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Available from: Carla Torrent, Jul 11, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background The issue of persistent cognitive deficits in euthymia is of profound importance because of its potential as a trait marker for bipolar disorder. The residual neurocognitive dysfunction in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder raises the possibility of primary cognitive changes that are independent of mood state. Aim This study aimed to ascertain whether patients with bipolar I disorder show different pattern and deficits in neuropsychological performance compared with well-matched apparently healthy controls. Patients and methods Thirty euthymic bipolar I patients (Hamilton depression score of 7 and Young mania scale of 7) were recruited from the Institute of Psychiatry; they fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for bipolar I disorder. We compared them with 30 healthy controls for neurocognitive functions. We assessed them using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results Patients with bipolar I scored significantly lower in the total and all subscales of both WAIS and WMS, almost in all domains of the tests than did the controls (P=0.000). On the CPT, the control group had statistically significant fewer total commissions (P = 0.000) and fewer total omissions (P =0.003) than did bipolar I patients. The patient group obtained worse scores compared with the controls in almost all the subtests of WCST. Conclusion The present study highlighted that cognitive impairment persists in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder, which may represent a trait variable independent of mood state.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Middle East Current Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background Deficits in neurocognitive functions can hinder the functional recovery and the quality of life of psychiatric patients, especially those with bipolar disorder. Numerous reports consistently demonstrated cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder; however, their relation to the clinical profile remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the range of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar II disorder and to correlate these neuropsychological deficits with their illness characteristics. Patients and methods Thirty bipolar affective disorder type II patients in their euthymic state were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Continuous Performance Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Patients’ cognitive functions were compared with a matched control group. Results The performance on most domains of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was associated with the total number of episodes, the number of depressive episodes, the age of onset, and the average duration of an episode in months. The performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale was significantly associated across most domains with the total number of episodes, the number of depressive episodes, the age in years, the average duration of an episode in months, and the average duration of illness in years. The performance deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were significantly associated with the total number of episodes, the number of depressive episodes, family history, and the average duration of illness in years. Conclusion Bipolar II euthymic patients showed persistent cognitive deficits in some aspects of general intellectual capacity, executive and memory functions, and the ability for sustained attention, which are correlated with some clinical variables. Bipolar II patients should be routinely assessed for deficits in cognitive functions to enable early intervention and rehabilitation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Middle East Current Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Deficits in neurocognitive functions can hinder the functional recovery and the quality of life of psychiatric patients, especially those with bipolar disorder. Numerous reports consistently demonstrated cognitive deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder; however, their relation to the clinical profile remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the range of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar II disorder and to correlate these neuropsychological deficits with their illness characteristics. Patients and methods: Thirty bipolar affective disorder type II patients in their euthymic state were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Continuous Performance Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Patients’ cognitive functions were compared with a matched control group. Results: The performance on most domains of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was associated with the total number of episodes, the number of depressive episodes, the age of onset, and the average duration of an episode in months. The performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale was significantly associated across most domains with the total number of episodes, the number of depressive episodes, the age in years, the average duration of an episode in months, and the average duration of illness in years. The performance deficits on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were significantly associated with the total number of episodes, the number of depressive episodes, family history, and the average duration of illness in years. Conclusion: Bipolar II euthymic patients showed persistent cognitive deficits in some aspects of general intellectual capacity, executive and memory functions, and the ability for sustained attention, which are correlated with some clinical variables. Bipolar II patients should be routinely assessed for deficits in cognitive functions to enable early intervention and rehabilitation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Middle East Current Psychiatry