Article

A Comparison of Three Job Engagement Measures: Examining their Factorial and Criterion-Related Validity

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Abstract

Engagement is an emerging job attitude that purports to measure employees' psychological presence at and involvement in their work. This research compares three academic approaches to engagement, and makes recommendations regarding the most appropriate conceptualisation and measurement of the construct in future research. The current research also investigates whether any of these three approaches to engagement contribute unique variance to the prediction of turnover intentions above and beyond the predictive capacity of alternative constructs. An online survey was taken by 382 employees and managers from a mid-sized financial institution. Results failed to support either a multi- or unidimensional factor structure for the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) engagement measure. For the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM), a multi-dimensional structure was identified as a good fit, while a unidimensional structure fit poorly. The uni-factorial structure of Britt's engagement measure was confirmed. The Schaufeli measure of engagement was a strong predictor of work outcomes; however, when controlling for job satisfaction and affective commitment, that measure lost its ability to predict intentions to leave. Two components of the Shirom vigor measure held their predictive validity. Collectively, these findings suggest that the Shirom vigor measure may provide better insight into whether and how much a person is 'into' his or her job. The Schaufeli measure was a good predictor of important work outcomes, but when job satisfaction and affective commitment were controlled, it lost its predictive validity. We were not able to confirm the three-factor structure of the Schaufeli measure. Two components of the Shirom vigor measure predicted turnover intentions after controlling for job satisfaction and affective commitment, suggesting less overlap with those constructs than the Schaufeli measure of engagement. This research adds important information on the nature of engagement and is expected to contribute toward a better understanding of the construct itself, as well as its measurement. © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

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... In an effort to provide clarity surrounding the measurement and operationalization of engagement, academics have engaged in considerable effort to validate measures of engagement in a transparent way (Christian et al. 2011;Mills et al. 2012;Wefald et al. 2012). Although a number of engagement measures exist (see Saks 2017), academia has seen widespread adoption of the conceptualization put forth by Schaufeli and Bakker (2004) and the associated Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Schaufeli et al. 2002). ...
... Bakker et al. 2011;Rich et al. 2010) have consistently emphasized the lack of clarity surrounding the measurement of engagement. Three primary studies (Byrne et al. 2016;Viljevac et al. 2012;Wefald et al. 2012) have been conducted to compare the psychometric and predictive efficacy of existing engagement measures (i.e., Britt et al. 2013;May et al. 2004;Schaufeli and Bakker 2004;Shirom 2003). Results suggest that the UWES is a superior measure as it better differentiates engagement from similar constructs (Viljevac et al. 2012) and is most predictive of relevant outcomes (Byrne et al. 2016;Wefald et al. 2012). ...
... Three primary studies (Byrne et al. 2016;Viljevac et al. 2012;Wefald et al. 2012) have been conducted to compare the psychometric and predictive efficacy of existing engagement measures (i.e., Britt et al. 2013;May et al. 2004;Schaufeli and Bakker 2004;Shirom 2003). Results suggest that the UWES is a superior measure as it better differentiates engagement from similar constructs (Viljevac et al. 2012) and is most predictive of relevant outcomes (Byrne et al. 2016;Wefald et al. 2012). Byrne et al. further argued that, in practice, the UWES conceptualization of engagement is likely most appropriate because it assesses a broader domain and yields practical information actionable within organizational contexts. ...
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Taking a multifaceted approach toward establishing validity, we present evidence from four independent samples supporting the efficacy of a short-form (three-item) version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The measure provides a psychometrically sound instrument to facilitate both complex and longitudinal research designs on engagement, as well as in practice, where parsimony is vital. To this end, we examine the short-form measure for measurement invariance based on a large heterogeneous sample (Study 1 Sample 3), as well as temporal invariance based on six waves of data with two-week lags between assessments (Study 2). As such, to demonstrate the utility of the short measure, we provide a within-individual test of the concept of gain spirals within conservation of resources theory (Study 2) wherein we introduce the notion top-down versus bottom-up gain spirals. Collectively we present strong validity evidence for the short-form measure such that it is applicable for both practitioners and academics alike.
... In general, studies report adequate internal consistency. Regarding the extracted variance, that is, the total amount of variance collected by the latent construct, Wefald, Mills, Smith, and Downey (2012) report a value of .71. For concurrent validity, there are positive correlations with measures of positive affect and general self-efficacy (Little et al., 2011). ...
... For concurrent validity, there are positive correlations with measures of positive affect and general self-efficacy (Little et al., 2011). Studies that aim to analyze the factorial structure of the SMVM report mixed results based on the original 14-item version (Armon et al., 2014;Shirom, 2003;Shirom et al., 2012;Shirom & Shraga, 2009), a 13-item version (Armon & Shirom, 2011), and a 12-item version (Bilgel et al., 2012;Derman, 2008;Little et al., 2011;Remo, 2012;Wefald et al., 2012). ...
... The validity and reliability of the instrument were demonstrated in Study 2. For the factorial structure, the 12-item version and measurement model with the best fit had three interrelated factors that were in agreement with the structure obtained in previous studies (Remo, 2012;Wefald et al., 2012). In our case, the optimal model fit emerged when the correlations between the error terms in some items were allowed. ...
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Shirom’s proposal about engagement focuses on vigor. Under this approach, vigor is considered an affect that mediates the relationship between resources, behaviors, and attitudes related to psychological functioning and health. It is important for occupational health professionals to have adequate measures of this construct. The Shirom–Melamed vigor measure (SMVM) was developed to capture this sense of energy comprising three components (physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness). In the absence of a Spanish version of the SMVM, our aim is to perform a cultural adaptation and to further analyze its psychometric properties. In Study 1, we culturally adapt the SMVM in Spanish samples. It incorporates a careful development of a three-step procedure according to the International Test Commission and qualitative analyses to ensure a consensus version. Twenty-six individuals were involved. In Study 2, the responses of 203 workers from different organizations show the validity and reliability of the instrument. Confirmatory factor analyses yield a model with three interrelated dimensions showing good fit indices. Furthermore, concurrent validity is demonstrated. Finally, we discuss the usefulness of the SMVM for occupational health professionals.
... As a result, more and more research has focused on the concept of vigor at work (e.g., Melamed & Shirom, 2012;Shirom, Toker, Berliner, Shapira, & Melamed, 2008;Shraga & Shirom, 2009). Vigor is one of the two major conceptualizations of engagement at work (Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012); the other is work engagement (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá, & Bakker, 2002). These two concepts are considered to represent two different constructs sharing some similarities, but which are not interchangeable (Wefald et al., 2012). ...
... Vigor is one of the two major conceptualizations of engagement at work (Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012); the other is work engagement (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá, & Bakker, 2002). These two concepts are considered to represent two different constructs sharing some similarities, but which are not interchangeable (Wefald et al., 2012). Work engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and vigor measured by the Shirom Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM) are considered as two valid measures of engagement at work 1 (Wefald et al., 2012). ...
... These two concepts are considered to represent two different constructs sharing some similarities, but which are not interchangeable (Wefald et al., 2012). Work engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and vigor measured by the Shirom Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM) are considered as two valid measures of engagement at work 1 (Wefald et al., 2012). However among French-speaking workers, the measure of vigor has not been translated and validated, even though this concept is generating growing interest for researchers and practitioners among these workers. ...
... Britt's (1999) onedimensional approach of engagement did not comply with Kahn's theory and focuses on individual's sentiments of obligation regarding execution and commitment to their employment and as such. Wefald et al. (2011) conducted a side by side comparison of these three scales and found no support for both multi and one-dimensional structure while SMVM multidimensional has good support and uni-dimensional structure of Britt's measure was confirmed. The UWES measure has strong connection with work outcomes at the point when controlling for job satisfaction and affective commitment and not able to predict turnover intention. ...
... In addition, predictive validity of UWES measure is more as compared to other scales. It is worldwide fact that the engagement field is dominated by Utrecht group of school as 86% of studies have used UWES measure (Bailey et al., 2015) but study found that despite its prevalence, there is still presence of uncertainty regarding its reliability, validity and transferability across various industries, occupational group and national context (Wefald et al., 2011). Research also found that other factor structure of engagement such as May's psychological scale (2004), JES (Rich et al., 2010 and ISA (Soane et al., 2012) provides better theoretical framework but lacks necessary empirical support to validate these structures. ...
... 'Stress' is the key word behind burnout concept and 'need', behind Kahn's concept. The past study reveals that measures based on need based approach such as May's psychological measure perform better with all the standard comparative indexes and the one-dimensional Britt's measure was affirmed against the most popular instrument UWES (Wefald et al., 2011). But there is very less empirical support present to back up other measures against UWES's both version, long (17 items) and short (9 items) scales. ...
... Britt's (1999) onedimensional approach of engagement did not comply with Kahn's theory and focuses on individual's sentiments of obligation regarding execution and commitment to their employment and as such. Wefald et al. (2011) conducted a side by side comparison of these three scales and found no support for both multi and one-dimensional structure while SMVM multidimensional has good support and uni-dimensional structure of Britt's measure was confirmed. The UWES measure has strong connection with work outcomes at the point when controlling for job satisfaction and affective commitment and not able to predict turnover intention. ...
... In addition, predictive validity of UWES measure is more as compared to other scales. It is worldwide fact that the engagement field is dominated by Utrecht group of school as 86% of studies have used UWES measure (Bailey et al., 2015) but study found that despite its prevalence, there is still presence of uncertainty regarding its reliability, validity and transferability across various industries, occupational group and national context (Wefald et al., 2011). Research also found that other factor structure of engagement such as May's psychological scale (2004), JES (Rich et al., 2010 and ISA (Soane et al., 2012) provides better theoretical framework but lacks necessary empirical support to validate these structures. ...
... 'Stress' is the key word behind burnout concept and 'need', behind Kahn's concept. The past study reveals that measures based on need based approach such as May's psychological measure perform better with all the standard comparative indexes and the one-dimensional Britt's measure was affirmed against the most popular instrument UWES (Wefald et al., 2011). But there is very less empirical support present to back up other measures against UWES's both version, long (17 items) and short (9 items) scales. ...
... As a result, more and more research has focused on the concept of vigor at work (e.g., Melamed & Shirom, 2012;Shirom, Toker, Berliner, Shapira, & Melamed, 2008;Shraga & Shirom, 2009). Vigor is one of the two major conceptualizations of engagement at work (Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012); the other is work engagement (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá, & Bakker, 2002). These two concepts are considered to represent two different constructs sharing some similarities, but which are not interchangeable (Wefald et al., 2012). ...
... Vigor is one of the two major conceptualizations of engagement at work (Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012); the other is work engagement (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá, & Bakker, 2002). These two concepts are considered to represent two different constructs sharing some similarities, but which are not interchangeable (Wefald et al., 2012). Work engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and vigor measured by the Shirom Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM) are considered as two valid measures of engagement at work 1 (Wefald et al., 2012). ...
... These two concepts are considered to represent two different constructs sharing some similarities, but which are not interchangeable (Wefald et al., 2012). Work engagement measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and vigor measured by the Shirom Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM) are considered as two valid measures of engagement at work 1 (Wefald et al., 2012). However among French-speaking workers, the measure of vigor has not been translated and validated, even though this concept is generating growing interest for researchers and practitioners among these workers. ...
Article
Work vigor is defined by cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. The purpose of this multi-study paper was to develop a French version of the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure (F-SMVM), and test its (a) construct validity (i.e., factorial structure and internal consistency), (b) convergent and discriminant validity with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), and (c) concurrent validity with work motivation and job satisfaction. Six hundred and forty (61.72% female) employees participated in the three present studies. Convergent and discriminant construct validity of the F-SMVM were examined with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis. Concurrent validity was examined through correlations and regressions with work motivation and job satisfaction. Overall, the results supported the reliability and the construct validity of the F-SMVM. They also showed evidence of convergent validity between the F-SMVM and the UWES-9, as well as evidence of concurrent validity with work motivation and job satisfaction. The F-SMVM represents a valid measure assessing three interrelated dimensions representing physical, cognitive, and emotional components of work engagement.
... One of the studies included in the Kulikowski review found that neither the one-factor nor the three-factor structure of the UWES-9 was a good fit for their data (Wefald et al., 2012). This 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 belong to the combined vigor/dedication factor. ...
... These differing results support the recommendation made by Kulikowski (2017), namely that each study using the UWES-9 should undertake their own factor analysis based on their own sample, and make a decision on which structure to use based on their own results (Kulikowski, 2017). In addition to this, and in agreement with the current study, several previous studies have found that none of the factor structures tested have shown an acceptable fit (Hallberg and Schaufeli, 2006;Wefald et al., 2012). Subsequently, researchers looking to use a measure of work engagement may wish to use another instrument in parallel with the UWES. ...
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Objective The aim of the present study was to use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure of the 9-item Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES-9) in a multi-occupational female sample.MethodsA total of 702 women, originally recruited as a general population of 7–15-year-old girls in 1995 for a longitudinal study, completed the UWES-9. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on half the sample, and CFA on the other half.ResultsExploratory factor analysis showed that a one-factor structure best fit the data. CFA with three different models (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor) was then conducted. Goodness-of-fit statistics showed poor fit for all three models, with RMSEA never going lower than 0.166.Conclusion Despite indication from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) that a one-factor structure seemed to fit the data, we were unable to find good model fit for a one-, two-, or three-factor model using CFA. As previous studies have also failed to reach conclusive results on the optimal factor structure for the UWES-9, further research is needed in order to disentangle the possible effects of gender, nationality and occupation on work engagement.
... Further, the three-factor structure of each scale was weakly supported. Along similar lines, Wefald et al. (2012) conducted an online survey among 382 managers and employees working for a financial organisation to examine the factorial structure of the UWES. The results failed to confirm either a three -or a single factor structure for the UWES (similar to Mills et al., 2012). ...
... For instance, several studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the factorial structure of the most widely used measure of employee engagement, the UWES (Schaufeli et al., 2002). The three-factor structure of UWES has been supported by some studies (e.g., Schaufeli et al., 2006), while the findings of other studies (e.g., Viljevac et al., 2012;Wefald et al., 2012) did not support its dimensionality. Thus, this study contributes to the theory of engagement by providing empirical evidence about the dimensionality of the engagement construct; adding to the original factors of absorption, and dedication of Schaufeli et al. (2002), this study found that the engagement construct comprised new factors. ...
... In the workplace, the positive and energetic affect known as vigor [24,25], which is defined as "a positive affective response to one's ongoing interactions with significant elements in one's job and work environment that comprises the interconnected feelings of physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness" (p. 143) [24], has turned out to be a mediating variable of interest in the relationship that a group of personal and work resources [26] have with work satisfaction [27][28][29], MH [30], and work performance [28,31,32], among others. Academic work and the context in which it is performed show similarities with work activity and the framework in which it occurs, i.e., the organization [33]. ...
... Study 1 analyzed the fit to the data of different measurement models of the SMVM-S, as well as the reliability of the instrument. This study confirmed that the model with the best fit consisted of three interrelated factors, following the same structure as that used in previous studies carried out on workers [27,29,42], with significant correlations among the SMVM-S dimensions and adequate indices of internal consistency. Study 2 confirmed the mediational model proposed by Shirom [25] in an academic context and contributed to the identification of affective factors that explain the effects of PA on different results [19]. ...
Article
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Students suffer from a decrease in physical activity during their education period. This lower level of activity could affect, through various paths, their academic performance, mental health, and satisfaction with life. In these two studies, we assumed that vigor, a positive affect variable, would act as a mediating variable in the above relationship, and thus, we proposed an instrument for evaluating vigor in academic contexts. In Study 1, 707 undergraduates (59.7% women) responded to the vigor scale adapted for students to test factorial validation (through confirmatory factor analysis) and obtain reliability indicators. In Study 2, 309 undergraduates (55.3% women) completed a questionnaire measuring physical activity, mental health, satisfaction with life, vigor, and academic performance to test a structural model of the relationships between the variables to obtain construct validity. A measurement model with three related factors, each representing one dimension of vigor, optimally fit the data, and the reliability indices were adequate (Study 1). Moreover, the mediational model confirmed a complete influence of physical activity on satisfaction with life, academic performance, and mental health levels through students’ vigor levels with optimal adjusting values (Study 2). Proposing an instrument such as the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure for students allows the opening of a research venue that is focused on the study of positive affects in academic contexts, as well as the testing of the physical activity pathways of action in obtaining positive results.
... Explorations of the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM) have demonstrated the stability of the construct and predictive power, over other scales of engagement measures (e.g., Wefald et al. 2012). Hence, it has gradually become a relatively common criterion for the evaluation of workers' well-being, such as in the context of physical activity (Scotto di Luzio et al. 2019), promoting mindfulness (Walsh and Arnold 2020) and professional sports (Balk et al. 2020). ...
... "I feel strong and vigorous when I am studying"), whereas school time is composed of other aspects that have substantial impact on the students' behavior and academic achievements, such as their social world in school (Colliea et al. 2016). Secondly, critics of the factorial structure of both the UWES (e.g., de Bruin and Henn 2013; Wefald et al. 2012), and especially evidence showing that a one-factor model of the SEI is superior to the suggested existence of subscales, including EDA-Energy sub-scale, (e.g., García-Ros et al. 2018), question the validity and meaning of the EDA-Energy sub-scale measure. ...
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Vigor is one of the terms that represents an individual’s positive affect, hence it is expected to be embedded in wellness measures. However, vigor is understudied especially when it comes to adolescents’ wellness. Two studies were performed to check the adaptability of the Adolescent Vigor Measure (AVM), a slightly revised version of Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure (SMVM; Shirom, 2005) for the measurement of adolescents’ vigor. Study 1 was conducted among adolescents who experience stressful life-threatening circumstances (N = 563) and confirmed the internal structure of the AVM and concurrent validity in relation to measures of coping with stress. Study 2 was conducted among adolescents who live in peaceful and welcoming circumstances (N = 124) and replicated Study 1’s findings, including its structure and association to related measurements of students’ positive feelings. The similar findings in the two studies support the usefulness of the AVM as an easy tool to administer and an efficient scale of adolescents’ vigor.
... There seems to be an increasing concern across the globe by Governmental, nongovernmental organizations, and World Bank on various policies over the engagement of rural women in income generating activities so as to address rural poverty both in terms of reduction strategies as well as generally as part of the policies to promote rural advancement. Empirical studies on engagement are emerging globally, for example in North America (Bedarkar & Pandita, 2014;Wefald, Mills, Smith & Downey, 2012), Europe (Bakker & Bal, 2010;Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Heuven, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2008), Asia (Inoue et al., 2010;Shimazu et al., 2008), and South Africa (De Bruin, Hill, Henn & Muller, 2013). Regardless of the rapid manner in which advancement is witnessed in most developing countries, poverty still remains a predominant rural phenomenon (Gbadebo, Ademayowa, Mobolaji & Ayanyemi, 2013). ...
... Findings from this study also shows that the issues related to engagement and family life stage is likely to be in consistent with the previous researches carried out in a western context (Bakker and Bal, 2010;Wefald et al., 2012). It was widely agreed that income can improve the living standard of the poor rural women in curtailing the problems being faced by the presence of abject poverty. ...
... The measurement scale developed by the same research team [Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Schaufeli et al., 2006)] is also extensively adopted (Bailey et al., 2017;Shuck et al., 2017;Kelders et al., 2020). Although some researchers (e.g., Wefald et al., 2012) have criticized this scale, its validity and reliability are supported by a strong evidence base (Schaufeli, 2014). In these two respects, the work engagement research domain is considered mature and intervention research is increasingly warranted (e.g., Leiter and Maslach, 2010). ...
... A third limitation is that we only included studies that measured work engagement using the UWES-scale (Schaufeli et al., 2006). Although this scale is widely used in the work engagement literature (Bailey et al., 2017;Shuck et al., 2017;Kelders et al., 2020), a recurring criticism concerns its robustness, which is argued to be weakened due to the three-factor structure (Wefald et al., 2012). At the same time, applying use of the UWES-scale as one of the eligibility criteria for this study could be viewed as a strength. ...
Article
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Background: Promoting work engagement is of interest to organizations across sectors due to the associated positive outcomes. This interest warrants research on the evidence of work engagement interventions. Intervention research increasingly advocates a bottom-up approach, highlighting the role of employees themselves. These workplace interventions often encourage employees to identify, develop, and make use of workplace resources. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the effectiveness and potential underlying mechanisms of these bottom-up, resource-developing interventions. Method: Systematic searches were conducted in the online databases Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, Business Source Ultimate, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Publication year range was 2000–2020. Eligibility criteria were defined using PICOS. To be eligible for the systematic review, the intervention study identified had to aim at promoting working individuals’ work engagement by developing workplace resources from bottom-up. Work engagement had to be measured using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The systematic review included one-, two-, or multiple-armed – randomized or non-randomized – intervention studies with various study designs. Further, a meta-analysis was conducted on a sub-set of the studies included in the systematic review. To be eligible for the meta-analysis, the studies had to be two- or multiple-armed and provide the information necessary to compute effect sizes. Results: Thirty-one studies were included in the systematic review. The majority reported that overall work engagement increased as an effect of the intervention. The evidence regarding the sub-components of work engagement was scattered. Potential underlying mechanisms explored were intervention foci, approach, and format. Dimensions of satisfaction and performance were identified as secondary outcomes. Participant experiences were generally described as positive in most of the studies applying mixed methods. The meta-analysis showed a small but promising intervention effect on work engagement (24 studies, SMD: −0.22, 95% CI: −0.34 to −0.11, with I2=53%, indicating moderate inconsistency in the evidence). Conclusion: The synthesized evidence suggests that bottom-up, resource-developing interventions are effective in the promotion of work engagement. The meta-analysis suggests that focusing on strengths use or mobilizing ego resources and adopting a universal approach increase intervention effectiveness.
... In the workplace, the positive and energetic affect known as vigor [24,25], which is de ned as "a positive affective response to one's ongoing interactions with signi cant elements in one's job and work environment that comprises the interconnected feelings of physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness" (p. 143) [24], has turned out to be a mediating variable of interest in the relationship that a group of personal and work resources [26] have with work satisfaction [27][28][29], MH [30] and performance at work [28,31,32], among others. Academic work and the context in which it is performed show similarities with work activity and the framework in which it occurs, that is, the organization [33]. ...
... Study 1 analyzes the t to the data of different measurement models of the SMVM-S, as well as the reliability of the instrument. This study con rms that the model with the best t is that consisting of three interrelated factors, following the same structure as that used in previous studies carried out on workers [27,29,36], with signi cant correlations among the SMVM-S dimensions and adequate indices of internal consistency. Study 2 con rms the mediational model proposed by Shirom [25] in an academic context and contributes to the identi cation of affective factors that explain the effects of PA on different results [19]. ...
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Background Students suffer from a decrease in physical activity during their education period. This lower level of activity could affect, through various paths, their academic performance, mental health and satisfaction with life. In this study, we assume that vigor, a positive affect variable, would act as a mediating variable in the above relationship, and thus, we propose an instrument for evaluating vigor in academic contexts. To attain this aim, the factorial validity and reliability of the proposed vigor scale for students is tested (Study 1), along with its construct validity (Study 2). Methods In Study 1, 707 undergraduates (59.7% women) responded to the vigor scale adapted for students to test factorial validation (through confirmatory factor analysis) and obtain reliability indicators. In Study 2, 309 undergraduates (55.3% women) completed a questionnaire measuring physical activity, mental health, satisfaction with life, vigor and academic performance to test a structural model of the relationships between the variables to obtain construct validity. Results A measurement model with three related factors, each representing one dimension of vigor, optimally fit the data (S-Bχ² = 231.54; df = 50; CFI = 0.95; NNFI = 0.93; SRMR = 0.07; RMSEA = 0.07 [0.06–0.08]), and the reliability indices were adequate (Study 1). In Study 2, the mediational model confirmed a complete influence of physical activity on satisfaction with life, academic performance and mental health levels through the levels of vigor of the students, with optimal adjusting values (S-Bχ² = 108.82; df = 62; p < 0.001; CFI = 0.92; NNFI = 0.90; SRMR = 0.05; RMSEA = 0.05 [0.03–0.06]). Conclusions Proposing an instrument such as the Shirom-Melamed Vigor Measure for students allows the opening of a research venue that is focused on the study of positive affects in academic contexts, as well as the testing of the physical activity pathways of action in obtaining positive results.
... In fact, apart from UWES Scale which was developed by Schaufeli and others, and the Gallup Q12 scales (Gallup, 2010;Schaufeli et al., 2002), all other scales have been viewed with scepticism because the scale dimensions are not scaled specifically to factors of engagement but includes measures of satisfaction, motivation and other similar constructs (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2010;Schaufeli et al., 2008;Viljevac, Cooper-Thomas, & Saks, 2012). These findings have raised questions regarding the validity and overlap of other similar well established constructs (Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012). ...
... Moreover, others have argued about the current use of quantitative measures such as the UWES scale, and scale that are geared towards job or organization engagement being used inter-changeably. In light of this, scholars have criticized the empirical robustness of some of these findings as the scale measure can be a potential discriminant of the expected outcome (Wefald et al., 2012). ...
Article
Employee Engagement (EE) spans over 30 years discourse within the practitioner and scientific domain, and have become a strategic imperative within organizations. However, due to the tumultuous history of inconsistencies in conceptualization, poor validation, and various discrepancies among scholars and practitioners, the construct has attracted interest across disciplines and industry. Accordingly, the claims of its positive impact on bottom line and other organizational outcome have become the catalyst for further research. Owing to that, this paper highlights past and present findings on EE. Drawing on previous studies, we highlight the cons of the construct and propose a multi-foci approach that extends the positive psychology perspective. We reference the earlier works of Kahn, and the influence sociology played in the conceptualization of Kahn’s theory of the employee’s preferred self. We conclude and recommend the Interactionist view as a theoretical framework within the field of industrial sociology to support our arguments.Keywords: Employee engagement, positive psychology, sociology, rational choice theory, social interactionism.
... Scores are rated using a seven-point Likert scale (1 = never; 7 = always). In prior research, the English [78][79][80] and French [77] version of the SMVM has proved to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess vigor at work. Using data from the baseline measurements, we will select the three most representative items according to their loading on each of the three factors to assess weekly vigor. ...
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Background WOPAP is a theoretically-grounded workplace physical activity intervention that aims to reduce work-related burnout and to improve vigor at work and other work-related outcomes. Using a randomized controlled trial, we investigate whether a 10-week program including two Nordic walking sessions per week is effective in improving employee well-being at work, in comparison with another attractive leisure activity (Theatre condition) or a waiting list control condition. The design of the study makes it possible to test the effect on burnout and vigor of the instructor’s style during physical activity (i.e., traditional vs. need-supportive style). Finally, this study is also interested in several possible psychological (i.e., detachment, relaxation, mastery, control, relatedness, and positive affects experiences) and physiological (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness) mechanisms through which the practice of physical activity in the intervention could influence burnout and vigor. Methods Employees of the authors’ University (N = 140) will be recruited via email, leaflets, and posters. Participants will be randomized to one of the four arms of the trial: (1) Physical Activity Traditional Style, (2) Physical Activity Need-Supportive Style, (3) Theatre condition, and (4) Waiting List Control. The experimental phase will last 10 weeks, followed by a six-month follow-up. During the ten weeks of the intervention, all groups – except the waiting list control – will carry out two activity sessions per week. Primary outcomes are burnout and vigor, secondary outcomes are work motivation, job satisfaction, work performance and work ability. These variables will be assessed before and after the intervention, and at three and six months after the end of the intervention. Moreover, burnout, vigor, needs satisfaction at work and psychological mediators will be assessed weekly throughout the intervention period. Discussion If effective, this study will provide evidence for the promotion of workplace physical activity interventions including a need-supportive climate to improve employee well-being. Results could be used to design new research protocols, but also to implement more efficient programs in the workplace. Trial registration ISRCTN12725337. Registered 21 March 2018. Registered retrospectively.
... Using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Shirom and colleagues (Shirom, 2004;Shirom et al., 2008) found that the 14-item SMVS was best represented by the three proposed dimensions. In comparing the SMVS, work engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement [UWES]; Schaufeli et al., 2002), and engagement measure of Britt (1999) against each other, Wefald, Mills, Smith, and Downey (2012) reported that the SMVS fared better than the other two measures in predicting turnover intentions. The PS and CL subscales of the SMVS accounted for unique variance of turnover intentions after statistically controlling for job satisfaction and affective commitment, while none of the UWES subscales or Britt's measure did. ...
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Supporting the application of positive psychology in the workplace, the Shirom Melamed Vigor Scale (SMVS), which assesses vigorous feelings at work, was adapted to the Thai context. The Thai SMVS contains 14 items as in the original scale and was validated using a sample of 585 employed participants in Thailand. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis are consistent with the conceptual model of vigour as consisting of physical strength, cognitive liveliness, and emotional energy, with a suggestion that a 13-item scale can also be used. As expected, vigour has been found to be conceptually distinct from some similar constructs, and independent from job burnout. Vigour also showed unique predictive effects on employees’ health. These results support the previously-proposed conceptual framework of vigour and indicate crucial roles of positive emotion in the work setting. In concordance with a positive organisational psychology approach, applications of the Thai vigor scale are discussed with respect to its potential for enhancing employees’ wellbeing and productivity.
... Results of comparison showed that factorial structure of the scale developed by Rich et al. (2010) was validated whereas that of Schaufeli, Salanova, et al. (2002) could not be validated and it was recommended to exclude certain items from the scale. Moreover, other researches, as well weakly supported the factorial structure of UWES (Viljevac, Cooper-Thomas, & Saks, 2012;Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012). Moreover, theoretical and operational definition of Schaufeli, Salanova, et al. (2002) is based on the "burnout antithesis" approach. ...
... De acordo com Schaufeli (2013), o engajamento no trabalho caracteriza-se como um estado psicológico de natureza afetivo-cognitiva. Considerando-se que a satisfação no trabalho (vínculo afetivo com o trabalho decorrente de experiências laborais prazerosas; Siqueira, 2008), o florescimento no trabalho (sentimentos de prosperidade no e pelo trabalho expressos em emoções e motivações positivas dirigidas às atividades laborais) (Bono, Davies, & Rasch, 2011) e a paixão harmoniosa pelo trabalho (sentimentos positivos em relação ao trabalho, que levam o indivíduo a investir força e energia interna na realização de suas tarefas laborais) (Vallerand & Houlford, 2003) também consistem em expressões de sentimentos e afetos positivos focalizados no trabalho (Wefald et al., 2012), foi hipotetizado que todos esses construtos se apresentariam fortemente correlacionados, o que de fato ocorreu. ...
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Work engagement is a positive motivational state which is expressed in vigor, absorption and dedication feelings toward work. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was developed to measure this phenomenon. The present work collected validity evidence for the reduced scale (UWES-9) concerning its internal structure, gender and work sector (public and private) invariance and relationships with external variables. The sample consisted of 2,897 employees from both genders (57.3% were female), mean age equal to 32.8. The models indicated a unidimensional structure fit to the data, and the items parameters were not significantly biased due to gender, work sector, and job tenure. The scale showed positive strong correlations with positive feelings toward work. The psychometric properties of the scale recommend its future adoption in researchers about work engagement in Brazilian samples.
... With respect to the UWES-9, the results herein agree with those found by other authors [100,101,106,107,115,116], thus proving adequate fit of the three-factor model (vigor, dedication, and absorption). Likewise, all factors had adequate internal consistency, which agrees with what has been reported in the literature [101,103,104,106,[116][117][118][119][120][121]. ...
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Within the scope of the Theory of Demands and Labor Resources, the Healthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO)Model, and the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory, this research contrasts a mediation model in which evidence on the factors that affect work performance is integrated, thus establishing the direct and indirect relationships between LMX quality, communication satisfaction, employee work engagement, and self-rated work performance. A total of 488 workers participated in this research. Adequate goodness of fit was found in the model ( 2 = 3876.996, df = 3715, p = 0.031; 2/df = 1.044; CFI = 0.999; TLI = 0.999; SRMR = 0.056; RMSEA = 0.010): the LMX–work performance relationship is mediated by communication satisfaction and work engagement, whereas the LMX–work engagement relationship is mediated by communication satisfaction. This has led to the conclusion that, as employees consider the relationship with their superiors to be of higher quality, the satisfaction they experience in terms of organizational communication increases, and as organizational communication satisfaction increases, the extent to which employees feel more vigorous, involved and concentrated, and absorbed by work also increases, which, in turn, leads them to perceive their work performance to be higher.
... Some researchers have even mentioned the possibility that the missing link between engagement and psychological detachment might be the contradictory effects of vigour and dedication subscales, as compared with the absorption scale, on detachment from work (Kinnunen et al., 2011;Schaufeli et al., 2006b). This proposition, coupled with concerns about the construct validity of the UWES (Byrne et al., 2016;Saks and Gruman, 2014;Wefald et al., 2012), which most comparable studies used, may explain why the relationship between engagement in the present study, measured as attention and absorption (Saks, 2006) and psychological detachment, was significantly negatively correlated. Thus, it may not be engagement per se (vigour, dedication and absorption) but the level of absorption itself that has a detrimental effect on employees' ability to disengage from work after work. ...
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Given the importance of employee wellbeing to performance, organisations have increased their focus on understanding and managing the factors that contribute to wellbeing in the workplace. Drawing on the Job Demands–Resources model, this study tests the direct and indirect effects of engagement, drive and job demands on work–life conflict and wellbeing. The findings indicate that engagement and working overtime were indirectly related to work–life conflict through lack of psychological detachment from work. In addition, being pressured to prioritise work over personal life, work overload, working overtime and experiencing strong drive were indirectly associated with reduced wellbeing through increased work–life conflict. This study demonstrates that to enjoy the benefits of a highly engaged workforce, organisations must enable employee detachment from work.
... 'Research into employee engagement has traditionally focused on employees' investment of self in their role (job engagement) or more generally at the workplace (work engagement)' (Reissner & Pagan, 2013, p. 2743. However, review of the literature shows that researchers use the same questionnaire for the diagnosis of engagement -UWES (Bakker, Schaufeli, Leiter, & Taris, 2008) -regardless of whether they analyze job or work engagement (see : Inceoglu, & Warr, 2011;Wefald, Mills, Smith, & Downey, 2012). UWES in no way refers to the place of work (organization), but always simply to employee activity. ...
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Purpose - The article aims to attempt to define the work and organization engagement of the employees of one of the exclusive hotel spa in Poland. The present paper proposes that organizational roles taken by employees differentiate symptoms of their engagement. The research aims to test the hypothesis and to show the differences at the level of concepts and behaviors. Design/methodology/approach - The following study is an attempt to define the work and organizational engagement of employees of one of the exclusive SPA (sanus per aquam) hotels in Poland. The study was conducted using qualitative methods in the form of individual interviews and a group interview. The study described is part of a bigger project implemented in a Hotel. One department within the hotel, the kitchen of the main restaurant, was chosen for analysis. As such, opinions of two managers of various ranks (the Chef and the Deputy Manager of the Hotel) and seven persons from the aforementioned department are presented in this paper. Findings - Data analysis allowed us to conclude that organizational roles performed by employees may, in an influential way, shape the level and mental representation of the work and organizational engagement. Our results show that the higher position an employee has in the organizational hierarchy, the better is his/her understanding and the bigger is level of engagement both in work and in the organisation. What’s more, higher organizational role is conducive to mixing these two perspectives, and the lower role makes them clearly separated.
... In line with previous findings on work engagement using the versions of the UWES (e.g., de Bruin and Henn, 2013;Kim, Park and Kwon, 2017;Wefald et al., 2012), the RMSEA values of the current study were not ideal according to the more traditional cut-off value of 0.06 (Hu and Bentler, 1999). However, as mentioned above, the measurement quality affects the size of the RMSEA, so larger factor loadings tend to yield larger RMSEA values (McNeish et al., 2018). ...
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Because of the current developments in digitalization, novel technological solutions have changed work processes and accordingly influenced employee well-being. There is a lack of measures of positive well-being experiences regarding technology at work. Therefore, the current study introduces a novel construct—namely techno-work engagement—and a scale to measure it. Techno-work engagement is defined as a positive experience of well-being regarding the use of technology at work. The study tested the factorial, discriminant, and convergent validity of the scale, TechnoWES-9. Using data from two samples, the factor structure of the construct was analyzed with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In addition, in Study 2, CFAs, correlations, and mean differences were used to assess the discriminant and convergent validity and whether the shorter scale can be used as an alternative to the longer one. The results concerning the factorial validity support the view that techno-work engagement is better represented as a three-factor than as a unidimensional construct. Like TechnoWES-9, TechnoWES-3 is positively correlated with technology-related job resources; also, both can be discriminated from technostress. TechnoWES-9, although not flawless, is a reliable and valid indicator of techno-work engagement, and the shorter version can be used as its alternative. In the future, the relationships between work engagement, technostress, and techno-work engagement could be measured and the scale could be tested in different countries and occupations
... [28][29][30]. Finally, Wefald, Mills, Smith and Downey [31], by using the CFA approach, failed to support the validity of either the one-or three-factor structure of the UWES-9, while Mills, Culbertson and Fullagar [10] suggested the presence of a fourth factor -perseverance. ...
Article
Work engagement, as conceptualised by the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES), is a work-related positive state of mind that is characterised by vigor, dedication and absorption; however, it still remains unclear as to how many dimensions work engagement comprises. This study tested the factorial validity of 11 different UWES factorial models that are available in the literature by using a confirmatory factor analysis approach on a large sample of multi-occupational Polish employees (N = 1420). The two-factor UWES-6, comprising vigor and dedication, was found to be reliable and remained invariant across samples drawn from four different organisational positions. It also presented a better fit than the three-factor UWES-9, which is a scale that is used as a standard in contemporary research on work engagement. The findings suggest that the three-factor UWES-9 might not be an optimal measure of work engagement in Poland.
... With respect to the UWES-9, the results herein agree with those found by other authors [100,101,106,107,115,116], thus proving adequate fit of the three-factor model (vigor, dedication, and absorption). Likewise, all factors had adequate internal consistency, which agrees with what has been reported in the literature [101,103,104,106,[116][117][118][119][120][121]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Within the scope of the Theory of Demands and Labor Resources, the Healthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO) Model, and the Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory, this research contrasts a mediation model in which evidence on the factors that affect work performance is integrated, thus establishing the direct and indirect relationships between LMX quality, communication satisfaction, employee work engagement, and self-rated work performance. A total of 488 workers participated in this research. Adequate goodness of fit was found in the model (χ2 = 3876.996, df = 3715, p = 0.031; χ2/df = 1.044; CFI = 0.999; TLI = 0.999; SRMR = 0.056; RMSEA = 0.010): the LMX–work performance relationship is mediated by communication satisfaction and work engagement, whereas the LMX–work engagement relationship is mediated by communication satisfaction. This has led to the conclusion that, as employees consider the relationship with their superiors to be of higher quality, the satisfaction they experience in terms of organizational communication increases, and as organizational communication satisfaction increases, the extent to which employees feel more vigorous, involved and concentrated, and absorbed by work also increases, which, in turn, leads them to perceive their work performance to be higher.
... and .93 on Monday, respectively for physical strength, cognitive liveliness and emotional energy. In prior research, the English [42][43][44] and French [41] versions of the SMVM have shown to be valid and reliable instruments to assess vigor at work. ...
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Recovery refers to the process of replenishing resources that occurs when employees distance themselves from their work, leading to improvements in work-related well-being indicators (WRWB), such as burnout and vigor. Research has shown that weekend activities are related to changes in WRWB, and that recovery experiences could mediate these relationships. This study aims to examine the indirect relationships of recovery activities on changes in burnout and vigor, through weekend recovery experiences. It extends past research by considering a greater number of recovery activities and experiences, and by controlling for job demands. 249 employees from various occupations completed two online surveys before and DOI: STORK.3389.XXXX SportRxiv is free to access, but not to run. Please consider donating at www.storkinesiology.org/annual 2 after the weekend, assessing their WRWB, weekend recovery activities and experiences, and job demands. Structural equation modeling revealed that after controlling for job demands, changes in burnout and vigor were positively predicted by a latent variable-the weekend recovery experience-subjacent to perceptions of detachment, relaxation, mastery, control and relatedness. In addition, four out of six weekend activities predicted negative (work-related activities) or positive (social, physical, and creative activities) recovery experiences. Additional analyses showed that the recovery experience was a full mediator of the relationships between weekend activities and vigor change. These results confirm the importance of weekend activities and recovery experience for improving WRWB. They contribute to expanding current knowledge on recovery from work, highlighting the importance of considering creative activities and relatedness in future studies.
... a result, 94 documents were coded (i.e.,*Airila et al., 2014;*Alarcon & Lyons, 2011;*Alessandri et al., 2015;*Altunel et al., 2015;*Barkhuizen et al., 2014;*Bass et al., 2016;*Bickerton et al., 2015;Biggs et al., 2014aBiggs et al., , 2014b*Birkeland & Buch, 2015;*Bledow et al., 2011;*Breevaart et al., 2014a;*Byrne et al., 2016;*Caesens et al., 2016;*Chaudhary, 2014;*Chaudhary et al., 2012;*Chen & Chen, 2012;*Chin et al., 2017;*Collins, 2011;*Demerouti et al., 2015;*Extremera et al., 2012; *Ferrer & Morris, 2013; *Field & Buitendach, 2011, 2012; *Fong & Ng, 2012; *Freeborough, 2013; *Gan & Gan, 2014; *Garczynski et al., 2013; *Gillet et al., 2013; *Gkorezis et al., 2016; *Høigaard et al., 2012; *Hopkins & Gardner, 2012; *Hu et al., 2016; *Huynh et al., 2012; *Idris et al., 2015; *Idris & Dollard, 2011; *Inoue et al., 2013; *Ivey et al., 2015; *Kanste, 2011; *Kataria et al., 2013; *Kendrick, 2014; *Kim, 2015; *Klassen et al., 2012; *Kuba & Scheibe, 2017; *Kubota et al., 2011; *Kühnel et al., 2012; *Li & Mao, 2014; *Littman-Ovadia & Balducci, 2013; *Lorente et al., 2014; *Lovakov et al., 2017; *Macdonald & Levy, 2016; *Mache et al., 2016; *Martinussen et al., 2012;*Matthews et al., 2014;*Miller et al., 2014;*Mills et al., 2012;*Nishi et al., 2016;*Ocampo Bustos et al., 2015;*Panthee et al., 2014;*Petrou et al., 2017;*Petrović et al., 2017;*Poortvliet et al., 2015;*Reina-Tamayo et al., 2017;*Rofcanin et al., 2017;*Rudolph & Baltes, 2017;*Sakuraya et al., 2017;*Schaufeli et al., 2019;*Searle & Lee, 2015;*Shuck et al., 2015;*Sibiya et al., 2014;*Simbula et al., 2013;*Simons & Buitendach, 2013;*Sliter et al., 2014;*Sonnentag et al., 2012;*Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016;*Taqatqa, 2017;*Taylor, 2015;*Thomas, 2011;*Timms et al., 2012;*Tims et al., 2013;*Trépanier et al., 2015;*Vahle-Hinz, 2016;*Vander Elst et al., 2013;*Vecina et al., 2012 *Vecina et al., , 2013*Ventura et al., 2015;*Viljevac et al., 2012;*Vîrgȃ et al., 2015;*Wang et al., 2015;*Wang & Hsieh, 2013;*Wefald et al., 2012; ...
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Although the construct of work engagement has been extensively explored, a systematic meta-analysis based on a consistent categorization of engagement antecedents, outcomes, and well-being correlates is still lacking. The results of prior research reporting 533 correlations from 113 independent samples (k = 94, n = 119,420) were coded using a meta-analytic approach. The effect size for development resources (r = .45) and personal resources (r = .48) was higher than for social resources (r = .36) and for job resources (r = .37). Among the outcomes and well-being correlates explored, the effect size was highest for job satisfaction (r = .60) and commitment (r = .63). Furthermore, moderation analysis showed that (a) concerning the occupational role, work engagement finds a low association with turnover intention among civil servants, volunteer workers, and educators; (b) collectivist cultural environments reported a greater association of feedback with engagement than individualistic environments; (c) the relationship between personal resources and engagement was stronger among workers with university degrees than workers with high school diplomas. Furthermore , the absorption dimension showed a lower effect with all variables under investigation than vigor and dedication.
... Each subscale negatively correlated with a measure of emotional exhaustion (burnout) (mean r = − 0.17), and positively correlated with personal accomplishment (mean r = 0.47) and another measure of work engagement (r = 0.45-0.66) [27,80]. The SMVM has not been used in a sample with mental health disorders. ...
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Background Life engagement in the context of mental health is a broad term that describes positive health aspects relating to cognition, vitality, motivation and reward, and the ability to feel pleasure—concepts that are meaningful to patients. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify validated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) that can assess any aspect of life engagement in adults, in the field of general mental health. Methods This was a systematic literature review of articles in English from the MEDLINE database (date of search: September 9, 2020). The search strategy had three components: (1) terms to capture PROs; (2) terms to capture mental health; and (3) terms to capture aspects of life engagement. Articles were eligible if they included a PRO that: (1) is named; (2) can be used across mental health disorders; (3) is used to assess any aspect of life engagement; and (4) has undergone psychometric validation and/or qualitative content validation. A list of PROs was extracted. Results A total of 1585 records were screened and 233 articles were eligible for inclusion. Within these 233 articles, 49 distinct PROs were identified, two of which specifically captured their authors’ interpretation of life engagement: the Engaged Living Scale (ELS) and the Life Engagement Test (LET). However, while the ELS and LET covered motivation and reward, life fulfillment, and value-based living, neither scale captured the cognitive or vitality aspects of life engagement. The remaining identified PROs generally captured single aspects of life engagement, most commonly motivation/reward/energy–apathy, pleasure–anhedonia, and mental/psychological well-being. Conclusion Numerous PROs are available that may capture aspects of life engagement. However, a need remains for a new PRO that can be used in clinical trials to provide a more comprehensive description of the improvements in life engagement that patients with mental health disorders may experience with successful treatment.
... The hypothesis is partially accepted as employee engagement significantly explained that the organization commitment is determined by the predictors job characteristics and job satisfaction with the help of mediator; however, the results were not significant for turnover intentions. The findings are consistent with previous studies by Albrecht et al. (2015) and Wefald et al. (2012) which confirmed the mediating role of employee engagement between the relationship of job resources and characteristics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. These findings can be attributed to the fact that the workplace scenario is changing fast with the inclusion of flexibility and other dynamic concepts. ...
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Although employee engagement has been investigated by many scholars, there has been minimal research on this subject for millennial workforce. To bridge the research gap, the present study intends to examine employee engagement among millennial workforce of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the mediation effect of employee engagement on the relationship between antecedents; job characteristics, job satisfaction, and consequences; organizational commitment and intentions to quit is explored with social exchange theory (SET) as a theoretical underpinning. It tests the hypothesis by using data from 408 employees working in private sector companies located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia through a self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Amos 25.0 was used to analyze the data. The results suggest that there exists a satisfactory condition of employee engagement among Saudi youth. Findings propose a significant positive relationship between job characteristics, job satisfaction, and organization commitment. Employee engagement was found to be a significant and partial mediator amid job characteristics, job satisfaction, and organization commitment. However, the results were not significant for the variable turnover intentions. There is a dearth of research on millennial workforce of Saudi Arabia, and this study would be perhaps, the first one to explore employee engagement in this context. It contributes to the current literature and theory development of employee engagement. Since the findings are based on limited millennial employees’ responses, there is no universal claim for generalization.
... Previous studies provided evidence that teaching refers to a stimulating and meaningful activity involving a passion to teach (Day, 2004). For burnout, different approaches are used in this research field to explore the positive affective states related to work activities (Wefald et al., 2012). The work engagement of Schaufeli (2003) refers to a persistent and positive affective-motivational state composed of vigour, dedication, and absorption. ...
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This study aimed to explore the longitudinal trajectories of teacher burnout and vigour across the school year and whether teacher emotional intelligence (EI) at the beginning of the school year would predict membership in the trajectories. A sample of 311 school teachers (Mage = 42.40 years ± 9.64 years, aged: 24–61) reported their burnout and vigour at three measurement times during the year and their EI levels at the first measurement time. Analyses revealed two to four trajectories, highlighting the heterogeneity in teacher longitudinal burnout and vigour across the school year. Moreover, a predictive role of EI was found and confirms the major role of emotional resources in teacher wellbeing. These findings provide theoretical direction for further studies in the teacher wellbeing domain (e.g., use of person-centred and longitudinal designs) and suggestions for practical perspectives (e.g., monitoring, development of intrapersonal and interpersonal EI in teacher training).
... A discussão apontou que: gerentes de projeto consideram necessário realizar o gerenciamento do engajamento das partes interessadas, porém não o realizam; A possibilidade de obter o nível de engajamento por outra fonte que não seja o gerente de projeto é considerada como digna de aprofundamento; existem dúvidas se os níveis de engajamento definidos pelo PMBoK realmente possibilitam avaliar o engajamento das partes interessadas em projeto; e os critérios definidos pelo Uwes foram considerados interessantes e pertinentes para realizar a mensuração do engajamento das partes interessadas em projeto. À luz da literatura pesquisada, que apontou lacunas em relação a pesquisas sobre mensuração do engajamento (Wefald et al., 2012), esse trabalho trouxe contribuições, apresentando resultados para dois instrumentos distintos. O tema da mensuração de engajamento é novo e demanda novas pesquisas para aprofundamento da teoria e da prática. ...
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Esta pesquisa objetiva avaliar a aplicação de métodos de mensuração do engajamento numa organização do setor bancário brasileiro. Os métodos selecionados na literatura foram o questionário Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Uwes), adaptado para o contexto de projetos, e os níveis de engajamento do PMBoK. Os resultados obtidos nos dois métodos sugerem que as diferentes visões dos métodos resultam em distinções entre a avaliação do nível de engajamento realizada pelo gerente de projeto (método PMBoK) e pelas próprias partes interessadas (método Uwes), sugerindo que realizar a avaliação do nível de engajamento somente pela percepção do gerente de projeto, conforme proposto pelo PMBoK, pode não refletir o real engajamento no projeto. Palavras-chave: Engajamento das partes interessadas; Gerenciamento das partes interessadas; Mensuração do engajamento. ABSTRACT This research aims to evaluate the application of engagement measurement methods in an organization IN the Brazilian banking sector. The methods applied in the literature were the UWES (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale) questionnaire, adapted to the context of projects, and the PMBoK engagement levels. The results obtained through both methods suggest that different views of the methodology result in distinctions between the assessment of the level of engagement carried out by the project manager (PMBoK method) and by the stakeholders (UWES method), suggesting that performing the assessment of the level of engagement only by the project manager, as proposed by PMBoK, may not reflect the actual engagement in the project.
... As such, our research offers to further document the relations between the components of work engagement and workaholism and workers' functioning (i.e., job satisfaction, work performance, work-family conflict, and sleeping problems). In doing so, we pursue a critical research avenue because uncovering a construct's nomological validity allows to attribute specific meaning to latent constructs and provides essential information to practitioners (Wefald et al., 2012). ...
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This research sought to provide a better understanding of the psychometric multidimensionality of workers’ responses to the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Studies 1 and 3) and the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS; Studies 2 and 3). This research also aimed to document the relations between the components of work engagement and workaholism and workers’ functioning (i.e., job satisfaction, work performance, work-family conflict, and sleeping problems). Three studies (N = 273, N = 241, N = 304) were conducted to reach these objectives. Results from these three studies indicated that a bifactor-exploratory structural equation modeling (bifactor-ESEM) representation of workaholism and work engagement ratings was superior to alternative representations. Specifically, employees’ assessments of work engagement concurrently reflected a global work engagement factor which co-existed with specific vigor, dedication, and absorption components. Similarly, employees’ ratings of workaholism revealed a global workaholism factor and simultaneous specific working excessively and working compulsively facets. Our findings also shed light on the criterion-related validity of these workaholism and work engagement components by documenting their differentiated associations with measures of job satisfaction, work performance, work-family conflict, and sleeping problems. Precisely, results from Studies 1 to 3 consistently showed the key role of global workaholism, global work engagement, and the specific vigor facet in predicting outcomes.
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In recent years, the construct of work engagement as well as methods for its measurement have generated growing interest in the field of occupational psychology. In this study, we aim to contribute to the current work engagement literature by investigating the possible advantages of single-item measures of work engagement by analysing their psychometric feasibility. Testing the validity of a single-item measure tool within the framework of the Job Demands-Resources theory, we have found similar pattern of correlations of single-item measures of work engagement with exhaustion, disengagement, job resources and job demands as for the well-established multi-item measure the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The reliability of single-item measures tested with factor analysis and the attenuation formula was estimated to be in the range of between .60 and .70, the figure depending on the particulars of the estimation methods. Our findings provide an initial modicum of evidence that, if a research purpose requires it, or if the use of a multi-item measurement tool is overly restrictive or costly, then a single-item measure of work engagement could be effectively adopted
Article
PURPOSE: Work engagement is among the most influential constructs in human resource management, but work engagement's current understanding overlooks what employees consider as engagement. The author aims to advance the human resources theory and practice by discussing the need for understanding engagement from the employee point of view, and the author explores the properties of a self-anchoring work engagement scale – the measure capturing the personal perspective on work engagement. APPROACH: The author has presented a conceptual discussion providing a rationale for capturing employee personal perspective on work engagement as supplementary to multi-item measures capturing researcher perspective. Based on empirical evidence, the author tests convergent and discriminant validity of self-anchoring work engagement in relation to job resources, job demands and burnout; the author confronts the nomological network of self-anchoring scale with previous work engagement meta-analysis. FINDINGS: The obtained results provided preliminary evidence supporting convergent and discriminant validity of self-anchoring work engagement. The analysis of the nomological network of self-anchoring work engagement in comparison to the previous meta-analysis revealed that self-anchoring work engagement might be more strongly related to challenging job demands than the multi-item researcher perspective work engagement. ORIGINALITY: The author's findings provide a modicum of evidence that asking employees about self-assessment of employees' work engagement on a 0–10 scale provides researchers with access to a freely available measurement method of the personal perception on work engagement.
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Using the revised job demands–resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical framework, our article aims to develop a conceptual model of the work engagement of paid workers in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) by identifying its antecedents and outcomes discussed in the literature. We found that job resources are prevalent antecedents for work engagement, while three categories of the JD-R model are all significant with work engagement. Although some findings are similar with existing studies for for-profit organizations, others implied that we need a different approach to work engagement of NPO workers. We finally offer a proposed JD-R model of work engagement in NPOs that has a new category, ideological resources. At the end of this article, we discuss the findings and academic/practical implications, along with recommendations for future research.
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Thesis
Bu tez çalışmasında, işle bütünleşmenin pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı üzerindeki etkisinde örgütsel bağlılığın aracılık rolü belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışanların örgütsel faaliyetlere katkı sağlamak üzere fikirlerini açıklayabilmesi ve diğer fikirler hakkında düşüncelerini söyleyebilmesi hem örgüt performansını hem de çalışan motivasyonunu önemli derecede etkilemektedir. Örgüt içerisinde çalışanların örgüt yararını gözeterek düşüncelerini paylaşabilmesi, yaratıcı fikirlerin ortaya çıkmasını sağlamaktadır. İşiyle bütünleşen kişiler ise enerjilerini işlerine aktararak çalıştıkları için başarılı sonuçlara ulaşma arzusu taşırlar. Bu nedenle pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı sergilemeleri beklenebilir. Bu düşünceden hareketle araştırma değişkenleri bağlamında en etkin sonuçlara entelektüel sermayenin yoğun olduğu örgütlerden ulaşılabileceği düşünülmüş ve çalışmanın uygulaması üniversitelerde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Örneklem grubu ise uygulamanın yapıldığı tarih itibariyle Türkiye’de bulunan 129 devlet üniversitesi ve 78 vakıf üniversitesi bünyesinde görev yapan akademisyenler olarak belirlenmiştir. Anket uygulaması sonucunda 452 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler istatistiki olarak incelemeye alınmıştır. Anket uygulaması sonrasında elde edilen veriler, öncelikle analizlere uygunluk açısından test edilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmanın temel hipotezlerini analiz edebilmek için öngörülen varsayımlar test edilmiştir. Ardından ölçeklerin geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik analizlere yapılmıştır. Araştırma verilerinin ve ölçeklerinin analizlerde kullanılabilecek yeterliliklere sahip olduğu anlaşıldıktan sonra analizlere başlanmıştır. Betimleyici analizler SPSS programı aracılığıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın temel hipotezlerini test etmek için kurulan yapısal eşitlik modelleri ise LISREL programı aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda akademisyenlerin işle bütünleşmelerinin pozitif ses çıkartma davranışları üzerinde etkisi olduğu ve örgütsel bağlılığın bu etki üzerinde aracılık rolü olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Öte yandan işle bütünleşmenin örgütsel bağlılık üzerinde ve örgütsel bağlılığın pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı üzerinde pozitif ve anlamlı bir etkisi olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bağlamda akademisyenlerin kişisel gelişimlerini desteklemek için yeterli düzeyde fon ayrılarak araştırmalara katılmaları teşvik edilebilir. Ayrıca eğitim ve idari alanda yapılacak görevlendirmelerde akademisyenlerin görüşleri alınarak kararlara katılımları sağlanabilir. Ulaşılan sonuçların ve yapılan önerilerin üniversitelerdeki yöneticilere ve bundan sonra yapılacak benzer çalışmalarda araştırmacılara katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Anahtar Kavramlar: Bütünleşme, İşle Bütünleşme, Ses Çıkartma Davranışı, Seslilik, Örgütsel Bağlılık
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Bu araştırmada, Ankara ilinde doktor, öğretmen ve bankacı olarak çalışanların kişilik özelliklerinin işle bütünleşme ve işle bütünleşmenin iş doyumu, işten ayrılma niyeti ve örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca kişilik özellikleri ile işle bütünleşme arasında olumlu duygulanım ve işkolikliğin aracı değişkenler olup olmadıkları da saptanmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın diğer bir amacı ise Ankara ilinde kamu ve özel sektörde doktor, öğretmen ve bankacı olarak çalışanların işle bütünleşme, kişilik, işkoliklik, olumlu duygulanım, örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı, işten ayrılma niyeti ve iş doyumu düzeylerinin farklılaşıp faklılaşmadığının belirlenmesidir. Bu amaçlar çerçevesinde kamu ve özel sektörde doktor, öğretmen ve bankacı olarak çalışanlara (N=360) kişisel bilgi formu, UWES-TR, BFKÖ, Work-BAT-TR, PANAS, İANÖ, ÖVD-TR ve MSQ-TR ölçekleri uygulanmıştır. Korelasyonel analizlerin sonuçlarına göre kişilik özelliklerinden duygusal dengesizlik, özdisiplin ve deneyime açıklığın işle bütünleşmeyi yordayan önemli değişkenler oldukları bulunmuştur. Deneyime açıklık ile işle bütünleşme arasındaki ilişkide işkoliklik ve olumlu duygulanımın tam aracı değişken oldukları belirlenmiştir. Özdisiplin ile işle bütünleşme arasındaki ilişkide ise sadece olumlu duygulanımın tam aracı değişken olduğu saptanmıştır. Karşılaştırmaya dayalı analizlerin sonuçlarına göre öğretmenler işle bütünleşme, dışa dönüklük, uzlaşılabilirlik, özdisiplin, deneyime açıklık, işkoliklik, olumlu duygulanım, vicdanlılık, nezaket ve iş doyumu açısından diğer meslek gruplarıyla karşılaştırıldığında en yüksek puanları almışlardır. Bankacılar duygusal dengesizlik, diğerkâmlık, centilmenlik, sivil erdem ve işten ayrılma niyeti açısından diğer meslek gruplarıyla karşılaştırıldığında en yüksek puana ulaşmışlardır. Doktorlar ise sadece olumsuz duygulanım açısından diğer meslek gruplarına göre en yüksek puana sahip olmuştur. Bu bulgular, daha önce yapılan araştırma ve kuramsal yaklaşımlar çerçevesinde tartışılmıştır. In this study it was aimed to determine the effect of personality traits on job engagement and the effect of job engagement on job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior and intention to leave of the doctors, teachers and bank employees working in Ankara. In addition it was aimed to find out whether positive affect and workaholism were the mediator variables of the relationship between personality traits and job engagement. Another aim of this study was to reveal if job engagement, personality, workaholism, positive effect, organizational citizenship behaviours and intention to leave levels of the doctors, teachers and bank employees working in public and private sector in Ankara differs or not. Within the framework of the aims mentioned, a personal information form, UWES-TR, BFKÖ, Work-BAT-TR, PANAS, İANÖ, ÖVD-TR and MSQ-TR scales were utilized to gather data from the doctors, teachers and bank employees (N=360) working in public and private sector in Ankara. According to the results of the correlational analyses, the personality traits neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness to experience were found to be the significant predictors of job engagement. As for the relationship between openness to experience and job engagement, workaholism and positive effect were found to be the full mediating variables. Meanwhile only positive effect was determined as a significant mediator of the relationship between conscientiousness and job engagement. According to the results of the comparison analyses, when compared to the other occupational groups, teachers had the highest scores with regard to job engagement, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness (personality trait), openness to experience, workaholism, positive affect, conscientiousness (organizational citizenship behaviour dimension), courtesy, and job satisfaction. Furthermore, bank employees got the highest scores in neuroticism, altruism, sportsmanship, civic virtue and intention to leave compared to other occupational groups. On the other hand, doctors received the highest score compared to other occupational groups only in terms of negative effect.The findings mentioned above were discussed in line with the previous researches and theoretical approaches.
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This article presents a comprehensive model of application of employees’ attitudes and opinion surveys in the process of empowerment – strengthening the position of the employees in the organisation. The proposed 10-step model integrates contemporary psychological knowledge of job demands and resources with knowledge of employees’ empowerment. The model structures the process of employees’ attitudes and opinion research, setting out clear objectives in this process, and outlines possible ways of achieving these objectives. As such, the presented model may provide a roadmap, useful for all managers interested in strengthening the position of the employees in the organisation.
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Even though work engagement is a popular construct in organizational psychology, the question remains whether it is experienced as a global construct, or as its three components (vigor, dedication, absorption). The present study thus contributes to the ongoing scientific debate about the dimensionality of work engagement systematically compared one-factor, first-order, higher-order, and bifactor confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) representations of work engagement measured by the short version of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). We also documented the validity evidence of the most optimal representation based on its test-criterion relationship with basic psychological need fulfillment at work, turnover intentions, work addiction, and work satisfaction. Based on responses provided by two distinct samples of employees (N1 = 242, N2 = 505), our results supported the superiority of the bifactor-CFA representation including a global factor of work engagement and three co-existing specific factors of vigor, dedication, and absorption. This representation replicated well across the two samples through tests of measurement invariance. Finally, while global work engagement was substantially related to all correlates, the specific factors also demonstrated meaningful associations over and above the global levels of work engagement.
Thesis
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Bu tez çalışmasında, işle bütünleşmenin pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı üzerindeki etkisinde örgütsel bağlılığın aracılık rolü belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışanların örgütsel faaliyetlere katkı sağlamak üzere fikirlerini açıklayabilmesi ve diğer fikirler hakkında düşüncelerini söyleyebilmesi hem örgüt performansını hem de çalışan motivasyonunu önemli derecede etkilemektedir. Örgüt içerisinde çalışanların örgüt yararını gözeterek düşüncelerini paylaşabilmesi, yaratıcı fikirlerin ortaya çıkmasını sağlamaktadır. İşiyle bütünleşen kişiler ise enerjilerini işlerine aktararak çalıştıkları için başarılı sonuçlara ulaşma arzusu taşırlar. Bu nedenle pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı sergilemeleri beklenebilir. Bu düşünceden hareketle araştırma değişkenleri bağlamında en etkin sonuçlara entelektüel sermayenin yoğun olduğu örgütlerden ulaşılabileceği düşünülmüş ve çalışmanın uygulaması üniversitelerde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Örneklem grubu ise uygulamanın yapıldığı tarih itibariyle Türkiye’de bulunan 129 devlet üniversitesi ve 78 vakıf üniversitesi bünyesinde görev yapan akademisyenler olarak belirlenmiştir. Anket uygulaması sonucunda 452 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler istatistiki olarak incelemeye alınmıştır. Anket uygulaması sonrasında elde edilen veriler, öncelikle analizlere uygunluk açısından test edilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmanın temel hipotezlerini analiz edebilmek için öngörülen varsayımlar test edilmiştir. Ardından ölçeklerin geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik analizlere yapılmıştır. Araştırma verilerinin ve ölçeklerinin analizlerde kullanılabilecek yeterliliklere sahip olduğu anlaşıldıktan sonra analizlere başlanmıştır. Betimleyici analizler SPSS programı aracılığıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmanın temel hipotezlerini test etmek için kurulan yapısal eşitlik modelleri ise LISREL programı aracılığıyla analiz edilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda akademisyenlerin işle bütünleşmelerinin pozitif ses çıkartma davranışları üzerinde etkisi olduğu ve örgütsel bağlılığın bu etki üzerinde aracılık rolü olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Öte yandan işle bütünleşmenin örgütsel bağlılık üzerinde ve örgütsel bağlılığın pozitif ses çıkartma davranışı üzerinde pozitif ve anlamlı bir etkisi olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bağlamda akademisyenlerin kişisel gelişimlerini desteklemek için yeterli düzeyde fon ayrılarak araştırmalara katılmaları teşvik edilebilir. Ayrıca eğitim ve idari alanda yapılacak görevlendirmelerde akademisyenlerin görüşleri alınarak kararlara katılımları sağlanabilir. Ulaşılan sonuçların ve yapılan önerilerin üniversitelerdeki yöneticilere ve bundan sonra yapılacak benzer çalışmalarda araştırmacılara katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Anahtar Kavramlar: Bütünleşme, İşle Bütünleşme, Ses Çıkartma Davranışı, Seslilik, Örgütsel Bağlılık
Chapter
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Self-engagement at work As individuals go to work and carry out various tasks, there will be times when they are invested in the quality of their work and feel responsibility for and commitment to superior job performance. There will also be times when they feel disengaged from their work or from certain aspects of their job, consequently withdrawing or disconnecting from a given area of performance. In the present chapter we argue that engaging the self in work serves to commit an individual to superior performance, and that such engagement has consequences for motivation, affect, and performance. Although most prior authors have viewed engagement in work as having primarily positive consequences, we present a more complex analysis, ultimately arguing that engaging the self in work can have positive consequences when the employee has the resources and aptitudes necessary for successful performance, but may have negative consequences when substantial impediments exist ...
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We theorize that engagement, conceptualized as the investment of an individual's complete self into a role, provides a more comprehensive explanation of relationships with performance than do well-known concepts that reflect narrower aspects of the individual's self. Results of a study of 245 firefighters and their supervisors supported our hypotheses that engagement mediates relationships between value congruence, perceived organizational support, and core self-evaluations, and two job performance dimensions: task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Job involvement, job satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation were included as mediators but did not exceed engagement in explaining relationships among the antecedents and performance outcomes.
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This study reviews the engagement construct using a meta-analytic framework. Meta-analytic results show that the three factors of engagement (i.e. vigor, dedication, and absorption) are strongly intercorrelated. Also, engagement is more strongly related to job resources than job demands. Finally, we found that the dimensions of engagement predict organizational commitment and individual health outcomes in a manner consistent with predictions.
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We theorize that engagement, conceptualized as the investment of an individual’s complete self into a role, provides a more comprehensive explanation of relationships with performance than do well-known concepts that reflect narrower aspects of the individual’s self. Results of a study of 245 firefighters and their supervisors supported our hypotheses that engagement mediates relationships between value congruence, perceived organizational support, and core self-evaluations, and two job performance dimensions: task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Job involvement, job satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation were included as mediators but did not exceed engagement in explaining relationships among the antecedents and performance outcomes.
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The meaning of employee engagement is ambiguous among both academic researchers and among practitioners who use it in conversations with clients. We show that the term is used at different times to refer to psychological states, traits, and behaviors as well as their antecedents and outcomes. Drawing on diverse relevant literatures, we offer a series of propositions about (a) psychological state engagement; (b) behavioral engagement; and (c) trait engagement. In addition, we offer propositions regarding the effects of job attributes and leadership as main effects on state and behavioral engagement and as moderators of the relationships among the 3 facets of engagement. We conclude with thoughts about the measurement of the 3 facets of engagement and potential antecedents, especially measurement via employee surveys.
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This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement—a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be shortened to 9 items (UWES-9). The factorial validity of the UWES-9 was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analyses, and the three scale scores have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Furthermore, a two-factor model with a reduced Burnout factor (including exhaustion and cynicism) and an expanded Engagement factor (including vigor, dedication, absorption, and professional efficacy) fit best to the data. These results confirm that work engagement may be conceived as the positive antipode of burnout. It is concluded that the UWES-9 scores has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.
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This article discusses the concept of work engagement and summarizes research on its most important antecedents. The authors formulate 10 key questions and shape a research agenda for engagement. In addition to the conceptual development and measurement of enduring work engagement, the authors discuss the importance of state work engagement. Further, they argue that the social context is crucial and may set the stage for a climate for engagement with an important role for management. Engaged employees conserve their own engagement through a process of job crafting. After discussing possible dark sides of engagement and the relationship between engagement and health, the article closes with a discussion of organizational interventions to increase work engagement.
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Two studies were conducted to analyze how hope, resilience, optimism, and efficacy individually and as a composite higher-order factor predicted work performance and satisfaction. Results from Study 1 provided psychometric support for a new survey measure designed to assess each of these 4 facets, as well as a composite factor. Study 2 results indicated a significant positive relationship regarding the composite of these 4 facets with performance and satisfaction. Results from Study 2 also indicated that the composite factor may be a better predictor of performance and satisfaction than the 4 individual facets. Limitations and practical implications conclude the article.
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The relative weight of predictor variables in multiple regression is difficult to determine because of non-zero predictor intercorrelations. Relative weight (also called relative importance by some researchers) is defined here as the proportionate contribution each predictor makes to R2, considering both its unique contribution and its contribution when combined with other variables. Although there are no unambiguous measures of relative weight when variables are correlated, some measures have been shown to provide meaningful results (Budescu, 1993; Lindeman, Merenda, & Gold, 1980). These measures are very difficult to implement, however, when the number of predictors is greater than about five. A method is proposed that is computationally efficient with any number of predictors, and is shown to produce results that are very similar to those produced by more complex methods. Recommendations are made for when this procedure may be applied and in what situations it is not appropriate.
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One of the most difficult tasks facing industrial-organizational psychologists is evaluating the importance of variables, especially new variables, to be included in the prediction of some outcome. When multiple regression is used, common practices suggest evaluating the usefulness of new variables by showing incremental validity beyond the set of existing variables. This approach assures that the new variables are not statistically redundant with this existing set, but this approach attributes any shared criterion-related validity to the existing set of variables and none to the new variables. More importantly, incremental validity alone fails to answer the question directly about the importance of variables included in a regression model - arguably the more important statistical concern for practitioners. To that end, the current article reviews 2 indices of relative importance, general dominance weights and relative weights, which may be used to complement incremental validity evidence and permit organizational decision makers to make more precise and informed decisions concerning the usefulness of predictor variables. We illustrate our approach by reanalyzing the correlation matrices from 2 published studies.
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The search for a meaningful index of the relative importance of predictors in multiple regression has been going on for years. This type of index is often desired when the explanatory aspects of regression analysis are of interest. The authors define relative importance as the proportionate contribution each predictor makes to R2, considering both the unique contribution of each predictor by itself and its incremental contribution when combined with the other predictors. The purposes of this article are to introduce the concept of relative importance to an audience of researchers in organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology and to update previous reviews of relative importance indices. To this end, the authors briefly review the history of research on predictor importance in multiple regression and evaluate alternative measures of relative importance. Dominance analysis and relative weights appear to be the most successful measures of relative importance currently available. The authors conclude by discussing how importance indices can be used in organizational research.
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In this article we further reflect on the 'state of play' of work engagement. We consider, clarify, and respond to issues and themes raised by eight preeminent work engagement researchers who were invited to respond to our position article. The key themes we reflect upon include: (1) theory and measurement of engagement; (2) state and task engagement; (3) climate for engagement versus collective engagement; (4) the dark side of engagement; (5) where job crafting may go wrong; and (6) moderators of the engagement-performance relationship. We conclude that engagement can sensibly be conceptualized as a positive and high arousal affective state characterized by energy and involvement; that there may be additional dimensions that might usefully be included; that we need to more fully understand the day-to-day and moment-to-moment temporal dynamics and implications of engagement; that a 'climate for engagement' will influence individual and organizational outcomes; that although engagement is at heart a positive construct, the 'dark side' of engagement needs to be acknowledged and understood; that 'job crafting' provides a potentially powerful way for employees to manage their engagement; and that we need to gain a better understanding of the moderators that influence the way that engagement is related to performance. We also outline some practical implications that follow from our conclusions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology is the property of Psychology Press (UK) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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According to the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, job demands and resources evoke two relatively independent processes: health impairment and employee motivation. The robustness of the JD-R model was tested in two different occupational samples, the first of 654 Spanish employees and the second of 477 Dutch employees. Structural equation modeling analyses provided partial evidence for the two processes. Multigroup analyses showed that the structural paths of the model were invariant across countries, although the strength of the relationships differed. We conclude that the basic structure of the JD-R model is maintained, even when applied in different national and occupational contexts, when using different ways of gathering data (computerized versus paper and pencil), and when using slightly different measures to assess the key variables of the model.
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The present study investigates whether work engagement (measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale; UWES) could be empirically separated from job involvement and organizational commitment. In addition, psychometric properties of the Swedish UWES were investigated. Discriminant validity of the UWES was tested through inspection of latent intercorrelations between the constructs, confirmatory factor analyses, and patterns of correlations with other constructs (health complaints, job and personal factors, and turnover intention) in a sample of Information Communication Technology consultants (N = 186). Conclusion: Work engagement, job involvement, and organizational commitment are empirically distinct constructs and, thus, reflect different aspects of work attachment. The internal consistency of the Swedish UWES was satisfactory, but the dimensionality was somewhat unclear.
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Engagement--a persistent and positive affective-motivational state of fulfillment characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (W. B. Schaufeli, M. Salanova, V. González-Roma, & A. B. Bakker, 2002)--has become a popular subject among academic and industry researchers. Following suggestions in the recent literature calling for further examination of the underlying factors comprising the construct of engagement, the authors investigated the factor structure of W. B. Schaufeli et al.'s measure of engagement and academic engagement's relation to academic satisfaction. Previous researchers found a 3-factor structure of engagement that comprises vigor, dedication, and absorption. The authors administered to a sample of university students a questionnaire on their level of engagement in academic work and various other measures. The results did not confirm the 3-factor structure. The present authors found engagement and satisfaction to be highly related constructs.
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Major perspectives concerning stress are presented with the goal of clarifying the nature of what has proved to be a heuristic but vague construct. Current conceptualizations of stress are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. Indeed, it is argued that researchers have tended to avoid the problem of defining stress, choosing to study stress without reference to a clear framework. A new stress model called the model of conservation of resources is presented as an alternative. This resource-oriented model is based on the supposition that people strive to retain, project, and build resources and that what is threatening to them is the potential or actual loss of these valued resources. Implications of the model of conservation of resources for new research directions are discussed.
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This research explored the relationship between the meaningfulness of work, personality hardiness, and deriving long-term benefits from a stressful event. U.S. soldiers participating in a peacekeeping mission to Bosnia completed measures assessing the meaning of their work and personality hardiness midway through a 1-year deployment (mid-deployment) and completed a measure of deriving benefits from the deployment 4-5 months after it was over (postdeployment). Structural equation modeling revealed that personality hardiness was associated with being engaged in meaningful work during the deployment, which was strongly associated with deriving benefits from the deployment months after it was over. Enriching experiences were also associated with deriving benefits from the deployment. Discussion focuses on the linkages between personality processes, meaningful work, and deriving benefits from a stressful experience.
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Several issues relating to goodness of fit in structural equations are examined. The convergence and differentiation criteria, as applied by Bagozzi, are shown not to stand up under mathematical or statistical analysis. The authors argue that the choice of interpretative statistic must be based on the research objective. They demonstrate that when this is done the Fornell-Larcker testing system is internally consistent and that it conforms to the rules of correspondence for relating data to abstract variables.
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This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi­ ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil­ ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main­ tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame­ work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug­ gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring­ ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
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This study examines burnout and engagement—the hypothesized opposite of burnout—in university students from Spain (n = 623), Portugal (n = 727), and the Netherlands (n = 311). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the expected three-factor structures of the adapted versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) for students (including Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Reduced Efficacy) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for students (including Vigor, Dedication, and Absorption) fitted to the data of each sample. However, a rigorous test revealed that most factor loadings of the MBI were not invariant across all samples. Results with the UWES were slightly better, indicating invariance of factor loadings of Absorption in all samples and of Vigor in two of the three samples. Furthermore, as hypothesized, the burnout and engagement subscales were negatively correlated. Finally, irrespective of country, Efficacy and Vigor were positively related to academic performance, that is, the number of passed exams relative to the total number of exams in the previous term.
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Our first objective in this qualitative study was to validate the conceptualization of vigor as comprising physical strength, emotional energy and cognitive liveliness. Our second objective was to explore vigor's work-related antecedents. We applied theme analysis to the contents of interviews held with 38 randomly selected employees. The results clearly supported the three-component conceptualization of vigor as most employees (77%) related to vigor as a multifaceted variable. The most frequent work-related antecedents of vigor that emerged from the interviews were meaningful interactions with others, coping with challenging situations, and achieving success on a project. By superimposing the Job Characteristics Model on these qualitative findings, we inferred from the items describing vigor's antecedents that job significance, supervisory feedback, and job identity were the most frequently mentioned antecedents of vigor at work. Additionally, we found indications of a spillover effect of vigor from the home to the work domains.
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A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article is concerned with measures of fit of a model. Two types of error involved in fitting a model are considered. The first is error of approximation which involves the fit of the model, with optimally chosen but unknown parameter values, to the population covariance matrix. The second is overall error which involves the fit of the model, with parameter values estimated from the sample, to the population covariance matrix. Measures of the two types of error are proposed and point and interval estimates of the measures are suggested. These measures take the number of parameters in the model into account in order to avoid penalizing parsimonious models. Practical difficulties associated with the usual tests of exact fit or a model are discussed and a test of “close fit” of a model is suggested.
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This study examined whether aspects of identity relevant to an occupational domain predict increased engagement in work when the conditions of work are unclear or ambiguous, whereas possessing an aspect of identity unrelated to one's occupational domain would not be associated with increased engagement. Members of an elite army unit (U.S. Army Rangers) who scored high on "warriorism" (a belief in the necessity and inevitability of war) evidenced high levels of engagement in their job even when they reported that the guidelines for their job were unclear and their work was not relevant to their training. Those scoring low on warriorism were more likely to evidence decreased engagement under these adverse conditions. In contrast, identifying with the role of "peacekeeper," an aspect of identity not associated (or perhaps negatively associated) with the Rangers' occupational domain, was associated with a larger decrease in engagement when job guidelines were unclear. Results are discussed in terms of aspects of identity relevant to a performance domain protecting motivation under less-than-optimal work conditions.
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An attitude scale to give an index of job satisfaction was constructed by a combination of Thurstone and Likert scaling methods. A corrected odd-even reliability coefficient of .87 was computed from scores obtained from a sample of 231 female office employees. Validity was investigated by comparing job satisfaction scores of two groups: (1) 40 students who had personnel jobs, and (2) 51 persons who did not. The mean for the personnel group was 76.9, and for the Non-Personnel group was 65.4. Correlation with the Hoppock Job Satisfaction Blank was r = .92. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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structural equation modeling (SEM) is a comprehensive statistical approach to testing hypotheses about relations among observed and latent variables / outline the basic elements of the SEM approach / provide researchers and students trained in basic inferential statistics a nontechnical introduction to SEM approach / refers to concepts from standard statistical approaches in the social and behavioral sciences such as correlation, multiple regression, and analysis of variance (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Vigor refers to individuals' feelings that they possess physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness, and represents a moderate-intensity affect experienced at work. Though it has been assessed in past research as a mood state, vigor has hardly been the focus of any integrative theoretical treatise. I first provide a description of vigor's conceptual framework and also of past attempts to conceptualize and measure it. Then, a summary of vigor's relations with other attitudinal constructs to which it is related is provided. Next, based on the Conservation of Resources theory, I outline possible antecedents of vigor. Using the Broaden-and-Build theory, the next section depicts proposed consequences of vigor. The two theoretical perspectives are combined to construct a theoretical model describing vigor, its antecedents and consequences. I then suggest several open research questions concerning the study of vigor at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses the paradoxical discrepancy involved in the statistical calculation of the percentage of variation in batting performance that is attributable to skill differentials among major-league baseball players, which is discrepant with intuitions about the influence of skill in batting performance. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of habits of thought about variance explanation. It is argued that percentage variance explanation is a misleading index of the influence of systematic factors in cases where there are processes by which influences cumulate to produce meaningful outcomes. (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present study examined whether personal engagement in a leadership course would predict rated performance for the course, and whether qualitative overload would moderate the relationship. Participants were Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets participating in a 5-week long leadership assessment course. Participants completed measures of qualitative overload (the extent to which they felt they lacked the skills and expertise required for effective performance) and the degree to which they were engaged in the course during the 4th week. Results revealed that course engagement was a significant predictor of rated leadership performance, even after controlling for the personality variable of conscientiousness. Course engagement interacted with qualitative overload to predict rated performance, indicating that qualitative overload was a stronger predictor of rated performance for those cadets engaged in the course. Discussion of the results focuses on engagement as a predictor of performance, and how work-related impediments matter more for engaged individuals.
Article
While often used in everyday exchanges, feeling vigorous at work, that is individuals’ feelings that they have physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness, has hardly been subjected to any conceptual inquiry or empirical research. In this chapter, I pursue the following objectives: (a) to review the range of behavioral science literature in which vigor has been considered as a distinct affect; (b) based on this review, to present a conceptual framework of vigor at work; (c) to explore the antecedents of vigor and its consequences, including vigor’s possible effects on individuals’ mental and physical health, and job performance; and (d) to describe a proposed measure of vigor at work and the results of an effort to construct validate the new measure. I conclude by pointing out a few open research questions that concern the study of vigor at work.
Book
Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.