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Where Are They? A Multilens Examination of the Distribution of Full-Time Faculty by Institutional Type, Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Citizenship

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Abstract

This introduction chapter presents descriptive statistics on the postsecondary faculty population in the United States and highlights the progressing diversity and growing number of minority, women, and international faculty

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... While several datasets (e.g., IPEDS, NSOPF, Digest of Education Statistics) are useful in understanding the trends of international faculty working at US colleges and universities, they may present some issues when trying to determine the number of international faculty who are currently employed in the US. For example, the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), began collecting data for "non-resident alien" (NRA) faculty as a separate "racial/ethnic" group by 1993 (Smith, Tovar, & García, 2012). Even though this dataset is helpful in providing the number of international faculty who are non-resident aliens, it does not include those who were foreign-born and/or educated abroad and naturalized after working in the US for some time. ...
... Other data sources, such as Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), are also useful for providing a broad picture of the trends among international faculty. In 1993, for the first time, the NCES began collecting data for "non-resident alien" (NRA) faculty as a separate "racial/ethnic" group (Smith et al., 2012). In 2009, international faculty of all races/ethnicities (NRA) constituted 4.4% of full-time faculty in the US. ...
... Even though the percentage may seem small (4.4%), there has been substantial growth within this population. Between 1993 and 2009, NRA faculty have increased by 188% (women by 333%) (Smith et al., 2012). ...
Article
Research indicates that women and minority faculty often experience disparate socialization experiences in academia (Clark & Corcoran, 1986; Tierney & Bensimon, 1996; Tierney & Rhoads, 1994). For faculty, a positive socialization experience can lead to a successful academic career, whereas a negative one can cause alienation and departure (Tierney & Rhoads, 1994). Faculty attrition rates are higher for women than for men (Menges & Exum, 1983; Rothblum, 1988), and at high prestige institutions, women and faculty of color may have higher rates of attrition (Olsen, Maple, & Stage, 1995). Currently, the majority of international faculty members are employed at research universities and concentrated at the most prestigious universities in the US (Chow & Bhandari, 2011). This study focuses on the socialization experiences of international women faculty through a gendered view of socialization (Tierney & Bensimon, 1996). Employing a qualitative design, I explored the socialization experiences of 12 international faculty members working at one research university in the US. The data gathered from both individual and focus group interviews with 12 participants highlight the significant role that culture, gender, and mentoring have in faculty members’ experiences, as well as the importance of the anticipatory socialization experience.
... The purpose of this introductory chapter is to describe this important campus population labeled as contingent faculty and enhance understanding of their increased representation and to provide a nationally representative picture of this group. In many ways, this chapter will serve as continuation of the work by Smith, Tovar, and García (2012), who provided an in-depth analysis on the current representation of tenure-track faculty, because our effort will be focused on providing additional insight into the overall faculty population. In contrast to their work, we will focus exclusively on the contingent faculty, as opposed to tenure-track population. ...
... Pulling data directly from IPEDS, which is collected annually by the IPEDS Human Resources (HR) survey, we constructed a cross-sectional dataset that included two academic years spanning two decades, 1993-1994 and 2013-2014. We selected 1993 as our first year of analysis because it is the earliest year when data for nonresident aliens (NRA) were collected as a separate racial group (Smith et al., 2012). In an effort to provide the most current data, we selected the most recent complete data file that includes human resources data provided by NCES. ...
... We Find That There Are More Women Than Men in Every Racial Category Working in Contingent Roles. In contrast to the demographic portrait of full-time faculty, where men account for the majority of the labor force (Smith et al., 2012), the majority of contingent faculty in higher education are women. Further, our findings illustrate that there are more women in every racial category than men. ...
Article
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This chapter presents demographic characteristics of contingent faculty across and within higher education sectors. The descriptive data provide insight into how each sector's hiring patterns have changed over the past 30 years. Results indicate that regardless of institutional type, the role of contingent faculty has increased and will likely continue to grow.
... Additionally, faculty members with doctoral-level education are required to provide instruction and leadership for the diverse body of students who will enter the workforce or continue as instructors in academia (Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc, 2021). Women, faculty of color, and faculty with disabilities are underrepresented at the doctoral level in higher education in tenure-track, full professor faculty positions, and in administrative leadership positions such as dean and president (Aiston & Fo, 2021;Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc, 2021;Smith et al., 2012;West & Curtis, 2006). The statistics coursework required for the successful completion of a doctoral program may present challenges for many students with traditionally underrepresented cultural group identities (TUCGI), due to limited knowledge and experience with math and research methods or difficulties with access to course materials for students with disabilities (Black et al., 2015;Darolia et al., 2020;Godfrey & Loots, 2015;Marson et al., 2013;Moore et al., 2015). ...
... Students with disabilities and students with other TUCGI are underrepresented at the doctoral level in higher education (Kim, 2013;Montgomery, 2020;Van Miegroet et al., 2019). Furthermore, doctoral graduates with TUCGI are underrepresented in faculty positions in higher education (Smith et al., 2012). Although women represent more than half of doctoral graduates since 2006, women continue to be underrepresented in tenure-track and full professor positions (Nicholson, 2020;West & Curtis, 2006). ...
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Assuring diversity of faculty in graduate school programs continues to be a focus of practice and research because of the need to ensure inclusion for all students seeking higher education. Women, individuals with disabilities, and individuals with other traditionally underrepresented cultural group identities are all underrepresented at the doctoral level in higher education, in tenure-track, full professor faculty positions, and in administrative leadership positions such as dean and president. This study is one of the first to document how doctoral program students with disabilities, who also have other traditionally underrepresented cultural group identities, experienced the successes and challenges of earning a doctoral degree. An intersectional framework was used to explore access and inclusion at the doctoral level in academia. Four major themes—defining personal cultural identities, navigating systems and situations, resources and motivation, and leveraging lived experience as a skill set for work in a chosen field—emerged from the data. Recommendations to increase access and inclusion are offered.
... This pattern holds true across all institution types and sectors, and within each of the race-ethnicity categories examined in our study (with the exception of Nonresident alien staff). These findings are in contrast to the demographic composition of full-time faculty in which men comprise the majority, particularly at the senior ranks (NCES, 2017a;Smith, Tovar, & García, 2012). However, the gender distribution of managerial and professional staff is similar to that of contingent faculty: women represent the majority of nontenure-track faculty and outnumber men in the ranks of lecturer and instructor (McNaughtan et al., 2018;NCES, 2017a). ...
... By contrast, Asian, White, and Nonresident alien staff are employed in higher proportions at doctoral universities and private non-profit institutions. These findings are consistent with past studies examining the demographic distribution of both tenure-track and contingent faculty ( Finkelstein et al., 2016;McNaughtan et al., 2018Smith et al., 2012. In addition to enrolling a more diverse student body (NCES, 2017b), it is evident that 2-year colleges and private for-profit institutions also employ a more diverse population of faculty and professional staff. ...
Article
This chapter presents a descriptive analysis of the growth of managerial and professional staff from Fall 1993 to Fall 2011 across institution types and sectors, and a detailed snapshot of the demographic composition of these staff in Fall 2016. Our results indicate tremendous growth in the population of non‐faculty staff over time, and reveal key patterns in staff employment by gender and race/ethnicity.
... People of color still occupy a relatively small portion of faculty positions within U.S. postsecondary education institutions even decades after the equal employment opportunity legislation. For example, in Fall, 2009, White faculty represented 77.3% (44.2% male and 33.2% female) of all faculty across all U.S. higher education institutional types, Asian American/Pacific Islander faculty were 8.5% (5.3% male and 3.2% female), African American faculty were 5.5% (2.5% male and 3.0% female), Hispanic/Latino faculty were 3.9% (2.1% male and 1.8% female), and American Indian/Alaska Native faculty were 0.5% (male and female were equal) of all full-time faculty in 2009 ( Smith, Tovar, & García, 2012). 2 People of color also struggle to secure employment within their desired field ( Anderson et al., 1993). ...
... Faculty members of color are limited at predominantly White institutions and are more present in minority serving institutions. And because more than half of African American faculty instruct at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), students enrolled in predominantly White institutions are less likely to have an African American professor ( Anderson et al., 1993;Smith, Tovar, & García, 2012). The dearth of college and university senior level administrators, faculty, and graduate and doctoral students of color can also be attributed to discriminatory practices and racism faced at every rung of the ladder regarding their career paths. ...
Article
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This article explores the lack of diversity at the 8 Ivy League institutions using a Critical Race Theory lens. It includes a comprehensive literature review of the scholarship related to diversity in academe, but especially within the areas of elite institutions and administration. The article also provides data pertaining to the senior leadership at the Ivy League institutions juxtaposed with data on senior level administrators throughout the nation, using the American Council on Education's On the Pathway to the Presidency report. Lastly, the article provides recommendations to presidents and institutions for bolstering high-level diversity among high level administrators. The authors stress the importance of addressing the historical and current policies and practices that either facilitate or negate the goals of diversity. They also encourage Ivy League institutions to create internal committees or task forces that focus on racial and ethnic disparities in senior administration.
... Faculty of color are also underrepresented in tenured and tenure-track positions. Data suggest that as of 2009, about 0.5% of faculty were American Indian/Alaska Native, 3.9% were Latino, 5.5% were African American, and 8.4% were Asian/Pacific Islander (Connolly et al. 2015;Smith et al. 2012). These figures underpin the concerns of student advocates, higher education reformers, and university administrations regarding diversity and inclusivity on college campuses, and specifically in the professoriate. ...
... The STEM fields have become a principal point of focus because of their long-standing lack of student and faculty diversity (Whittaker and Montgomery 2014). Examining faculty rosters in academic medical centers, Nunez- Smith et al. (2012) studied attainment of the associate and full professor rank by race. They employ nonparametric methods to find differences in median promotion rates for white, hispanic, and black faculty from 1983 to 2000. ...
Article
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Inclusion and diversity are highly visible priorities at many colleges and universities. Efforts to diversify the professoriate have necessitated a better understanding of career outcomes for current female faculty and faculty of color. We measure risk of leaving without tenure and years to promotion from associate to full professor at four large land grant universities. We model career outcomes as competing risks, and compute cumulative incidence functions to discern differences in tenure and promotion outcomes by gender and race. We find incidence rates vary significantly by academic discipline, and in many instances, show larger effects than gender and racial or ethnic differences. Our examination also indicates that in particular academic fields, females are more prone to leave without tenure, and less likely to be promoted to full professor. We also find that racial or ethnic minorities are less likely to be promoted to full professor in certain areas. The analysis suggests that for universities to address systemic issues of underrepresentation in academe, they must account for department level contexts, and align institutional practices to support the goal of inclusion and diversity.
... Over a quarter have two or more articles; there are a decent number of collaborations and independent scholars involved. Male and female authors representation is similar to that in higher education (e.g., see Smith et al. 2012). Most are from the United States and Canada with minority and international engagement on the rise. ...
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This article combines appreciative inquiry (AI) as well as digital object interviewing and other constructs from the field to examine Explorations in Media Ecology ( EME ) in its online format. It provides an in-depth review of the journal and its issues produced over the past twenty years. The article surveys EME ’s editorial advances and transitions, its coverage of the media environment, its interdisciplinary range, along with its demographics and reach. Throughout this article, EME ’s digital publication speaks for itself describing its own strengths and opportunities as manifested since its origination. Along the way, this article utilizes anecdotes and quotes from EME ’s contributors that illuminate and support the survey results. Finally, this article through these quotes, gives EME a voice; it offers suggestions to build on its strengths and make use of opportunities for an onward and upward future.
... This is perhaps unsurprising, given it is easier to implement programs within an institution rather than across them, research universities often have greater resources, and prestigious institutions often adopt similar tactics for addressing organizational problems. Faculty diversity is also a more critical challenge at some research-intensive institutions (Smith et al., 2012). However, we believe that multi-institutional collaborations are necessary for advancing faculty diversity (Griffin, 2020) and offer much promise for creating meaningful professional development and training opportunities and enhancing longterm collaborations between institutions with a variety of missions and resource levels. ...
Article
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Calls to diversify the professoriate have been ongoing for decades. However, despite increasing numbers of scholars from underrepresented racial minority groups earning doctorates, actual progress in transitioning to faculty has been slow, particularly across STEM disciplines. In recent years, new efforts have emerged to recruit faculty members from underrepresented racial minority groups (i.e., African American/Black, Hispanic/Latinx, and/or Native American/Native Hawaiian/Indigenous) through highly competitive postdoctoral programs that allow fellows the opportunity to transition (or “convert”) into tenure-track roles. These programs hybridize some conventional aspects of the faculty search process (e.g., structured interview processes that facilitate unit buy-in) along with novel evidence-based practices and structural supports (e.g., proactive recruitment, cohort communities, search waivers, professional development, enhanced mentorship, financial incentives). In this policy and practice review, we describe and synthesize key attributes of existing conversion programs at institutional, consortium, and system levels. We discuss commonalities and unique features across models ( N = 38) and draw specific insights from postdoctoral conversion models developed within and across institutions in the University System of Maryland (USM). In particular, experience garnered from a 10-year-old postdoc conversion program at UMBC will be highlighted, as well as the development of an additional institutional model aimed at the life sciences, and a state-system model of faculty diversification with support from a NSF Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) grant.
... Another study done with Esau Tovar and Hugo Garcia (Smith, Tovar, & Garcia, 2012) explored changes in the diversity of the faculty over a 10-year period across 11 institutional types, providing a more granular look at the distribution of faculty over time and place. ...
Chapter
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This chapter provides reflections and summaries for Smith’s career in higher education including 21 years as a college administrator and 29 as a faculty member. The chapter synthesizes Smith’s research and the personal journey of her career. In addition, the chapter looks at the important role of associations, accreditation, and foundations in the work of higher education and the opportunities provided for research and evaluation. Embedded in the chapter are perspectives on building institutional capacity for diversity, faculty diversity, institutional change, the role of institutional identities, and bridging research and practice in higher education.
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International faculty have had a long-standing presence in higher education institutions in the United States, and US higher education has long benefitted from the sustained influx of foreigners. As a major net-importer of foreign academics and scholars, US higher education provides a unique case in studying the hiring pattern of international faculty over time and more importantly, examining the driving forces of international faculty growth. Based on undergraduate student survey data, this chapter brought to attention the definition of international faculty from college students’ perspective. Using data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), this chapter further found gradual changes in the major employer of international faculty, a shift from research-extensive universities to less research-oriented, master’s comprehensive universities. Implications for higher education policies and future research were provided.
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The underrepresentation of African American doctoral students, African American faculty, and African American college and university presidents in the United States are major issues in American higher education. The significance of these topics stems from the fact that the rate of African Americans who are doctoral students, faculty members, and presidents within the academy has remained relatively unchanged in the United States. Without Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in existence, there would be even fewer African Americans occupying these important seats. HBCUs play a critical role in the production of African Americans who earn doctoral degrees and eventually become faculty members (Perna, 2001). HBCUs are largely responsible for the employment of African American faculty members, as they employ over half (58.2%) of the African American faculty in the United States (Smith, Tovar, & García, 2012). African Americans also comprise the majority (95%) of the HBCU presidency (American Council on Education, 2012). Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs) can learn much from HBCUs about enhancing their environments to ensure the success of African American students, faculty, and presidents.
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Complete issue for volume 35, number 1 (Fall 2019).
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Despite efforts to diversify the racialand ethnic ranks of acade - mia, the percentage of Black, Latino, American Indian, and Asian faculty members remains pitifully low. According to the most recent reports, only 5% of the full-time faculty happened to be Afri- can American and Asian, although 2% is Hispanic and less than 1% is American Indian. At predominantly White institutions, which are renowned for their resources, profitable social networks, large endowments, and high levels of prestige, faculty of color are notice- ably either absent or limited in their presence. That is because Black, Latino, and Asian faculty are more likely to hold positions at community colleges and historically Black colleges and universi- ties. In addition, research shows that Black faculty as well as their Latino, Asian, and American Indian counterparts tend to be heavily represented among faculty at the lower ranks of lecturers and assis- tant professors as well as reporting lower levels of success and job satisfaction. Taken together, these statistics portray a sad story about the status and success of faculty of color in academe. Although much of the research on faculty of color has focused on issues of diversity and retention, there is very limited research that critiques implementation of traditional diversity initiatives in light of the limited presence and success of faculty of color in predomi- nantly White institutions. This special issue of Journal of Black
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Annual salary increases for college and university faculty generally take the form of a percentage increase over base, rather than an actual dollar award. These percentage increases are typically determined without regard to the base dollar salary (Hearn, 1999). As a result, early advantages in salaries persist over time, even when the performance of lower-paid faculty is superior (Hearn, 1999). As Hearn (1999) has noted, sex differences in starting salaries are particularly problematic because of this annuity feature of faculty salaries. Specifically, initial inequities in the salaries of women and men faculty are very difficult to resolve through the annual process of awarding merit or across-the-board salary increases. Prior research has consistently shown that female faculty receive lower salaries than their male counterparts even after controlling for differences in such characteristics as education, experience, productivity, institutional characteristics, and academic discipline (Barbezat, 1988; Bellas, 1993; Broder, 1993; Konrad & Pfeffer, 1990; Langton & Pfeffer, 1994; Nettles, Perna, & Bradburn, 2000; Toutkoushian, 1998a, 1998b; Weiler, 1990). Some research (Toutkoushian, 1998b) suggests that, after controlling for education, experience, publications, institutional characteristics, and academic field, the male-female salary gap is smaller among full-time faculty age 40 and under than among their older counterparts. The results of research specifically examining the extent to which sex differences in faculty salaries are attributable to differences in starting salaries are inconclusive, with Hirsch and Leppel (1982), who conducted a single-institution study, concluding that differences in male and female earnings profiles were primarily due to differences in starting salaries, and Formby, Gunther, and Sakano (1993), who controlled for characteristics of the employing department and other characteristics, concluding that the starting salaries of women and men faculty were comparable. This study seeks to improve our understanding of sex differences in faculty salaries by examining differences among faculty with the same academic rank and comparable levels of experience.
Article
This document, consisting of 7 chapters, 35 figures, and 380 tables, provides statistical data on most aspects of United States education, both public and private, from kindergarten through graduate school. The chapters cover the following topics; (1) all levels of education; (2) elementary and secondary education; (3) postsecondary, college, university, vocational, and adult education; (4) federal programs for education and related activities; (5) outcomes of education; (6) international comparisons of education; and (7) learning resources and technology. A wide range of information is presented on subjects including the number of schools and colleges, teachers, enrollment, graduates, educational attainment, finances, federal funds for education, employment and income of graduates, libraries, and international education. Supplemental information on population trends, attitudes on education, educational characteristics of the labor force, government finances, and economic trends is provided. Included among data not appearing in previous editions are the following: salary comparisons of public and private school teachers and principals; mean tuition charges of private schools; student participation rates in federal, state, and local programs; residence and migration of first-time college students; student performance on history and geography tests; trend profiles of persons earning doctor's degrees in humanities and life sciences; characteristics of college faculty; faculty salaries; staff employed in higher education institutions; and computer use by students and adults. A short introduction highlights major findings, and each chapter contains a brief overview of significant trends. A guide to sources, definitions, and an index are included. (MLF)
Article
This edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 36th in a series that provides a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of U.S. education from kindergarten through graduate school. The Digest includes data from many sources, both government and private, and draws heavily on work done by the National Center for Education Statistics. The publication contains information on a variety of subjects, including the numbers of schools and colleges, teachers, enrollments, and graduates, in addition to educational attainment, finances, federal funds for education, employment and income of graduates, libraries, and international education. Supplemental information on population trends, attitudes on education, education characteristics of the labor force, government finances, and economic trends provide background information for evaluating education data. This edition contains a significant amount of new material, including information on: (1) public school building deficiencies; (2) the distribution of high school completers; (3) percent of high school dropouts; (4) average reading proficiency for eighth graders; (5) states with assessment programs in language arts, reading, and writing; (6) enrollment and degrees conferred in women's colleges; (7) total revenue of private not-for-profit degree-granting institutions; and (8) total expenses of private not-for-profit degree-granting institutions. An appendix contains a guide to tabular presentation, a guide to sources, definitions, and an index of table numbers. (Contains 33 figures and 438 tables.) (SLD)
Article
National college faculty data from 1972, 1980, and 1989 were analyzed for patterns of employment of minority group members and women. Trends in hiring, employment status, faculty gender, participation by institution type, and academic rank are charted and discussed. Faculty views on cultural diversity are also examined, including changes over time. (MSE)
Article
Minority faculty voice their views on a variety of issues through both quantitative and qualitative data, revealing issues of concern and areas of satisfaction.
Article
This article uses data from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine the status of women and minorities among faculty employed at public 2-year colleges nationwide. A variety of outcomes are considered including: employment status, salary, rank, and tenure status. The analyses show that human capital, structural, and market characteristics appear to explain the observed differences in the employment experiences of women and men faculty at public 2-year colleges and some, but not all, of the observed racial/ethnic group differences. When compared with the results of other research, this study suggests fundamental differences in the reward structures for faculty at public 2- and 4-year institutions. Implications of the analyses are discussed.
Faculty of Color Reconsidered
  • Antonio
Antonio, A. L. "Faculty of Color Reconsidered." Journal of Higher Education, 2002, 73(5), 582-602.
Leading From the Margins in the Ivory Tower The Multicultural Campus: Strategies for Transforming Higher Education
  • A Contreras
Contreras, A. R. " Leading From the Margins in the Ivory Tower. " In L. A. Valverde and L. A. Castenell (eds.), The Multicultural Campus: Strategies for Transforming Higher Education. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, 1998.
National Center for Education Statistics
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Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, 2009.
Daryl can be reached at daryl.smith@cgu.edu. ESAU TOVAR is a doctoral student at Claremont Graduate University and asso-ciate professor of counseling at Santa Monica College
  • Daryl G Smith
DARYL G. SMITH is a professor of education and psychology at Claremont Graduate University. Daryl can be reached at daryl.smith@cgu.edu. ESAU TOVAR is a doctoral student at Claremont Graduate University and asso-ciate professor of counseling at Santa Monica College. HUGO A. GARCÍA is a doctoral student at Claremont Graduate University.
The Multicultural Campus: Strategies for Transforming Higher Education
  • A R Contreras
Contreras, A. R. "Leading From the Margins in the Ivory Tower." In L. A. Valverde and L. A. Castenell (eds.), The Multicultural Campus: Strategies for Transforming Higher Education. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, 1998.
Creating a Faculty of Equity and Excellence: Recruiting, Retaining, and Advancing Faculty of Color
  • J B Slaughter
Slaughter, J. B. "Creating a Faculty of Equity and Excellence: Recruiting, Retaining, and Advancing Faculty of Color." Presentation at the Keeping Our Faculties IV National Symposium, Minneapolis, Minn., April 2007.
Diversity' s Promise for Higher Education: Making It Work
  • D G Smith
Smith, D. G. Diversity' s Promise for Higher Education: Making It Work. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.
GARCÍA is a doctoral student at Claremont Graduate University
  • Hugo A
HUGO A. GARCÍA is a doctoral student at Claremont Graduate University.