evaluation was conducted, and the results were positive. Such training worked well in this Teacher Education program and may benefit other higher education institutions or K-12 schools.
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E-mentoring offers an alternative way to connect individuals with mentors. In my work here, management students were paired with working professionals for a semester to ask questions about the relevance of course content, learn how topics are applied in practice, and develop rapport. Results indicate that when students and mentors perceived they were similar to each other, students received more vocational and psychosocial support and mentors provided more support. More frequent interaction was also associated with more support and mentors' satisfaction. Relationships in which students received more support were associated with higher levels of career planning, satisfaction with mentors, and intentions to continue the relationship. Similarly, relationships in which mentors provided more support were associated with higher intentions to continue the relationship. Blended mentoring, e-mail plus talking on the phone or meeting face-to-face, increased positive outcomes for both students and mentors. Participation in this experience significantly increased students' propensity to initiate developmental relationships, a critical skill for career development.
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The problem and the solution. Although they emphasize the importance of social relationships, the literatures on mentoring and social capital are largely independent. This article explores the connections between social capital and mentoring. After reviewing the limited literature in which social capital theory has been explicitly used in the study of mentoring, the authors discuss key concepts that appear in both literatures, including outcomes, bad relationships, trust, and information.They conclude with implications for the practice of human resource development (HRD), with particular attention paid to the role of mentoring in broader social networks, issues related to formal and informal mentoring, and creating cultures that foster the development of relationships. Their review reveals that the integration mentoring and social capital concepts offers great promise to enhance career and organization development initiatives.