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Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns, cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), has greatly attracted the attention of researchers for its biological properties, especially its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. Our manuscript reviews the chemical composition and the variety of beneficial nutritional and health effects of manuka honey. Firstly, the chemical composition of manuka honey is described, with special attention given to its polyphenolic composition and other bioactive compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Then, the effect of manuka honey in wound treatment is described, as well as its antioxidant activity and other important biological effects.
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Foods 2014, 3, 420-432; doi:10.3390/foods3030420
ISSN 2304-8158
The Composition and Biological Activity of Honey: A Focus on
Manuka Honey
José M. Alvarez-Suarez 1,2,*, Massimiliano Gasparrini 1, Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández 1,2,
Luca Mazzoni 1 and Francesca Giampieri 3,*
1 Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and
Surgery, Polytechnic University of Marche, Avenue Ranieri 65, Ancona 60100, Italy;
E-Mails: (M.G.); (T.Y.F.-H.); (L.M.)
2 Department of Nutrition and Health, International Iberoamerican University (UNINI), Avenue
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines 112, Torres de Cristal L 101 A-3, Campeche 24040, Me xico
3 Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche,
Via Ranieri 65, Ancona 60100, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mails: (J.M.A.-S.); (F.G.); Tel.: +39-71-2204-136 (J.M.A.-S.); +39-71-2204-136 (F.G.);
Fax: +30-71-2204-123 (J.M.A.-S.); +30-71-2204-123 (F.G.).
Received: 21 May 2014; in revised form: 9 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 July 2014 /
Published: 21 July 2014
Abstract: Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It
has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns,
cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially
applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different
categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting
as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the manuka tree
(Leptospermum scoparium), has greatly attracted the attention of researchers for its
biological properties, especially its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. Our
manuscript reviews the chemical composition and the variety of beneficial nutritional and
health effects of manuka honey. Firstly, the chemical composition of manuka honey is
described, with special attention given to its polyphenolic composition and other bioactive
compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Then, the effect of manuka honey in
wound treatment is described, as well as its antioxidant activity and other important
biological effects.
Foods 2014, 3 421
Keywords: manuka honey; polyphenolic composition; wound treatments;
antimicrobial activity
1. Introduction
Honey is a sweet and flavorful natural product, which is consumed for its high nutritive value and
for its effects on human health, with antioxidant, bacteriostatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial
properties, as well as wound and sunburn healing effects [1]. Honey is produced by bees from plant
nectars, plant secretions and excretions of plant-sucking insects. Concerning its nutrient profile, it
represents an interesting source of natural macro- and micro-nutrients, consisting of a saturated
solution of sugars, of which fructose and glucose are the main contributors, but also of a wide range of
minor constituents, especially phenolic compounds [2,3]. The composition of honey is rather variable
and depends primarily on its floral source; seasonal and environmental factors can also influence its
composition and its biological effects. Several studies have shown that the antioxidant potential of
honey is strongly correlated not only with the concentration of total phenolics present, but also with the
color, with dark colored honeys being reported to have higher total phenolic contents and,
consequently, higher antioxidant capacities [3–6].
According to the origin, honey can be classified in different categories as follows: (1) blossom
honey, obtained predominantly from the nectar of flowers (as opposed to honeydew honey);
(2) honeydew honey, produced by bees after they collect “honeydew” (secretions of insects belonging
to the genus, Rhynchota), which pierce plant cells, ingest plant sap and then secrete it again;
(3) monofloral honey, in which the bees forage predominantly on one type of plant and which is
named according to the plant; and (4) multifloral honey (also known as polyfloral) that has several
botanical sources, none of which is predominant, e.g., meadow blossom honey and forest honey.
It is has been suggested that many of the medicinal properties of plants can be transmitted through
honey, so that honey could be used as a vehicle for transporting plant medicinal properties [3]. Within
monofloral honey, manuka honey, a dark honey, has greatly attracted the attention of the international
scientific community for its biological properties, especially for its antimicrobial and antioxidant
capacities. This honey is derived from the manuka tree, Leptospermum scoparium, of the Myrtaceae
family, which grows as a shrub or a small tree throughout New Zealand and eastern Australia [7].
In traditional medicine, different extracts of the manuka tree are used as sedatives and wound-healing
remedies. Moreover, manuka honey itself has long been employed for clearing up infections, including
abscesses, surgical wounds, traumatic wounds, burns and ulcers of different etiology [8]. Currently, the
main bioactive compounds in manuka honey and the mechanisms responsible for their biological
activities are being studied. These studies would support the increased use of manuka honey in skin
medicine, and they can also be the basis for the isolation and purification of compounds for the
development of bio-pharmaceutical products with antimicrobial properties and wound healing
properties; these new findings could represent an added economic value that can favor also the
beekeepers in their productions.
Foods 2014, 3 422
This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of manuka honey and on its biological
effects. An overview of the most abundant phytochemicals is presented, with particular attention to
recent evidence on its antimicrobial activity and its impact on wound treatments, as well as on its
antioxidant capacity.
2. Chemical Composition
Polyphenolic characterization has proven to be suitable for the differentiation of the floral origin of
honeys [9], and therefore, flavonoids could represent a valid botanical marker for honey [10], being
closely related with their antioxidant capacity. The qualitative and quantitative difference in flavonoid
contents of manuka honey determined in diverse studies may represent the result of the different
extraction and detection methods applied, and this limit makes the data available in the literature
difficult to compare. The major compounds identified are represented in Table 1. Several studies have
determined that the major flavonoids in manuka honey are: pinobanksin, pinocembrin and chrysin,
while luteolin, quercetin, 8-methoxykaempferol, isorhamnetin, kaempferol and galangin have been
also identified in minor concentration [11–13].
Regarding phenolic acids and volatile norisoprenoids constituents, Oelschlaegel et al. [13] detected
different profiles in manuka honey attributed to three chemotypes of L. scoparium in New Zealand.
The first group was characterized by high levels of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, dehydrovomifoliol and
benzoic acid yields, the second one by high concentrations of kojic acid and 2-methoxybenzoic acid
and the third group by high contents of syringic acid, 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid and methyl
syringate. According to the determined average amounts, phenylacetic acid, phenyllactic acid,
4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, leptosin and methyl syringate were the dominating compounds [14,15].
Methyl syringate (MSYR) and leptosin (the novel glycoside of MSYR, methyl syringate
4-O-β-D-gentiobiose) (Figure 1) are the active compounds from manuka honey to which its
myeloperoxidase (MPO)-activity inhibition is ascribed. Although the biological activities and
biosynthetic pathway/origin of the glycoside are still unknown, it may be a good chemical marker for
the purity of manuka honey [7].
Other constituents of interest found in manuka honey are: different 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, such
as glyoxal (GO), 3-deoxyglucosulose (3-DG) and methylglyoxal (MGO). These compounds are
typically formed during the Maillard reaction or caramelization reactions as degradation products from
reducing carbohydrates, and they have been identified as important contributors to the non-peroxide
antibacterial activity [13,16,17].
From the nutritional point of view, the physiological significance resulting from the uptake of MGO
and other 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds must be a topic of further investigations. MGO and glycation
compounds resulting from the reaction of MGO with amino acid side chains of lysine or arginine,
respectively, have been identified in vivo and are associated with complications of diabetes and some
neurodegenerative diseases, although the role of these compounds in the pathogenesis of different
diseases have not yet been fully understood [16].
Foods 2014, 3 423
Table 1. Most common compounds identified in manuka honey.
Phenolic Acid and Flavonoids
Other Compounds
Caffeic acid
Phenyllactic acid
Isoferulic acid
4-Methoxyphenolactic acid
p-Coumaric acid
Kojic acid
Gallic acid
4-Hydrobenzoic acid
2-Methoxybenzoic acid
Syringin acid
Phenylacetic acid
Methyl syringate
Figure 1. Chemical structures of methyl syringate and leptosin.
methyl syringate
3. Use of Manuka Honey in Wound Treatments
The importance of honey in the field of wound treatments has been well known since ancient times.
This healing property is related to the antioxidant and antibacterial activity that honey offers,
maintaining a moist wound condition, and to the high viscosity that provides a protective barrier on the
wound, preventing microbial infection. Its immunological activity is relevant also for wound repair,
Foods 2014, 3 424
exerting the same time pro- and anti-inflammatory effects [18–23]. Normal wound healing is a
complex process composed of a series of overlapping events (coagulation, inflammation, cell
proliferation, tissue remodeling) in which the damaged tissue is gradually removed and replaced by
restorative tissues [24]. While normal inflammation resolves within 1–2 days as the neutrophil number
decreases, the accumulation of these cells in the wound site contributes to a disordered network of
regulatory cytokines, leaving the wound in a chronic state of inflammation [25]. In these chronic
wounds, bacterial cells predominantly exist as biofilms, where cells are embedded within a matrix of
polysaccharides and other components that limit the availability of antibiotics for wound healing.
Furthermore, the emergence of bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics has worsened the problem of
chronic wound biofilm treatment [26].
Current therapeutic products widely used in wound care (silver sulfadiazine (SSD), hydrogel,
hydrocolloid and alginate dressings impregnated with silver) are considered useful for limiting
bacterial infections, even if excessive use of ionic silver has generated some concern regarding the
development of bacterial resistance [27,28]; this situation, in recent years, has stimulated modern
medicine to focus attention on natural products with antimicrobial activity and their use in clinical
practice. The low cost and absence of the antimicrobial resistance risk of natural products, such as
honey, aloe vera or curcumin, are the major arguments for implementing natural products in wound
treatment [29]. Although it is an ancient topical treatment for wounds, honey has been currently
established in conventional medicine as a licensed medical device, either combined into sterile
dressings or sterilized in tubes [30].
The healing time decrease after honey treatment can be explained through a dual effect on the
inflammatory response. Firstly, honey prevents a prolonged inflammatory response suppressing the
production and propagation of inflammatory cells at the wound site; secondly, it stimulates the
production of proinflammatory cytokine, allowing normal healing to occur [31] and stimulating the
proliferation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells [32,33]. The effect of honey and its components on the
production of inflammatory cytokines has been evaluated in primary human monocytes cells [34]. In
these studies, it was shown that manuka honey stimulated the production of inflammatory
cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β or IL-6 via a TLR4-dependent mechanism. For the first time, a 5.8-kDa
component responsible for cytokine induction in human monocytes via TLR4 was isolated from
manuka honey [35].
Microorganisms that colonize a burn wound originate from the patient’s gastrointestinal and
respiratory flora, from endogenous skin or from contaminated external sources (soil, water, air) [36].
The topical application of honey rapidly clears wound infection, promoting the healing process of deep
surgical infected wounds [37–39], also when they do not respond to conventional antibiotic and
antiseptic therapy [37]. Furthermore, in burn wounds, honey application decreases the wound area,
exerts an antibacterial effect and promotes better re-epithelialization compared to hydrofiber silver or
SSD treatment. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory action of honey decreases damage caused by free
radicals that result from inflammation, preventing further necrosis [40].
The antibacterial nature of honey depends on different factors acting singularly or synergistically,
the most salient of which are phenolic compounds, wound pH, H2O2, pH of honey and
osmotic pressure exerted by the honey itself [3]. It has been documented that the pronounced
antibacterial activity of manuka honey directly originates from the MGO it contains (Figure 2A) [16].
Foods 2014, 3 425
This non-peroxide antibacterial activity due to the presence of MGO is called the unique manuka
factor (UMF) [16].
Figure 2. (A) Chemical structures of the methylglyoxal (MGO). (B) Homology model of
defensin-1 from Apis mellifera. The model of the mature protein (residues 44–94) was
obtained using the experimentally-resolved structure of lucifensin from Lucilia sericata
(PDB ID: 2LLD) as a template. Alignment and modeling was performed using the Swiss
Model server [41]; the figure has been obtained through PyMOL Molecular Graphics
System, Version, Schrödinger, LLC (Portland, OR, USA).
Other antimicrobial compounds in honeys include bee defensin-1 (Figure 2B), various phenolic
compounds and complex carbohydrates [1,2]. The combination of these diverse assaults may account
for the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to honey, in contrast to the rapid induction of
resistance observed with conventional single-component antibiotics [42,43]. A few studies have
examined the antimicrobial effect of manuka honey, showing that it is active against a range of
bacteria, including Group A Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Proteus mirabilis,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus [44–47]. A list of
microorganisms that have been found to be sensitive to manuka honeys is shown in Table 2.
Furthermore, no resistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and
Staphylococcus epidermidis) have been isolated after exposure of wound isolates to sub-inhibitory
concentrations of manuka honey [42,43]. This seems to be very likely due, at least in part, to
differences in the levels of the principle antibacterial components in the honey, MGO and hydrogen
peroxide, which varies with the floral and geographic source of nectar, honey storage time and
conditions and any other possible treatment that could affect it. Anti-biofilm activity was highest in the
honey blend that contained the highest level of manuka-derived honey; the effectiveness of the
different manuka-type honeys tested increased with MGO content, although the same level of MGO,
with or without sugar, could not eradicate biofilms. This suggests that additional factors in these
manuka-type honeys are responsible for their potent anti-biofilm activity [48].
Foods 2014, 3 426
Table 2. List of microorganisms that have been found to be sensitive to manuka honeys [49].
Gram Positive Strains
Gram Negative Strains
Streptococcus pyogenes
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Coagulase negative staphylococci
Acinetobacter baumannii
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Salmonella enterica serovar typhi
Streptococcus agalactiae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Proteus mirabilis
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS)
Shigella flexneri
Hemolytic streptococci
Escherichia coli
Enterobacter cloacae
Streptococcus mutans
Shigella sonnei
Streptococcus sobrinus
Salmonella typhi
Actinomyces viscosus
Klebsiella pneumonia
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Burkholderia cepacia
Helicobacter pylori
Campylobacter spp.
Porphyromonas gingivalis
Manuka honey has been shown to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
from colonized wounds and to inhibit MRSA in vitro by interrupting cell division. Furthermore,
the presence of manuka honey restores MRSA susceptibility to oxacillin; molecular analysis
indicated that it also affects the regulation of the mecR1 gene, possibly accounting for the restored
susceptibility [30]. In another study, a synergistic effect between rifampicin and commercially
available FDA-approved manuka honey (Medihoney, Medihoney Ltd, Slough, United Kingdom) was
demonstrated on clinical S. aureus isolates, including MRSA strains. Unlike with rifampicin alone, in
which resistance was observed after overnight incubation on plates, the combination of Medihoney and
rifampicin maintained the susceptibility of S. aureus to rifampicin [50]. Manuka honey, therefore,
seems to offer real potential in providing novel synergistic combinations with antibiotics for treating
wound infections of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. It is interesting to note that the antibiotics that
have shown synergy with manuka honey are from different antibiotic classes, which inhibit distinct
targets, such as the 30 S ribosome, RNA polymerase, membranes and penicillin binding proteins. This
finding supports the idea that honey is a complex substance, perhaps with multiple active components
that affect more than one cellular target site [30].
Manuka honey is also known to have a relatively low pH (3.5–4.5), which, besides inhibiting
microbial growth, stimulates the bactericidal actions of macrophages and, in chronic wounds, reduces
protease activity and increases fibroblast activity and oxygenation [51–53]. Growth factors, such as
TGF-β, are known to become physiologically active when subjected to an acid treatment, and the use
of Medihoney demonstrates a further increase in cellular activity. This impact has been reported in the
hDF-based studies and in an in vitro wound healing assay study, where Medihoney supplements
resulted in statistically significant increases in cell proliferation and migration [25].
Finally, manuka honey has been shown to specifically decrease the inflammatory response associated
with ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory intestine disease characterized by an overexpression of
Foods 2014, 3 427
inflammatory cells, in embryonic kidney cell lines. The anti-inflammatory effect by the manuka
honey was strongest in the presence of the Pam3CSK4 ligand, indicating that the honeys act through
the TLR1/TLR2 signaling pathway. The anti-inflammatory activity of manuka honeys is therefore
pathway specific [31].
4. Antioxidant Activity
In addition to antibacterial activity, honeys are known to possess strong antioxidant capacity,
which acts in modulating free radical production, thus protecting cell components from their
harmful action [54,55].
Manuka honey contains a high amount of phenolic compounds [14,15], as well as other phenolic
compounds that have been identified with a potent capacity to reduce free radicals, providing a
relevant antioxidant capacity [56,57]. For its relevant bioactive properties, it has often been used in
different studies as the “gold standard” [8] to test and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of different
kinds of honey from different botanical and geographical origins. Manuka honey, in fact, exhibits the
highest value in terms of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, for example compared to acacia,
wild carrot and Portobello honeys [58,59], obtained, respectively, from Germany, Algeria,
Saudi Arabia and Scotland. Similar results are obtained with Malaysian monofloral honeys [56] and
Tualang honey, a Malaysian multifloral jungle honey [60]. The scavenger role of manuka honey against
superoxide anion radicals has also been investigated through electronic paramagnetic resonance [54,61];
the results proved that the quenching properties of manuka honey could be attributed to methyl
syringate [62]. Finally, manuka honey seems to exert a protective role against oxidative damage also in
an in vivo model [57], reducing DNA damage, the malondialdehyde level and glutathione peroxidase
activity in the liver of both young and middle-aged groups of rats. These effects could be mediated
through the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities (such as catalase) and through the high
antioxidant capacity of its relevant total phenolic content. The results obtained suggest a possible use
of manuka honey as an alternative natural supplement to improve the physiological oxidative status.
5. Other Effects
In addition to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, recent studies demonstrated that honey
can exert anti-proliferative effects against cancer cells [62–64]. These anticancer properties can
involve different processes: (1) the apoptosis of cancer cells through the depolarization of the
mitochondrial membrane, (2) the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by various constituents (like
flavonoids), (3) the release of cytotoxic H2O2 and (4) the scavenging of ROS and have been
correlated with the phytochemical compounds [65]. Manuka honey has been shown to possess a potent
anti-proliferative effect on murine melanoma (B16.F1), colorectal carcinoma (CT26) and human breast
cancer (MCF-7) cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner [8]. The main mechanism by which it
exerts such an anti-proliferative effect is through the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways,
involving the stimulation of the initiator, caspase-9, which determines the activation of the
executioner, caspase-3 [65]. Moreover, it induces apoptosis via the activation of PARP, the induction
of DNA fragmentation and the loss of Bcl-2 expression. In vivo, manuka honey is also effective in:
(1) decreasing the tumor volume and increasing the apoptosis of tumor cells in a mouse melanoma
Foods 2014, 3 428
model; and (2) reducing colonic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in rats, restoring lipid
peroxidation and improving antioxidant parameters [65].
Finally, in healthy individuals, manuka honey UMF 20+ has been evaluated for its safety: its
consumption showed: (1) no significant effect on the allergic status of the subjects; (2) no detrimental
effect in relation to advanced glycation end products, which are implicated in a number of serious
diseases, including renal disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease and heart disease; and (3) no
change in gut microbiota homeostasis, confirming its safety for healthy individuals [66].
6. Conclusions
Besides its main components, manuka honey contains a large number of other constituents in small
and trace amounts, able to exert numerous nutritional and biological effects, like antimicrobial and
antioxidant activities. The above information shows that in microbiological and clinical tests, manuka
honey offers advantages in controlling bacterial growth and in the treatment of several health
problems. The easiness of administration in wound treatment and the absence of antibiotic resistance,
which instead is found with conventional antibiotics, are important characteristics for the use of this
honey in the treatment of clinical wounds.
The authors wish to thank Monica Glebocki for extensively editing the manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article
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... This section presents information on the antibacterial effects of MGH mentioned earlier and the contribution of individual components in its antimicrobial action. Studies have shown that MGH comprises primarily fructose, glucose, sucrose, water, organic acids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, as well as minor components such as peptides [bee defensin-1 and 2, hemenopectin, apidaecin], enzymes [diastase, invertase, glucose oxidase] amino acids and vitamins [10,11]. It is important to note that the bioactive components of honey can vary due to the different botanic and geographic origins [12]. ...
... Several studies have shown that no "stubborn" or resistant bacteria can be isolated after subjecting isolates of MRSA obtained from wound to various concentrations of MGH or MGH-based dressings [13][14][15][16]. This is reported to be as a result of the fact that these types of honey contain various antibacterial constituents and conditions such as low pH, high sugar content, methylglyoxyl (MGO), hydrogen peroxide, antimicrobial peptides (bee defensin-1) and other active substances [10,17,18]. It is of interest to note that MGO has been identified as one of the principal antimicrobic ingredient of most MGHs [19,20]. ...
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The use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections have largely been successful. However, the misuse and overuse of these precious drugs have led to the development of bacterial resistance and this seems to have jeopardized their effectiveness. Many antibiotics that hitherto were seen as “miraculous drugs”, have witnessed a low efficacy and this has threatened the life of humanity as never before. The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the major cause of this sad development. One such superbug is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a general problem in most healthcare centers with a reported astronomical incidence of invasive MRSA infections causing death. Honey, a natural product, popular for its antibacterial activity is increasingly being used owing to its reported antibiotic potential against ‘stubborn’ bacteria. This review discusses the fact that though honey is an ancient remedy, it is still relevant and its application in modern medicine for the treatment of chronically infected wounds caused by MRSA should be re-visited. Furthermore, the in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of medical-grade honey on S. aureus infections and challenges encountered by Researchers in developing honey, into an acceptable medical, therapeutic antibacterial agent for wound care have also been highlighted.
... Due to the physicochemical properties of honey of low pH, low moisture content and high sugar content, honey exerts its antibacterial effects. Honey maintains a moist condition around the wound and due to its high viscosity it provides a protective barrier on the wound which prevents further microbial infection [4]. ...
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Bacterial infection is the most common cause of prolonged wound healing period. Honey has been known as an effective antibacterial agent due to its peroxide and non-peroxide activities to prevent bacterial infection. This study aims to investigate antibacterial property of three varieties of Malaysian honey represented by two multifloral; Kelulut and Tualang, and one monofloral; Acacia against fourteen isolated bacteria from wounds of three patients. Agar well diffusion assay was used to screen the antibacterial property of these honey. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were performed for antibacterial evaluation at a concentration range of 60% (w/v) to 5% (w/v). This method was utilised to analyse the total and non-peroxide activities of the honey against all clinically isolated bacterial strains. The initial screening has demonstrated Kelulut as a strong antibacterial agent than Tualang and Acacia which was comparable to medical-grade Manuka (UMF 18+). The MICs for Kelulut, Tualang, and Acacia were observed to range from 5% (w/v) to 12.5% (w/v), 12.5% (w/v) to 30% (w/v), and 25% (w/v) to 50% (w/v) respectively, while the range was between 5% (w/v) and 15% (w/v) for Manuka. The difference for peroxide and non-peroxide activities recorded were statistically significant (p<0.05) for Kelulut, Tualang, and Manuka, excluding Acacia. Malaysian honey do possess antibacterial property against clinically isolated bacteria from wound in which Kelulut honey was identified to have a close similarity to the medical-grade Manuka. Based on our results, Kelulut has shown the strongest antibacterial activity and can be considered as one of the alternative treatments to reduce the healing period of infected wound.
... There was a signifi cant difference in the total phenol content of coffee honey in different districts. These fi ndings are in line with [42][43][44] which found that there is a positive correlation between DPPH and total polyphenols, and total fl avonoids. The variation in the number of Flavonoids in honey is due to fl oral origin [30]. ...
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Coffea arabica is one of the most widely consumed and marketed commodities in the world. The study was designed to characterize C.arabica honey for botanical composition, physicochemical parameters, and antioxidant properties of honey. Twelve honey samples of C. arabica honey were collected during the flowering period of coffee flowers from the Zander hive. The physicochemical properties of honey and the Botanical origin of honey were determined based on Harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission. The antioxidant power of the coffee monofloral honey samples was determined by dissolving 1.5 gm of honey with 25 ml distilled water and mixing it with 25ml methanol and placed at 25◦C for sixty minutes of maceration using a temperature shaker. The pollen count percentage from honey indicated that all honey samples collected from Gera, Gomma, Yayu, and Manna districts were identified as coffee monofloral honey representing 84%, 93%, 75%, and 73 % of pollen count respectively. The mean moisture, ash, HMF, EC, FA, pH, fructose, glucose and sucrose content of Coffea arabica honey were 22.48%, 0.21%, 11.88, 0.49 mS/cm, 13.44 meq/Kg, 3.32, 32.77%, 32.9%, and 3.57% respectively. The total phenol and flavonoid content range from 42.1-82.1 and 21.7-59.7 mg/100 g of GAE/g respectively while the radical scavenging activity ranges from 60.2- 66.3%. The pollen analysis of honey from the area is coffee monofloral honey since its pollen count exceeds more than 45% and the honey quality also meets the Ethiopian and International standards. The antioxidant power of Coffee honey has a considerable amount of polyphenolics which have relevant antiradical activity.
... The medicinal benefits of mānuka honey reflect its high market value, with an average export unit price of $53.13/kg for monofloral mānuka and $31.33 for multifloral mānuka in 2020/2021 [4]. These medicinal benefits have been linked to its unique chemical composition: mainly, the presence of a compound called methylglyoxal (MGO) [5]. MGO concentration is commercially used together with the presence of other compounds, such as leptosperin and dihydroxyacetone (DHA), to describe the quality and purity of honey as the unique mānuka factor (UMF) [6]. ...
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Honey production and export are significant contributors to the Aotearoa New Zealand economy, generating over 400 million dollars in revenue. Its main export is mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey, which has a high commercial value due to its medicinal properties that are linked to its unique chemical composition. The compound methylglyoxal (MGO) has been identified as the main floral marker and is used as a quality indicator, often labelled as unique mānuka factor (UMF). However, the high demand for mānuka honey creates pressure on beekeepers and may have negative ecological consequences by favouring extensive mānuka monocultures to the detriment of other native species. There are other honeys native to New Zealand, such as kāmahi (Weinmannia racemosa), kānuka (Kunzea ericoides), rātā (Metrosideros robusta) and rewarewa (Knightia excelsa), that also have medicinal properties; however, they are less well known in the local and global market. Indigenous Māori communities envision the production and commercialization (locally and internationally) of these honeys as an opportunity to generate income and secure a sustainable future in alignment with their worldview (Te Ao Māori) and values (tikanga Māori). Diversifying the market could lead to a more sustainable income for beekeepers and reduce pressure on Māori and the conservation land, while supporting indigenous communities to realize their vision and aspirations. This manuscript provides an extensive review of the scientific literature, technical literature and traditional knowledge databases describing the plants of interest and their traditional medicinal uses (rongoā) and the chemical properties of each honey, potential floral markers and their biological activity. For each honey type, we also identify knowledge gaps and potential research avenues. This information will assist Māori beekeepers, researchers, consumers and other stakeholders in making informed decisions regarding future research on and the production, marketing and consumption of these native monofloral honeys.
Demand for honeydew honey (HDH) is growing, both from consumers and the food industry, due to its potential antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. However, information on the chemical profile of HDH remains scant, particularly on New Zealand honeydew honey (NZHDH). This paper aims to provide a comprehensive chemical analysis of NZHDH produced from honeybees, which feed on nectar exuded by the scale insect Ultracoelostoma assimile. This insect feeds on most species of the Southern Beech (Nothofagus spp.). The proximate composition, mineral profile, sugar profile, phenolic profile, amino acid profile, and antioxidant activity of NZHDH was determined and compared to results for HDH and other varieties of honey previously reported in literature. It was determined that the antioxidant activity of NZHDH is comparable to several studies on Manuka honey, which is widely considered as the “gold standard” for its antioxidant activity. This demonstrated that NZHDH indeed had excellent antioxidant properties. This study was the first time that a quantitative amino acid profile has been produced for NZHDH. The major amino acids were proline, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-alaine, and L-phenylalanine. The major phenolic compounds were pinocembrin, abscisic acid, and pinobanksin. Of the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, only p-hydroxybenzoic acid has previously been quantified in NZHDH.
Honey is used since ancient time as a food and to cure many diseases. The present study investigated the chemical constituents, antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities of natural Saudi Sidr (SH) and Talh (TH) honeys. Beside entire honey samples, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water extracts were prepared. The total polyphenolic content of SH, TH and their extracts was in the range of 2.86 ‐ 7.21 and 3.80 ‐ 17.33 mg gallic acid equivalents/g respectively and the total flavonoids content was in the range of 0.05 ‐ 1.17 and 0.18 – 2.38 mg rutin equivalents/g respectively. Out of the 53 standards analyzed by HPLC, 27 compounds were detected with highest number of compounds identified in the ethyl acetate extract of TH (45%, 24/53) and SH (26%, 14/53) respectively. Quinic acid was dominant compound identified in all honey samples with the highest content determined in TH ethanol extract (4454 µg/g). The majority of tested samples possessed considerable anti‐radicals and reducing ions capacity with the ethyl acetate extract from TH exerted significantly ( p ˂ 0.05) the highest activity. All honey samples did not show chelating iron metal property. Honey samples revealed variable enzyme inhibition activity with TH (entire and/or ethyl acetate extract) showed significantly ( p ˂ 0.05) the highest acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase and α‐amylase inhibition activity. In conclusion, ethyl acetate is the best solvent for extraction of bioactive molecules from the two honey types. Moreover, the dark‐coloured TH contained the highest number of molecules and consequently exerted the best antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities in most assays.
Background: Malnutrition is a crucial issue that contributes to approximately 45% of deaths among children under 5 years old and even >50% of deaths when accompanied by diarrhea. Several studies have stated that the use of honey can overcome cases of infertility due to malnutrition. Methods: An infertile female rat model with a degenerative ovary was induced with malnutrition through a 5-day food fasting but still had drinking water. The administration of (T1) 30% (v/v) and (T2) 50% (v/v) forest honey ( Apis dorsata ) were performed for ten consecutive days, whereas the (T+) group was fasted and not administered forest honey and the (T−) group has not fasted and not administered forest honey. Superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, IL-13 and TNF-α cytokine expressions, and ovarian tissue regeneration were analyzed. Results: Antioxidant activity (SOD) was significantly different ( p <0.05) in T1 (65.24±7.53), T2 (74.16±12.3), and T− (65.09±6.56) compared with T+ (41.76±8.51). Oxidative stress (MDA) was significantly different ( p <0.05) in T1 (9.71±1.53), T2 (9.23±0.96), and T− (9.83±1.46) compared with T+ (15.28±1.61). Anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-13) expression was significantly different ( p <0.05) in T1 (5.30±2.31), T2 (9.80±2.53), and T− (0.30±0.48) compared with T+ (2.70±1.57). Pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) expression was significantly different ( p <0.05) in T1 (4.40±3.02), T2 (2.50±1.65), and T− (0.30±0.48) compared with T+ (9.50±1.78). Ovarian tissue regeneration was significantly different ( p <0.05) in T− (8.6±0.69) and T2 (5.10±0.99) compared with T1 (0.7±0.95) and T+ (0.3±0.67). Conclusion: The 10-day administration of 50% (v/v) forest honey can be an effective therapy for ovarian failure that caused malnutrition in the female rat model.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze the flavonoid composition and organochlorine compounds (OCs) in honey samples from different floral sources on the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, and to determine their nutritional characteristics and the risk of intaking hazardous pollutants. Design/methodology/approach Honey samples were collected from various regions of the Ryukyu Islands. Thirty-one samples were analyzed for six flavonoid compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, and OCs from 14 samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. The differences in flavonoid composition among the samples from different floral sources were determined. Findings Honey from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip. contained high concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. One sample with polychlorinated biphenyls and two with chlordane compounds were detected in one region; however, their concentrations were lower than those for food regulations. Originality/value Novel chemical characteristics in Ryukyu honey, including high amounts of luteolin and apigenin from B. pilosa , were discovered, whereas low OC contamination was observed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) containing Astragalus honey (Astragalus gossypinus) to control rancidity and microbial spoilage of pistachio kernel during storage at room temperature without effect on their sensory properties. Pistachio kernels were coated with different Astragalus honey (0, 1 and 2%) and CMC (1%) concentrations. Samples were stored at room temperature for 120 days. Microbial and fungal counts, oxidation parameters, weight loss, and hardness of pistachio samples were increased, but moisture content and sensory scores were decreased during the storage. Pistachio kernels coated with honey (2%) and CMC (1%) had the lowest microbial and fungal counts, weight loss, peroxide, anisidine, free fatty acids, and textural hardness during the storage (P < 0.05). Pistachio kernels coated with CMC containing honey exhibited the lowest color changes. Sensory score of samples increased after coating with honey and CMC. At the end of 120 days storage, the peroxide value and free fatty acid content of the sample coated with CMC and honey (2%) were about half of what was considered an acceptable threshold. Overall, the CMC coting containing Astragalus honey could obviously extended the shelf life of pistachio kernel. However, for more details, it is recommended to investigate the shelf-life of pistachio kernel in longer period or in accelerated conditions.
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Chronic wounds are a major global health problem. Their management is difficult and costly, and the development of antibiotic resistance by both planktonic and biofilm-associated bacteria necessitates the use of alternative wound treatments. Honey is now being revisited as an alternative treatment due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to it. Many previous antibacterial studies have used honeys that are not well characterized, even in terms of quantifying the levels of the major antibacterial components present, making it difficult to build an evidence base for the efficacy of honey as an antibiofilm agent in chronic wound treatment. Here we show that a range of well-characterized New Zealand manuka-type honeys, in which two principle antibacterial components, methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide, were quantified, can eradicate biofilms of a range of textitStaphylococcus aureus strains that differ widely in their biofilm-forming abilities. Using crystal violet and viability assays, along with confocal laser scanning imaging, we demonstrate that in all textitS. aureus strains, including methicillin-resistant strains, the manuka-type honeys showed significantly higher anti-biofilm activity than clover honey and an isotonic sugar solution. We observed higher anti-biofilm activity as the proportion of manuka-derived honey, and thus methylglyoxal, in a honey blend increased. However, methylglyoxal on its own, or with sugar, was not able to effectively eradicate textitS. aureus biofilms. We also demonstrate that honey was able to penetrate through the biofilm matrix and kill the embedded cells in some cases. As has been reported for antibiotics, sub-inhibitory concentrations of honey improved biofilm formation by some textitS. aureus strains, however, biofilm cell suspensions recovered after honey treatment did not develop resistance towards manuka-type honeys. New Zealand manuka-type honeys, at the concentrations they can be applied in wound dressings are highly active in both preventing textitS. aureus biofilm formation and in their eradication, and do not result in bacteria becoming resistant. Methylglyoxal requires other components in manuka-type honeys for this anti-biofilm activity. Our findings support the use of well-defined manuka-type honeys as a topical anti-biofilm treatment for the effective management of wound healing.
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The role of honey in wound healing continues to attract worldwide attention. This study examines the anti-inflammatory effect of four honeys on wound healing, to gauge its efficacy as a treatment option. Isolated phenolics and crude extracts from manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), kanuka (Kunzea ericoides), clover (Trifolium spp.), and a manuka/kanuka blend of honeys were examined. Anti-inflammatory assays were conducted in HEK-Blue™-2, HEK-Blue™-4, and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)2-Wild Type (NOD2-WT) cell lines, to assess the extent to which honey treatment impacts on the inflammatory response and whether the effect was pathway-specific. Kanuka honey, and to a lesser extent manuka honey, produced a powerful anti-inflammatory effect related to their phenolic content. The effect was observed in HEK-Blue™-2 cells using the synthetic tripalmitoylated lipopeptide Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4) ligand, suggesting that honey acts specifically through the toll-like receptor (TLR)1/TLR2 signaling pathway. The manuka/kanuka blend and clover honeys had no significant anti-inflammatory effect in any cell line. The research found that kanuka and manuka honeys have an important role in modulating the inflammatory response associated with wound healing, through a pathway-specific effect. The phenolic content of honey correlates with its effectiveness, although the specific compounds involved remain to be determined.
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This study aimed to determine the effect of manuka honey on the oxidative status of middle-aged rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and middle-aged (9 months) groups. They were further divided into two groups each, which were either fed with plain water (control) or supplemented with 2.5 g/kg body weight of manuka honey for 30 days. The DNA damage level was determined via the comet assay, the plasma malondialdehyde level was determined using high performance liquid chromatography, and the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) were determined spectrophotometrically in the erythrocytes and liver. The antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays, and the total phenolic content of the manuka was analyzed using UV spectrophotometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Supplementation with manuka honey reduced the level of DNA damage, the malondialdehyde level and the glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of both the young and middle-aged groups. However, the glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in the erythrocytes of middle-aged rats given manuka honey supplementation. The catalase activity was reduced in the liver and erythrocytes of both young and middle-aged rats given supplementation. Manuka honey was found to have antioxidant activity and to have a high total phenolic content. These findings showed a strong correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Manuka honey reduces oxidative damage in young and middle-aged rats; this effect could be mediated through the modulation of its antioxidant enzyme activities and its high total phenolic content. Manuka honey can be used as an alternative supplement at an early age to improve the oxidative status.
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Aim: To characterize the effect of manuka honey on medically important wound bacteria in vitro, focusing on its antiadhesive properties. Materials & methods: Crystal violet biofilm assays, fluorescent microscopy, protein adhesion assay and gentamicin protection assay were used to determine the impact of manuka honey on biofilm formation, human protein binding and adherence to/invasion into human keratinocytes. Results: Manuka honey effectively disrupted and caused extensive cell death in biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Sublethal doses of manuka honey inhibited bacterial adhesion to the fibronectin, fibrinogen and collagen. Manuka honey impaired adhesion of laboratory and clinical isolates of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes to human keratinocytes in vitro, and inhibited invasion by S. pyogenes and homogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus. Conclusion: Manuka honey can directly affect bacterial cells embedded in a biofilm and exhibits antiadhesive properties against three common wound pathogens.
The process of wound repair has as its ultimate goal the restoration of normal aseptic-tissue structure and function following injury. Although injury can take many forms, e.g., surgical trauma, burns, immunologically mediated injury, and so forth, the general sequence of events that are activated in response to injury and that lead to successful wound repair show striking similarity irrespective of the initial injurious insult. The sequence comprises (1) the activation of the coagulation system, leading to a cessation of blood flow and the formation of a provisional matrix; (2) the local generation of a variety of soluble chemotactic factors formed from preformed plasma proteins that attract inflammatory cells to the site of injury; (3) the sequential influx of neutrophils and monocytes, leading to wound sterilization; (4) the debridement of damaged connective tissue matrix; (5) the initiation of neovascularization; and (6) the stimulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation and connective tissue matrix remodeling. However, while in many tissues and situations, this generalized sequence of events leads to the restoration of normal tissue structure and functions, in some tissues, such as in adult skin, repair is invariably associated with scarring caused as a result of abundant collagen synthesis by fibroblasts that proliferate and differentiate within the provisional matrix. While this is generally acceptable in the case of the skin, excessive tissue fibrosis during repair of other tissues, for example, as a consequence of injury to the lung or liver parenchyma, results in a dramatic and frequently fatal loss of function as a consequence of scarring. Thus, understanding what distinguishes these two outcomes may allow treatment strategies to be developed to ameliorate tissue fibrosis in susceptible or “at-risk” individuals.
Unlabelled:  Aim. To evaluate the effects of three types of honey (chestnut, blossom, and rhododendron) on the healing of full-thickness wounds. Methods: Twenty-four (24) New Zealand White female rabbits were used. Four 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm full-thickness skin wounds were created on the back of each animal and treated with pure honey or sterile saline, respectively. Wounds were assessed by wound measurements and collection of samples at 7, 14, and 21 days post wounding to evaluate the healing process. Variables of interest were hydroxyproline concentration and gross and microscopic morphological characteristics reflective of wound healing. Wounds of the honey-treated groups healed much faster than the control group. Results: On day 7, the formation of granulation tissue, epithelization, angiogenesis, and fibroplasia levels increased in the honey-treated groups (P <0.05). A statistical difference between the honeys was not detected. Conclusion: The present results suggest that honey accelerates the inflammatory reaction and initiates healing early on in the treatment process. .